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K R = Ki = mi ri 2 2

Rotational energy i i 2

1 1

KR = mi ri2 2 = 2 I 2

2 i

Reading for Wed: Chapter 11.3-4 (Skip 11.5) of inertia: i

Dimensions: ML2

Lab: Make-up week you only need to come if you

missed one lab. PLEASE CHECK WITH YOUR SI units: kg.m2

TA if you are not sure whether you missed a lab!!

Discussions will still take place to go over HW and Calculation: I = mi lim0 ri 2 mi = r 2dm

exam related problems i

Moment of Inertia of a Uniform Thin Hoop

The shaded area has a

mass

Since this is a thin dm = dx

hoop, all mass Then the moment of inertia

elements are the is

L/2 M

same distance from I = r 2 dm = x2 dx

L/ 2 L

the center 1 1

I= ML2 = MR 2

12 3

2

I = r 2dm = R dm Note: Careful about the

I = MR 2 choice of origin. That

should be the point of R

rotation (except when using

the parallel axis theorem

see later)

1

Moment of inertia in terms of densities Moment of Inertia of a Uniform Solid Cylinder

Calculate inertia by integrating over length,

area, or volume instead of mass: I = r dm

2

Linear Mass Density concentric shells with

radius r, thickness dr and

mass per unit length of a = m = A I = r 2 dL length L

rod of uniform cross- L

sectional area A: Then for I

2

m I = r 2 dA

Mass per unit area of a = = L

sheet of thickness L A 1

I z = MR 2

2

m I = r 2dV

Volumetric Mass Density

= DEMO

mass per unit volume: V

Parallel-Axis Theorem

Previous examples, axis of rotation ~ axis of symmetry of

Rotating Around One End

the object and therefore the axis of rotation went through

the center of mass. The moment of inertia of

Arbitrary axis -> integral difficult -> the parallel-axis

theorem helps:

the rod about its center

is 1

I CM =2

ML

I = ICM + MD 2 12

D is L

I is about any axis parallel to the axis through the center of mass

of the object Therefore,

ICM is about the axis through the center of mass I = I CM + MD 2

D is the distance from the center of mass axis to the arbitrary 2

axis 1 L 1

I= ML2 + M = ML2

12 2 3

2

Torque: tendency of a force to rotate an

Total Energy ball rolling down hill

object about some axis

energy occurs because the contact point is at

rest relative to the surface at any instant Two ways to understand

torque equation:

Kf + U f = Ki + Ui (1) = F d with d the

Uf = Ki = 0 moment arm, is the

perpendicular distance

2

1 v CM 1 1 2 ICM from the axis of rotation

Kf = ICM 2 + Mv CM

2

= Mv CM 1 + 2 to a line drawn along the

2 R 2 2 MR direction of the force

Ui = Mgh d = r sin

1 2 ICM 2 gh (2) = Ft r only tangential

Mgh = Mv CM 1 + v CM =

2

part of force exerts torque

2 MR 2 ICM

1 + Ft = F sin

MR 2 DEMO

Net Torque

F1 would cause counter- Rotating mass m (along circle

clockwise rotation about O of radius r) tangential force Ft

F2 would cause clockwise

rotation about O -> tangential acceleration:

Ft = mat

Total (net) torque = sum of

torques Rotational motion description:

at

= Ft r = mat r = mr 2 = I

= 1 + 2 = F1d1 F2d2 r

= I

In general: =

3

Work in Rotational Motion

Power in Rotational Motion

Work done by F on the object as it

rotates through an infinitesimal

distance ds = r d The rate at which work is being done in a

dW = F . d s = (F sin ) r d time interval dt is

dW = d

dW d

IF the center O is fixed, the radial Power = = =

component of F does no work

dt dt

because it is perpendicular to

the displacement

units of Nm but remember:

torque is not an energy!!

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