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MOUNTAINS OF THE MOON

UNIVERSITY

MAT 1101:
Basic Mathematics for Teachers

ISSA NDUNGO (2016)


MOUNTAINS OF THE MOON UNIVERSITY
SCHOOL OF EDUCATION

Course outline
Course unit BASIC MATHEMATICS FOR TEACHERS
CU number MAT 1101
Credits 2
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo
- E-mail address ndungoissa@yahoo.com
- Tel 0776428589
Course This course is designed to give the education students basic mathematics
Description principles that will enable them to, among others; be able to do statistical
and analytical work in their research or recording of students marks or any
other data, and also solve basic mathematical problems encountered in real
life. The course is also intended to stimulate abstract thinking in students.

Course By the end of the course students will be able to:


Objective Demonstrate understanding of statistical and analytical work that can be
(the goal) used in schools..
Present school situations in a mathematical manner.
Show understanding of the mathematical way of thinking and explaining
phenomenon

Instruction The course is conducted through a combination of lectures, tutorials,


Method assignments and wherever possible, practical exercises. The mode of lecturing
will be handouts, and assigned group work, individual trials and various
structured group interactions.

Assessment Course Work Assessment (CWA) shall constitute of class exercises and
activities, 2 Course Assignments (CA), 2 Course Assessment Tests (CAT) and
end of course examination. Their relative contribution to the final grade will
be as:
Class exercises and activities 10%,
Course Assignments (CA) 10%,
Course Assessment Tests (CAT) 20%
End of Semester Examination, 60%

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Teaching Hours for Topics
Topic Name of Topic Lecture Hrs

1 Introduction 1
2 Application of mathematics in teaching 2
3 Numerical concepts 4
4 Algebra 4
5 Matrices 8
6 Statistics 11
Total Hours 30

Course Outline
week 1
Topic INTRODUCTION
Readings - Justification for teaching basic mathematics for teachers

week 2
Topic APPLICATION OF MATHEMATICS IN TEACHING
Readings - Planning and management
Determining staff ceiling
Determining the amount of consumable to purchase
Time management

Week 3
Topic APPLICATION OF MATHEMATICS IN TEACHING
Readings - Planning and management continues...........
Subject allocation
Terms program
Infrastructural development
Staff and students control
Records and information management

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
week 4
Topic APPLICATION OF MATHEMATICS IN TEACHING
Readings - Assessment and evaluation
- Research and innovation
- Budgets and accountability
week 5
Topic NUMERICAL CONCEPTS
Readings - Types of numbers
- Percentages
- Fractions
- Decimals and
- Conversions
week6
Topic ALGEBRA
Readings - Parts of the equation (variable, coefficient, and a constant)
- Relationships in variables that exist in schools (direct and indirect)
week 7
Topic ALGEBRA
Reading - Solving equations by:
Analytical
Factorization
Matrix
week 8
Topic ALGEBRA
dings - Plotting graphs of linear and quadratic equations
week 9
Topic MATRICES
Readings - Definitions
- Forms of matrices
- Operation on matrices (addition, subtraction, multiplication)
week 10
Topic MATRICES
Readings - Determinant and inverse of a matrix
- Solving equations using matrices
week 11
Topic STATISTICS

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Readings - Introduction
- Merits and demerits of statistics
week 12
Topic STATISTICS
Readings - Data collection methods
Questionnaire, interview, observation and document analysis
week 13
Topic STATISTICS
Readings - Qualitative and quatitative data
- Methods of presenting data
Frequency tables, graphs, pie charts
week 14
Topic STATISTICS
Readings - Data analysis
Mean, mode and median (measures of central tendency )
Week 15
Topic STATISTICS
Readings - Data analysis continues...............
- Range, standard deviation and variance
week
16,17
UNIVERSITY EXAMINATION

KEY READINGS:
Anton, H. & Rorres. C. (1987), Elementary Linear Algebra with Applications.
John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, Singapore, Toronto.
Fruednd, J.E., (1992), Mathematical Statistics. Prentice Hall
Larsen R.J & Morris Marx, (1986). An Introduction to Mathematical Statistics
and its Application. Prentice-Hall.
Lipschurtz, S. (1968). Theory and Problems of Linear Algebra: Schaums
Outline Series. McGraw Hill Company, New York, London Toronto.
Charles D. Miller, Stanley (2006), Business mathematics, Pearson, 10th Edition.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Bittinger, Ellenbogen, Johnson (2003), intermediate Algebra: Graphs and
models Pearson 2nd Edition.

Table of Contents
INTRODUCTION ..................................................................................................................................... 1
UNIT ONE: APPLICATION OF MATHEMATICS IN SCHOOLS ................................................ 2
Planning and management ................................................................................................................ 2
Assessment and evaluation ............................................................................................................... 8
Research and innovation.................................................................................................................... 9
Budgets and accountability ............................................................................................................. 10
UNIT TWO: NUMERICAL SYSTEMS AND PLACE VALUES. .................................................. 12
Percentages fractions and decimals............................................................................................. 12
Conversions ........................................................................................................................................... 12
Operations on fractions .................................................................................................................... 13
Decimal places ...................................................................................................................................... 13
UNIT THREE: ALGEBRA OF EQUATIONS ................................................................................... 14
Solving equations ................................................................................................................................ 16
Factoring and the Zero Product Rule .......................................................................................... 16
Procedures for solving 2x2 simultaneous equations ............................................................ 17
Questions to think about .................................................................................................................. 19
UNIT FOUR: MATRICES .................................................................................................................... 21
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 21
Definitions.............................................................................................................................................. 21
Square matrix ....................................................................................................................................... 21
Diagonal matrix.................................................................................................................................... 22
Row matrix ............................................................................................................................................ 22
Column matrix ...................................................................................................................................... 22
The transposed matrix of a matrix ............................................................................................... 22
0-matrix .................................................................................................................................................. 23
A scalar matrix S .................................................................................................................................. 23

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
The opposite matrix of a matrix .................................................................................................... 23
A symmetric matrix ............................................................................................................................ 24
A skew-symmetric matrix ................................................................................................................ 24
Operation on matrices....................................................................................................................... 24
Inverse of a 2x2 matrix ..................................................................................................................... 27
Solving simultaneous equations using matrix method ........................................................ 28
Applications of matrices ................................................................................................................... 28
UNIT FIVE: STATISTS ........................................................................................................................ 30
Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 30
ADVANTAGES/DISADIVANTAGES OF STATISTICS ............................................................... 30
Methods of data collection............................................................................................................... 31
Types of data ......................................................................................................................................... 35
Data presentation................................................................................................................................ 35
Raw Data................................................................................................................................................. 36
MEASURES OF LOCATION ............................................................................................................... 53
Advantages and disadvantages of the measures of central tendency ............................ 62
MEASURES OF DISPERSION ........................................................................................................... 63
Revision questions.............................................................................................................................. 69

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
INTRODUCTION

We should all appreciate that we live in a world of unknowns. Most (if not all) of what
happens around us has unknown causes and effects. Also man as a social being (not
isolated) faces a number of problems/challenges, some of which have no solution in
the first place.
Mathematics is a subject that deals with unknowns. All problems around us can be
modeled (expressed) mathematically.
As teachers we should know that teaching involves critical thinking; mathematics is a
discipline that involves critical thinking. Therefore, as teachers it is very important to
have elementary mathematical concepts that may assist us in fulfilling our duty of
teaching.
During the teaching process, a logical behaviour is necessary, simple number
operations are widely used. Teachers are researchers (look for new knowledge or
explain events) and this is done by the help of simple mathematical concepts.
In teaching and school management, mathematics is necessary especially during
planning, accountability, budget control, assessment and evaluation and management
of change.
In schools the following are the common questions;
- How many teachers do we need?
- How many Classes, seats, chairs, books, etc do we need?
- How much money do we need to have a given project complete?
- How long can one take to complete a given task?
- Who is the first pupil in form six, how many division ones do we have?
- How many marks in percentage are 30 in 40?
- What is the average of 857 in nine subjects?
- How much did we spend during last term? And how much do we need this
term?
All these questions need simple mathematics to answer them.
This makes basic mathematics for teachers significant/relevant in the context of
teaching and school management.
UNIT ONE: APPLICATION OF MATHEMATICS IN SCHOOLS

Planning and management


- Determining the staff ceiling for staff recruitment
Eg According to the Ministry of Education and sports, the pupils to teacher ratio is
45:1. It is possible to find how many teachers a school with 1380 pupils would
need.
Np
Example; Use the formula Nt 1 to complete the table below; where Nt is
45
number of teachers needed (staff ceiling) and Np is number of pupils.
School Np Nt
Mutanywana ss 1125 ..
Kyarumba Islamic ss 17
Uganda Martyrs collage 990 ..
Trinity Vocation 495 ..
Saad Memorial ss .. 21
Kisinga vocation ss ... 14
Bwera ss .. 39

- Determining the amount of school consumables to purchase


Eg there exist variations in consumables and utilities in schools over time. In most
cases the amount of food used, chalk, stationary, electricity, water, etc differ from
school to school. This variation can be explained only if we apply mathematical
thinking.
Example; In 2011, the students population in Mengo ss was 2113 and the amount for
food consumed by the students for the whole year was 24,050,000/=. We can
determine the amount that will be spent on food the following year if the students
population is increased by 126 students.

- Time management
In teaching and elsewhere in the current changing world, time is an important
resource. For teachers to manage time, a time table must be drawn. Can you
imagine a school that has no a time table, students dont know what is to be done
next.
As teachers we should know how to manage time. Managing time requires some
mathematical approaches; eg If one is answering an examination that requires four
questions to be attempted in 2hours. How long should one spend on a single question
if he must finish the exam in or on time?
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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Example: Consider a school that has 8 teachers teaching two subjects each in S1 and
S.2. If the combinations are maths/phy, Bio/Chem, Agric/Art, CRE/Geo, His/Pol.Ed,
Eng/lit, Com/entre, Kiw/Fre, the school opens on Monday to Friday and from 8:30am
to 4:40pm. There are 10 periods of 40 minutes each every day. The students are
allowed 30munites break at 11:10am, 60 minutes lunch at 1:00pm daily and 40
minutes for general cleanliness every Mondays. Given that Chem, bio, phy, His and
Geo are allocated 4 periods per week, maths and Eng 6 periods per week and the rest
of the subjects 2 periods per week. And assuming that each teacher can be available at
school in not more than three consecutive days
i) We can find the load for each teacher
ii) We can draft the time table

Example: In a school there are 11 teachers. Each teaching at least one subject in S4,
the school operates for all days of the week except Sunday and from 8:20 to 4:30. The
students are allowed a break of hours after the first 4 periods and a lunch of 1 hour
after the first 6 periods, 8/6 hours of debate on Wednesday starting at 3:20pm, 2 none
consecutive periods for group discussions are allowed daily, and 2hours for sports on
Saturday starting 2:30pm. One period is equivalent to 4/6 hours. We can calculate the
total periods taught per week, we can sketch the time table, if each period taught is
paid 3600, we can calculate the amount the school would spend on teaching if 97% of
the periods are taught in a particular month. If we consider the table below we can
make a complete time table;

Teachers Subject s Periods Days


Kule John Math 6 Mon, Thur
Asiimwe Mary Agriculture 4 Mon, Fri
Alice Kugonza Physics 4 Tue, Fri
Baligasa Ali Geography 4 Tue, Sat
Banura Amina History 4 Mon, Fri
Khadija Nakigude Eng 6 Tue, Sat
Kule Amon Accounts 4 Wed, Thur
Alfred Mugisha Biology 4 Mon, Fri
Kasereka Vuses French 4 Wed, Thur

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Twaha Abdul Kiswahili 4 Wed , Thur
Mukirania Habibu Political Educ 3 Tue, Sat

- Subject allocations
When allocating subjects to members of staff, a mathematical thinking is used.
According to the ministry of Education, the normal load for O level teachers is 24
periods and for A level teachers is 18 periods.
As we join the teaching profession one should make sure that his/her subject
combination can make 24 periods or more. Take an example of a teacher who does
Fine Art (double mine) teaching in an O level school with single streams. This
teachers will have 4X4=16 periods a week; this is below the normal load. While
consider a teacher with F/A and History in the same school, he will have 8X4=32.
Eg. Assuming you are the head of science department and you have been requested by
the DOS to make allocations in your department. If you have 4 teachers available to
teach Biology, Chemistry, physics, mathematics and agriculture in 4 O level classes
and that maths is allowed 6 periods while the others are allowed 4 periods per week
in all classes. We can allocate these subjects equally, we can also find the number of
periods each teacher will take, and we can identify the needs available; either
employing extra teachers or reducing on the existing teachers.

Example: Consider the table below


SUBJECTS S1 S2 S3 S4 TOTAL
English Language 12 12 12 12 48
Mathematics 12 12 12 12 48
Accounts 4 4 4 4 16
Commerce 6 6 4 4 20
Geography 6 6 8 8 28
Physics 8 8 8 8 32
Biology 8 8 8 8 32
Chemistry 8 8 8 8 32
History 6 6 8 8 28
Political Educ 4 4 4 4 16
Fine Art 4 4 4 4 16
Kiswahili 4 4 4 4 16
CRE 4 4 4 4 16
IRE 4 4 4 4 16
Agriculture 6 6 4 4 20
French 4 4 8
Total 100 100 96 96 392

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
The table above shows the number of periods per subject and per class in a double
steamed school.
The table below shows the available teachers and their class allocations.
NAME CLASS PERIOD
Katutu John MTC4
Kule Bonfes AGR2,4, ART1,2,3, 4
Bwalili Anest HIS1,2,4
Baluku Kaliba PHY4
Matovu Aleen GEO 2,3,4 P/E1
Islam Rusumba AGR1,3 BIO1
Bwereza Agnes CRE1,2, P/E 2,3,4 A/C1
Masereka Paul BIO3,4
Kule Hones CHEM3,4 MTC4
Masereka Tito COM4, A/C2,3,4
Baluku Sarapio ENG2, ENG3
Thembo Peter KIW1,2,3,4 FRE1,2
Makalangano Moris MTC3,PHY2
Ntandike Sellystine PHY1,PHY3
Inemugisa Joshua CHEM1,2 BIO2
Isembambu Festo ENG1,GEO1
Islam Muze MTC1,MTC2
Kambale Fyzo ENG4,CRE3,4
Mulimi Anna COM 1,2,3 HIS3
Quasim Ali IRE1,2,3,4

The table shows the subject allocations for a double streamed O level school. We can
find the number of periods for each teacher, we can find the total periods per week, if
each period is paid 700 we can find the amount earned by each teacher, we can also
find the amount that is spend by the school per week or per month.

Example: Study the table below


Subjects S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 TOTAL
MATH 12 12 12 6 6 12 60
BIO 6 6 8 4 8 8 40
CHEM 6 6 8 4 8 8 40
AGRIC 6 6 8 4 8 8 40
PHY 6 6 8 4 8 8 40
Total 36 36 44 22 38 44 220

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Assuming a teacher teaches any two of the five subjects, we can allocate the
subjects to a given number of teachers so that each teacher gets at least a
normal load.

- Terms program
In a secondary system, terms program is very essential for development and planning
purposes.
For the school to be organized, it has to work on a program. This can be termly, or
annually. To come up with a clear, realistic and achievable program, one has to bear in
mind the following;
i) Time/length of the term/ year in terms of days/weeks.
ii) Activities to be done during the specified period, say a term.
A terms program involves arranging a series of activities basing on financial flow and
the time available during that particular term.
A terms program requires logical thinking and mathematical applications. Activities
must be prioritized basing on the needs of the school, location, students population
and financial flow of the school.
Eg when should we have beginning of term staff meeting? Where should the students
go for a study tour and when? When are we likely to purchase more food for students,
when should we chess students for fees, when should we call parents general
meeting? All these questions can be answered with use of mathematical thinking.
Example: Suppose you are the Deputy Headteacher of Kayunga Sec Sch that is located
in mountainous areas of Elgon, the school has a population of 834 students and 53
staff members. This school does beginning of term, mid tem and end of term exams. It
has O and A level, day and boarding. We can list down some of the terms activities
for third term and arrange them systematically.

- Infrastructural development
Infrastructural development in the heart of an institution, it requires plans, budgets,
estimates and measurements.
Eg. If one is planning to construct an examination hall, what come to the mind is
where should we construct it, how should we construct it, how big should it be, what
materials should we use, how much do we need and where do we get the necessary
materials? All these questions requires mathematical thinking if they are to be
answered with ease.
Example: A secondary school received a donation from its partners from USA worth
2,030,000 pound for infrastructural development. The school construction committee
decided that they impact on students hostels.
If we know the exchange rate we can find how much shillings the school received, we
can list the various stages the construction committee need to undergo to have the
construction started, we can list the necessary items needed for the project, we can
make a work plan for the construction and we can draw a realistic budget for the

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
construction. Also the committee can evaluate and monitor the progress of the work.
All these require mathematical thinking.

- Staff and students control


Human beings are hard to control, controlling they require a lot of logical treatment.
When the school has few numbers control is easy compared to when there are big
numbers.
Take an example of a school with 2000 students, how many class rooms do you need
to have them learn, how many teachers do you need, how much food to you need to
prepare for them; to control students and teachers requires a mathematical plan,
irrespective of the numbers (population).

Example: Mr. Murungi is a Headteacher of a private boarding school which has 2345
students in the centre of the city of Uganda. You can imagine the following questions.
How much food do these pupils need, how much playing space do they need, how
many teachers does Murungi employ, How does he manage to control them in the
hostels, how do teachers deal with them in the classes and outside classes. How often
do teachers mark the books, how long does it take for the students to get served with
meals? You realize that a lot is needed to control these students. The same applies to
teacher.
Example: Read the following challenges that exist in schools and state a mathematical
suggestion to address them.

Challenges Mathematical suggestion to address it

The students shout a lot

Teachers come late

Students escape from school

There is a lot of congestion in S.1

On Mondays teachers present are


always many
There is coupling among students

The students population has increased

Teachers complain over low salaries

- Information and records management


There is a lot of information flow in schools that requires management and proper
presentation. Some information and records if not presented well may be
misinterpreted.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Proper information and records should be mathematically communicated.
Eg. If one needs to evaluate learners, the results should be mathematical rather than
in statement form. Eg a student score should be 90 not just good. Also when recording
information mathematical tools like tables, graphs should be used.
Example: Assuming you have been requested to collect money from students and you
wish to make a proper record one would need a table consisting rows and columns.
Containing students name, class amount paid and balance if any.
If the students population in 2012 was 2134 and that in 2013 was 2279, how would
one interpret this information basing on income and expenditures of the school?

- Teaching (teaching aid, and teaching methods)


Teaching is the core activity in schools, it is there done with care and in a systematic
manner.
When teaching a teacher does many tasks which require him to be a simple
mathematician. These include, lesson preparation, delivery, evaluation and
assessment.
Before teaching, a teacher must be aware of;
Which class he is going to teacher, what topic he is going to teach, how many students
are in the class, how many teaching aids he should take to class and which methods he
is going to use when teaching? All these questions require simple mathematical
thinking.
We shall concentrate on the mathematics involved in evaluation.
Evaluations involes testing learner, it requires setting question, administering them,
marking and presenting the results. We should bare it in mind that all these stages of
evaluations require simple mathematics.
- Predicting the future trend in school activities
Projections in schools depend on the available date/information. For proper
predictions, one needs some mathematical formulas and reasoning.
Eg If this year students population in S1 is 235 and in S.4 is 120, one can tell the
trend of the following years population using mathematical reasoning.
Example: A school was operating on a budget of 345m in 2009 and a population
of 890 students. In 2010 its income increased to 367m and the population
increased to 930. We can predict the 2011 budget and population and other
related quantities.

Assessment and evaluation


As seen before, assessment and evaluation involves;
- Setting Examinations
- Awarding marks
- Grading and positioning learners
- Staff appraisals and promotions (staff evaluation)
- Presenting and comparing performance.
All these require mathematical concepts.
e.g. when setting exams the following mathematical thinking must be in mind.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
- The time/duration of the exam
- Weight of the exam, say 100%, in 30, in 70 etc
- The marks allocated for each question
- The number of questions to be set
When positioning or grading students on has to think of the following
- Grading range,
- highest,
- Lowest and most common

Research and innovation


Teachers are researcher in their teaching process. They seek for new
knowledge. This involves;
- Problem identification: This may be during surveys, teaching, supervisions,
meetings etc
- Determining the requirement for research
- Determining the target population and the sample size
- Data collection; This may be done using various data collection methods eg
observation, questionnaire, interview and document analysis
- Data presentation: This may be done by use of statements, table graphs, pie
chats etc
- Data analysis: this may be done using measures of central tendencies,
measures of disparity, correlations and other statistical methods
- Making conclusions and recommendations: This is based on the data collected
and the analysis made.
Example
The following information was got from a research made to investigate the
average age at which African children start school using a sample of 50
countries
5 6 4 3 4 5 3 6 2 7
7 6 4 6 3 7 4 7 4 8
6 6 8 65 5 9 4 5 3 5
4 5 3 4 3 6 7 5 6 8
4 5 3 6 2 6 4 3 5 8

We can find the mean age, the range, the highest and the lowest, the model age,
the middle age, and variance using the above data. We can also represent the
data on a graph.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Budgets and accountability
- Accountability means the obligation of an individual or organization to account
for its activities, accept responsibility for them, and to disclose the results in a
transparent manner. It also includes the responsibility for money or other
entrusted property.
- Identifying cost effective inputs
- Projections and financial analysis
- Budget implementation
- Reconciliations
- Auditing, Balancing books of accounts and Budgetary review
In schools, budgets are very important/ essential. A budget is a financial plan
for an individual of institution. It requires involvement of the stake holders.
In secondary schools the budgeting process starts with the heads of
departments- who form the financial committee of the school. And presented
to the Headteacher- who is the school financial officer, it is the presented to the
PTA/, BOG and finally to the MoES.
A budget requires simple mathematical ideas.

Example: Consider a school with the following fees structure.


VOTE S.1 (per term) S.2 (per term) S.3 (per term) S.4 ( per year)
S
USE NONE USE USE NONE USE USE NONE USE USE NONE USE
Total 75,00 90,00
75,000 90,000 0 90,000 0 105,000 382,000 482,000

Consider also the following conditions

1. Estimated number of students


CLASS S1 S2 S3 S4 New student
NO 100 100 90 75 120

2. All new students shall pay an addition of 25,000/= (for a ream of paper and an
identity card)

3. The fee for S.4 is per year and thus the break down shall be 210,000, 100,000 and
72,000 per term respectively for USE students and 310,000, 100,000 and 72,000 per
term respectively for None USE students.

4. The school estimates to get 10 none USE students in S.4, 55 students in S.1, S.2, and
S.3
5. The school receives 47,000/= per term from Government for USE students.

6. The funds are spent according to the following table.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Internal
collections USE funds
Votes Percentage percentage
1 Mosque fee 1.4
2 Duplicating machine 1.4
3 Public relations 2.9
4 Administration 8.6 6
5 Pre mock and mock 2.9
UNEB and internal
6 exams 4.5
7 Carriers and PIASSY 1.7 2
8 Transport 6.3 7
9 Remedial teaching All. 2.6
10 Wages and salaries 26.1 20
11 Construction 7.2
Food (students and
12 staff) 19.2 10
13 Creditors 12.1
14 Health and sanitation 3.2 5
15 Sports 7.3
16 Tuition 25.7
17 Utilities 6
18 Maintenance 5
19 Development 6
100.0 100.0

We can draw an income and expenditure estimate for this particular period using the
above information.

Techniques for budgeting


Identify the activities to be carried out and the rationale for each activity.
List the necessary requirements for the identified activities as wells as
quantity required.
Identify the source/ location of each item in order to ascertain transport
costs if any.
Identify the personnel to be involved in the activities and the target
population as well as its location.
Assign genuine costs on each item this may be guided by the price list.
Identify the possible sources of funds to meet the budget.
Submit the budget to the funding authority.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
UNIT TWO: NUMERICAL SYSTEMS AND PLACE VALUES.

Numbers are most important in the study of mathematics an in all our daily activities.
As teachers it is very important to have the basic knowledge about number concept.
Numbers are applied in business, Education and other every day life situations.
The most commonly used numbers are the counting numbers which are used for
counting or quantifying items.
There are other types of numbers that can also be applied in our daily life situations;
these are the even numbers, square numbers, odd numbers etc.
In the field of teaching, the applicability of numbers can not be marginalized.

Percentages fractions and decimals


Numbers can be expressed as percentages, fractions and decimal.
Percentages are always out of 100. E.g 25% = 25/100
a 4
Fractions are numbers of the form where b is not 0. E.g .
b 9
Decimals are numbers that lie between two successive whole numbers on a number
line

-3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
1
It is a different way of writing fractions E.g = 0.5
2

Conversions
- To convert a given number to percentage we multiply the number by 1oo. E.g
1 2 1
convert i) ii) ii) 1 to percentages
4 5 2
Solution
1 1
i) = x 100 = 25%
4 4
2 2
ii) = x 100= 40%
5 5

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
1 3
iii) 1 = x100 = 150%
2 2

Operations on fractions
We can add, multiply divide and subtract fractions. To add or subtract fractions we
need to find the LCM (lowest common multiple) of the denominators.
Examples: work out
1 1 1 20 12 3 29
i)
3 5 20 60 60
1 2 58

13x10 13
ii) 4 5 20
1 2 5 4 20 x9 18

2 5 10

Decimal places
Numbers which are expressed in decimals are written to specific decimal places.
Decimal places are the number figures after the decimal point E.g 2.25 has two
decimal places.
Numbers with many figures after the decimal point can be rounded off to specific
decimal places or significant figures or whole numbers.
Examples:
Round off the following to two decimal places
i) 2.256 = 2.26
ii) 2.01 = 2.01
iii) 0.099 = 0.10
Round of the following to the nearest whole number
i) 246.45 = 246
ii) 96.7 = 97
iii) 0.49 = 0
Here, we use a number line to estimate the nearby whole number to the decimal
given.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
UNIT THREE: ALGEBRA OF EQUATIONS

Forming mathematical equations


In modeling it is important to know the following terms,
1. Variables:
A variable is something whose magnitude or value or quantity can change over
time.
2. Constants:
These are things whose value remains unchanged. It is a pre determined value in a
model whose magnitude is fixed.
3. Coefficient:
When a constant is joined to a variable, it is called a coefficient of that variable.
4. Parameters:
These are symbols which are constantly used in particular problems but may
assume different values in different problems or situations.
Consider the equation Y= 36-3P
Y and P are variable, Y and P are parameters 36 is a constant and 3 is the
coefficient of P
A mathematical model/equation contains three basic things.
1. A depended variable- The event to be explained.
2. One or more independent variables- The factors that determine the behavior of
the depended variable.
3. The behavioral assumptions which explain the nature of the relationship
between explanatory and depended variable.
Mathematics is a subject that deals with unknowns. This explains why most of the
problems encountered in our daily lives are solved mathematically. This is because
the problems we face have unknown causes and effects. The challenges we face too
have unknown solutions, also the opportunities we have unknown impacts. So the
only choice is to resort to mathematical thinking.
Examples of challenges in schools,
- How many teachers the school needs in each class and for each subject

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
- How much food the school needs for a given number of students and in
a given days or weeks of a term.
- The number of seats the school needs to accommodate a given number
of students in the school in a specific year or term.
- By how much does the school has to reduce (increase) the fees to
increase the students population.

Examples of opportunities in schools

- The school has enough class rooms

- The parents pay school fes early

- The school is near the main road

All the above chalenges and oopportunities have an impact on the schoool activiteis.
The best way how this impact can be measured so that te school over comes the
challenges and benefit from the opportunities is by use of mathematical relations
(Models) called equations.

An equation explains how an action affects another. Eg How does the number of class
rooms affects the studebnts population needed? How many students do we need to fit
in seven classrooms?

These relations are related in two ways;

1. Increasing one increases the other. (direct proportion) i.e. Y= kX. Where Y and
X are variables and k is a constant of proportionality.
k
2. Increasing one decreases the other (inverse proportion) i.e. Y = . Y, X, and k
X
are as defined.

Examples

1. Three teachers can teach 60 students effectively. How many teachers are
needed to teach 1800 students?
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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
2. A school has enough class rooms to a commodate 1200 students with the ratio
of class rooms to students as 1:40
a) Form an equation relating number of classes and sudents
b) Use the equation above to find the number of class needed to
accomodate 4400 students.

Solving equations
Example
Solve (x - 4) (x + 3) = 0
We have either
x-4 = 0 or x + 3 = 0
Hence the two solutions to (x - 4)(x + 3) = 0 are
x=4 or x = -3
Exercises
Solve the following.

(x - 2) (x + 3) = 0
(x + 4) (x - 5) = 0
(3x + 4) (2 - x) = 0
(5 + x) (2x + 3) = 0
x (3x - 5) = 0

Factoring and the Zero Product Rule


If we are given a trinomial = 0 then we first factor then we use the zero product rule.
Example
Solve x2 - 3x + 2 = 0
We first factor:
(x - 2) (x - 1) = 0
Then we use the zero product rule to get
x-2 = 0 or x-1 = 0
Hence
x=2 or x=1
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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Exercises
the following.
x2 + 4x Solve - 45 = 0
x2 - 2x + 1 = 0
10x2 - 47x - 15 = 0
6x2 + 17x + 10 = 0

Example
Solve
21 = (x - 9) (x + 11)
Solution
21 - (x - 9) (x + 11) = 0
21 - (x2 + 11x - 9x - 99) = 0
21 - x2 - 2x + 99 = 0
120 - x2 - 2x = 0
x2 + 2x - 120 = 0
(x - 10)(x + 12) = 0
x - 10 = 0 or x + 12 = 0
x = 10 or x = -12
Exercises
Solve.
(2x - 5)(x + 4) = (3x + 12)
(7x - 6)(5x + 4) = 2x(5x - 1) + 57
2x4 = 35x2 - 3x3

Procedures for solving 2x2 simultaneous equations


1. Elimination method
1. Eliminate one variable
2. Solve the resulting simple equation to yield the value of the other variable.
3. Substitute this value back into one of the original equations.
4. Check the solution.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
2. Substitution method
1. Make one variable the subject in one of the equation
2. Substitute this into the other equation so that you get an equation with only one
variable which is then solved.
3. Substitute this value back into one of the original equations.
4. Check the solution.

3. Graphical method
1. Identify any two (or three) pair coordinates for each of the equations
2. Plot the coordinates starting with one equation at a time while joining them
3. Read the point of intersection of the two lines; this gives the values of the two
variables

4. Matrix method
1. Arrange the equations in order such that all equations start with the same variable
and the constants are left on the right hand side
2. Pull out the coefficient of the variables and the constant to form the matrix of
coefficients and the matrix of constants; the two are separated by an equal sign.
3. Find the inverse of the matrix of the coefficient and multiply it on both sides of the
equation formed in 2
4. Solve the equation by equation the corresponding terms.
5. Check the solution

Activity
1. Solve the following pair of simultaneous equations using the 1st, 2nd and 3rd
methods above.
i) 3x-y = -5, 3x+2y = 28
ii) 7x-3y = 41, 3x-y = 17
iii) x+y = 3, 2x-y = 1

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
2. A manufacturer makes two products Q and M. The cost of making 15 units of Q and
10 units of M is 600/=. The cost of making 5 units of Q and 8 units of M is 340. The
manufacturer makes a profit of 20% and 25% 0n each unit of Q and M respectively.
i) Express the above cost of making one unit of products Q and M in form of
simultaneous equations.
ii) Calculate the cost of making one unit of product Q and product M.
iv) Calculate the selling price of one unit of product Q and product M.

Questions to think about


Question
a) List down the first ten counting numbers and state five areas in your school
where these numbers are applied.
b) The following information indicates students marks in English obtained from
two different tests. The first test was marked out of 30 and the second test was
marked out of 80. Combine the two tests as a percentage.
Test one 25 18 26 29 30 20 18 25 13 14 28 19
Test two 61 66 76 51 36 46 65 79 36 78 49 43

c) The population of students in a certain secondary school increased by 20%,


the ratio of students to teachers is 120:1, if there are 24 teachers find the
current population of students and the new students-teacher ratio.
Question
A school received USE funds worth 2,267,000 for the first quarter of 2012. It was
to be spent on sports, teaching materials, and staff development. In the ratio of
2:4:3 respectively.
i) Calculate how much was to be spent on each vote.
ii) If the expenditure on sports increased by 12.5% due to high transport costs in
transporting the pupils on the sports day, how much was spend on sport?
iii) Suggest ways through which the extra money spent on sports would be
obtained without affecting other votes.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Question
a) Explain the meaning of a school budget.
b) Out line the steps one should follow when constructing a school budget.
c) The vote of the academic department is 30% of the school budget for a certain
school. If the school is running at an estimated budget of 32,400,000, assuming you
are the director of studies at this school, present a realistic budget for your
department including the most relevant items needed and rationale for each item.
Question
a) Write down any five changes that take place in your school stating the variable(s)
responsible for each change.
b) Four teachers can teach120 pupils effectively, how money teachers are needed to
teach 4800 pupil.
c) A school has enough class rooms to accommodate 2160 pupils with the ratio of
class room to pupil as 1:45.
i) Form an equation relating number of students and the classes.
ii) Use the equation to find the extra classes needed if the students population
increases by 29.1%.
Question
It is given that the higher the school fees, in the school the lower the pupils population
and the more the number of division one obtained at primary seven.
In a certain year the fees of a primary school was 73,600 per term, the pupils
population was 920 and the number of division one at primary seven were four.
a) Form a mathematical relationship between;
i) School fees and pupils population.
ii) School fees and division one
b) If the fee was increased to 128,000 estimate the pupils population and the
number of division one the school is likely to get at the end of the year.
c) Suggest ways through which the school can maintain a high pupils population
at an increased fees.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
UNIT FOUR: MATRICES
- Definitions
- Operation on matrices (adding, subtracting, dividing and multiplying)
- Solving equations using matrices
- Business applications

Introduction
A matrix is a rectangular array of numbers.
A matrix containing m rows and n column is called an m x n matrix. Matrices are used
to store information. The matrix below shows the number of fruits sold in Kisinga
Tomatoes Mangoes Onions

Mon 45 67 87
market on Monday, Wednesday, and Friday
Wed 34 54 34

Fri
78 98 90
Like other numbers, matrices can be added, subtracted, multiplied, or divided.

Definitions
A matrix is an ordered set of numbers listed rectangular form
An m by n matrix is an array of numbers with m rows and n columns.
Example. Let A denote the matrix

2 3 7 8

5 6 8 9
3 9 0 1

This matrix A has three rows and four columns. We say it is a 3 x 4 matrix.
We denote the element on the second row and fourth column with a2,4.

Square matrix
If a matrix A has n rows and n columns then we say it's a square matrix.
In a square matrix the elements ai,i , with i = 1,2,3,... , are called diagonal elements.
Remark. There is no difference between a 1 x 1 matrix and an ordinary number.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Diagonal matrix
A diagonal matrix is a square matrix with all the non-diagonal elements 0.
The diagonal matrix is completely defined by the diagonal elements.
Example
7 0 0

0 5 0
0 0 6

The matrix is denoted by diag (7, 5, 6)

Row matrix
A matrix with one row is called a row matrix.
[2 5 -1 5]

Column matrix
A matrix with one column is called a column matrix.

2

4
3

0

Matrices of the same kind
Matrix A and B are of the same kind/order if and only if A has as many rows as B and
A has as many columns as B
7 1 2 4 0 3

0 5 6 1 1 4
3 4 6 8 6 2
and

The transposed matrix of a matrix


The n x m matrix B is the transposed matrix of the m x n matrix A if and only if
The ith row of A = the ith column of B for (i = 1,2,3,..m)
So ai,j = bj,i
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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
i.e a transpose of a matrix is obtained by interchanging the rows for columns and the
column for rows of a matrix.
The transposed matrix of A is denoted T(A) or AT

T
7 1

0 5 7 0 3
3 4
= 1 5 4

0-matrix
When all the elements of a matrix A are 0, we call A a 0-matrix.
We write shortly 0 for a 0-matrix.
An identity matrix I
An identity matrix I is a diagonal matrix with all the diagonal elements =
1 0 0

1 0 0 1 0
0 0 1
0 1 ,

A scalar matrix S
A scalar matrix S is a diagonal matrix whose diagonal elements all contain the same
scalar value.
a1,1 = ai,i for (i = 1,2,3,..n)
7 0 0

0 7 0
0 0 7

The opposite matrix of a matrix


If we change the sign of all the elements of a matrix A, we have the opposite matrix -A.
If A' is the opposite of A then ai,j' = -ai,j, for all i and j.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
A symmetric matrix
A square matrix is called symmetric if it is equal to its transpose.
Then ai,j = aj,i , for all i and j.
7 1 5

1 3 0
5 0 7

A skew-symmetric matrix
A square matrix is called skew-symmetric if it is equal to the opposite of its transpose.
Then ai,j = -aj,i , for all i and j.
0 1 5

1 0 0
0
5 0
Operation on matrices
The sum of matrices of the same kind
Sum of matrices
To add two matrices of the same kind/ order, we simply add the corresponding
elements.
Sum properties
Consider the set S of all n x m matrices (n and m fixed) and A and B are in S.
From the properties of real numbers it's immediate that
A + B is in S
the addition of matrices is associative in S
A+0=A=0+A
with each A corresponds an opposite matrix -A
A+B=B+A
Just as with vectors we can add and subtract matrices and multiply a matrix by a
scalar. To add or subtract matrices the dimensions of the two matrices must be the
same.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Definition
Let A and B be m by n matrices and k be a scalar then
(A + B)ij = Aij + Bij (A - B)ij = Aij - Bij (kA)ij = kAij

Example
Let

then

Two matrices are called equal if all of their entries are equal.
If A is an m by n matrix, then the transpose of A, AT, is the n by m matrix with the
rows and columns switched.
(AT)ij = Aji
In the above example

Example of the Theoretical Exercise


Prove that
(AT)T = A
Solution
We have
((AT)T )ij = (AT)ji = Aij
Since the ijth entries are equal for each ij, the matrices are equal.

Scalar multiplication

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Definition
To multiply a matrix with a real number, we multiply each element with this number.
Properties
Consider the set S of all n x m matrices (n and m fixed). A and B are in S; r and s are
real numbers.
It is not difficult to see that:

r(A+B) = rA+rB
(r+s)A = rA+sA
(rs)A = r(sA)
(rA)T = r. AT

Multiplication of a row matrix by a column matrix


This multiplication is only possible if the row matrix and the column matrix have the
same number of elements. The result is a ordinary number ( 1 x 1 matrix).
To multiply the row by the column, you have to multiply all the corresponding
elements, then make the sum of the results.
Example.
1

2 1 3 2 19 = [19]
5

Conditions on operating matrices
Adding matrices: Two or more matrices can be added if they are of the same order.
2 0 2 6 1 3

Eg 3 1 1 and 0 6 2 can be added together since they are all 3x3 matrices.
1 2 6 2 7 8

1 4 2 1 3
While and cannot be added together because they are not of the
3 5 1 7 8
same order.
Multiplying matrices: To multiply two or more matrices, they must be confirmable, i.e.
the number of columns in the matrix in the first position should be equal to the

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
number of rows in the matrix in the second position In other wards a mxn matrix can
only multiply a nxp matrix and the result is a mxp matrix.

Activity

2 7 2 4 0 1 2
If A = and B= C = 1 4 find

1 4 2 1 1 2 5
i) AB ii) AC iii) BC

Inverse of a 2x2 matrix


a b
Consider a matrix A =
c d
- We need to first find the determinant of the matrix
A ad cb I.e. Product of the major diagonal minus product of the minor

diagonal
2 7
Eg if A = , A 2 x4 1x7 8 7 1
1 4
- We then find the interchange matrix (assumed inverse)
Here the elements of the major diagonal change positions while those on the
d b
minor diagonal change signs i.e =

c a
4 7
e.g =

1 2
1
- We then calculate the inverse of the matrix from the formula A 1
A

1 4 7 4 7
Eg for the matrix A above A 1 =
1 1 2 1 2

NB: A matrix whose determinant is zero has no inverse and is called a singular
matrix.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Activity
Find the inverse of the following matrices where possible

1 4 3 6 1 6
i) ii) iii)
3 5 2 1 3 18

Solving simultaneous equations using matrix method

Any systems of linear equations can be written in matrix form as,


AX B
Where A is the matrix of coefficient, X is the matrix of the unknown and B is the matrix
of constants.
To solve for X we multiply both sides by A 1
i.e A1AX A1B but A-1A=I
X A1B
Eg solve the equations
3x-4y = 11
2x+5y =-8
3 4 x 11

2 5 y 8
We then find the inverse of the matrix of coefficient and multiply it on both sides.
x 1 5 4 11

y 23 2 3 8
x 1
Equating corresponding terms gives x =1 and y = -1
y 2

Applications of matrices
Activity
Question one
The students of Basic maths for teachers at Mountains of the moon University wants
to buy a gift for their lecturer. If each student of the course contribute 6 dollars

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
towards the purchase of the gift they will still be short by 16 dollar on the other hand
if each student contributes 9 dollars, they will have a surplus of 11 dollars after
purchasing the gift.
i) Formulate 2 simultaneous equations for this information
ii) Find the number of students in the class and the cost of the gift.

Question two
With 30,000/= I can buy 5 mugs and 10 cups or 10 mugs and8 cups. How much does it
cost to buy 12 mugs and 15 cups/
Question three:
The customer bills of UMEME consist of a fixed rental fee for the meter and a charge
for each unit of power consumed. In March a certain school used 325 units and its bill
was 18,000/=. In April, it used 225 units and paid 14,000/=, in May the school paid
72,000/=. Find the number of units the school consumed in May.
Question four
Kyarumba Islamic SS is a private USE secondary school that charges fees in two
categories; USE and Non USE. The table below shows the number of students in first
and second term and the total fees collection in the two terms.
USE Non USE Total fees
1st term 2012 280 110 28,400,000
2nd term 2012 320 90 29,600,000

a) formulate
i) A 2x2 matrix showing students population
ii) A system of linear equations for the information
b) Use matrix method of solving systems of linear equations to find the fees paid
by USE and non USE students at this school.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
UNIT FIVE: STATISTS

Introduction
Statistics is all around us. In fact it would be difficult to go through a full week without
using statistics. Imagine watching a football game where no one kept the score. The
action itself might provide enough excitement to hold your attention for awhile, but
think of all the drama that would be lost if winning and losing was not an issue.
Without statistics we could not make our budgets, pay our taxes, enjoy games to their
fullest, evaluate students performance, and many other things.
Statistics is defined as a branch of mathematics that deals with the collection,
presenting, and analyzing/explaining of data. Here data refers to information in its
raw form before it is organized to make sense.
In many fields (science or Art), knowledge is advanced by collection and analysis of
statistical data. Statistics also provides us with a set of procedures for making more
rational decisions in fact of uncertainty.

ADVANTAGES/DISADIVANTAGES OF STATISTICS
Advantages of statistics
(i) Simplifying and highlighting data for easy interpretation; the use of a bar
chart or pie chart or other forms of graphical representation helps in
highlighting key aspects of the data since graphs capture peoples attention
and imagination more than mere data can.
(ii) Relationship in data. Various statistical methods such as regression and
correlation can be used to establish a relationship between various sets of
data. This then can help a teacher/ manager to plan well
(iii) Forecasting; Statistical methods such as time series analysis enables an
institution/teacher to analyze past data patterns so as to predict future
behaviour of the school.
(iv) Quality control. Statistical methods help the teacher to check the quality of
his or her output (students) more efficiently.
(v) Predicting data; Statistical methods such as linear interpolation or
extrapolation can be used to estimate missing data.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
(vi) Auditing; Statistical methods of sampling are helpful in auditing work e.g.
one can pick a small sample of invoices to look through.
Disadvantages/Limitations of statistics
(i) Statistics does not deal with isolated measurements it deals with aggregate
facts not with individual items. Eg a teacher cannot use the marks of only
one student to judge the performance of a class in a certain subject.
(ii) Statistics deals only with quantitative characteristics. Qualitative
characteristics like honesty, efficiency hard work cannot be directly
studied.
(iii) Results based on Statistics tools such as equations, time series etc are only
true under certain existing or assumed conditions. If such conditions
change, then the results may no longer be true.
(iv) Misuse of statistics. It requires experience and skill to be able to draw
correct conclusions based on statistical methods.

Methods of data collection


1. Questionnaire, surveys and checklists: These are used when one wants to
easily get lots of information by asking simple questions.
2. Interviews
An interview is a kind of conversation; a conversation with a purpose. It is a
conversation initiated by the interviewer for the specific purpose of obtaining
relevant information and focused by on the content specified by objectives of
systematic description, predication or explanation. It is an oral administration
of a questionnaire or an interview schedule. Interviews are therefore face to
face encounters. You will need maximum cooperation from respondents to
obtain accurate information.

Interviews can be conducted either on a telephone conversation or physical


face to face encounter. Interview schedule are used to guide the interviewer

Advantages of using interviews

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
1. Provides in-depth data which is not possible using a questionnaire
2. Possible to obtain data required to meet specific objectives of the study.
3. Easy to clarify confusing questions
4. More flexible and adaptable way of finding things out than questionnaires
5. Very sensitive and personal information can be extracted from the respondent
by honest and personal interaction. Non-verbal cues may give messages, which
help in understanding the verbal response, possibly changing or even, in
extreme cases, reversing its meaning
6. Face to face interviews offer the possibility of modifying ones line of inquiry,
following up interesting responses and investigating underlying motives in a
way those postal and other self-administered questionnaires cannot.
7. Can get more information by using probing questions.
8. Interviews yield higher response rates.

Disadvantages of using interviews

1. More expensive you have to travel.


2. Since it is easier to ask questions interviews tend to be misused to get factual
responses which could be obtained more accurately through other methods.
3. It requires a high level of skill communication and interpersonal survey.
4. Interviews need to be trained to avoid bias.
5. Interviews involve smaller samples because they are time consuming bigger
sample is a constraint.
6. Response may be influenced by the respondents reaction to the interviewer.

Rules Pertaining to the use of Interviews

1. Interviewer must be pleasant


2. Interviewer must show genuine interest in getting to know respondents
without appearing like spies.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
3. Must create good rapport by trying to know what kind of a person the
respondent is.
4. Interviewer should be relaxed and friendly.
5. Interviewer should be familiar with the questionnaire or the interview guide.
6. The interviewer should interact with the respondent as an equal.
7. The interviewer should pretest the interview guide before using to check for
vocabulary, language level and how will the questions be understood.
8. The interviewer should inform the respondent about the confidentiality of the
information.
9. The interviewer must not ask leading questions.
Observation
Observation involves watching, of course, but information from sight is supported by
that received through our other senses: through hearing, smelling, touching and
testing (these are even more important for blind or partially sighted people). The
information from these various senses is usually combined, processed and
interpreted in complex ways to form our observations our mental images of the
world and what is going on in it.
Distinctive Features of Observation

1) Observation is planned and conducted in a systematic way rather than


happening spontaneously and haphazardly.
2) Observations are systematically recorded rather than stored only in personal
memory, and are carefully interpreted and analyzed using systematic and
planned procedures.
Uses of Observation
Observation can be used for a variety of purposes:
1) It may be employed in the preliminary stages of a project to explore an area
which then can be studied more fully utilizing other methods or it can be used
towards the end of a project to supplement or provide a check on data
collected in interviews or surveys.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
2) Where observation is the main method employed, it may be used to obtain
descriptive quantitative data or to enable qualitative description of the
behaviour or culture of a particular group, institution or community.
Advantages of the use of observation
Observation as a data collection method has a number of clear advantages over
interviews and questionnaires:
1) Information about the physical environment and about human behaviour can
be recorded directly without having to rely on the retrospective or anticipatory
accounts of others for a number of reasons: such accounts may be inaccurate
may not have been systematically recorded, distorted by the persons concern
to present a desirable image of him or herself.
2) The observer may be able to see what participants cannot. Many important
features of the environment and behaviour are taken for granted by
participants. It may require the trained eye of the observer to see the familiar
as strange and provide the detailed description required.
3) Observation can provide information on the environment and behaviour of
those who cannot speak themselves and therefore cannot take part in
interviews or complete questions, babies, very young children and animals etc.
4) Observation may also be the only way of collecting information on the
behaviour of people who are extremely busy, are deviant or are hostile to the
process for some reason.
5) Data from observation can be a useful check on, and supplement to
information obtained from other sources, e.g. information given about
behaviour in interviews can be compared with observation of samples of their
actual behaviour.
Disadvantage of the use of observation
1) The environment event or behaviour of interest may be inaccessible and
observation may be simply impossible or at least difficult e.g. sexual
behaviour, or behaviour that happened in the past, sometimes events and
behaviors are not just open to observation

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
2) The problem of reactivity i.e. people may consciously or unconsciously
change the way they behave because they are being observed hence the
observational account of their behaviour may be inaccurate representation of
how they behave naturally.
3) Observation are inevitably filtered through the interpretive lens of the
observer hence observations can never provide us with a direct representation
of reality whatever is presented to us by the observation method is
constructed representation of the world has been done through selection.
4) Observation is time consuming and therefore costly when compared to other
methods of data collection.

Types of data
1. Qualitative data: This refers to events that are difficult to measure, count or
express in numerical terms. i.e. Descriptions of events that do not use numbers.
For instance, if one reports about colour, smell, taste, texture, sound,, you are
making qualitative observations.
2. Quantitative data: This is information which can be expressed in numerical
terms and can be counted or compared on a scale. This quantitative data can
be broken down into two types
i) Discrete; countable data: This is data that comes in whole numbers
only. Eg number of people, number of cars, number of defective radios
in a shipment of radios, number of animals etc.
ii) Continuous data, uncountable data: This is data that comes with
fractions, such as data in an interval eg height, age, weight, time. For
instance, we can say that marry is 6 years. The bag has 4.6 g etc
NB. - Data which is not yet processed or ordered in any way is called raw data.
- Data is always drawn from a population (which is defined as a set of entities
concerning which statistical conclusions are to be drawn). This is often based
on random sample (portion) taken from the population.

Data presentation
Quantitative data can be presented in many ways namely:
- In raw form

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
- In tabular form
- Using pictograms
- Using pie charts or circle graphs
- Using bar graph or histograms
- Using line graphs or frequency polygons
- Using the cumulative frequency curve or Ogive

Raw Data
This is the data which is ordered in any way.
Example

This is an example of raw data


Tables
Tables present an orderly way for arranging data into rows and columns so that it can
easily be compared.
A table displaying data should have a title and well labeled rows and columns.
Consider the table below which the numbers of students present in two classes at a
certain school.
Day Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Saturday
S.1 100 96 77 66 100 86
S.2 82 74 81 85 76 82

Notice that data has been arranged in systematic rows and columns, the rows
representing the days and columns number of students (in S.1 and S.2).

Frequency distribution
I a test marked out of 10, students obtained the following marks;

Page 36
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
We may arrange the marks in ascending order or descending order. As below;

We can summarize the above information in frequency distribution table. Tallying


helps us to summarize the data so that we can find frequency, which is the number of
times, an item occurs.

Note: a tally is a vertical stroke put to represent a particular score. After 4 vertical
strokes the fifth stroke is drawn across them to make a bunch of five. This makes the
totaling easier.

We may arrange the above information in a frequency distribution table as below;

Marks Tally Frequency

1 II 2
2 III 3
3 IIII 5
4 IIII 4
5 III 3
6 II 2
7 0
8 IIII I 6
9 IIII I 6

Total 31

Discrete Frequency distribution

Let us illustrate examples of discrete distribution


Page 37
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
1. The table below shows the number of goals scored by football teams in a
district cup of 2010 in Kabarole.

Goals 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
scored
No of 5 7 3 6 1 2 1
matches

2. The table below shows the shoe sizes of a group of students in a particular area
Shoe size 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
No of 3 2 16 12 10 4 7
students

Continuous Frequency Distributions


Continuous data can be grouped in many ways. By grouping we mean that data
has been sorted into different categories, classes, intervals or groups.
Let us also illustrate examples of continuous distribution
1. The following table shows the ages of patient who visited the school clinic for
treatments in a certain term.
Age (yrs) 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49

No of 13 12 6 2 10 14 1
students

2. The following tables shows the travelling costs of students at Mpanga ss


Shs Number of students

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
1000 and under 2000 24
2000 and under 3000 14
3000 and under 4000 10
4000 and under 5000 23
5000 and above 5

3. The table below shows the percentage tax paid by teachers per year for a
certain country
Business capital Tax rate (%)
(000,000shs)
0-130,000 0
130,0001-235,000 10
235,001-410,000 20
410,001 and over 30

The following definitions are very important for grouped data


1. Class: This is a group /interval into which members/items of the same
characteristics are put. For instance in example one above, 15-19, 20-24, 25-
29, .., are classes.

2. Class limits: These are the extreme values of each class given in the frequency
table. There are two limits namely the upper class limit and the lower class
limit. Eg in the class 15-19, 15 is the lower class limit while 19 is the upper
class limit.

3. Class boundaries: The class boundaries are the smallest and largest values
respectively that an item in the class can (theoretically) attain. Class
boundaries are determined by the nature of quantity being measured. There
are two boundaries, namely; the lower class boundary and the upper class
boundary.
It should be noted that the upper class boundary of one class is the lower class
boundary of the next class.

Page 39
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
The class boundaries = upper class limit + x 10-n
The lower class boundary = lower class limit - x 10-n where n is the number
of decimal places within the classes. NB: where there is no decimals n = 0
e.g. For the class of 15-19 ; UCB = 19=0.5 =19.5 and LCB = 15 0.5 = 14.5
4. Class size/width/interval: This is the size of the class and is the difference
between the upper class boundary and the lower class boundary.
i.e. Class interval = UCB LCB or (UCL-LCL) +1
e.g. For the class of 15-19; Class interval = 9=19.5-14.5 = 5

5. Mid point (x): This is the middle value in a given class. It is given by:
upper class lim it lower class lim it
or
2
upper class boundary lower class boundary
2
Cumulative frequency distribution
The cumulative frequency is the total frequency up to a particular item or class
boundary. Sometimes it is called running total.
Examples
1. The marks of 50 university students in a statistics test are shown below.
Construct cumulative frequency distribution.
Marks 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Frequency 4 2 5 8 12 9 7 3

Solution
Marks Frequency Cumulative. Frequency
3 4 4
4 2 4+2= 6
5 5 6+5 = 11
6 8 11+8= 19
7 12 19+12= 31
8 9 31+9= 40
9 7 40+7 = 47
10 3 47+3= 50
Total (f) = 50

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
2. The lengths of 45 rods (to the nearest mm) were measured. The frequency
distribution is given below. Construct a cumulative frequency table
Length (mm) 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59

No of rods 4 11 18 3 4 2 3

Solution

Length Frequency Cumulative


Frequency

24.5-29.5 4 4
29.5-34.5 11 15
34.5-39.5 18 33
39.5-44.5 3 36
44.5-49.5 4 40
49.5-54.5 2 42
54.5-59.5 3 45

Graphical presentation of data


We have already seen that we can represent data using bar charts, pictograms and pie
charts.
We shall look at graphical presentation of continuous and discrete data.
Discrete
Vertical sticks are drawn to represent the frequencies. The total sum of heights of the
stick is equal to the total frequency.
Bar graphs
There are three types of bar graphs
Simple bar graph
Double bar graph
Divided bar graph
Simple bar graph
Example

Page 41
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
The table below shows the amount of sugar (in kg) sold by a certain salesman in a
given week. Present the information graphically

Days M T W TH F S SU
Amount of sugar 4 2 5 8 7 9 7
(kg)

10

6
Amount of sugar (kg)
4

0
M T W TH F S SU

Note
All bars have the same thickness
The distance between the each bar is the same
The height of each bar represents the frequency (amount of sugar)
The thickness has no significance
Bar graphs are preferred when items of each data is separate from the other.
Double bar graph
Class 4A 4B 4C 4D
Girls 10 26 18 16
Boys 12 20 12 24
Total 22 46 30 40

Page 42
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
30

25

20

15 Girls
Boys
10

0
4A 4B 4C 4D

Divided bar graph


Class 4A 4B 4C 4D
Girls 10 26 18 16
Boys 12 20 12 24
Total 22 46 30 40

50
45
40
35
30 Boys
25
20 Girls
15
10
5
0
4A 4B 4C 4D

NB
A double bar graph or divided bar graph is preferred when we want to
compare two sets of data
Activity
An officer with a monthly salary of Shs 72,000 plans his budget for a month as
given in the table.
Items Food Rent Education Savings Misc. Total

Page 43
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Amount 30,00 8,000 12,00 15,00 7,000 72,00
0 0 0 0
Construct a bar simple bar graph to represent the budget.

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Continuous graphs
Continuous graphs take the following forms
- Histograms
- Frequency polygons
- Cumulative frequency curves (Ogive)
Histograms
A histogram is a special type of a bar graph. It has the following properties
- The bars are joined together at the class boundaries
- The bars are vertical
- The bars are drawn so that the area of each rectangle is proportional to the
frequency in the range covered
- The frequency is plotted against the class boundaries

Comparison of a histogram and a bar graph


Histogram Bar graph
- It consists of rectangular - It consists of rectangles normally
(bars) touching each other separated from each other with equal
- The frequency if represented space.
by the area of each rectangle - The frequency is represented by the
- It is two dimension (height height (the width has no significance)
and width considered) - It is one dimensional (only height is
considered)

Steps for drawing a histogram


- Plot frequency (on the horizontal axis) against class boundaries (on the
vertical axis)
- A convenient uniform scale is determined
- Rectangular bars with class interval as bases and corresponding frequencies as
heights are drawn
- Sometimes a kink or zigzag curve is shown near the origin. It indicates that the
scale along the horizontal axis does not start from the origin.

Page 45
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Revision questions
1. An institute wishes to introduce a new course it decides to collect
information about the likelihood of obtaining students for the new course.
As a teacher trainee, discuss the various data collection tools the institute
may employ to get relevant and unbiased information.
2. Statistics is concerned with data collection, presentation and analysis.
Briefly discuss the meaning and forms of;
i) Data collection
ii) Data presentation
iii) Data analysis

Examples on Histograms
1. The lengths of 50 maize plant leaves were measured and the
information grouped as shown. Measurements were taken correct to
the nearest cm. Draw a histogram to illustrate the data.

Length (mm) 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44

No of plants 2 8 13 7 10 6 4

Solution

9.5-14.5 14.5-19.5 19.5-24.5 24.5-29.5 29.5-34.5 34.5-39.5 39.5-44.5


2 8 13 7 10 6 4

Page 46
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
13--

12--
11--

Number of plants
10--
9--
8--

7--
6--

5--
4--

3--
2--
1--

0 I I I I I I I I
9.5 14.5 19.5 24.5 29.5 34.5 39.5 44.5
Length

2. The following table gives amount of a product y (in kg) that was
purchased by 101 customers in a certain company. Construct a
frequency distribution using equal class interval of size 10 starting from
a class of 10-19. Draw a histogram to illustrate the data.

47 62 61 60 39 34 37 46 81 72
74 62 65 53 47 52 38 25 42 40
70 63 62 83 19 26 59 49 53 52
88 91 51 52 24 80 69 59 32 33
27 18 22 73 59 36 34 31 21 63
72 54 18 71 44 71 43 44 18 93
12 15 60 71 82 13 61 64 25 63
82 71 11 58 64 39 16 23 10 92
83 75 36 74 43 29 85 42 65 57
70 63 54 55 49 81 47 72 65 63
60

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Solution

Kilograms of Y Tally Frequency

10-19 IIII IIII 10


20-29 IIII IIII 9
30-39 IIII 11
40-49 IIII IIII III 13
50-59 IIII IIII IIII 14
60-69 IIII IIII IIII IIII 19
70-79 IIII IIII III 13
80-89 IIII IIII 9
90-99 III 3

Total 101

26--
24--
22--
20--
18--
Frequency

16--
14--
12--
10--
8--
6--
4--
2--
0 I I I I I I I I I I
9.5 19.5 29.5 39.5 49.5 59.5 69.5 79.5 89.5 99.5
Kilograms

Page 48
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Activity
A business man dealing in male suits production conducted a survey on the customer
sizes so that he can ascertain the level of demand. The table below shows the sizes (in
cm) from 50 customers. Use it to construct a frequency table with equal class intervals
of 5cm, starting from 85. Represent the data on a histogram.

86 101 114 118 87 92 109 86 105 102


92 93 101 111 96 93 105 106 118 101
113 96 101 102 104 116 100 107 98 105
113 100 103 108 92 117 99 100 103 110
107 99 106 116 101 92 95 88 108 92

Frequency Polygons
Frequency Distributions may be illustrated on frequency polygons.
Example
The table below shows the number of dependants for the 46 MMU employees
Number of dependants 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Number of employees 5 7 3 6 8 6 10
Draw a frequency polygon
Solution

Page 49
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
13--
12--
Number of employees 11--
10--
9--
.
8--
7-- . .
.
6--
5--
4--
3-- . .
2--
1--

0 I I I
. I I I I
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Number of dependants

NB: The ends the frequency polygon should be joined to all the x-axis by a dotted line
one class behind and one class in front of the given classes as long as they are not
touching any axis.
The frequency is plotted against mid points (for grouped data) or just mark/score (for
ungrouped data)

A frequency polygon superimposed of a histogram.


This is done by;
Plot a histogram (frequency against class boundaries)
Plot on the same graph a frequency polygon (frequency against mid points.
Example
The table below shows the amount of money in dollars earned each day in a shop in a
period of 50 days.

Amount 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44


(dollars)
Number of 3 8 13 7 10 6 3
days

Construct a histogram and on it superimpose a frequency polygon to illustrate the


data.

Page 50
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Solution

13--

12--
.
11--

10-- .
. .
Number of days

9--

8--

7--
6--

5--
.
4--

3--

2--
. .
1--

0 I I I I I I I I
9.5 14.5 19.5 24.5 29.5 34.5 39.5 44.5 amount

Page 51
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Cumulative frequency Curves (OGIVES)
Here the cumulative frequency (on y-axis) is plotted against the upper class
boundaries (on the x-axis)
The first part of the curve is then joined to lower class boundary of the first class.
Examples
The table below shows the weight (in kg) of year one students at Islamic University in
Uganda.
Draw a cumulative frequency curve to illustrate the data.
Weight 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84 85-89
(kg)
Number of 14 22 36 42 28 16 10 4
students
Solution
Weight (kg) Upper Class boundaries Freq Cumulative frequency
50-54 54.5 14 14
55-59 59.5 22 36
60-64 64.5 36 72
65-69 69.5 23 95
70-74 74.5 15 110
75-79 79.5 10 120
80-84 84.5 7 127
85-89 89.5 3 130
f=130

Page 52
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
130--

. ..
120--
.
.
110--
100--
Cumulative freq

90--
80--
70--
60--
.
.
50--
40--

.
30--
20--
10--

0 I I I I I I I I I I
49.5 54.5 59.5 64.5 69.5 74.5 79.5 84.5 89.5 94.5
Weight

MEASURES OF LOCATION
There are three main statistical measures which attempts to locate typical values.
There are;
i) The arithmetic mean
ii) The mode
iii) The median
The arithmetic mean
The arithmetic mean (or just mean) of a set of numbers ( x 1 , x 2 , .. x n ) is denoted by

x and is defined as;

x=
x1 x1 .........x n

x i
for i= 1, 2, 3, ., n
n n
Where n is the number of items under consideration.
NB: the method of calculating mean depends on the form in which the data has been
presented.

For raw data; x =


x i

Page 53
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
For data involving frequencies; x =
fx where x is the score/ mark (when the data
f
is ungrouped) or x is the class midpoint (when the data is grouped)
Examples
1. Find the mean of the following
2,3,4,5,3,4,8
23 453 48
x= = 4.14
7
2. The mean of 5,3,7,5,2,9,7,and y is 7 find the value of y

From x =
x i
; 7=
537 5 297 y
n 8
56 =38+y
Y=18
3. The 3o members of Simba Ngoma band were asked how many instruments
each could play. The results are set out in the frequency distribution. Calculate
the mean number of instrument played.
Number of 1 2 3 4 5
instruments
Frequency f 11 10 5 3 1
We draw a table
X F fx
1 11 11
2 10 20
3 5 15
4 3 12
5 1 5
f = 30 fx = 63

From x =
fx ; x = 63 2.1
f 30

Page 54
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
4. The number of years spend on a particular job is a measure of salary
increment. 40 civil servants in the ministry of Education were asked the
number of years spend in service, the result is shown below.
Years 4-8 9-13 14-18 19-23 24-28 29-33

Frequency 2 4 7 14 8 5
f

Calculate the mean years spend on service.


Years Freq f midpoint fx
4-8 2 6 12
9-13 4 11 44
14-18 7 16 112
19-23 14 21 294
24-28 8 26 208
29-33 5 31 155
f =40 fx = 825

x=
fx 825 20.6
f 40
The mean year of service is 20.6 years (1d.p)

NB. Always remember to indicate the unit of measurement and degree of

accuracy.
The mode
The mode is defined as the value that occurs most often
For discrete date we need to arrange the data in order; either ascending or
descending then pick out the items that appears most.
For simple frequency ungrouped data; mode is the value that has the highest
frequency.
D1
For grouped data, mode is obtained from the formula; M o L1 i
D1 D 2

Page 55
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Where M o = mode, L 1 =lower class boundary of the model class, D 1 =

difference between the frequency of the model class and that just before, D2=
difference between the frequency of the model class and that just after and I is
the class interval/width.
We can also use a histogram to obtain the mode of a given data.
Examples
1. Find the mode for the data below
i) 4,5,5,1,2,9,5,6,4,5,7,5,5
ii) 1,8,19,12,3,4,6,9
Solution
i) We arrange the data in order
1,2,4,4,5,5,5,5,5,5,6,7,9
The most common value is 5 thus the mode of the data is 5.

ii) (left for the reader)

2. The table below shows the number of dependants of 18 workers of MMU.


Find the model number of dependant.
X 0 1 2 3 4 5
F 2 4 6 3 2 1

Solution
The model number is the one with the highest frequency.
Thus it is 2
3. The table below shows the customer dress sizes in Panamas boutique. Use
it to find the model size using;
i) Calculation
ii) Histogram
Size 0-9 10-19 20-29 30-39 40-49 50-59

F 2 4 10 9 5 1

Page 56
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Solution
i) By calculation
Mark Class F
boundaries
0-9 0-9.5 2
10-19 9.5-19.5 4
20-29 19.5-29.5 10
30-39 29.5-39.5 9
40-49 39.5-49.5 5
50-59 49.5-59.5 1

Model class is 19.5-29.5


L1 = 19.5, D1 =10-6=4, D2=10-9 =1 and i = 29.5-19.5 = 10
6
Mode = 19.5 + X 10 =19.5 + 8.57 = 28.07
6 1
Thus the mode is 28.1 (1 dp)
ii) Using a histogram. From the histogram; Mode = 28.1

13--
12--
11--
10--
9--
Frequency

8--
7--
6--
5--
4--
3--
2--
1--
0 I I I I I I
0 9.5 19.5 29.5 39.5 49.5 59.5
sizes

The median

Page 57
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
This is defined as the middle value of a set of numbers arranged in order of
magnitude. (in either ascending or descending order).
If there are n items, the median is (n+1)th value.
If n is odd there is a middle value which is the median.
If n is even, and the two middle values are e and d, then median is (e+d)
n
NB: Sometimes the (n+1) is replaced by if n is fairly large.
2

Examples
1. Find the median for the data below
i) 20,30,16,28,42
ii) 60,50,75,56,66,80
Solution
i) We arrange the data in order
16, 20, 28, 30, 42 n=5
The median is given by (n+1)th value.
5 1 rd
= =3 value
2
Therefore median is 28
ii) (this is left to the reader)
2. In the 2010 population census, the number of children in a family was
recorded. The table below is an extract of 2010 population census for
35 families.
Number of children 0 1 2 3 4 5
Frequency 3 5 12 9 4 2
Find the median number of children per family.
Solution: We construct a cumulative frequency table
NO of children f c.f
0 3 3
1 5 8
2 . 12 . 20 ..

Page 58
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
3 9 29
4 4 33
5 2 35
The median is given by (n+1)th value.
35 1
= =18th value (this is read from the cumulative freq. table)
2
Thus the median is 2
The median of grouped data
This is got from the formula or using the cumulative frequency curve.
i) From the cumulative frequency curve
th
n
The median is got by the value on the Ogive as shown below.

2

. . .
.
130--
120--

.
110--
Cumulative freq

100--

.
90--
80--
70--
130/2 = 75
60--

.
50--
40--

.
30--
20--
10--

0 I I I I I I I I I I
49.5 54.5 59.5 64.5 69.5 74.5 79.5 84.5 89.5 94.5
Weight

ii) By calculation
n
F b
The median is given by: M = L+ i
2
f


Where; L = Lower class boundary of the median class
n = total frequency of sum of f (f)

Page 59
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
f = frequency of the median class
Fb = cumulative frequency before the median class
th
n
NB: The median class is the class that has the value

2
Example
The masses measured to the nearest kg, of 49 boys are noted and the
distribution formed. Estimate the median mass.
a) Using a formula
b) Using the Ogive

Mass (kg) 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84 85-89

Frequency 2 6 12 14 10 5

Solution
i) We make a cumulative frequency distribution table
Mass Frequency Class Cum freq
boundaries
60-64 2 59.5-64.5 2
65-69 6 64.5-69.5 8
70-74 12 69.5-74.5 20
75-79 14 74.5-79.5 34 24.5th
80-84 10 79.5-84.5 44
85-89 5 84.5-89.5 49

n
F b
M = L+ i ; L = 74.5, n = 49, f = 14, Fb = 20, i= 5
2
f

Page 60
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
49
20
= 74.5+5 76.1kg
2
14

60--

. .
Cumulative freq

50--

40--

.
.
30--

20--

10--

. .
0 I I I I I I I
59.5 64.5 69.4 74.5 79.5 84.5 89.5
Weight

Plotting an Ogive, we obtain the median as 76.0kg.

Questions
1. A firm which manufactures computer processors supplies a number
of computer shops. The numbers sent out during the year are given
in the following table.
Number of processors (x) 50 100 150 200 250 300
Number of shops (f) 10 58 70 40 13 9
i) Calculate the mean and the mode
ii) Plot a cumulative frequency curve and use it to estimate the
median.
2. The monthly salaries of 300 employees of Mpanga Tea factory are
given as follows.
Salary range (Shs) Frequency
260000-360000 54

Page 61
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
360001-460000 70
460001-560000 76
560001-660000 33
660001-760000 25
760001-860000 15
860001-960000 12
960001-1060000 9
1060001-1160000 6
i) Display this data on a histogram. Using your histogram
estimate the model salary.
ii) Calculate the median salary.

Advantages and disadvantages of the measures of central tendency


Advantages of the mean
It is well defined, easily understood and calculated
It takes into account all values
No need of first arranging data
It is used frequently
It is a good method of comparison
It should be capable of further algebraic or statistical treatment
Disadvantages of the mean
It is affected by extreme values to a great extent
It cant be calculated if all data values are not available
Advantages of the median
It is well defined, easily understood and calculated
It is less affected by values of extreme items
It can be obtained even when some data values are not available
Disadvantages of the median
It is not capable of further algebraic or statistical treatment
In case of grouped frequency distribution, it is just an estimate.
Adv Advantages of the mode
Page 62
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
It is well defined, easily understood and calculated
It is less affected by values of extreme items
It can be obtained even when some data values are not available
Disadvantages of the mode
It is not capable of further algebraic or statistical treatment
In case of grouped frequency distribution, it is just an estimate.

MEASURES OF DISPERSION
Dispersion is the extent of spread or scatteredness of items around a measure of
central tendency (location). It indicates the extent to which the individual
observations differ on average from the mean or any other average.
Significance of measuring dispersion
(i) To determine the reliability of an average
(ii) To serve as a basis for control of reliability
(iii) T o facilitate the use of other statistical measures
Properties of a good measure of dispersion
It should be well defined, easily understood and calculated
It should be based on all values
It should be least affected by extreme values in the data
It should be capable of further algebraic or statistical treatment

The measures of dispersion include Range, Quartile deviation, Mean deviation,


Standard deviation
Range:
Is the difference between the biggest and smallest value. If L is the largest value and S
is the smallest value, then range = L S
Coefficient of range
This is a relative measure used for comparison of two or more sets of data. It is
LS
calculated as: coefficient of range =
LS
Advantages of range:
- Simple to calculate
- Effective for small sample size,
- Suitable in weather forecasts and studying variation in price stocks and shares.
Disadvantages of range:
- Based on only two values and so does not give an idea on pattern of
distribution
Quartile deviation:
Page 63
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
It is also known as semi-interquartile range. It denotes the difference between the
third quartile and first quartile = Q 3 Q1 .It measures the degree of variation in the
central 50 percent items
Q3 Q1
. Coefficient of quartile deviation =
Q3 Q1
Note To calculate upper quartile and lower quartile follow same procedure as for
3N th
calculating the median. For upper quartile we need the item. For lower quartile
4
N th
we need the item.
4

Example Find (i) the upper quartile, (ii) lower quartile, (iii) inter quartile range (iv)
coefficient of inter quartile range from the following table

Age No of people f Cumulative


frequency F
0 and under 10 2 22
10 and under 20 18 20
20 and under 30 30 50
30 and under 40 45 95
40 and under 50 35 130
50 and under 60 20 150
60 and under 70 6 156
70 and under 80 3 159

3N 3x159 N 159
STEP 1: For upper quartile, 119.5 , For lower quartile 39.75
4 4 4 4
STEP 2: The upper quartile class is the class that has the first F value to exceed 119.5
Here it is 40 and under 50. The lower quartile class is the class that has the first F
value to exceed 39.75. Here it is 20 and under 30.
3n
F
2 bq

Step 3: (i) for upper quartile, we use the formula LQ i
fq


where LQ 40 , FQ = 95, f Q = 35, i =10

119.5 95 24.5
Thus Q 3 = 40 10 40 10 40 7 47
35 35

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
n
F
4 bq

(ii) For lower quartile, we use the interpolation formula LQ i
fq


where LQ 20 , FQ = 20, f Q = 30, i =10

39.5 20 19.5
Thus Q 1 = 20 10 20 10 20 6.5 26.5
30 30
(iii) Inter quartile range = Q 3 Q1 =47-26.5 = 20.5
Q3 Q1 20.5 20.5
(iv) Coefficient of quartile deviation = = 27.9
Q3 Q1 47 26.5 73.5
The Mean deviation:

Is calculated as MD=
| x x | for discrete data and for frequency distribution we use
n

the formula
f x x where x is midpoint if the data is grouped. | | means absolute
f
value i.e. minus deviations are taken as positive.
Coefficient of quartile deviation
MD

Mean
Advantages
It is easily understood and calculated, it is based on all values, it should be least
affected by extreme values in the data.
Disadvantages
It is not capable of further algebraic or statistical treatment
Ignores algebraic signs and so most times gives inaccurate results.

Example Calculate the mean deviation from the data below;


Number of sales 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-29
Number of salesmen 1 14 23 21 15 6
Solution

Number of Number of Mid point


|xx| f| x x |
sales sales men (x) (fx)
(f)
0-4 1 2 2 13.3 13.3

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
5-9 14 7 98 8.3 116.2
10-14 23 12 276 3.3 75.9
15-19 21 17 357 1.7 35.7
20-24 15 22 330 6.7 100.5
25-29 6 27 162 11.7 70.2
Totals 80 1225 411.8

1225
Mean number of sales x 15.3
80
411.8
Mean deviation = 5.1 sales.
80

Standard deviation
Has symbol for population standard deviation and s for sample standard deviation
Calculating standard deviation for discrete data
The formula is
2



x x
where x is the mean and x is midpoint if the data is grouped
n
The computational formula used to calculate standard deviation is



x2 2
x . The two formulas are mathematically equal and give same
n

results. However, in practice, the second formula is often used.

Calculating standard deviation for a frequency distribution


2


f x x

The formula is or the computational formula
f

fx fx
2 2

where x is midpoint if the data is grouped


f f

Advantages of standard deviation


It is well defined
It is based on all values
It is widely used in other statistical analysis techniques.
It is amenable to further algebraic treatment

Page 66
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Disadvantages of standard deviation
Difficult to compute
It gives more weight to extreme points

Example The data in the table below relates to the number of successful sales made
by the salesmen employed by a large microcomputer firm in a particular quarter.
Calculate (i) the mean (ii) standard deviation and (iii) variance (iv) coefficient of
variation of the number of sales
Number of sales 0-4, 5-9, 10-14, 15-19, 20-24, 25-29
Number of salesmen 1 14 23 21 15 6

Solution

Number of Number of Mid point


sales sales men (x) fx fx2
(f)
0-4 1 2 2 4
5-9 14 7 98 686
10-14 23 12 276 3312
15-19 21 17 357 6069
20-24 15 22 330 7260
25-29 6 27 162 4374
Totals f = 80 fx fx 2
21705
=1225

1225
(i) Mean x 15.3
80

fx fx
2 2 2
21705 1225
(ii) Standard deviation, = =
f f
80 80
271.31 234.47 = 36.84 = 6.1
(iii) Variance = square of standard deviation ( 2 ) = 36.84
(iv) Coefficient of variation = (standard deviation/mean) x 100%
= (6.1/15.3) x 100 = 39.87
Note: Coefficient of variation is useful in comparing the dispersion of two or more
sets of data

Question one

Page 67
Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
a) Cartons of orange juice are advertised as containing 1 litre. A random sample
of 100 cartons gave the following results for the volume, x. x 101.4 , x 2
=102.83. Calculate the mean and the standard deviation of the volume of
orange juice in these 100 cartons.
b) A machine is supposed to cut lengths of rod 50cm long. A sample of 20 rods
gave the following results for the length, x. fx 997 , fx 2 49711
i) Calculate the mean length of the 20 rods.
ii) Calculate the variance of the lengths of the 20 rods. State the units of
variance in your answer.
Solution
a) x 101.4 , x 2 =102.83, n= 100
101.4
x 1.014 , the mean volume is 0.014
100
x2 2 102.83
x = 1.014 2 0.0101.....
n 100

b) fx 997 , f 20 , fx 2 49711
fx 997
i) Mean = 49.85 , the mean length of the rod is 49.85cm
f 20
fx 2 2 49711
ii) Variance = x 49.85 2 =0.5275, the variance is
f 20
0.5275cm2

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education
Revision questions
Question one
a) Distinguish between sample and population
b) In order to find whether teachers who start private schools generally do so
when they are young or when they are middle aged and have become tired of
teaching in Government schools, a survey was carried out and the data
obtained:
Age (a) of the teachers Percentage
20 a <25 9
25 a <30 17
30 a <35 21
35 a <40 18
40 a <45 15
45 a <50 9
50 a <55 11
i) Compute the mean and median age at which teachers start private
schools
ii) Represent the above data on a histogram.

Question two
a) Briefly distinguish between the following term:
i) Quantitative and qualitative data
ii) Discrete and continuous data
b) State three measures of central tendency
c) The cumulative distribution below shows households monthly expenditure on
food during a survey in Fort Portal.
Amount (Shs Cumulative frequency
000)
80-84 6

85-89 18

90-94 41

95-99 76

100-104 100

105-109 110

Compute the
i) Arithmetic mean of the food expenditure
ii) Interquartile range of the food expenditure

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Lecturer: Mr. Issa Ndungo MMU- School of Education