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Introduction

This c hapter is subdivided into two parts. In Part A, we develop the governing equations

and methods of solution of deflection for rectangular and c irc ular plates. Applications of the

energy and finite element methods for computation of deflection and stress in plates are

also included. Membrane stresses in shells are taken up in Part B. Load-carrying mechanism

of a shell, which differs from that of other elements, is demonstrated first. This is followed

with a discussion of stress distribution in spheric al, conical, and cylindrical shells. Thermal

stresses in compound c ylindric al shells are also considered.

13.2. Basic Assumptions

Plates and shells are initially flat and curved struc tural elements, respectively, with

thicknesses small compared with the remaining dimensions. We first consider plates, for

whic h it is usual to divide the thickness t into equal halves by a plane parallel to the faces.

This plane is termed the midsurface of the plate. The plate thickness is measured in a

direction normal to the midsurface at each point under consideration. Plates of technical

significance are often defined as thin when the ratio of the thic kness to the smaller span

length is less than 1/20. We here treat the small deflec tion theory of homogeneous, uniform

thin plates, leaving for the numerical approach of Section 13.10 a disc ussion of plates of

nonuniform thickness and irregular shape.

Consider now a plate prior to deformation, shown in Fig. 13.1a, in which the xy plane

coincides with the midsurface and henc e the z deflec tion is zero. When, owing to external

loading, deformation occurs, the midsurface at any point xA , yA suffers a deflection w.

Referring to the coordinate system shown, the fundamental assumptions of the small

deflec tion theory of bending for isotropic, homogeneous, thin plates may be summarized as

follows:

1. The deflec tion of the midsurfac e is small in c omparison with the thic kness of the

plate. The slope of the deflected surface is much less than unity.

2. Straight lines initially normal to the midsurface remain straight and normal to that

surface subsequent to bending. This is equivalent to stating that the vertic al shear

strains xz and yz are negligible. The deflection of the plate is thus assoc iated

principally with bending strains, with the implic ation that the normal strain z owing to

vertical loading may also be neglected.

result of bending.

These presuppositions are analogous to those associated with simple bending theory of

beams.

13.3. StrainCurvature Relations

We here develop fundamental relationships between the strains and curvatures of the

midsurface of thin plates. On the basis of assumption 2 stated in the preceding sec tion, the

straindisplacement relations of Eq. (2.4) reduce to

Equation a

Equation 13.1

indic ating that the lateral deflec tion does not vary throughout the plate thic kness. Similarly,

integrating the expressions for xzand yz, we obtain

Equation b

It is clear that f2(x, y) and f3(x, y) represent, respec tively, the values

of u and v corresponding to z = 0 (the midsurface). Because assumption 3 precludes such

in-plane straining, we c onclude that f2 = f3 = 0, and therefore

Equation 13.2

where w/x and w/y are the slopes of the midsurface. The expression for u is

represented in Fig. 13.1b at section mnpassing through arbitrary point A(xA , yA ). A similar

interpretation applies for v in the zy plane. It is observed that Eqs. (13.2) are consistent

with assumption 2. Combining the first three equations of (a) with Eq. (13.2), we have

Equation 13.3a

whic h provide the strains at any point.

Bec ause in small deflec tion theory the square of a slope may be regarded as negligible, the

partial derivatives of Eqs. (13.3a) represent the curvatures of the plate (see Eq. 5.7).

Therefore, the curvatures at the midsurface in planes parallel to the xz (Fig. 13.1b), yz,

and xy planes are, respec tively,

Equation 13.4

The foregoing are simply the rates at which the slopes vary over the plate.

In terms of the radii of curvature, the straindeflection relations (13.3a) may be written

Equation 13.3b

Examining these equations, we are led to conc lude that a circle of c urvature can be

construc ted similarly to Mohrs c ircle of strain. The curvatures therefore transform in the

same manner as the strains. It c an be verified by employing Mohrs circle that (1/r x) +

(1/r y ) = 2w. The sum of the c urvatures in perpendicular directions, called the average

curvature, is invariant with respec t to rotation of the coordinate axis. This assertion is valid

at any loc ation on the midsurface.

13.4. Stress, Curvature, and Moment Relations

The stress c omponents x, y , and xy = yx are related to the strains by Hookes law,

whic h for a thin plate bec omes

Equation 13.5

These expressions demonstrate clearly that the stresses vanish at the midsurface and vary

linearly over the thickness of the plate.

The stresses distributed over the side surfaces of the plate, while producing no net force,

do result in bending and twisting moments. These moment resultants per unit length (for

example, newtons times meters divided by meters, or simply newtons) are denoted Mx, My ,

and Mxy . Referring to Fig. 13.2a,

Figure 13.2. (a) Plate segment in pure bending; (b) positive stresses on an element

in the bottom half of a plate.

Expressions involving My and Mxy = Myx are similarly derived. The bending and twisting

moments per unit length are thus

Equation 13.6

Introducing into Eq. (13.6) the stresses given by Eqs. (13.5), and taking into ac count the

fac t that w = w(x, y), we obtain

Equation 13.7

where

Equation 13.8

is the flexural rigidity of the plate. Note that, if a plate element of unit width were free to

expand sidewise under the given loading, antic lastic c urvature would not be prevented; the

flexural rigidity would be Et 3/12. The remainder of the plate does not permit this action,

however. Because of this, a plate manifests greater stiffness than a narrow beam by a

fac tor 1/(1 2) or about 10%. Under the sign convention, a positive moment is one that

results in positive stresses in the positive (bottom) half of the plate (Sec. 1.5), as shown

in Fig. 13.2b.

Substitution of z = t/2 into Eq. (13.5), together with the use of Eq. (13.7), provides

expressions for the maximum stress (whic h occ urs on the surface of the plate):

Equation 13.9

Employing a new set of coordinates in which x, y replac es x, y and z = z, we first

transform x, y , xy into x, y, xythrough the use of Eq. (1.18). These are then

substituted into Eq. (13.6) to obtain the c orresponding Mx, My, Mxy. Examination of Eqs.

(13.6) and (13.9) indicates a direc t correspondence between the moments and stresses. It

is concluded, therefore, that the equation for transforming the stresses should be identical

with that used for the moments. Mohrs c ircle may thus be applied to moments as well as to

stresses.

13.5. Governing Equations of Plate Deflection

Consider now a plate element dx dy subjec t to a uniformly distributed lateral load per unit

area p (Fig. 13.3). In addition to the moments Mx, My , and Mxy previously discussed, we

now find vertical shearing forces Qx and Qy (force per unit length) ac ting on the sides of

the element. These forces are related directly to the vertic al shearing stresses:

Equation 13.10

Figure 13.3. Positive moments and shear forces (per unit length) and distributed

lateral load (per unit area) on a plate element.

The sign convention associated with Qx and Qy is identic al with that for the shearing

stresses xz and yz: A positive shearing force acts on a positive face in the

positive z direction (or on a negative face in the negative z direction). The bending moment

sign convention is as previously given. On this basis, all forces and moments shown in Fig.

13.3 are positive.

It is appropriate to emphasize that while the simple theory of thin plates neglec ts the effect

on bending of z, xz = xz/G, andyz = yz/G (as discussed in Sec. 13.2), the vertical

forces Qx and Qy resulting from xz and yz are not negligible. In fact, they are of the same

order of magnitude as the lateral loading and moments.

It is our next task to obtain the equation of equilibrium for an element and eventually to

reduc e the system of equations to a single expression involving the deflec tion w. Referring

to Fig. 13.3, we note that body forces are assumed negligible relative to the surfac e

loading and that no horizontal shear and normal forces ac t on the sides of the element. The

equilibrium of z-directed forc es is governed by

or

Equation a

from whic h

Equation b

Higher-order terms, such as the moment of p and the moment owing to the c hange in Qy ,

have been neglected. The equilibrium of moments about the y axis yields an expression

similar to Eq. (b):

Equation c

Equations (b) and (c), when c ombined with Eq. (13.7), lead to

Equation 13.11

Finally, substituting Eq. (13.11) into Eq. (a) results in the governing equation of plate

theory (Lagrange, 1811):

Equation 13.12a

Equation 13-12b

The bending of plates subject to a lateral loading p per unit area thus reduc es to a single

differential equation. Determination ofw(x, y) relies on the integration of Eq. (13.12) with

the constants of integration dependent on the identification of appropriate boundary

conditions. The shearing stresses xz and yz can be readily determined by applying Eqs.

(13.11) and (13.10) onc ew(x, y) is known. These stresses display a parabolic variation

over the thic kness of the plate. The maximum shearing stress, as in the c ase of a beam of

rec tangular section, occ urs at z = 0:

Equation 13.13

The key to evaluating all the stresses, employing Eqs. (13.5) or (13.9) and (13.3), is thus

the solution of Eq. (13.12) for w(x,y). As already indic ated, xz and yz are regarded as

small compared with the remaining plane stresses.

13.6. Boundary Conditions

Solution of the plate equation requires that two boundary conditions be satisfied at eac h

edge. These may relate to deflec tion and slope, or to forces and moments, or to some

combination. The principal feature distinguishing the boundary conditions applied to plates

from those applied to beams relates to the existence along the plate edge of twisting

moment resultants. These moments, as demonstrated next, may be replaced by an

equivalent vertical forc e, which when added to the vertic al shearing force produc es

an effec tive vertic al forc e.

Consider two succ essive elements of lengths dy on edge x = a of the plate shown in Fig.

13.4a. On the right element, a twisting moment Mxy dy ac ts, while the left element is

subjec t to a moment [Mxy + (Mxy /y) dy]dy. In Fig. 13.4b, we observe that these

twisting moments have been replaced by equivalent force couples that produce

only local differenc es in the distribution of stress on the edge x = a. The stress distribution

elsewhere in the plate is unaffec ted by this substitution. Ac ting at the left edge of the right

element is an upward direc ted force Mxy . Adjac ent to this forc e is a downward directed

force Mxy + (Mxy /y) dyac ting at the right edge of the left element. The difference

between these forces (expressed per unit length), Mxy /y, may be c ombined with the

transverse shearing force Qx to produc e an effec tive transverse edge forc e per unit

length, Vx , known asKirchhoffs force (Fig. 13.4c):

Equation 13.14

Consider first the conditions that apply along the clamped edge x = a of the rectangular

plate with edges parallel to the x and y axes (Fig. 13.5a). As both the deflec tion and slope

are zero,

Equation 13.15

Figure 13.5. Various boundary conditions: (a) fixed edge; (b) simple support; (c)

free edge.

For the simply supported edge (Fig. 13.5b), the deflection and bending moment are both

zero:

Equation 13.16a

Bec ause the first of these equations implies that along edge x = a, w/y = 0

and 2w/y 2 = 0, the c onditions expressed by Eq. (13.16a) may be restated in the

following equivalent form:

Equation 13.16b

For the c ase of the free edge (Fig. 13.5c), the moment and vertic al edge force are zero:

Equation 13.17

Example 13.1. Simply Supported Plate Strip

Derive the equation describing the deflection of a long and narrow plate, simply

supported at edges y = 0 and y =b (Fig. 13.6). The plate is subjected to

nonuniform loading

Equation a

Figure 13.6. Example 13.1. A long and narrow simply supported plate.

so that it deforms into a cylindrical surfac e with its generating line parallel to

the x axis. The c onstant po thus represents the load intensity along the line

passing through y = b/2, parallel to x.

Solution

Bec ause for this situation w/x = 0 and 2w/xy = 0, Eq. (13.7) reduc es to

Equation b

Equation c

The latter expression is the same as the wide beam equation, and we conc lude

that the solution proceeds as in the case of a beam. A wide beam shall, in the

c ontext of this chapter, mean a rec tangular plate supported on one edge or on

two opposite edges in suc h a way that these edges are free to approac h one

another as deflec tion oc curs.

Substituting Eq. (a) into Eq. (c), integrating, and satisfying the boundary

c onditions at y = 0 and y = b, we obtain

Equation d

The stresses are now readily determined through application of Eqs. (13.5) or

(13.9) and Eq. (13.13).

13.7. Simply Supported Rectangular Plates

In general, the solution of the plate problem for a geometry as in Fig. 13.7a, with simple

supports along all edges, may be obtained by the applic ation of Fourier series for load and

deflec tion:[*]

[*] This a pproa ch wa s introduce d by Na vie r in 1820. For de ta ils, see Re fs. 13.1 a nd 13.2.

Equation 13.18a

Equation 13.18b

Figure 13.7. Simply supported rectangular plate: (a) location of coordinate system

for Naviers method; (b) deflection of the simply supported plate into half-sine

curves of m = 1 and n = 2.

Here pmn and amn represent c oeffic ients to be determined. The problem at hand is

desc ribed by

Equation a

and

Equation b

The boundary c onditions given are satisfied by Eq. (13.18b), and the coefficients amn must

be such as to satisfy Eq. (a). The solution corresponding to the loading p(x, y) thus

requires a determination of pmn and amn. Let us consider, as an interpretationof Eq.

(13.18b), the true deflec tion surfac e of the plate to be the superposition of sinusoidal

curves m and n different c onfigurations in the x and y directions. The coefficients amn of

the series are the maximum central coordinates of the sine series, and the ms and

the ns mean the number of the half-sine c urves in the x and y directions, respectively. For

instance, the terms a a12 sin (x/a) sin (2y/b) of the series is shown in Fig. 13.7b. By

increasing the number of terms in the series, the acc uracy can be improved.

We proc eed by dealing first with a general load configuration, subsequently treating specific

loadings. To determine the c oeffic ients pmn, each side of Eq. (13.18a) is multiplied by

Applying the orthogonality relation (10.24) and integrating the right side of the preceding

equation, we obtain

Equation 13.19

Evaluation of amn in Eq. (13.18b) requires substitution of Eqs. (13.18a) and (13.18b) into

Eq. (a), with the result

This expression must apply for all x and y; we conclude therefore that

Equation c

Solving for amn and substituting into Eq. (13.18b), the equation of the deflection surface of

a thin plate is

Equation 13.20

(a) Determine the deflections and moments in a simply supported rec tangular

plate of thickness t (Fig. 13.7a). The plate is subjected to a uniformly

distributed load po. (b) Setting a = b, obtain the deflections, moments, and

stresses in the plate.

Solution

taken as odd integers. Substituting pmn into Eq. (13.20) results in

Equation 13.21

We know that on physic al grounds, the uniformly loaded plate must deflec t

into a symmetrical shape. Such a configuration results when m and n are

odd. The maximum deflec tion oc curs at x = a/2, y = b/2. From Eq.

(13.21), we thus have

Equation 13.22

By substituting Eq. (13.21) into Eq. (13.7), the bending

moments Mx , My are obtained:

Equation 13.23

b. For the case of a square plate (setting a = b), substituting = 0.3, the

first term of Eq. (13.22) gives

retaining the first four terms gives the results wmax = 0.0443po(a4/Et 3).

The bending moments occ urring at the center of the plate are found from

Eq. (13.23). Retaining only the first term, the result is

Observe from a comparison of these values that the series given by Eq.

(13.23) does not converge as rapidly as that of Eq. (13.22).

13.8. Axisymmetrically Loaded Circular Plates

The deflec tion w of a circ ular plate will manifest dependence on radial position r only if the

applied load and c onditions of end restraint are independent of the angle . In other words,

symmetry in plate deflection follows from symmetry in applied load. For this case, only radial

and tangential moments Mr and M per unit length and force Qr per unit length act on the

circ ular plate element shown in Fig. 13.8. To derive the fundamental equations of a circ ular

plate, we need only transform the appropriate formulations of previous sec tions from

Cartesian to polar coordinates.

Figure 13.8. Axisymmetrically loaded circular plate element. (Only shear force and

moments on the positive faces are shown.)

Through the application of the c oordinate transformation relationships of Section 3.8, the

bending moments and vertic al shear forc es are found from Eqs. (13.7) and (13.11) to

be Q = 0, Mr = 0, and

Equation 13.24a

Equation 13.24b

Equation 13.24c

The differential equation describing the surfac e deflec tion is obtained from Eq. (13.12) in a

similar fashion:

Equation 13.25a

where p, as before, represents the load ac ting per unit of surface area, and D is the plate

rigidity. By introduc ing the identity

Equation a

Equation 13.25b

For applied loads varying with radius, p(r), representation (13.25b) is preferred.

The boundary conditions at the edge of the plate of radius a may readily be written by

referring to Eqs. (13.15) to (13.17) and (13.24):

Equation 13.26a

Equation 13.26b

Equation 13.26c

Equation (13.25), together with the boundary conditions, is suffic ient to solve the

axisymmetrically loaded c irc ular plate problem.

radius a subjec ted to uniformly distributed loading po (Fig. 13.9).

Figure 13.9. Example 13.3. Uniformly loaded clamped circular plate: (a)

top view; (b) front view.

Solution

The origin of coordinates is loc ated at the c enter of the plate. The

displac ement w is obtained by successive integration of Eq. (13.25b):

or

Equation b

Equation c

The terms involving logarithms in Eq. (b) lead to an infinite displac ement at the

c enter of the plate (r = 0) for all values of c 1 and c 3 except zero;

therefore, c 1 = c 3 = 0. Satisfying the boundary conditions (c), we find that c 2 =

a2/8 and c 4 = a4/64. The deflection is then

Equation 13.27

Substituting the deflec tion given by Eq. (13.27) into Eq. (13.24), we have

Equation 13.28

The extreme values of the moments are found at the center and edge. At the

c enter,

Examining these results, it is clear that the maximum stress oc curs at the edge:

Equation 13.29

A similar proc edure may be applied to symmetrically loaded circ ular plates

subject to different end c onditions.

13.9. Deflections of Rectangular Plates by the Strain-Energy

Method

Based on the assumptions of Section 13.2, for thin plates, stress components z, xz,

and yz can be neglec ted. Therefore, thestrain energy in pure bending of plates, from Eq.

(2.52), has the form

Equation a

Integration extends over the entire plate volume. For a plate of uniform thic kness, this

expression may be written in terms of deflection w, applying Eqs. (13.5) and (13.8), as

follows:

Equation 13.30

Alternatively,

Equation 13.31

If the edges of the plate are fixed or simply supported, the sec ond term on the right of Eq.

(13.31) becomes zero [Ref. 13.1]. Hence, the strain energy simplifies to

Equation 13.32

Equation 13.33

The potential energy of the system is then

Equation 13.34

illustrated next.

Solution

From the discussion of Section 13.7, the deflec tion of the simply supported

plate (Fig. 13.7a) can always be represented in the form of a double

trigonometric series given by Eq. (13.18b). Introducing this series for w and

setting p = po, Eq. (13.34) bec omes

Equation b

c alc ulating the first term of the preceding integral, we need to consider only the

squares of the terms of the infinite series in the parentheses (Prob. 13.19).

Henc e, integrating Eq. (b), we have

Equation c

Equation d

expression as given by Eq. (13.21).

13.10. Finite Element Solution

In this sec tion we present the finite element method (Chapter 7) for computation of

deflec tion, strain, and stress in a thin plate. For details, see, for example,

Refs. 13.3 through 13.6. The plate, in general, may have any irregular geometry and

loading. The derivations are based on the assumptions of small deformation theory,

desc ribed in Section 13.2. A triangular plate element ijmcoinciding with the xy plane will be

employed as the finite element model (Fig. 13.10). Each nodal displacement of the element

possesses three c omponents: a displac ement in the z direction, w; a rotation about

the x axis, x ; and a rotation about the yaxis, y . Positive directions of the rotations are

determined by the right-hand rule, as illustrated in the figure. It is clear that

rotations x and y represent the slopes of w: w/y and w/x, respectively.

Figure 13.10. (a) Positive directions of displacements; (b) triangular finite plate

element.

Referring to Eqs. (13.3), we define, for the finite element analysis, a generalized strain-

displacement matrix as follows:

Equation 13.35

The moment generalized strain relationship, from Eq. (13.7), is given in matrix form as

Equation 13.36

where

Equation 13.37

The stresses {}e and the moments {M}e are related by Eq. (13.9).

Displacement Function

The nodal displacement c an be defined, for node i, as follows:

Equation a

The element nodal displac ements are expressed in terms of submatrices i, j, and m:

Equation b

The displacement func tion {f} = w is assumed to be a modified third-order polynomial of the

form

Equation c

Note that the number of terms is the same as the number of nodal displac ements of the

element. This func tion satisfies displac ement compatibility at interfaces between elements

but does not satisfy the compatibility of slopes at these boundaries. Solutions based on Eq.

(c) do, however, yield results of acceptable ac curacy.

The constants a1 through a9 c an be evaluated by writing the nine equations involving the

values of w and at the nodes:

Equation 13.38a

or

Equation 13.38b

Inverting,

Equation 13.39

It is observed in Eq. (13.38) that the matrix [C] depends on the coordinate dimensions of

the nodal points.

Note that the displac ement function may now be written in the usual form of Eq. (7.50) as

Equation 13.40

in whic h

Equation 13.41

Equation 13.42a

or

Equation 13.42b

Upon substituting the values of the c onstants {a} from Eq. (13.39) into (13.42b), we c an

obtain the generalized straindisplac ement matrix in the following common form:

{ }e = [B]{}e = [H][C]1{}e

Thus,

Equation 13.43

Stiffness Matrix

The element stiffness matrix given by Eq. (7.34), treating the thickness t as a c onstant

within the element and introduc ing [B] from Eq. (13.43), becomes

Equation 13.44

where the matric es [H], [D], and [C]1 are defined by Eqs. (13.42), (13.37), and (13.38),

respectively. After expansion of the expression under the integral sign, the integrations can

be carried out to obtain the element stiffness matrix.

As in two-dimensional and axisymmetric al problems, the nodal forces due to the

distributed surface loading may also be obtained through the use of Eq. (7.58) or by

physical intuition.

The standard finite element method procedure described in Section 7.13 may now be

followed to obtain the unknown displacement, strain, and stress in any element of the plate.

13.11. Theories and Behavior of Shells

Structural elements resembling c urved plates are referred to as shells. Inc luded among the

more familiar examples of shells are soap bubbles, inc andescent lamps, aircraft fuselages,

pressure vessels, and a variety of metal, glass, and plastic c ontainers. As was the case for

plates, we limit our treatment to isotropic, homogeneous, elastic shells having a constant

thickness that is small relative to the remaining dimensions. The surface bisec ting the shell

thickness is referred to as the midsurface. To specify the geometry of a shell, we need only

know the c onfiguration of the midsurface and the thic kness of the shell at each point.

According to the criterion often applied to define a thin shell (for purposes of tec hnic al

calc ulations), the ratio of thic kness t to radius of curvature r should be equal to or less

than .

The stress analysis of shells normally embraces two distinct theories. The membrane

theory is limited to moment-free membranes, whic h often applies to a rather large

proportion of the entire shell. The bending theory or general theory includes the influences

of bending and thus enables us to treat discontinuities in the field of stress occ urring in a

limited region in the vicinity of a load applic ation or a structural discontinuity. This method

generally involves a membrane solution, c orrec ted in those areas in which disc ontinuity

effec ts are pronounced. The princ ipal objective is thus not the improvement of the

membrane solution but the analysis of stresses assoc iated with edge loading, whic h c annot

be ac complished by the membrane theory alone [Ref. 13.1].

The following assumptions are generally made in the small deflection analysis of thin shells:

1. The ratio of the shell thickness to the radius of curvature of the midsurfac e is small

compared with unity.

2. Displac ements are very small compared with the shell thickness.

3. Straight sections of an element, which are perpendic ular to the midsurfac e, remain

perpendic ular and straight to thedeformed midsurface subsequent to bending. The

implic ation of this assumption is that the strains xz and yz are negligible. Normal

strain, z, due to transverse loading may also be omitted.

13.12. Simple Membrane Action

As testimony to the fact that the load-carrying mechanism of a shell differs from that of

other elements, we have only to note the extraordinary c apacity of an eggshell to

withstand normal forc es, despite its thinness and fragility. This contrasts markedly with a

similar material in a plate configuration subjec ted to lateral loading.

thickness t, subjec ted to a uniform pressure p (Fig. 13.11). Denoting by N the normal force

per unit length required to maintain the shell in a state of equilibrium, static equilibrium of

vertical forc es is expressed by

or

This result is valid anywhere in the shell, because N is observed not to vary with . Note

that, in contrast with the case of plates, it is the midsurfac e that sustains the applied load.

Once again referring to the simple shell shown in Fig. 13.11, we demonstrate that the

bending stresses play an insignificant role in the load-carrying mechanism. On the basis of

the symmetry of the shell and the loading, the stresses (equal at any point) are given by

Equation a

Here n represents the c ompressive, in-plane stress. The stress normal to the mid-surface

is negligible, and thus the in-plane strain involves only n:

Equation b

The reduc ed circumference assoc iated with this strain is

2r = 2(r + r n)

so

r = r (1 + n)

Dropping higher-order terms bec ause of their negligible magnitude and substituting Eq. (b),

this expression becomes

Equation c

The bending moment in the shell is determined from the plate equations. Noting that

1/r x and 1/r y in Eq. (13.7) refer to the change in plate curvatures between the undeformed

and deformed conditions, we see that for the spherical shell under c onsideration, (1/r) =

1/r x = 1/r y . Therefore, Eq. (13.7) yields

Equation d

Equation e

Equation 13.45

demonstrating that the in-plane or direc t stress is very muc h larger than the bending stress,

inasmuch as t/2r 1. It may be concluded, therefore, that the applied load is resisted

primarily by the in-plane stressing of the shell.

Although the prec eding discussion relates to the simplest shell configuration, the

conclusions drawn with respect to the fundamental mechanism apply to any shape and

loading at loc ations away from the boundaries or points of concentrated load application. If

there are asymmetries in load or geometry, shearing stresses will exist in addition to the

normal and bending stresses.

In the following sections we disc uss the membrane theory of two c ommon structures: the

shell of revolution and c ylindric al shells.

13.13. Symmetrically Loaded Shells of Revolution

A surfac e of revolution, suc h as in Fig. 13.12a, is formed by the rotation of a meridian

curve (eo) about the OO axis. As shown, a point on the shell is loc ated by

coordinates , , r 0. This figure indic ates that the elemental surfac e abcd is defined by two

meridian and two parallel circ les. The planes c ontaining the principal radii of c urvature at

any point on the surfac e of the shell are the meridian plane and a plane perpendic ular to it

at the point in question. The meridian plane will thus c ontain r , which is related to side ab.

The other principal radius of c urvature, r , is found in the perpendic ular plane and is

therefore related to sidebd. Thus, length ab = (r sin )d = r 0 d, and length bd = r d.

Figure 13.12. Diagrams for analysis of symmetrically loaded shells of revolution: (a)

geometry of the shell; (b) membrane forces (per unit length) and distributed loading

(per unit area) acting on a shell element; (c) meridian forces and resultant of the

loading acting on a truncated shell.

The condition of symmetry presc ribes that no shearing forces act on the element and that

the normal forc es N and N per unit length display no variation with (Fig. 13.12b).

These membrane forces are also referred to as the tangential or hoop andmeridian

forc es, respectively. The name arises from the fac t that forces of this kind exist in true

membranes, suc h as soap films or thin sheets of rubber. The externally applied load is

represented by the perpendic ular c omponents py and pz. We turn now to a derivation of the

equations governing the force equilibrium of the element.

Equations of Equilibrium

To describe equilibrium in the z direc tion, it is necessary to c onsider the z components of

the external loading as well as of the forces ac ting on each edge of the element. The

external z-direc ted load acting on an element of area (r 0 d)(r d) is

Equation a

The force acting on the top edge of the element is N r 0 d. Neglec ting terms of higher

order, the force ac ting on the bottom edge is also N r 0 d. The z component at each edge

is then N r 0 d sin(d/2), whic h may be approximated by N r 0 d d/2, leading to a

resultant for both edges of

Equation b

The force on each side of the element is Nr d. The radial resultant for both suc h forces

is (N r d)d, having a z-directed component

Equation c

Nr 0 + Nr sin + pzr 0r = 0

Dividing by r 0r and replac ing r 0 by r sin , this expression is c onverted to the following

form:

Equation 13.46a

Similarly, an equation for the y equilibrium of the element of the shell may also be derived.

But instead of solving the z and yequilibrium equations simultaneously, it is more c onvenient

to obtain N from the equilibrium of the portion of the shell c orresponding to the

angle (Fig. 13.12c):

Equation 13.46b

Then c alculate N from Eq. (13.46a). Here F represents the resultant of all external loading

acting on the portion of the shell.

Conditions of Compatibility

For the axisymmetric al shells considered, owing to their freedom of motion in the z direc tion,

strains are produc ed such as to assure consistency with the field of stress. These strains

are c ompatible with one another. It is c lear that, when a shell is subjected to c oncentrated

surface loadings or is c onstrained at its boundaries, membrane theory cannot satisfy the

conditions on deformation everywhere. In such c ases, however, the departure from

membrane behavior is limited to a narrow zone in the vicinity of the boundary or the loading.

Membrane theory remains valid for the major portion of the shell, but the complete solution

can be obtained only through application of bending theory.

13.14. Some Common Cases of Shells of Revolution

The membrane stresses in any partic ular axisymmetric ally loaded shell in the form of a

surface of revolution may be obtained readily from Eqs. (13.46). Treated next are three

common structural members. It is interesting to note that, for the circular cylinder and the

cone, the meridian is a straight line.

We need only set the mean radius r = r = r and hence r 0 = r sin . Equations (13.46)

then become

Equation 13.47

Figure 13.13. Typical shells of revolution: (a) spherical shells; (b) conical shell under

uniform pressure; (c) cylindrical shell.

The simplest case is that of a spherical shell subjec ted to internal pressure p. We now

have p = pz, = 90, and F = r 2p. As is evident from the symmetry of a spherical

shell, N = N = N. These quantities, introduced into Eqs. (13.47), lead to the membrane

stress in a spheric al pressure vessel:

Equation 13.48

where t is the thic kness of the shell. Clearly, this equation represents uniform stresses in all

directions of a pressurized sphere.

Conical Shell (Fig. 13.13b)

We need only set r = in Eq. (13.46a). This, together with Eq. (13.46b), provides the

following pair of equations for determining the membrane forces under uniformly distributed

load pz = pr:

Equation 13.49

Here x represents the direc tion of the generator. The hoop and meridian stresses in a

conical shell are found by dividing N and Nx by t, wherein t is the thickness of the shell.

To determine the membrane forc es in a circular cylindrical shell, we begin with the cone

equations, setting = /2, pz = pr , andmean radius r = r 0 = constant. Equations (13.49)

are therefore

Equation 13.50

For a closed-ended cylindric al vessel under internal pressure, p = pr and F = r 2p. The

preceding equations then result in the membrane stresses:

Equation 13.51

Here t is the thic kness of the shell. Bec ause of its direction, is called the tangential,

circumferential, or hoop stress; similarly, x is the axial or the longitudinal stress. Note that

for thin-walled cylindrical pressure vessels, = 2 x . From Hookes law, theradial extension

of the cylinder, under the action of tangential and axial stresses and x , is

Equation 13.52

where E and represent modulus of elasticity and Poissons ratio.

Observe that tangential stresses in the sphere are half the magnitude of the tangential

stresses in the cylinder. Thus, a sphere is an optimum shape for an internally pressurized

closed vessel.

by two cradles (Fig. 13.14), c ontains air at a pressure of p. Calculate (a) the

stresses in the tank if eac h portion has the same mean radius rand the

thickness t; (b) radial extension of the cylinder. Given: r = 0.5 m, t = 10

mm, p = 1.5 MPa, E = 200 GPa, and = 0.3. Assumptions: One of the cradles is

designed so that it does not exert any axial forc e on the vessel; the cradles ac t

as simple supports. The weight of the tank may be disregarded.

Solution

a. The axial stress in the cylinder and the tangential stresses in the spherical

heads are the same.

Comment

negligibly small compared with the tangential and axial stresses. The state of

stress in the wall of a thin-walled vessel is thus taken to be biaxial.

Example 13.6. Hemispherical Dome

radius a and thickness t, loaded only by its own weight, p per unit area (Fig.

13.15).

its own weight.

Solution

In addition,

pz = p cos

Equation 13.53

c ompressive. The sign of N, on the other hand, depends on . From the second

expression, when N = 0, = 5150. For smaller than this value,N is

c ompressive. For > 5150, N is tensile.

13.15. Thermal Stresses in Compound Cylinders

This sec tion provides the basis for design of c omposite or compound multishell c ylinders,

construc ted of a number of concentric , thin-walled shells. In the development that follows,

eac h component shell is assumed homogeneous and isotropic. Each may have a different

thickness and different material properties and be subjected to different uniform or variable

temperature differentials [Refs. 13.7 and 13.8].

change T, the free motion of any shell having different material properties is restricted by

components adjacent to it. Only a tangential or hoop stress and corresponding

strain are then produc ed in the cylinder walls. Through the use of Eqs. (3.26a),

with y = , y = , and T = T, we write

Equation 13.54

gradient, both axial and hoop stresses oc cur, and x = = . Hence, Eq. (3.26b) leads to

Equation 13.55

Let us consider a compound c ylinder consisting of three components, eac h under different

temperature gradients (the Ts), as depicted in Fig. 13.16. Applying Eq. (13.55), the

stresses may be expressed in the following form:

Equation 13.56a-f

Here the subscripts a, b, and c refer to individual shells.

The axial forces c orresponding to eac h layer are next determined from the stresses given by

Eqs. (13.56) as

Equation a

in whic h the As are the cross-sec tional area of each c omponent. The c ondition that the

sum of the axial forces be equal to zero is satisfied when

Equation b

Equations (13.56) together with Eqs. (a) and (b), for the c ase in which a = b = c, lead

to the following expression for the tangential strain:

Equation 13.57

Here the quantities (T)a , (T)b, and (T)c represent the average of the temperature

differentials at the boundaries of elementsa, b, and c, respec tively, for instance,

. The stresses at the inner and outer surfaces of eac h shell may

be obtained readily on carrying Eq. (13.57) into Eqs. (13.56).

A final point to be noted is that near the ends there will often be some bending of the

composite c ylinder, and the total thermal stresses will be obtained by superimposing on

Eqs. (13.56) such stresses as may be necessary to satisfy the boundary conditions

[Ref. 13.1].

The cylindrical part of a jet nozzle is made by just slipping a steel tube over a

brass tube with each shell uniformly heated and the temperature raised by

T (Figure 13.17). Determine the hoop stress that develops in each component

on cooling. Assumptions: Coeffic ient of thermal expansion of the brass is larger

than that of steel (seeTable D.1). Each tube is a thin-walled shell with a mean

radius of r.

Solution

For the condition desc ribed, the c omposite cylinder is contracting. Equation

(13.54) is therefore

Equation 13.58

from which

Equation 13.59

thickness of the brass and steel tubes, respec tively. Hoop strain, referring to

Eqs. (13.57) and (13.59), is written as

Equation 13.60

Finally, hoop stresses, through the use of Eqs. (13.58) and (13.60) and after

simplific ation, are determined as follows:

Equation 13.61

Equation 13.62

Comment

Observe that the stresses in the brass and steel tubes are tensile and

c ompressive, respectively, sinc e b > s, and T is a negative quantity because

of c ooling.

13.16. Cylindrical Shells of General Shape

A cylindrical shell generated as a straight line, the generator, moves parallel to itself along a

closed path. Figure 13.18 shows an element isolated from a cylindrical shell of arbitrary

cross sec tion. The element is located by coordinates x (axial) and on the cylindrical

surface.

Figure 13.18. Membrane forces (per unit length) and distributed axial, radial, and

tangential loads (per unit area) on a cylindrical shell element.

The forces ac ting on the sides of the element are depic ted in the figure.

The x and c omponents of the externally applied forces per unit area are

denoted px and p and are shown to act in the directions of increasing x and (or y). In

addition, a radial (or normal) component of the external loading pr acts in the

positive z direction. The following expressions describe the requirements for equilibrium in

the x, , and r directions:

Canc eling the differential quantities, we obtain the equations of a c ylindric al shell:

Equation 13.63

Given the external loading, N is readily determined from the first equation of (13.63).

Following this, by integrating the second and the third equations, Nx and Nx are found:

Equation 13.64

Here f 1() and f2() represent arbitrary functions of integration to be evaluated on the

basis of the boundary conditions. They arise, of c ourse, as a result of the integration of

partial derivatives.

thickness t filled to c apacity with a liquid of spec ific weight (Fig. 13.19a).

Solution

The pressure at any point in the tube equals the weight of a column of unit

c ross-sectional area of the liquid at that point. At the arbitrary level mn (Fig.

13.19b), the outward pressure is a(1 cos ), where the pressure is positive

radially inward; henc e the minus sign. Then

Equation a

Equation b

The boundary conditions are

Equation c

Equation d

We observe from the second equation of (b) that c in the sec ond equation of

(d) represents the value of the uniform shear load Nx at x = 0. This load is zero

bec ause the tube is subjec ted to no torque; thus c = 0. Then, Eq. (b), together

with Eq. (d), provides the solution:

Equation 13-65

The stresses are determined upon dividing these stress resultants by the shell

thickness. It is observed that the shear Nx and the normal force Nx exhibit the

same spanwise distribution as do the shear force and the bending moment of a

beam. Their values, as may be readily verified, are identical with those obtained

by application of the beam formulas, Eqs. (5.39) and (5.38), respec tively.

It has been noted that membrane theory c annot, in all cases, provide solutions c ompatible

with the ac tual conditions of deformation. This theory also fails to predict the state of

stress in certain areas of the shell. To overcome these shortcomings, bending theory is

applied in the case of c ylindric al shells, taking into ac count the stress resultants suc h as

the types shown inFig. 13.3 and Nx, N, and Nx.

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