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Solid Objects and Liquids involving the Degree of

Uncertainty and Calibration

Ciara Leila Del Rosario, Andrian Floro, Rio Cabading, Princess Cacatian,

Princess Malasa, Krista Avila, Kate Ledesma*

General Physics I, Quezon City Polytechnic University

ABSTRACT:

ABSTRACT:

The dimension and density of the box, and the volume of the

marble ball was measured by means of using different measuring

tools provided and assigned for the proponents to use such as

measuring stick, ruler, vernier caliper, triple beam balance, and

graduated cylinder. The proponents made three trials of

measuring the solid objects by having three proponents

measuring the same object as the preceeding proponent had used

to determine if there would be discrepancies and uncertainty of

errors present. The authors realized after the activity that the

using vernier caliper is much more accurate than using ruler. The

authors of this journal have concluded that there will always be a

degree of uncertainty in every measurements.

1 Introduction

A measurement tells us about a property of something and gives number to that

property by means of using measuring instruments such as ruler, protractor, vernier caliper,

meter stick, etc. Different measuring tools or devices have different uses and differe nt

degree of accuracy which makes all measurements to have a degree of uncertainty.

Specifying a range of values that is determined in the formula below may indicate where

the "true value" or the accurate measurement falls within.

GENERAL PHYSICS 1

QUEZON CITY POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

2 Methodology

To find the dimensions and density of the solid objects, the proponents used a

ruler, an empty cup, graduated cylinder, vernier caliper, and triple beam balance. The

proponents made three trials to determine the approximate and estimated measurement of

the solid objects. The proponents used the following to determine the approximate

measurement of the solid objects:

.

=

+ (

)

=

( )

=

=

=

3.1 Measurements using Ruler versus Measurements using Vernier

Caliper

Shown in table 1 are the experimental values of the length and width of the given

rectangular box using two different measuring tools; ruler and vernier caliper. It was

determined by three trials, from three different person's point of view. By using ruler, the

average length and width that was calculated from three trials are 97 mm and 61 mm

respectively. With the use of vernier caliper, the average length and width that was

measured from three trials are 98 mm and 60 mm respectively. The degree of uncertainty

of the ruler is 0.5 mm. Thus, giving us a specified range of values of length and width of

97 mm 0.5 and 61 mm 0.5. When it comes to the vernier caliper, the degree of

uncertainty is 0.05 mm. Thus, giving us a specified range of values of length and width of

98 mm 0.05 and 60 mm 0.05 respectively. Table 1 tells us how the two measuring

tools differs when it comes to the accuracy of the measurements. Using a vernier caliper,

it will give us the nearest answer to the exact value of a measurement compared to using a

ruler. Therefore, using vernier caliper is more accurate to use than the ruler.

GENERAL PHYSICS 1

QUEZON CITY POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

The length, width, thickness of the given rectangular carton are indicated as shown in

Table 2. It was measured by using a vernier caliper since it was more accurate to use than

ruler. It was also determined by three trials, from three different person's point of view.

The average volume of the rectangular box is 218.053 0.05 cm which was calculated

from the average values of length, width, and thickness of the rectangular box which is 9.7

0.05 cm, 6.0 cm 0.05 cm, 3.7 0.05 cm respectively. The mass of the carton was 9.5

g and was evaluated by using triple beam balance. To get its density, the formula mass per

unit over volume should be known and that is 0.044 0.05 cc/g. Table 2 tells us that

computing for the density of a rectangular object can be measured and giving the nearest

exact value when using the vernier caliper.

Table 3 shows the following data for getting the density of the marble. The mass of

the marble is 4.4 g. To get the volume of the marble, the final volume of the water is

subtracted from the fixed initial volume of the water which is 50 1cc. The water

displacement is the method that was used in getting the final volume of the water. The

volume of the water was also determined by the concept of the upper miscus level. Giving

us the average volume of marble which is 1.97 1 cm3 . The gathered data for getting the

volume and mass of a marble gives the value of its density which is 2.23 cc/g. Table 3 tells

us that when measuring an irregular shaped objects like the marble, we can use a method

which is the water displacement method and that there are also a degree of uncertainty with

the measuring tool used which is the graduated cyclinder.

Computation 3 below shows how the density of water was determined. It was

calculated by getting the mass of water and the volume of water. To get the mass of

water, one must get first the mass of the empty flask/ container and subtract it by the

mass of flask/container with water. With that, the proponents were able to determin the

density of the water which is 0.96 cc/g.

4 Conclusion

The authors were able to generalize that in evey measurements, there will always

be a degree of uncertainty or errors in measurement. The exact values of the measureme nts

falls within a specified range of values and by using a measuring tool or device that has

less degree of uncertainty can determime the most accurate value. Aside from that, the

authors were able to know the advantages or disadvantages of using ruler or vernier caliper

GENERAL PHYSICS 1

QUEZON CITY POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

in some measurements. The advantage of using vernier caliper to ruler is that even when

the measurement was uncertain, it's values are closer to the exact valie since it has a smaller

interval compared to ruler. The disadvantage of using vernier caliper is that some of it

doesn't have a lock which can contribute to some errors in measurements. While when

using the ruler, it must be straight and placed on a flat surface or at the edge of a table for

a better measurement.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

The authors of this paper would like to thank Sir Nelson Lazare for guiding us througho ut

conducting this activity, for giving us the format on how to make a scientific journal, and

for letting the authors use the equipment inside the faculty office. Also, the authors would

like to thank the faculty professors who accepted our request to do the activity inside the

faculty office at the fourth floor of SB building in QCPU, and Sir Marjim Dela Cruz for

letting the authors borrow some of the equipment used in the activity.

GENERAL PHYSICS 1

QUEZON CITY POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

Computation

Trials Length (mm) Width (mm) Length Width (mm)

(mm)

1st trial 96 65 97 58

2nd trial 98 60 98 62

3rd trial 97 59 98 61

Average 97 61 98 60

and Vernier Caliper

Degree of Uncertainty (Ruler) = 0.5 mm

Degree of Uncertainty (Vernier Caliper) = 0.05 mm

(cm)

1st trial 9.7 0.05 5.8 0.05 cm 3.7 0.05 cm 208.162 0.05

cm cm

2nd trial 9.8 0.05 6.2 0.05 cm 3.7 0.05 cm 224.812 0.05

cm cm

3rd trial 9.8 0.05 6.1 0.05 cm 3.7 0.05 cm 221.186 0.05

cm cm

Average 9.7 0.05 6.0 0.05 3.7 0.05 218.053 0.05

cm cm cm cm

Table 2: Values of the Length, Width, Thickness and the Computed Volume Of the

Rectangular Carton

GENERAL PHYSICS 1

QUEZON CITY POLYTECHNIC UNIVERSITY

SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

Computation 1: The density of the rectangular carton

Average Volume: 218.053 0.05 cm3

Mass: 9.5 grams

Density: 0.044 0.05 cc/g

in cubic cm in cubic cm marble (Vf Vi)

in cubic cm

1st trial 50 1 ml 52 1 ml 21

2nd trial 50 1 ml 51.9 1 ml 1.9 1

3rd trial 50 1 ml 52 1 ml 21

Average 1.97 1 cm3

Table 3: Values for the Volume of the Marble Using Water Displacement

Average Volume: 1.97 1 cm3

Mass: 4.4 grams

Density: 2.23 1 cc/g

Mass of flask/container with water: 71 grams

Mass of water: 48 grams

Volume of water: 50 cc

Density: 0.96 cc/g

GENERAL PHYSICS 1

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