Mechanics of materials

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Mechanics of materials

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 37

Chapter 1

Stress

1.1 Introduction

The three fundamental areas of engineering

mechanics are statics, dynamics, and mechanics of

materials.

Statics and dynamics : the external effects upon

rigid bodies, bodies for which the change in shape

(deformation) can be neglected.

mechanics of materials : the internal effects and

deformations that are caused by the applied loads.

A mechanic part or structure must be strong enough

to carry the applied load without breaking and the

same time, the deformations must not be excessive.

The differences between right-body mechanics and

mechanics of materials can be appreciated.

Figure 1.1 Equilibrium

analysis will determine the

force P, but not the strength

or the rigidity of the bar.

easily from equilibrium analysis. We assume that the

bar is both rigid (the deformations of the bar is

neglected) and strong enough to support the load W.

In mechanics of materials, the statics solution is

extended to include an analysis of the forces acting

inside the bar to be certain that the bar will neither

break nor deform excessively.

1.2 Analysis of Internal ForcesStress

The equilibrium analysis of a rigid body is concerned

primarily with the calculation of external forces and

internal forces that act internal connections.

In mechanics of materials, this analysis determines

internal forcesthat is, forces that act on cross

sections that are internal to the body itself.

We must investigate the manner in which these

internal forces are distributed within the body. Only

after these computations have been made can the

design engineer select the proper dimensions for a

member and select the material from which the

member should be fabricated.

Figure 1.2 External Figure 1.3(a) Free body diagram (FBD)

forces acting on for determining the internal force

a body. system acting on section (1).

the external forces that hold a body in equilibrium are

known : the internal forces by equilibrium analysis.

The resultant force R, acting at the centroid C of the

cross section and CR, the resultant couple CR, the

equilibrium equationsF = 0 and Mc 0

g g

internal force R into the internal couple CR into the

axial force P and the Shear torque T and the bending

force V. moment M.

perpendicular to the cross section and the other lying

in the cross section.

Following physically meaningful names

PThe force component that is perpendicular to the

cross section, tending to elongate or shorten the

bar, is called the normal force.

VThe force component lying in the plane of the cross

section, tending to shear (slide) one segment of the

bar relative to the other segment, is called the

shear force.

TThe component of the resultant couple that tends to

twist (rotate) the bar is called the twisting

moment or torque.

MThe component of the resultant couple that tends to

bend the bar is called the bending moment.

g the normal force

g the shear force

Figure 1.4 Deformations produced by the components of

internal forces and couples.

g g

the internal forces are distributed

is equally important.

This consideration leads us to

introduce the force intensity at a

point, called stress, which plays a

central role in the design of load-

bearing members.

The stress vector acting on the

cross section at point O is

defined as R

t = lim

Ao A (1.1)

Figure 1.5 Normal and shear stresses acting on the section at

point O are defined in Eq. (2).

Its normal component (lowercase Greek sigma ) and

shear component (lowercase Greek tau) ,shown in

Fig. 1.5b, are

P dP V dV

= lim = = lim =

Ao A A o A dA (1.2)

dA

The dimension of stress is [F/L2]that is, force

divided by area.

In SI units, force is measured in newtonsNand

area in square meters, from pascals (Pa)1.0 Pa1.0

N/m2, 1.0 MPa1.0106 Pa.

In U.S. Customary units, force is measured in pounds

and area in square inches, so that the unit of stress is

pounds per square inch (lb/in.2), frequently

abbreviated as psi. (1.0 ksi 1000 psi), where kipis

the abbreviation for kilopound.

The commonly used sign convention for axial force

is to define tensile forces as positive and compressive

forces as negative. This convention is carried over to

normal stresses: Tensile stresses are considered to be

positive, compressive stresses negative.

A simple sign convention for shear stresses does not

exista convention that depends on a coordinate

system will be introduced later in the text.

If the stresses are uniformly distributed, they can be

computed form

P V

= = (1.3)

A A

Where A is the area of the cross section.

2003 Brooks/C o le Pub lishing / T hom

a. Centroidal (axial) loading

When the loading is uniform,

its resultant passes through the

centroid of the loaded area.

Therefore, the resultant P = pA

of each end load acts along the

centroidal axis of the bar. The

loads are called axial or

centroidal loads.

In Fig. 1.6 (a), the internal Figure 1.6 A bar loaded

forces acting on all cross- axially by (a) uniformly

sections are also uniformly distributed load of

distributed. the normal stress intensity p (Pa or psi); and

acting at any point on a cross (b) a statically equivalent

section is centroidal force P = pA.

P

= (1.4)

A

The stress distribution caused by the concentrated loading in

Fig. 1.6(b) is more complicated. The maximum stress is

considerably higher than the average stress P/A. As we move

away from the ends, the stress becomes more uniform, The

stress distribution is approximately uniform in the bar, except in

the regions close to the ends.

concentrated load.

b. Saint Venants Principle

About 150 year ago the French mathematician Saint Venant

studied the effects of statically equivalent loads on the twisting

of bars, called Saint Venants principle:

The difference between the effects of two different but statically

equivalent loads becomes very small at sufficiently large

distances from the load.

Consider, as an example, the grooved cylindrical bar of radius

R shown in Fig. 1.8(a). Introduction of the groove disturbs the

uniformity of the stress, but this effect is confined to the

vicinity of the groove, as seen in Fig. 1.8(b) and (c).

Most analysis in mechanics

of materials is based on

simplifications that can be

justified with Saint

Venants principle.

We often replace loads

(including support reactions

) by their resultants and

ignore the effects of holes,

groove, and fillets on Figure 1.8 Normal stress distribution

stresses and deformations. in a grooved bar.

c. Stresses on inclined planes

Consider the stresses that act on plane - that is inclined at

the angle to the cross section, the area of the inclined plane is

A/cos.

Because the segment

is a two-force body,

the resultant internal

force acting on the

inclined plane must

be resolved the

normal component

Pcosand the shear

component Psin.

an inclined section of a bar.

the corresponding stresses, shown in Fig.1.9(c), are

P cos P (1.5a)

= = cos 2

A / cos A

P sin P P

= = sin cos = sin 2 (1.5b)

A / cos A 2A

P cos P P sin P P

= = cos 2 = = sin cos = sin 2

A / cos A A / cos A 2A

the maximum normal stress max is P/A, and it acts on the cross

section of the bar (on the plane = 0). The shear stress is zero

when = 0.

The maximum shear stress max is P/2A, which

acts on the planes inclined at = 45 to the

cross section. The normal stress max is P/2A

when = 45 .

In summary, axial load causes not only normal

stress but also shear stress. The magnitudes of

both stresses depend on the orientation of the

plane on which they act.

P cos P

= = cos2

A / cos A

P sin P P

= = sin cos = sin 2

A / cos A 2A

By replacing with+90 in

Eqs. (1.5), we obtain the

stresses acting on plane a-a,

which is perpendicular to a-a):

P

= sin 2

A (1.6)

P

= sin 2 Figure 1.10 Stresses acting

2A on two mutually

cos(90)=sin and perpendicular inclined

sin2(90)=sin2. sections of a bar.

Because the stresses in Eqs. (1.5) P cos P

= = cos 2

and (1.6) act on mutually A / cos A

perpendicular, or P sin P P

= = sin cos = sin 2

complementaryplanes, they are A / cos A 2A

called complementary stresses. P

= sin 2

The complementary stresses on a A

small (infinitesimal) element of P

= sin 2

the material, the sides of which 2A

are parallel to the complementary

planes, as in Fig.10(b).

When labeling the stresses, we

made use of the following

important result that follows from P

Eqs.(1.5) and (1.6): = sin 2

2A

= (1.7) =

P

sin 2

2A

= (1.7)

complementary planes have the same

magnitude but opposite sense.

maximum normal stress in the bar. The stress is commonly

called simply the normal stress and denoted by . The

design criterion thus is that P/A must not exceed the

working stress of the material from which the bar is to be

fabricated. The working stress, w also called the allowable

stress, is the largest value of stress that can be safely carried

by the material.

d. Procedure for stress analysis

Equilibrium Analysis

If necessary, find the external reactions using a free-body

diagram (FBD) of the entire structure.

Compute the axial force P in the member using the method of

sections has been found by equilibrium analysis.

Computation of Stresses

The average normal stress in the member can be obtained from

P/A, where A is the cross-sectional area of the member at the

cutting plane.

In slender bars, P/A is the actual normal stress if the

section is sufficiently far from applied loads and abrupt changes

in the cross section(Saint Venants principle).

Note on the Analysis of Trusses

The usual assumptions made in the analysis of trusses are (1)

weights of the member are negligible in comparison to the

applied loads(2) joints behave as smooth pinsand (3) all

loads are applied at the joints.

Under these assumptions, each member of the truss is an

axially loaded bar. The internal forces in the bars can be

obtained by the method of sections or the method of joints

(utilizing the free-body diagrams of joints).

Sample Problem 1.1

The bar ABCD in Fig.(a) consists of three cylindrical steel

segments, each with a different cross-sectional area. Axial loads are

applied as shown. Calculate the normal stress in each segment.

2003 Brooks/C ole Publishing / T homson Learning

Solution

The required free-body diagrams (FBDs), shown in Fig. (b), The

normal stresses in the three segments are

g g

PAB 4000lb

AB = = 2

= 3330 psi(T )

AAB 1.2in.

PBC 5000 lb

BC = = 2

= 2780 psi (C )

ABC 1.8in.

PCD 7000lb

CD = = 2

= 4380 psi(C )

ACD 1.6in.

Observe that the lengths of the segment do not affect the calculation

of stresses. In addition, the fact that bar is made of steel is irrelevant.

2003 Brooks/Cole Publishing / Thomson Learning

Sample Problem 1.2

For the truss shown in Fig. (a), calculate the normal stresses in (1)

member ACand (2) member BD. The cross-sectional area of

each member is 900mm2 .

Solution

Equilibrium analysis using the FBD of the entire in Fig. (a) give

the following values for the external reactionsAy=40 kN, Hy=60

kN, and Hx=0.

Part2

In truss analysis, each member of the truss is an axially loaded

bar. Note that we have assumed both of these forces to be tensile.

Because the force system is concurrent and s/Cole Publishing / Thomson Learning

equations From the FBD in Fig. (b).

Fy = 0+

3

40 + P AB = 0

5

4

Fx = 0 +

PAC + PAB = 0

5

Solving the equations gives PAC=53.33 kN

(tension). Thus, the normal stress in member AC is

PAC 53.33KN 53.33103 N

AC = = =

AAC 900mm 2

900106 m2

59.3106 N/m259.3 MPa (T) Answer

Part2

We have again assumed that the forces in the members are tensile.

To calculate the force in member BD, we use the equilibrium

g g

equation

the normal stress in member BD is

PAC 53.33kN 53.33 10 3 N

AC = = =

AAC 900mm 2

900 10 6 m 2

Sample Problem 1.3

Figure(a) shows a two-member truss

supporting a block of weight W. The cross-

sectional areas of the member are 800 mm 2

for AC. Determine the maximum safe value

of W if the working stresses are 110MPa for

AB and 120 MPa for AC.

Solution

The forces in the bars can be obtained by

analyzing the free-body diagram (FBD) of pin

A in Fig.(b) .The equilibrium equations are

x + AC

F = 0 P cos 60

PAB cos 40 = 0

Solving simultaneously, we get

PAB = 0.5077 W PAC = 0.7779W

For bar AB PAB = AB AAB

0.5077 W = (110106 N/m2)(80010-6 m2)

W = 173.3103 N= 173.3 kN

The value of W that will cause the normal stress in bar AC to

equal its working stress is found from

For bar AC PAC = AC AAC

0.7779 W = (120106 N/m2) (40010-6 m2)

W = 61.7103 N = 61.7 kN

The maximum safe value of W is the smaller of the preceding two

value. W = 61.7 kN

*For the cross-section A the larger value is obtaiined.

1.4.Shear stress

By definition, normal stress acting on interior surface is directed

perpendicular to that surface. Shear stress, on the other hand, is

tangent to the surface on which it acts.

Three other examples of shear stress are illustrated in Fig. 1.11.

Figure 1.11

Examples of

direct shear(a)

single shear in a

rivet(b)

double shear in

a boltand (c)

shear in a metal

sheet produced

by a punch.

2003 B k /C l P bli hi / Th L i

The loads shown in Fig. 1.11

are sometimes referred to as

direct shear, to distinguish

them from the induced shear

illustrated in Fig.1.9.

Fig. 1.11 Fig. 1.9

The distribution of direct shear stress is usually complex and

not easily determined. It is common practice to assume that the

shear force V is uniformly distributed over the shear area A, so

that the shear stress can be computed from

V

=

A (1.8)

Eq. (1.8) must be interpreted as the average shear stress. It is

often used in design to evaluate the strength of connectors,

such as rivets, bolt, and welds.

1.5 Bearing Stress

If two bodies are pressed against each other, compressive forces

are developed on the area of contact. The pressure caused by

these surface loads is called bearing stress.

Examples of bearing

stress are the soil

pressure beneath a

pier and the contact

pressure between a

rivet and the side of

its hole. shown in

Fig. 1.12(a). The

bearing stress caused

by the rivet is not Figure 1.12 Example of bearing stress

constantt as (a) a rivet in a lap joint(b) bearing

illustrated in Fig. stress is not constant

1.12(b).

assuming that the bearing stress

b is uniformly distributed over

a reduced area.

caused by the bearing force Pb

is assumed to be uniform on

projected area td.

rivet Ab = td

Where t is the thickness of the plate and d represents the

diameter of the rivet in Fig. 1.12 (c) . The bearing force Pb

equals the applied load P. So that the bearing stress becomes

Pb P (1.9)

b = =

Ab td

Sample Problem 1.4

The lap joint shown in Fig.(a) is

fastened by four rivets of 3/4-in.

diameter. Find the maximum load P that

can be applied if the working stresses

are 14 ksi for shear in the rivet and 18

ksi for bearing in the plate. Assume that

the applied load is distributed evenly

among the four rivets, and neglect

friction between the plates.

Solution 2003 B k /C l P bli hi / Th L i

Calculate P using each of the two design criteria. Figure (b) shows

the FBD of the lower plate, the lower halves of the rivets are in the

plate. This cut exposes the shear forces V that act on the cross

sections of the rivets. The equilibrium condition is V = P/4.

1.Design for Shear stress in Rivets

The value of P that would cause the

shear stress in the rivets to reach its

working value is found as follows

3 (3 / 4)

V =A P 2

= (1410 )

4 4

P = 24700 lb

2.Design for Bearing Stress in Plate Comparing the above

The shear force V=P/4 that acts on solutions, we conclude

cross section of one rivet is equal to that the maximum safe

the bearing force Pb. The value of P load P that can be applied

that would cause the bearing stress to to the lap joint is P =

equal its working value is computed 24700 lb.

from Eq.(1.9) with the shear stress in

Pb = b td

P

4

( )

= 18 10 3 (7 / 8)(3 / 4 )

the rivets being the

governing design

P = 47300 lb criterion

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