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Phys141 Mon 10/17 Lecture 19 Moment of Inertia

Today: Chapter 10: rotational Motion - end 1


K R = Ki = mi ri 2 2
Rotational energy i i 2

1 1
KR = mi ri2 2 = 2 I 2
2 i

Administrative: Definition of moment I = ri 2 mi


Reading for Wed: Chapter 11.3-4 (Skip 11.5) of inertia: i

Dimensions: ML2
Lab: Make-up week you only need to come if you
missed one lab. PLEASE CHECK WITH YOUR SI units: kg.m2
TA if you are not sure whether you missed a lab!!
Discussions will still take place to go over HW and Calculation: I = mi lim0 ri 2 mi = r 2dm
exam related problems i

Moment of Inertia of a Uniform Rigid Rod


Moment of Inertia of a Uniform Thin Hoop
The shaded area has a
mass
Since this is a thin dm = dx
hoop, all mass Then the moment of inertia
elements are the is
L/2 M
same distance from I = r 2 dm = x2 dx
L/ 2 L
the center 1 1
I= ML2 = MR 2
12 3
2
I = r 2dm = R dm Note: Careful about the
I = MR 2 choice of origin. That
should be the point of R
rotation (except when using
the parallel axis theorem
see later)

1
Moment of inertia in terms of densities Moment of Inertia of a Uniform Solid Cylinder
Calculate inertia by integrating over length,
area, or volume instead of mass: I = r dm
2

Divide the cylinder into


Linear Mass Density concentric shells with
radius r, thickness dr and
mass per unit length of a = m = A I = r 2 dL length L
rod of uniform cross- L
sectional area A: Then for I

Area mass density: I = r 2dm = r ( 2 Lr dr )


2
m I = r 2 dA
Mass per unit area of a = = L
sheet of thickness L A 1
I z = MR 2
2

m I = r 2dV
Volumetric Mass Density
= DEMO
mass per unit volume: V

Moment of Inertia for a Rod


Parallel-Axis Theorem
Previous examples, axis of rotation ~ axis of symmetry of
Rotating Around One End
the object and therefore the axis of rotation went through
the center of mass. The moment of inertia of
Arbitrary axis -> integral difficult -> the parallel-axis
theorem helps:
the rod about its center
is 1
I CM =2
ML
I = ICM + MD 2 12
D is L
I is about any axis parallel to the axis through the center of mass
of the object Therefore,
ICM is about the axis through the center of mass I = I CM + MD 2
D is the distance from the center of mass axis to the arbitrary 2
axis 1 L 1
I= ML2 + M = ML2
12 2 3

2
Torque: tendency of a force to rotate an
Total Energy ball rolling down hill
object about some axis

Despite surface friction, no loss of mechanical Magnitude: = r F sin


energy occurs because the contact point is at
rest relative to the surface at any instant Two ways to understand
torque equation:
Kf + U f = Ki + Ui (1) = F d with d the
Uf = Ki = 0 moment arm, is the
perpendicular distance
2
1 v CM 1 1 2 ICM from the axis of rotation
Kf = ICM 2 + Mv CM
2
= Mv CM 1 + 2 to a line drawn along the
2 R 2 2 MR direction of the force
Ui = Mgh d = r sin
1 2 ICM 2 gh (2) = Ft r only tangential
Mgh = Mv CM 1 + v CM =
2
part of force exerts torque
2 MR 2 ICM
1 + Ft = F sin
MR 2 DEMO

Torque and Angular Acceleration


Net Torque
F1 would cause counter- Rotating mass m (along circle
clockwise rotation about O of radius r) tangential force Ft
F2 would cause clockwise
rotation about O -> tangential acceleration:
Ft = mat
Total (net) torque = sum of
torques Rotational motion description:
at
= Ft r = mat r = mr 2 = I
= 1 + 2 = F1d1 F2d2 r
= I
In general: =

3
Work in Rotational Motion
Power in Rotational Motion
Work done by F on the object as it
rotates through an infinitesimal
distance ds = r d The rate at which work is being done in a
dW = F . d s = (F sin ) r d time interval dt is
dW = d
dW d
IF the center O is fixed, the radial Power = = =
component of F does no work
dt dt
because it is perpendicular to
the displacement

Note: Both work and torque have


units of Nm but remember:
torque is not an energy!!