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The Measurement of the Dimensions and Density of

Solid Objects and Liquids involving the Degree of
Uncertainty and Calibration

Ciara Leila Del Rosario, Andrian Floro, Rio Cabading, Princess Cacatian,
Princess Malasa, Krista Avila, Kate Ledesma*
General Physics I, Quezon City Polytechnic University



The dimension and density of the box, and the volume of the
marble ball was measured by means of using different measuring
tools provided and assigned for the proponents to use such as
measuring stick, ruler, vernier caliper, triple beam balance, and
graduated cylinder. The proponents made three trials of
measuring the solid objects by having three proponents
measuring the same object as the preceeding proponent had used
to determine if there would be discrepancies and uncertainty of
errors present. The authors realized after the activity that the
using vernier caliper is much more accurate than using ruler. The
authors of this journal have concluded that there will always be a
degree of uncertainty in every measurements.

1 Introduction
A measurement tells us about a property of something and gives number to that
property by means of using measuring instruments such as ruler, protractor, vernier caliper,
meter stick, etc. Different measuring tools or devices have different uses and different
degree of accuracy which makes all measurements to have a degree of uncertainty.
Specifying a range of values that is determined in the formula below may indicate where
the "true value" or the accurate measurement falls within.

Measurement = Experimental Uncertainties Uncertainty


2 Methodology
To find the dimensions and density of the solid objects, the proponents used a
ruler, an empty cup, graduated cylinder, vernier caliper, and triple beam balance. The
proponents made three trials to determine the approximate and estimated measurement of
the solid objects. The proponents used the following to determine the approximate
measurement of the solid objects:

+ (

( )



3 Results and Discussions

3.1 Measurements using Ruler versus Measurements using Vernier
Shown in table 1 are the experimental values of the length and width of the given
rectangular box using two different measuring tools; ruler and vernier caliper. It was
determined by three trials, from three different person's point of view. By using ruler, the
average length and width that was calculated from three trials are 97 mm and 61 mm
respectively. With the use of vernier caliper, the average length and width that was
measured from three trials are 98 mm and 60 mm respectively. The degree of uncertainty
of the ruler is 0.5 mm. Thus, giving us a specified range of values of length and width of
97 mm 0.5 and 61 mm 0.5. When it comes to the vernier caliper, the degree of
uncertainty is 0.05 mm. Thus, giving us a specified range of values of length and width of
98 mm 0.05 and 60 mm 0.05 respectively. Table 1 tells us how the two measuring
tools differs when it comes to the accuracy of the measurements. Using a vernier caliper,
it will give us the nearest answer to the exact value of a measurement compared to using a
ruler. Therefore, using vernier caliper is more accurate to use than the ruler.


3.2 Density of the Rectangular Carton

The length, width, thickness of the given rectangular carton are indicated as shown in
Table 2. It was measured by using a vernier caliper since it was more accurate to use than
ruler. It was also determined by three trials, from three different person's point of view.
The average volume of the rectangular box is 218.053 0.05 cm which was calculated
from the average values of length, width, and thickness of the rectangular box which is 9.7
0.05 cm, 6.0 cm 0.05 cm, 3.7 0.05 cm respectively. The mass of the carton was 9.5
g and was evaluated by using triple beam balance. To get its density, the formula mass per
unit over volume should be known and that is 0.044 0.05 cc/g. Table 2 tells us that
computing for the density of a rectangular object can be measured and giving the nearest
exact value when using the vernier caliper.

3.3 Density of the Marble

Table 3 shows the following data for getting the density of the marble. The mass of
the marble is 4.4 g. To get the volume of the marble, the final volume of the water is
subtracted from the fixed initial volume of the water which is 50 1cc. The water
displacement is the method that was used in getting the final volume of the water. The
volume of the water was also determined by the concept of the upper miscus level. Giving
us the average volume of marble which is 1.97 1 cm3. The gathered data for getting the
volume and mass of a marble gives the value of its density which is 2.23 cc/g. Table 3 tells
us that when measuring an irregular shaped objects like the marble, we can use a method
which is the water displacement method and that there are also a degree of uncertainty with
the measuring tool used which is the graduated cyclinder.

3.4 Density of the Water

Computation 3 below shows how the density of water was determined. It was
calculated by getting the mass of water and the volume of water. To get the mass of
water, one must get first the mass of the empty flask/ container and subtract it by the
mass of flask/container with water. With that, the proponents were able to determin the
density of the water which is 0.96 cc/g.

4 Conclusion
The authors were able to generalize that in evey measurements, there will always
be a degree of uncertainty or errors in measurement. The exact values of the measurements
falls within a specified range of values and by using a measuring tool or device that has
less degree of uncertainty can determime the most accurate value. Aside from that, the
authors were able to know the advantages or disadvantages of using ruler or vernier caliper

in some measurements. The advantage of using vernier caliper to ruler is that even when
the measurement was uncertain, it's values are closer to the exact valie since it has a smaller
interval compared to ruler. The disadvantage of using vernier caliper is that some of it
doesn't have a lock which can contribute to some errors in measurements. While when
using the ruler, it must be straight and placed on a flat surface or at the edge of a table for
a better measurement.

The authors of this paper would like to thank Sir Nelson Lazare for guiding us throughout
conducting this activity, for giving us the format on how to make a scientific journal, and
for letting the authors use the equipment inside the faculty office. Also, the authors would
like to thank the faculty professors who accepted our request to do the activity inside the
faculty office at the fourth floor of SB building in QCPU, and Sir Marjim Dela Cruz for
letting the authors borrow some of the equipment used in the activity.


APPENDIX: Table of Values and


Ruler Vernier Caliper

Trials Length (mm) Width (mm) Length Width (mm)
1st trial 96 65 97 58

2nd trial 98 60 98 62

3rd trial 97 59 98 61
Average 97 61 98 60

Table 1: Values of the Measurement of a Rectangular Carton Using Ruler

and Vernier Caliper
Degree of Uncertainty (Ruler) = 0.5 mm
Degree of Uncertainty (Vernier Caliper) = 0.05 mm

Trial Length (cm) Width Thickness (cm) Volume (cm3)

1st trial 9.7 0.05 5.8 0.05 cm 3.7 0.05 cm 208.162 0.05
cm cm
2 trial 9.8 0.05 6.2 0.05 cm 3.7 0.05 cm 224.812 0.05
cm cm
3 trial 9.8 0.05 6.1 0.05 cm 3.7 0.05 cm 221.186 0.05
cm cm
Average 9.7 0.05 6.0 0.05 3.7 0.05 218.053 0.05
cm cm cm cm

Table 2: Values of the Length, Width, Thickness and the Computed Volume Of the
Rectangular Carton

Computation 1: The density of the rectangular carton
Average Volume: 218.053 0.05 cm3
Mass: 9.5 grams
Density: 0.044 0.05 cc/g

Trial Initial Reading (Vi) Final Reading (Vf) Volume of the

in cubic cm in cubic cm marble (Vf Vi)
in cubic cm
1st trial 50 1 ml 52 1 ml 21
2nd trial 50 1 ml 51.9 1 ml 1.9 1
3rd trial 50 1 ml 52 1 ml 21
Average 1.97 1 cm3

Table 3: Values for the Volume of the Marble Using Water Displacement

Computation 2: The Density of the Marble

Average Volume: 1.97 1 cm3
Mass: 4.4 grams
Density: 2.23 1 cc/g

Computation 3: The Density of the Water (at liquid state)

Mass of the empty flask/container: 23 grams

Mass of flask/container with water: 71 grams
Mass of water: 48 grams
Volume of water: 50 cc
Density: 0.96 cc/g