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Xavier University Ateneo de Cagayan

College of Nursing
Cagayan de Oro City, Philippines
N 40.2 Tool for Critiquing Research Paper

Criteria Yes No Remarks


1. Title
Is it clear?
Is it concise?
Are there extraneous or unnecessary words in the title?
2. Abstract
Did the abstract contain sufficient information about the
stages of the research process?
Is the length appropriate?
3. Introduction
Does the introduction section present pertinent
information about the study problem?
4. Purpose
Is the purpose of the study made clear?
5. Review of the Literature
Are the literature sources pertinent to the study?
6. Theoretical/Conceptual Framework
Is the framework based on a nursing theory or a theory
from another discipline?
Is the framework the most appropriate framework for
the study?
Can you clearly determine which part of the framework
was tested in the study?
7. Assumptions
Can you identify assumptions made by the
researchers?
8. Limitations
What are some of the study limitations identified by the
researchers?
9. Hypothesis (es)
Are the hypothesis clearly & concisely stated in a
declarative sentence and in the present tense?
Do the hypotheses contain the population and major
variables?
Do the hypotheses reflect the problem statement,
purpose or research questions?
Are the hypotheses empirically testable and contain
only one prediction?
10. Definition of Terms
Are both conceptual and operational definitions
provided for the main study variables?

Critiquing Research Report RHC Palad June 2015


Do the definitions provide observable and measurable
criteria?
Would you be able to replicate the study based on the
definition of terms?
11. Research Design
Is the research design clearly identified and
adequately described?
Experimental Studies:
Is the treatment adequately described and appropriate
for the particular study?
Is the method of assigning subject to groups
discussed?
Are the means to control the threats to internal and
external validity included?
Non-Experimental Studies:
Are the means of selecting study participants
discussed?
Are the extraneous variables that have been controlled
discussed?
12. Setting
Is the setting for the research subject discussed?
Is the setting appropriate for the particular study?
13. Population and Sample
Are the target population and accessible population
identified from which the sample was selected?
Is the sample clearly identified?
What type of sampling method was used?
Does the sample size seem adequate?
Was power analysis used to determine sample size?
Was permission to conduct the study obtained from
the appropriate authorities?
Were student rights/respondents protected?
Were anonymity and confidentiality mentioned in the
research report to protect subjects rights?
14. Collection of Date
Who collected the data (Researchers or assistants)
When were the data collected? (time period; how
long?)
Where were the data collected?
What data were collected?
How were the data collected?
15. Data Collection Instruments
What type of instrument was used to collect data?
Were all the data collection instruments used in the
study clearly identified and described?
Was there an inclusion of scoring procedure and the
range of possible scores on the instrument in the
study?
Was the instrument appropriate to gather data for the
study?

Critiquing Research Report RHC Palad June 2015


How were reliability and validity of the instrument
assessed?
16. Analysis of Data
Are the statistical findings presented clearly?
What type of statistics were used to present data?
Were demographic statistics presented on the
sample?
What statistics was used to present the number of
errors made by the students?
Were you able to determine the total number of errors?
Presenting Data Analysis:
Descriptive statistics on the characteristics of the
subject should be presented first.
The subject scores on the various instruments need to
be reported.
Inferential statistics should be presented if the study
tested a hypothesis.
The researcher(s) should state whether each of the
study hypothesis was supported or not supported.
The result of the statistical test, the degrees of
freedom and the probability value should be given.
These findings should be clearly presented in both the
text and the tables.
Guidelines for Critiquing Descriptive Studies:
What types of descriptive statistics are included in the
research report? (percentage distribution, measures of
central tendency, measures of variability, measures of
relationship)
Were the descriptive statistic appropriate for the level
of measurement of the variables?
Were measure of central tendency and variability both
presented? (rane, percentile, standard deviation,
variance and z score)
Do the descriptive statistics clearly present the
demographic characteristics of the subjects?
Are the descriptive statistics presented in the tests? In
tables and in graphs?
Do the descriptive statistics presented in the text agree
with those presented in the table?
Was the descriptive statistics presented in a manner
that can be understood by the average practicing
nurse/student?
Guidelines for Critiquing Inferential Statistics
Are inferential statistics presented in the research
report?
If inferential statistics are present, is enough
information presented for the reader to determine
whether or not the appropriate tests were used?
Is the reader provided with the calculated value of the
inferential statistics, the degrees of freedom, & the
level of significance that was obtained?

Critiquing Research Report RHC Palad June 2015


Are the chosen tests appropriate considering the level
of measurement of the variables, number of groups
that were tested, the size of sample?
Are the inferential statistics presented for each
hypothesis is that was stated in the study?
Are the results of inferential statistics clearly and
thoroughly discussed?
Are the results presented both in the text and in the
tables?
17. Discussion of Findings
Were the findings discussed in regard to other studies
found in the related literature?
Were the study findings related back to the
Theoretical/Conceptual framework?
18. Conclusions
Was there a Conclusion section included in the
article/report?
Was the conclusion based on the study findings?
Can you tell, from the conclusion, that the research(s)
is attempting to generalize?
19. Implications need to be explicitly identified by the
researcher(s) for nursing practice.
Do the implications contain the shoulds that results
from the findings?
20. Recommendations
What recommendations were made by the
researchers?
Were recommendations found in one location in the
report/article?
Were recommendations made for nursing practice and
nursing education concerning future?
Did the recommendations take in to consideration the
limitations of the present study?
21. Other considerations
Was the report/article easy to read and understand?
Were the accuracy and completeness of the reference
list considered?
Were the sources in the literature review section that
were not found in the reference/bibliography section?
Were there sources in the reference/bibliography
section that were never referred to in the research
report?
Were there incomplete references or were there
references with essential elements missing?
After reading the research report/article would I refer it
for publication or would refer it to a colleague because
it was impressive and is a good resource for research?

Critiquing Research Report RHC Palad June 2015


Prepared by:
Dr. Ramona Heidi C. Palad, RN, MAN, MAEd, PhD
Dean, College of Nursing

Critiquing Research Report RHC Palad June 2015