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U.S. Department
of Transportation
Federal Aviation
Administration

AERONAUTICAL
INFORMATION
MANUAL

Change 3
August 27, 2009

DO NOT DESTROY
BASIC DATED
FEBRUARY 14, 2008
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Aeronautical Information Manual


Explanation of Changes

Effective: August 27, 2009

a. 119. Instrument Landing System (ILS) operations at airports designated by the Administrator
under FAAadopted rules.
This change updates the definition of ILS minimums to
reflect new criteria. h. 4324. Flight Inspection/Flight Check Air-
craft in Terminal Areas
b. 1114. User Reports on NAVAID Performance
456. Traffic Information Service (TIS) This change removes the reference to flight check
457. Automatic Dependent Surveillance recorded.
Broadcast (ADS) Services i. 513. Notice to to Airmen (NOTAM) System
458. Traffic Information Service
Broadcast (TISB) This change reflects the elimination of NOTAM Ls due to
the expansion of NOTAM D criteria. Additional
This change updates the reference to Form 80007 which information has been added to update NOTAM
has been superseded by Form 87405. classification.
c. 121. Area Navigation (RNAV) j. 5115. RNAV and RNP Operations
122. Required Navigation Performance (RNP) 5516. RNAV and RNP Operations
123. Use of Suitable Area Navigation (RNAV)
Systems on Conventional Procedures and Routes This change updates the RNAV and RNP Operations
guidance to reflect the RAIM prediction requirement.
This change updates guidance to reflect changes in other
k. 528. Instrument Departure Procedures (DP)
regulatory material.
Obstacle Departure Procedures (ODP) and
d. 216. Runway Status Lights (RWSL) System Standard Instrument Departures (SID)

This change updates the paragraph to include a description This change is added to emphasize operator responsibility
of the Final Approach Runway Occupancy Signal in case of an engine failure. This change also clarifies pilot
(FAROS). reponsibilities when faced with with a departure procedure
that contains a nonstandard ATC climb gradient and/or a
e. 324. Class C Airspace nonstandard climb gradient necessary to support
procedure design constraints, obstacle clearance, and/or
This change is added to reflect current airport names. airspace restrictions.
f. 4121. Hazardous Area Reporting Service l. 533. Additional Reports
518. Flight PlanIFR Flights This change updates guidance to reflect ICAO reporting
711. National Weather Service Aviation requirements for the North Atlantic.
Products
712. FAA Weather Services m. 545. Instrument Approach Procedure Charts
715. En Route Flight Advisory Service (EFAS)
716. Inflight Aviation Weather Advisories This change updates the charting descriptions to reflect
reduced Category I ILS Landing Minima. This change also
This change is the result of Lockheed Martin Flight provides clarification for the operational aspects of flying
Services closing the automated flight service stations the visual segment of a published instrument approach
and using radio sectors at the consolidated facilities. procedure.
g. 4122. Airport Reservation Operations and n. 549. Procedure Turn and HoldinLieu of
Special Traffic Management Programs Procedure Turn
This change updates guidance on the Airport Reservation This change provides updated procedure turn guidance to
Office and the processing of reservations for unscheduled reflect new operational procedures. This change also

Explanation of Changes E of Chg1


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AIM 8/27/09

provides clarification and consistency in the guidance that r. Table 714. Approach Category/Minimum
the procedure must be flown as published. RVR Table
o. 5419. SideStep Maneuver This change updates the Approach Category/Minimum
This change updates the sidestep maneuver guidance to RVR Table to reflect new criteria.
reflect the intended TERPS evaluation method.
s. 7111. Flight Information Services
p. 561. National Security
This change removes the reference to SCATANA and This change updates the Flight Information Service
replaces it with ESCAT. The reference to military is Broadcast (FISB) guidance to provide details of its
also replaced with Air Traffic Control System Command implementation.
Center (ATCSCC) because the facilities will receive
t. Entire publication.
instructions from the ATCSCC, and not directly from the
military. Editorial/format changes were made where necessary.
q. 714. Preflight Briefing Revision bars were not used because of the insignificant
nature of these changes.
This change expands the explanations of adverse
conditions in a standard weather briefing.

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REMOVE PAGES DATED INSERT PAGES DATED
Checklist of Pages CK1 through CK6 . . . . 3/12/09 Checklist of Pages CK1 through CK6 . . . . 8/27/09
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viii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 viii . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
ix and x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7/31/08 ix and x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
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4516 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 4516 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
4517 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 4517 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08
4518 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7/31/08 4518 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
511 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 511 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08
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5110 and 5111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/12/09 5110 and 5111 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
5112 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 5112 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08
5115 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 5115 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
5116 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 5116 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08
5119 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 5119 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08
5120 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 5120 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
525 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7/31/08 525 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7/31/08
526 through 529 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7/31/08 526 through 529 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
533 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 533 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08
534 and 535 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 534 and 535 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
536 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 536 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08
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5418 through 5452 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/12/09 5418 through 5456 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
557 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 557 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
561 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 561 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08
562 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 562 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
641 and 642 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 641 and 642 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
711 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 711 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
712 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 712 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08
713 through 719 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 713 through 719 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
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7123 through 7157 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 7123 through 7157 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
7158 and 7159 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/12/09 7158 and 7159 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
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PCG A7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7/31/08 PCG A7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7/31/08
PCG A8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7/31/08 PCG A8 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
PCG F3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 PCG F3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08
PCG F4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/12/09 PCG F4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
PCG F5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 PCG F5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
PCG I1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 PCG I1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08
PCG I2 through I5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 PCG I2 through I5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
PCG P5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/12/09 PCG P5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
PCG V3 and V4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2/14/08 PCG V3 and V4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09
Index I1 through I13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3/12/09 Index I1 through I13 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8/27/09

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Checklist of Pages
PAGE DATE PAGE DATE PAGE DATE

Cover 2/14/08 1113 8/27/09 Chapter 2. Aeronautical


Record of Changes NA 1114 8/27/09 Lighting and Other Airport
E of Chg1 8/27/09 1115 8/27/09 Visual Aids
1116 8/27/09 Section 1. Airport Lighting
Checklist of Pages 1117 8/27/09 Aids
CK1 8/27/09 1118 8/27/09 211 2/14/08
CK2 8/27/09 1119 8/27/09 212 2/14/08
CK3 8/27/09 1120 8/27/09 213 2/14/08
CK4 8/27/09 1121 8/27/09 214 2/14/08
CK5 8/27/09 1122 8/27/09 215 2/14/08
CK6 8/27/09 1123 8/27/09 216 3/12/09
1124 8/27/09 217 8/27/09
Subscription Info 2/14/08 1125 8/27/09 218 8/27/09
Subs Order Form NA 1126 8/27/09 219 8/27/09
Comments/Corr 2/14/08 1127 8/27/09 2110 8/27/09
Comments/Corr 2/14/08 1128 8/27/09 2111 8/27/09
Basic Flight Info 2/14/08 1129 8/27/09 2112 8/27/09
Publication Policy 2/14/08 1130 8/27/09 2113 8/27/09
Reg & Advis Cir 2/14/08 1131 8/27/09
1132 8/27/09 Section 2. Air Navigation and
Table of Contents 1133 8/27/09 Obstruction Lighting
1134 8/27/09 221 2/14/08
i 8/27/09
1135 8/27/09 222 2/14/08
ii 8/27/09
1136 8/27/09
iii 8/27/09
1137 8/27/09 Section 3. Airport Marking
iv 8/27/09
v 8/27/09
1138 8/27/09 Aids and Signs
1139 8/27/09 231 2/14/08
vi 8/27/09
1140 8/27/09 232 2/14/08
vii 8/27/09
1141 8/27/09 233 2/14/08
viii 8/27/09
1142 8/27/09 234 2/14/08
ix 8/27/09
x 8/27/09 235 2/14/08
xi 8/27/09 236 2/14/08
237 2/14/08
Section 2. Area Navigation 238 2/14/08
(RNAV) and Required 239 2/14/08
Chapter 1. Air Navigation Navigation Performance 2310 2/14/08
Section 1. Navigation Aids (RNP) 2311 2/14/08
111 2/14/08 121 8/27/09 2312 2/14/08
112 2/14/08 122 2/14/08 2313 2/14/08
113 3/12/09 123 2/14/08 2314 2/14/08
114 2/14/08 124 8/27/09 2315 2/14/08
115 2/14/08 125 7/31/08 2316 2/14/08
116 2/14/08 126 8/27/09 2317 2/14/08
117 2/14/08
2318 2/14/08
118 2/14/08
2319 2/14/08
119 2/14/08
2320 2/14/08
1110 8/27/09
2321 2/14/08
1111 8/27/09
2322 2/14/08
1112 8/27/09
2323 2/14/08

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2324 2/14/08 412 2/14/08 4314 2/14/08


2325 2/14/08 413 2/14/08 4315 2/14/08
2326 7/31/08 414 2/14/08 4316 3/12/09
2327 2/14/08 415 2/14/08 4317 2/14/08
2328 2/14/08 416 2/14/08 4318 2/14/08
2329 7/31/08 417 2/14/08 4319 2/14/08
2330 7/31/08 418 7/31/08 4320 8/27/09
419 7/31/08 4321 2/14/08
Chapter 3. Airspace 4110 7/31/08 4322 2/14/08
Section 1. General 4111 7/31/08 4323 2/14/08
311 2/14/08 4112 7/31/08 4324 2/14/08
312 2/14/08 4113 7/31/08
4114 7/31/08 Section 4. ATC Clearances
Section 2. Controlled Airspace
4115 7/31/08 and Aircraft Separation
4116 7/31/08 441 8/27/09
321 2/14/08
4117 7/31/08 442 2/14/08
322 2/14/08
4118 8/27/09 443 2/14/08
323 2/14/08
4119 8/27/09 444 2/14/08
324 2/14/08
4120 8/27/09 445 2/14/08
325 2/14/08
4121 8/27/09 446 2/14/08
326 8/27/09
4122 8/27/09 447 2/14/08
327 8/27/09
4123 7/31/08 448 2/14/08
328 8/27/09
329 2/14/08 449 2/14/08
Section 2. Radio 4410 2/14/08
Communications Phraseology 4411 2/14/08
Section 3. Class G Airspace and Techniques
331 2/14/08 421 2/14/08
Section 5. Surveillance
422 2/14/08 Systems
Section 4. Special Use 423 2/14/08 451 2/14/08
Airspace 424 2/14/08 452 2/14/08
341 2/14/08 425 2/14/08 453 2/14/08
342 2/14/08 426 2/14/08 454 2/14/08
427 2/14/08 455 2/14/08
Section 5. Other Airspace 428 2/14/08 456 2/14/08
Areas
457 2/14/08
351 2/14/08 Section 3. Airport Operations 458 2/14/08
352 2/14/08 431 2/14/08 459 2/14/08
353 2/14/08 432 2/14/08 4510 2/14/08
354 2/14/08 433 2/14/08 4511 2/14/08
355 2/14/08 434 2/14/08 4512 2/14/08
356 2/14/08 435 2/14/08 4513 2/14/08
357 2/14/08 436 2/14/08 4514 8/27/09
358 2/14/08 437 2/14/08 4515 2/14/08
359 2/14/08 438 2/14/08 4516 8/27/09
439 2/14/08 4517 2/14/08
Chapter 4. Air Traffic Control 4310 2/14/08 4518 8/27/09
Section 1. Services Available 4311 2/14/08
to Pilots 4312 2/14/08
411 3/12/09 4313 2/14/08

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Section 6. Operational Policy/ 527 8/27/09 5428 8/27/09


Procedures for Reduced Vertical 528 8/27/09 5429 8/27/09
Separation Minimum (RVSM) in 529 8/27/09 5430 8/27/09
the Domestic U.S., Alaska,
Offshore Airspace and the 5431 8/27/09
San Juan FIR Section 3. En Route 5432 8/27/09
461 2/14/08 Procedures 5433 8/27/09
462 7/31/08 531 2/14/08 5434 8/27/09
463 2/14/08 532 2/14/08 5435 8/27/09
464 2/14/08 533 2/14/08 5436 8/27/09
465 2/14/08 534 8/27/09 5437 8/27/09
466 2/14/08 535 8/27/09 5438 8/27/09
467 2/14/08 536 2/14/08 5439 8/27/09
468 2/14/08 537 2/14/08 5440 8/27/09
469 2/14/08 538 2/14/08 5441 8/27/09
4610 2/14/08 539 2/14/08 5442 8/27/09
4611 2/14/08 5310 2/14/08 5443 8/27/09
5311 7/31/08 5444 8/27/09
Chapter 5. Air Traffic 5312 2/14/08 5445 8/27/09
Procedures 5313 2/14/08 5446 8/27/09
Section 1. Preflight 5314 2/14/08 5447 8/27/09

511 2/14/08 5448 8/27/09

512 8/27/09 Section 4. Arrival Procedures 5449 8/27/09

513 8/27/09 541 2/14/08 5450 8/27/09

514 8/27/09 542 2/14/08 5451 8/27/09

515 8/27/09 543 2/14/08 5452 8/27/09

516 8/27/09 544 2/14/08 5453 8/27/09

517 8/27/09 545 8/27/09 5454 8/27/09

518 8/27/09 546 8/27/09 5455 8/27/09

519 8/27/09 547 8/27/09 5456 8/27/09

5110 8/27/09 548 8/27/09


5111 8/27/09 549 8/27/09 Section 5. Pilot/Controller
5112 2/14/08 5410 8/27/09 Roles and Responsibilities
5113 2/14/08 5411 8/27/09 551 2/14/08
5114 2/14/08 5412 8/27/09 552 2/14/08
5115 8/27/09 5413 8/27/09 553 2/14/08
5116 2/14/08 5414 8/27/09 554 2/14/08
5117 2/14/08 5415 8/27/09 555 2/14/08
5118 2/14/08 5416 8/27/09 556 2/14/08
5119 2/14/08 5417 8/27/09 557 8/27/09
5120 8/27/09 5418 8/27/09
5419 8/27/09 Section 6. National Security
Section 2. Departure 5420 8/27/09 and Interception Procedures
Procedures 5421 8/27/09 561 2/14/08
521 2/14/08 5422 8/27/09 562 8/27/09
522 2/14/08 5423 8/27/09 563 2/14/08
523 2/14/08 5424 8/27/09 564 2/14/08
524 2/14/08 5425 8/27/09 565 2/14/08
525 7/31/08 5426 8/27/09 566 2/14/08
526 8/27/09 5427 8/27/09 567 2/14/08

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PAGE DATE PAGE DATE PAGE DATE

Chapter 6. Emergency 717 8/27/09 7156 8/27/09


Procedures 718 8/27/09 7157 8/27/09
Section 1. General 719 8/27/09 7158 8/27/09
611 2/14/08 7110 2/14/08 7159 8/27/09
7111 2/14/08 7160 8/27/09
7112 3/12/09 7161 8/27/09
Section 2. Emergency Services
Available to Pilots 7113 2/14/08 7162 8/27/09

621 2/14/08 7114 2/14/08 7163 8/27/09

622 2/14/08 7115 2/14/08 7164 8/27/09

623 2/14/08 7116 2/14/08 7165 8/27/09

624 2/14/08 7117 2/14/08 7166 8/27/09

625 2/14/08 7118 2/14/08 7167 8/27/09

626 2/14/08 7119 2/14/08 7168 8/27/09

627 2/14/08 7120 2/14/08 7169 8/27/09

628 2/14/08 7121 2/14/08 7170 8/27/09

629 2/14/08 7122 2/14/08

6210 2/14/08 7123 8/27/09 Section 2. Altimeter Setting


6211 2/14/08 7124 8/27/09 Procedures
6212 2/14/08 7125 8/27/09 721 2/14/08
7126 8/27/09 722 2/14/08
7127 8/27/09 723 2/14/08
Section 3. Distress and
Urgency Procedures 7128 8/27/09 724 2/14/08
7129 8/27/09
631 2/14/08
7130 8/27/09
632 2/14/08 Section 3. Wake Turbulence
7131 8/27/09
633 2/14/08 731 2/14/08
7132 8/27/09
634 2/14/08 732 2/14/08
7133 8/27/09
635 2/14/08 733 2/14/08
7134 8/27/09
636 2/14/08 734 2/14/08
7135 8/27/09
637 2/14/08 735 2/14/08
7136 8/27/09
736 2/14/08
7137 8/27/09
Section 4. Twoway Radio 737 2/14/08
7138 8/27/09
Communications Failure 738 2/14/08
7139 8/27/09
641 8/27/09
7140 8/27/09
642 8/27/09
7141 8/27/09
Section 4. Bird Hazards and
Flight Over National Refuges,
7142 8/27/09
Section 5. Aircraft Rescue Parks, and Forests
7143 8/27/09
and Fire Fighting 741 2/14/08
7144 8/27/09
Communications 742 2/14/08
7145 8/27/09
651 2/14/08
7146 8/27/09
652 2/14/08
7147 8/27/09 Section 5. Potential Flight
7148 8/27/09
Hazards
Chapter 7. Safety of Flight 751 2/14/08
7149 8/27/09
Section 1. Meteorology 7150 8/27/09 752 7/31/08
711 8/27/09 7151 8/27/09 753 7/31/08
712 2/14/08 7152 8/27/09 754 7/31/08
713 8/27/09 7153 8/27/09 755 7/31/08
714 8/27/09 7154 8/27/09 756 7/31/08
715 8/27/09 7155 8/27/09 757 7/31/08
716 8/27/09 758 7/31/08

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PAGE DATE PAGE DATE PAGE DATE

759 7/31/08 Chapter 10. Helicopter PGC A6 7/31/08


7510 7/31/08 Operations PCG A7 7/31/08
7511 7/31/08 PCG A8 8/27/09
Section 1. Helicopter IFR
7512 7/31/08 Operations PCG A9 7/31/08
7513 7/31/08 PCG A10 7/31/08
1011 2/14/08
PCG A11 7/31/08
1012 2/14/08
Section 6. Safety, Accident, 1013 2/14/08
PCG A12 3/12/09
and Hazard Reports 1014 2/14/08
PCG A13 3/12/09
761 2/14/08 PCG A14 3/12/09
1015 2/14/08
762 2/14/08 PCG A15 3/12/09
1016 2/14/08
763 2/14/08 PCG A16 3/12/09
PCG A17 3/12/09
Section 2. Special Operations
PCG B1 2/14/08
1021 2/14/08
PCG C1 2/14/08
Chapter 8. Medical Facts 1022 2/14/08
for Pilots PCG C2 2/14/08
1023 2/14/08
PCG C3 2/14/08
Section 1. Fitness for Flight 1024 2/14/08
PCG C4 2/14/08
811 2/14/08 1025 2/14/08
PCG C5 2/14/08
812 2/14/08 1026 2/14/08
PCG C6 2/14/08
813 2/14/08 1027 2/14/08
PCG C7 2/14/08
814 2/14/08 1028 2/14/08
PCG C8 2/14/08
815 2/14/08 1029 2/14/08
PCG C9 2/14/08
816 2/14/08 10210 2/14/08
PCG D1 3/12/09
817 2/14/08 10211 2/14/08
PCG D2 2/14/08
818 2/14/08 10212 2/14/08
PCG D3 2/14/08
819 2/14/08 10213 2/14/08
PCG D4 2/14/08
10214 2/14/08
PCG E1 2/14/08
10215 2/14/08
PCG E2 2/14/08
10216 7/31/08
Chapter 9. Aeronautical PCG F1 2/14/08
Charts and Related 10217 7/31/08
PCG F2 2/14/08
Publications PCG F3 2/14/08
Section 1. Types of Charts Appendices PCG F4 8/27/09
Available Appendix 11 2/14/08 PCG F5 8/27/09
911 2/14/08 Env NA PCG G1 2/14/08
912 2/14/08 Appendix 21 2/14/08 PCG G2 2/14/08
913 2/14/08 Appendix 31 2/14/08 PCG H1 2/14/08
914 2/14/08 Appendix 41 7/31/08 PCG H2 2/14/08
915 2/14/08 Appendix 42 2/14/08 PCG H3 2/14/08
916 2/14/08 Appendix 43 3/12/09 PCG I1 2/14/08
917 2/14/08 Appendix 44 3/12/09 PCG I2 8/27/09
918 2/14/08 Appendix 45 3/12/09 PCG I3 8/27/09
919 2/14/08 PCG I4 8/27/09
9110 2/14/08 Pilot/Controller Glossary PCG I5 8/27/09
9111 2/14/08 PCG1 8/27/09 PCG J1 2/14/08
9112 2/14/08 PCG A1 2/14/08 PCG K1 2/14/08
9113 2/14/08 PCG A2 2/14/08 PCG L1 2/14/08
PCG A3 2/14/08 PCG L2 2/14/08
PCG A4 7/31/08 PCG L3 2/14/08
PCG A5 7/31/08 PCG M1 2/14/08

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PCG M2 2/14/08 Index


PCG M3 2/14/08
I1 8/27/09
PCG M4 2/14/08
I2 8/27/09
PCG M5 2/14/08
I3 8/27/09
PCG M6 3/12/09
I4 8/27/09
PCG N1 3/12/09
I5 8/27/09
PCG N2 3/12/09
I6 8/27/09
PCG N3 3/12/09
I7 8/27/09
PCG N4 3/12/09
I8 8/27/09
PCG O1 2/14/08
I9 8/27/09
PCG O2 3/12/09
I10 8/27/09
PCG O3 3/12/09
I11 8/27/09
PCG O4 3/12/09
I12 8/27/09
PCG P1 3/12/09
I13 8/27/09
PCG P2 3/12/09
I14 8/27/09
PCG P3 3/12/09
PCG P4 3/12/09
Back Cover NA
PCG P5 8/27/09
PCG Q1 2/14/08
PCG R1 2/14/08
PCG R2 2/14/08
PCG R3 2/14/08
PCG R4 2/14/08
PCG R5 2/14/08
PCG R6 3/12/09
PCG R7 2/14/08
PCG R8 2/14/08
PCG S1 2/14/08
PCG S2 3/12/09
PCG S3 2/14/08
PCG S4 2/14/08
PCG S5 2/14/08
PCG S6 2/14/08
PCG S7 2/14/08
PCG S8 2/14/08
PCG T1 2/14/08
PCG T2 2/14/08
PCG T3 2/14/08
PCG T4 2/14/08
PCG T5 2/14/08
PCG T6 2/14/08
PCG T7 3/12/09
PCG U1 2/14/08
PCG V1 2/14/08
PCG V2 2/14/08
PCG V3 8/27/09
PCG V4 8/27/09
PCG W1 2/14/08

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Table of Contents

Chapter 1.Air Navigation


Section 1.Navigation Aids
Paragraph Page
1-1-1.General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-1
1-1-2.Nondirectional Radio Beacon (NDB) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-1
1-1-3.VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-1
1-1-4.VOR Receiver Check . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-2
1-1-5.Tactical Air Navigation (TACAN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-3
1-1-6.VHF Omni-directional Range/Tactical Air Navigation (VORTAC) . . . . . . . . . 1-1-3
1-1-7.Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-3
1-1-8.Navigational Aid (NAVAID) Service Volumes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-4
1-1-9.Instrument Landing System (ILS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-7
1-1-10.Simplified Directional Facility (SDF) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-11
1-1-11.Microwave Landing System (MLS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-14
1-1-12.NAVAID Identifier Removal During Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-16
1-1-13.NAVAIDs with Voice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-17
1-1-14.User Reports on NAVAID Performance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-17
1-1-15.LORAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-17
1-1-16.VHF Direction Finder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-25
1-1-17.Inertial Reference Unit (IRU), Inertial Navigation System (INS),
and Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-25
1-1-18.Doppler Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-25
1-1-19.Global Positioning System (GPS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-25
1-1-20.Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-37
1-1-21.GNSS Landing System (GLS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-41
1-1-22.Precision Approach Systems other than ILS, GLS, and MLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1-41

Section 2.Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required Navigation


Performance (RNP)
1-2-1.Area Navigation (RNAV) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2-1
1-2-2.Required Navigation Performance (RNP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2-4
1-2-3.Use of Suitable Area Navigation (RNAV) Systems on
Conventional Procedures and Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2-5

Chapter 2.Aeronautical Lighting and


Other Airport Visual Aids
Section 1.Airport Lighting Aids
2-1-1.Approach Light Systems (ALS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1-1
2-1-2.Visual Glideslope Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1-2
2-1-3.Runway End Identifier Lights (REIL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1-6
2-1-4.Runway Edge Light Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1-6
2-1-5.Inrunway Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1-6
2-1-6.Runway Status Light (RWSL) System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1-7
2-1-7.Control of Lighting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1-10
2-1-8.Pilot Control of Airport Lighting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1-10

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Paragraph Page
2-1-9.Airport/Heliport Beacons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1-12
2-1-10.Taxiway Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1-12

Section 2.Air Navigation and Obstruction Lighting


2-2-1.Aeronautical Light Beacons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2-1
2-2-2.Code Beacons and Course Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2-1
2-2-3.Obstruction Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2-1

Section 3.Airport Marking Aids and Signs


2-3-1.General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3-1
2-3-2.Airport Pavement Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3-1
2-3-3.Runway Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3-1
2-3-4.Taxiway Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3-7
2-3-5.Holding Position Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3-12
2-3-6.Other Markings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3-16
2-3-7.Airport Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3-19
2-3-8.Mandatory Instruction Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3-20
2-3-9.Location Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3-23
2-3-10.Direction Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3-25
2-3-11.Destination Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3-28
2-3-12.Information Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3-29
2-3-13.Runway Distance Remaining Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3-29
2-3-14.Aircraft Arresting Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3-30

Chapter 3.Airspace
Section 1.General
3-1-1.General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1-1
3-1-2.General Dimensions of Airspace Segments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1-1
3-1-3.Hierarchy of Overlapping Airspace Designations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1-1
3-1-4.Basic VFR Weather Minimums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1-1
3-1-5.VFR Cruising Altitudes and Flight Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1-2

Section 2.Controlled Airspace


3-2-1.General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2-1
3-2-2.Class A Airspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2-2
3-2-3.Class B Airspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2-2
3-2-4.Class C Airspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2-4
3-2-5.Class D Airspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2-8
3-2-6.Class E Airspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2-9

Section 3.Class G Airspace


3-3-1.General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3-1
3-3-2.VFR Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3-1
3-3-3.IFR Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3-1

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Section 4.Special Use Airspace


Paragraph Page
3-4-1.General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4-1
3-4-2.Prohibited Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4-1
3-4-3.Restricted Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4-1
3-4-4.Warning Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4-1
3-4-5.Military Operations Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4-2
3-4-6.Alert Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4-2
3-4-7.Controlled Firing Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4-2

Section 5.Other Airspace Areas


3-5-1.Airport Advisory/Information Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5-1
3-5-2.Military Training Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5-1
3-5-3.Temporary Flight Restrictions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5-2
3-5-4.Parachute Jump Aircraft Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5-5
3-5-5.Published VFR Routes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5-5
3-5-6.Terminal Radar Service Area (TRSA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5-9
3-5-7.National Security Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5-9

Chapter 4.Air Traffic Control


Section 1.Services Available to Pilots
4-1-1.Air Route Traffic Control Centers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-1
4-1-2.Control Towers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-1
4-1-3.Flight Service Stations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-1
4-1-4.Recording and Monitoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-1
4-1-5.Communications Release of IFR Aircraft Landing
at an Airport Without an Operating Control Tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-1
4-1-6.Pilot Visits to Air Traffic Facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-1
4-1-7.Operation Takeoff and Operation Raincheck . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-2
4-1-8.Approach Control Service for VFR Arriving Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-2
4-1-9.Traffic Advisory Practices at Airports Without Operating Control Towers . . . . 4-1-2
4-1-10.IFR Approaches/Ground Vehicle Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-6
4-1-11.Designated UNICOM/MULTICOM Frequencies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-6
4-1-12.Use of UNICOM for ATC Purposes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-7
4-1-13.Automatic Terminal Information Service (ATIS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-7
4-1-14.Automatic Flight Information Service (AFIS) - Alaska FSSs Only . . . . . . . . . 4-1-8
4-1-15.Radar Traffic Information Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-8
4-1-16.Safety Alert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-10
4-1-17.Radar Assistance to VFR Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-11
4-1-18.Terminal Radar Services for VFR Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-12
4-1-19.Tower En Route Control (TEC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-14
4-1-20.Transponder Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-15
4-1-21.Hazardous Area Reporting Service . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-18
4-1-22.Airport Reservation Operations and
Special Traffic Management Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-21
4-1-23.Requests for Waivers and Authorizations from
Title 14, Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-23
4-1-24.Weather System Processor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1-23

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AIM 8/27/09

Section 2.Radio Communications Phraseology


and Techniques
Paragraph Page
4-2-1.General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2-1
4-2-2.Radio Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2-1
4-2-3.Contact Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2-1
4-2-4.Aircraft Call Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2-3
4-2-5.Description of Interchange or Leased Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2-4
4-2-6.Ground Station Call Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2-4
4-2-7.Phonetic Alphabet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2-5
4-2-8.Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2-6
4-2-9.Altitudes and Flight Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2-6
4-2-10.Directions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2-6
4-2-11.Speeds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2-6
4-2-12.Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2-6
4-2-13.Communications with Tower when Aircraft Transmitter or
Receiver or Both are Inoperative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2-7
4-2-14.Communications for VFR Flights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2-8

Section 3.Airport Operations


4-3-1.General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-1
4-3-2.Airports with an Operating Control Tower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-1
4-3-3.Traffic Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-2
4-3-4.Visual Indicators at Airports Without an Operating Control Tower . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-5
4-3-5.Unexpected Maneuvers in the Airport Traffic Pattern . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-6
4-3-6.Use of Runways/Declared Distances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-6
4-3-7.Low Level Wind Shear/Microburst Detection Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-7
4-3-8.Braking Action Reports and Advisories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-7
4-3-9.Runway Friction Reports and Advisories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-8
4-3-10.Intersection Takeoffs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-8
4-3-11.Pilot Responsibilities When Conducting Land and
Hold Short Operations (LAHSO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-9
4-3-12.Low Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-11
4-3-13.Traffic Control Light Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-11
4-3-14.Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-12
4-3-15.Gate Holding Due to Departure Delays . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-13
4-3-16.VFR Flights in Terminal Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-13
4-3-17.VFR Helicopter Operations at Controlled Airports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-13
4-3-18.Taxiing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-15
4-3-19.Taxi During Low Visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-16
4-3-20.Exiting the Runway After Landing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-17
4-3-21.Practice Instrument Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-17
4-3-22.Option Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-19
4-3-23.Use of Aircraft Lights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-19
4-3-24.Flight Inspection/`Flight Check' Aircraft in Terminal Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-20
4-3-25.Hand Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-3-20
4-3-26.Operations at Uncontrolled Airports With Automated Surface Observing
System (ASOS)/Automated Weather Observing System (AWOS) . . . . . . . . 4-3-24

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8/27/09 AIM

Section 4.ATC Clearances and Aircraft Separation


Paragraph Page
4-4-1.Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-1
4-4-2.Clearance Prefix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-1
4-4-3.Clearance Items . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-1
4-4-4.Amended Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-2
4-4-5.Coded Departure Route (CDR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-3
4-4-6.Special VFR Clearances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-3
4-4-7.Pilot Responsibility upon Clearance Issuance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-4
4-4-8.IFR Clearance VFRontop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-4
4-4-9.VFR/IFR Flights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-5
4-4-10.Adherence to Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-5
4-4-11.IFR Separation Standards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-7
4-4-12.Speed Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-7
4-4-13.Runway Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-9
4-4-14.Visual Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-9
4-4-15.Use of Visual Clearing Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-10
4-4-16.Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance System (TCAS I & II) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-10
4-4-17.Traffic Information Service (TIS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-11
4-4-18.Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-11
4-4-19.Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4-11

Section 5.Surveillance Systems


4-5-1.Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5-1
4-5-2.Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon System (ATCRBS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5-2
4-5-3.Surveillance Radar . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5-7
4-5-4.Precision Approach Radar (PAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5-7
4-5-5.Airport Surface Detection Equipment - Model X (ASDE-X) . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5-7
4-5-6.Traffic Information Service (TIS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5-8
4-5-7.Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Services . . . . . . . . . 4-5-14
4-5-8.Traffic Information Service-Broadcast (TIS-B) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5-17

Section 6.Operational Policy/Procedures for Reduced Vertical


Separation Minimum (RVSM) in the Domestic U.S., Alaska, Offshore
Airspace and the San Juan FIR
4-6-1.Applicability and RVSM Mandate (Date/Time and Area) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6-1
4-6-2.Flight Level Orientation Scheme . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6-1
4-6-3.Aircraft and Operator Approval Policy/Procedures, RVSM Monitoring and
Databases for Aircraft and Operator Approval . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6-2
4-6-4.Flight Planning into RVSM Airspace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6-3
4-6-5.Pilot RVSM Operating Practices and Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6-3
4-6-6.Guidance on Severe Turbulence and Mountain Wave Activity (MWA) . . . . . . . 4-6-4
4-6-7.Guidance on Wake Turbulence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6-5
4-6-8.Pilot/Controller Phraseology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6-6
4-6-9.Contingency Actions:Weather Encounters and Aircraft System Failures . . . . . 4-6-8
4-6-10.Procedures for Accommodation of Non-RVSM Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6-10
4-6-11.Non-RVSM Aircraft Requesting Climb to and Descent from
Flight Levels Above RVSM Airspace Without Intermediate Level Off . . . 4-6-11

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AIM 8/27/09

Chapter 5.Air Traffic Procedures


Section 1.Preflight
Paragraph Page
5-1-1.Preflight Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1-1
5-1-2.Follow IFR Procedures Even When Operating VFR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1-2
5-1-3.Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1-2
5-1-4.Flight Plan - VFR Flights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1-7
5-1-5.Operational Information System (OIS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1-9
5-1-6.Flight Plan- Defense VFR (DVFR) Flights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1-9
5-1-7.Composite Flight Plan (VFR/IFR Flights) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1-10
5-1-8.Flight Plan- IFR Flights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1-10
5-1-9.IFR Operations to High Altitude Destinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1-16
5-1-10.Flights Outside the U.S. and U.S. Territories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1-17
5-1-11.Change in Flight Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1-18
5-1-12.Change in Proposed Departure Time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1-18
5-1-13.Closing VFR/DVFR Flight Plans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1-19
5-1-14.Canceling IFR Flight Plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1-19
5-1-15.RNAV and RNP Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1-19

Section 2.Departure Procedures


5-2-1.Pretaxi Clearance Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2-1
5-2-2.Pre-departure Clearance Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2-1
5-2-3.Taxi Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2-1
5-2-4.Taxi into Position and Hold (TIPH) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2-1
5-2-5.Abbreviated IFR Departure Clearance (Cleared. . .as Filed) Procedures . . . . . 5-2-2
5-2-6.Departure Restrictions, Clearance Void Times,
Hold for Release, and Release Times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2-4
5-2-7.Departure Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2-5
5-2-8.Instrument Departure Procedures (DP) - Obstacle Departure
Procedures (ODP) and Standard Instrument Departures (SID) . . . . . . . . . 5-2-5

Section 3.En Route Procedures


5-3-1.ARTCC Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3-1
5-3-2.Position Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3-3
5-3-3.Additional Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3-4
5-3-4.Airways and Route Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3-5
5-3-5.Airway or Route Course Changes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3-7
5-3-6.Changeover Points (COPs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3-8
5-3-7.Holding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3-8

Section 4.Arrival Procedures


5-4-1.Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR), Area Navigation (RNAV) STAR,
and Flight Management System Procedures (FMSP) for Arrivals . . . . . . . . 5-4-1
5-4-2.Local Flow Traffic Management Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-2
5-4-3.Approach Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-3
5-4-4.Advance Information on Instrument Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-4
5-4-5.Instrument Approach Procedure Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-4
5-4-6.Approach Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-25
5-4-7.Instrument Approach Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-25

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Paragraph Page
5-4-8.Special Instrument Approach Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-27
5-4-9.Procedure Turn and Hold-in-lieu of Procedure Turn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-27
5-4-10.Timed Approaches from a Holding Fix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-30
5-4-11.Radar Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-33
5-4-12.Radar Monitoring of Instrument Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-34
5-4-13.ILS/MLS Approaches to Parallel Runways . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-35
5-4-14.Parallel ILS/MLS Approaches (Dependent) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-37
5-4-15.Simultaneous Parallel ILS/MLS Approaches (Independent) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-38
5-4-16.Simultaneous Close Parallel ILS PRM Approaches (Independent) and
Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approaches (SOIA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-40
5-4-17.Simultaneous Converging Instrument Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-46
5-4-18.RNP SAAAR Instrument Approach Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-46
5-4-19.Sidestep Maneuver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-48
5-4-20.Approach and Landing Minimums . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-48
5-4-21.Missed Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-51
5-4-22.Visual Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-53
5-4-23.Charted Visual Flight Procedure (CVFP) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-54
5-4-24.Contact Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-55
5-4-25.Landing Priority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-55
5-4-26.Overhead Approach Maneuver . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4-55

Section 5.Pilot/Controller Roles and Responsibilities


5-5-1.General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5-1
5-5-2.Air Traffic Clearance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5-1
5-5-3.Contact Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5-2
5-5-4.Instrument Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5-2
5-5-5.Missed Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5-2
5-5-6.Radar Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5-3
5-5-7.Safety Alert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5-3
5-5-8.See and Avoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5-4
5-5-9.Speed Adjustments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5-4
5-5-10.Traffic Advisories (Traffic Information) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5-4
5-5-11.Visual Approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5-5
5-5-12.Visual Separation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5-5
5-5-13.VFRontop . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5-6
5-5-14.Instrument Departures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5-6
5-5-15.Minimum Fuel Advisory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5-6
5-5-16.RNAV and RNP Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5-7

Section 6.National Security and Interception Procedures


5-6-1.National Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6-1
5-6-2.Interception Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6-2
5-6-3.Law Enforcement Operations by Civil and Military Organizations . . . . . . . . . . 5-6-4
5-6-4.Interception Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6-5
5-6-5.ADIZ Boundaries and Designated Mountainous Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6-7

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Chapter 6.Emergency Procedures


Section 1.General
Paragraph Page
6-1-1.Pilot Responsibility and Authority . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1-1
6-1-2.Emergency Condition- Request Assistance Immediately . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1-1

Section 2.Emergency Services Available to Pilots


6-2-1.Radar Service for VFR Aircraft in Difficulty . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2-1
6-2-2.Transponder Emergency Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2-1
6-2-3.Direction Finding Instrument Approach Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2-1
6-2-4.Intercept and Escort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2-2
6-2-5.Emergency Locator Transmitter (ELT) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2-2
6-2-6.FAA K-9 Explosives Detection Team Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2-4
6-2-7.Search and Rescue . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-2-5

Section 3.Distress and Urgency Procedures


6-3-1.Distress and Urgency Communications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3-1
6-3-2.Obtaining Emergency Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3-2
6-3-3.Ditching Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3-3
6-3-4.Special Emergency (Air Piracy) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3-6
6-3-5.Fuel Dumping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-3-7

Section 4.Twoway Radio Communications Failure


6-4-1.Twoway Radio Communications Failure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4-1
6-4-2.Transponder Operation During Twoway Communications Failure . . . . . . . . . . 6-4-2
6-4-3.Reestablishing Radio Contact . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4-2

Section 5.Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting Communications


6-5-1.Discrete Emergency Frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5-1
6-5-2.Radio Call Signs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5-1
6-5-3.ARFF Emergency Hand Signals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-5-1

Chapter 7.Safety of Flight


Section 1.Meteorology
7-1-1.National Weather Service Aviation Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-1
7-1-2.FAA Weather Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-1
7-1-3.Use of Aviation Weather Products . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-3
7-1-4.Preflight Briefing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-6
7-1-5.En Route Flight Advisory Service (EFAS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-8
7-1-6.Inflight Aviation Weather Advisories . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-9
7-1-7.Categorical Outlooks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-19
7-1-8.Telephone Information Briefing Service (TIBS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-19
7-1-9.Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB) (Alaska Only) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-19
7-1-10.Inflight Weather Broadcasts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-20
7-1-11.Flight Information Services (FIS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-21
7-1-12.Weather Observing Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-25

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Paragraph Page
7-1-13.Weather Radar Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-32
7-1-14.ATC Inflight Weather Avoidance Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-36
7-1-15.Runway Visual Range (RVR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-38
7-1-16.Reporting of Cloud Heights . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-39
7-1-17.Reporting Prevailing Visibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-40
7-1-18.Estimating Intensity of Rain and Ice Pellets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-40
7-1-19.Estimating Intensity of Snow or Drizzle (Based on Visibility) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-40
7-1-20.Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-40
7-1-21.PIREPs Relating to Airframe Icing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-42
7-1-22.Definitions of Inflight Icing Terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-43
7-1-23.PIREPs Relating to Turbulence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-45
7-1-24.Wind Shear PIREPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-46
7-1-25.Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) PIREPs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-46
7-1-26.Microbursts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-46
7-1-27.PIREPs Relating to Volcanic Ash Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-56
7-1-28.Thunderstorms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-56
7-1-29.Thunderstorm Flying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-57
7-1-30.Key to Aerodrome Forecast (TAF) and
Aviation Routine Weather Report (METAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1-59
7-1-31.International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) Weather Formats . . . . . . . 7-1-61

Section 2.Altimeter Setting Procedures


7-2-1.General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2-1
7-2-2.Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2-1
7-2-3.Altimeter Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2-3
7-2-4.High Barometric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2-4
7-2-5.Low Barometric Pressure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2-4

Section 3.Wake Turbulence


7-3-1.General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3-1
7-3-2.Vortex Generation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3-1
7-3-3.Vortex Strength . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3-1
7-3-4.Vortex Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3-2
7-3-5.Operations Problem Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3-5
7-3-6.Vortex Avoidance Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3-5
7-3-7.Helicopters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3-6
7-3-8.Pilot Responsibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3-6
7-3-9.Air Traffic Wake Turbulence Separations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3-7

Section 4.Bird Hazards and Flight Over National Refuges, Parks, and
Forests
7-4-1.Migratory Bird Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4-1
7-4-2.Reducing Bird Strike Risks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4-1
7-4-3.Reporting Bird Strikes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4-1
7-4-4.Reporting Bird and Other Wildlife Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4-1
7-4-5.Pilot Advisories on Bird and Other Wildlife Hazards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4-2
7-4-6.Flights Over Charted U.S. Wildlife Refuges, Parks, and Forest Service Areas . 7-4-2

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Section 5.Potential Flight Hazards


Paragraph Page
7-5-1.Accident Cause Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5-1
7-5-2.VFR in Congested Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5-1
7-5-3.Obstructions To Flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5-1
7-5-4.Avoid Flight Beneath Unmanned Balloons . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5-2
7-5-5.Unmanned Aircraft Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5-2
7-5-6.Mountain Flying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5-3
7-5-7.Use of Runway Half-way Signs at Unimproved Airports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5-5
7-5-8.Seaplane Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5-6
7-5-9.Flight Operations in Volcanic Ash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5-7
7-5-10.Emergency Airborne Inspection of Other Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5-8
7-5-11.Precipitation Static . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5-9
7-5-12.Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (Laser)
Operations and Reporting Illumination of Aircraft . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5-10
7-5-13.Flying in Flat Light and White Out Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5-10
7-5-14.Operations in Ground Icing Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-5-12

Section 6.Safety, Accident, and Hazard Reports


7-6-1.Aviation Safety Reporting Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6-1
7-6-2.Aircraft Accident and Incident Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6-1
7-6-3.Near Midair Collision Reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6-2
7-6-4.Unidentified Flying Object (UFO) Reports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-6-3

Chapter 8.Medical Facts for Pilots


Section 1.Fitness for Flight
8-1-1.Fitness For Flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1-1
8-1-2.Effects of Altitude . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1-3
8-1-3.Hyperventilation in Flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1-4
8-1-4.Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1-5
8-1-5.Illusions in Flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1-5
8-1-6.Vision in Flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1-6
8-1-7.Aerobatic Flight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1-7
8-1-8.Judgment Aspects of Collision Avoidance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1-8

Chapter 9.Aeronautical Charts and


Related Publications
Section 1.Types of Charts Available
9-1-1.General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1-1
9-1-2.Obtaining Aeronautical Charts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1-1
9-1-3.Selected Charts and Products Available . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1-1
9-1-4.General Description of each Chart Series . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1-1
9-1-5.Where and How to Get Charts of Foreign Areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1-12

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Chapter 10.Helicopter Operations


Section 1.Helicopter IFR Operations
Paragraph Page
10-1-1.Helicopter Flight Control Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1-1
10-1-2.Helicopter Instrument Approaches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1-3
10-1-3.Helicopter Approach Procedures to VFR Heliports . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1-5
10-1-4.The Gulf of Mexico Grid System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1-6

Section 2.Special Operations


10-2-1.Offshore Helicopter Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2-1
10-2-2.Helicopter Night VFR Operations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2-7
10-2-3.Landing Zone Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-2-10
10-2-4.Emergency Medical Service (EMS) Multiple Helicopter Operations . . . . . . . . 10-2-16

Appendices
Appendix 1. Bird/Other Wildlife Strike Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 1-1
Appendix 2. Volcanic Activity Reporting Form (VAR) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 2-1
Appendix 3. Laser Beam Exposure Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 3-1
Appendix 4. Abbreviations/Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Appendix 4-1

Pilot/Controller Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PCG-1


Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I-1

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about 1,400 feet above the runway elevation. The (b) As a back course (BC) final approach fix
glide slope is normally usable to the distance of (FAF); and
10 NM. However, at some locations, the glide slope (c) To establish other fixes on the localizer
has been certified for an extended service volume course.
which exceeds 10 NM.
2. In some cases, DME from a separate facility
4. Pilots must be alert when approaching the may be used within Terminal Instrument Procedures
glidepath interception. False courses and reverse (TERPS) limitations:
sensing will occur at angles considerably greater than
(a) To provide ARC initial approach seg-
the published path.
ments;
5. Make every effort to remain on the indicated (b) As a FAF for BC approaches; and
glide path.
(c) As a substitute for the OM.
CAUTION
f. Marker Beacon
Avoid flying below the glide path to assure
obstacle/terrain clearance is maintained. 1. ILS marker beacons have a rated power
output of 3 watts or less and an antenna array
6. The published glide slope threshold crossing designed to produce an elliptical pattern with
height (TCH) DOES NOT represent the height of the dimensions, at 1,000 feet above the antenna, of
actual glide path oncourse indication above the approximately 2,400 feet in width and 4,200 feet in
runway threshold. It is used as a reference for length. Airborne marker beacon receivers with a
planning purposes which represents the height above selective sensitivity feature should always be
the runway threshold that an aircrafts glide slope operated in the low sensitivity position for proper
antenna should be, if that aircraft remains on a reception of ILS marker beacons.
trajectory formed by the fourmiletomiddle
marker glidepath segment. 2. Ordinarily, there are two marker beacons
associated with an ILS, the OM and MM. Locations
7. Pilots must be aware of the vertical height with a Category II ILS also have an Inner
between the aircrafts glide slope antenna and the Marker (IM). When an aircraft passes over a marker,
main gear in the landing configuration and, at the DH, the pilot will receive the indications shown in
plan to adjust the descent angle accordingly if the TBL 113.
published TCH indicates the wheel crossing height
(a) The OM normally indicates a position at
over the runway threshold may not be satisfactory.
which an aircraft at the appropriate altitude on the
Tests indicate a comfortable wheel crossing height is
localizer course will intercept the ILS glide path.
approximately 20 to 30 feet, depending on the type of
aircraft. (b) The MM indicates a position approxi-
mately 3,500 feet from the landing threshold. This is
NOTE also the position where an aircraft on the glide path
The TCH for a runway is established based on several
will be at an altitude of approximately 200 feet above
factors including the largest aircraft category that
normally uses the runway, how airport layout effects the the elevation of the touchdown zone.
glide slope antenna placement, and terrain. A higher than (c) The IM will indicate a point at which an
optimum TCH, with the same glide path angle, may cause aircraft is at a designated decision height (DH) on the
the aircraft to touch down further from the threshold if the glide path between the MM and landing threshold.
trajectory of the approach is maintained until the flare.
Pilots should consider the effect of a high TCH on the TBL 113
runway available for stopping the aircraft. Marker Passage Indications
e. Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) Marker Code Light
OM    BLUE
1. When installed with the ILS and specified in
MM     AMBER
the approach procedure, DME may be used:
IM     WHITE
(a) In lieu of the OM; BC     WHITE

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3. A back course marker normally indicates the Localizer MHz Glide Slope
ILS back course final approach fix where approach 110.70 330.20
descent is commenced. 110.75 330.05
110.90 330.80
g. Compass Locator 110.95 330.65
111.10 331.70
1. Compass locator transmitters are often
111.15 331.55
situated at the MM and OM sites. The transmitters
111.30 332.30
have a power of less than 25 watts, a range of at least
111.35 332.15
15 miles and operate between 190 and 535 kHz. At
111.50 332.9
some locations, higher powered radio beacons, up to
111.55 332.75
400 watts, are used as OM compass locators. These
111.70 333.5
generally carry Transcribed Weather Broadcast
111.75 333.35
(TWEB) information.
111.90 331.1
2. Compass locators transmit two letter identifi- 111.95 330.95
cation groups. The outer locator transmits the first
two letters of the localizer identification group, and i. ILS Minimums
the middle locator transmits the last two letters of the
localizer identification group. 1. The lowest authorized ILS minimums, with
all required ground and airborne systems components
h. ILS Frequency (See TBL 114.) operative, are:
(a) Category I. Decision Height (DH)
TBL 114
200 feet and Runway Visual Range (RVR) 2,400 feet
Frequency Pairs Allocated for ILS
(with touchdown zone and centerline lighting, RVR
Localizer MHz Glide Slope 1,800 feet), or (with Autopilot or FD or HUD, RVR
108.10 334.70 1,800 feet);
108.15 334.55
108.3 334.10 (b) Category I Lower Than Standard.
108.35 333.95 DH 150 feet and Runway Visual Range (RVR) 1,400
108.5 329.90 feet, HUD to DH and special authorization;
108.55 329.75
(c) Category II. DH 100 feet and RVR 1,200
108.7 330.50
feet (with autoland or HUD to touchdown and noted
108.75 330.35
on authorization, RVR 1,000 feet);
108.9 329.30
108.95 329.15 (d) Category II Reduced Lighting. DH 100
109.1 331.40 feet and RVR 1,200 feet with autoland or HUD to
109.15 331.25 touchdown and noted on authorization, (touchdown
109.3 332.00 zone, centerline lighting and ALSF2 are not
109.35 331.85 required);
109.50 332.60
109.55 332.45 (e) Category IIIa. No DH or DH below 100
109.70 333.20 feet and RVR not less than 700 feet;
109.75 333.05 (f) Category IIIb. No DH or DH below 50
109.90 333.80 feet and RVR less than 700 feet but not less than 150
109.95 333.65 feet; and
110.1 334.40
110.15 334.25 (g) Category IIIc. No DH and no RVR
110.3 335.00 limitation.
110.35 334.85 NOTE
110.5 329.60 Special authorization and equipment required for
110.55 329.45 Categories II and III.

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j. Inoperative ILS Components (2) A flight crew, under these conditions,


should advise the tower that it will conduct an
1. Inoperative localizer. When the localizer AUTOLAND or COUPLED approach to ensure that
fails, an ILS approach is not authorized. the ILS critical areas are protected when the aircraft
2. Inoperative glide slope. When the glide is inside the ILS MM.
slope fails, the ILS reverts to a nonprecision localizer EXAMPLE
approach. Glide slope signal not protected.
REFERENCE 3. Aircraft holding below 5,000 feet between
See the inoperative component table in the U.S. Government Terminal the outer marker and the airport may cause localizer
Procedures Publication (TPP), for adjustments to minimums due to
inoperative airborne or ground system equipment. signal variations for aircraft conducting the ILS
approach. Accordingly, such holding is not
k. ILS Course Distortion authorized when weather or visibility conditions are
1. All pilots should be aware that disturbances to less than ceiling 800 feet and/or visibility 2 miles.
ILS localizer and glide slope courses may occur when 4. Pilots are cautioned that vehicular traffic not
surface vehicles or aircraft are operated near the subject to ATC may cause momentary deviation to
localizer or glide slope antennas. Most ILS ILS course or glide slope signals. Also, critical areas
installations are subject to signal interference by are not protected at uncontrolled airports or at airports
either surface vehicles, aircraft or both. ILS with an operating control tower when weather or
CRITICAL AREAS are established near each visibility conditions are above those requiring
localizer and glide slope antenna. protective measures. Aircraft conducting coupled or
autoland operations should be especially alert in
2. ATC issues control instructions to avoid
monitoring automatic flight control systems.
interfering operations within ILS critical areas at
(See FIG 117.)
controlled airports during the hours the Airport
Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) is in operation as NOTE
follows: Unless otherwise coordinated through Flight Standards,
ILS signals to Category I runways are not flight inspected
(a) Weather Conditions. Less than ceiling below 100 feet AGL. Guidance signal anomalies may be
800 feet and/or visibility 2 miles. encountered below this altitude.

(1) Localizer Critical Area. Except for 1110. Simplified Directional Facility
aircraft that land, exit a runway, depart or miss (SDF)
approach, vehicles and aircraft are not authorized in
or over the critical area when an arriving aircraft is a. The SDF provides a final approach course
between the ILS final approach fix and the airport. similar to that of the ILS localizer. It does not provide
Additionally, when the ceiling is less than 200 feet glide slope information. A clear understanding of the
and/or the visibility is RVR 2,000 or less, vehicle and ILS localizer and the additional factors listed below
aircraft operations in or over the area are not completely describe the operational characteristics
authorized when an arriving aircraft is inside the ILS and use of the SDF.
MM. b. The SDF transmits signals within the range of
108.10 to 111.95 MHz.
(2) Glide Slope Critical Area. Vehicles
and aircraft are not authorized in the area when an c. The approach techniques and procedures used
arriving aircraft is between the ILS final approach fix in an SDF instrument approach are essentially the
and the airport unless the aircraft has reported the same as those employed in executing a standard
airport in sight and is circling or side stepping to land localizer approach except the SDF course may not be
on a runway other than the ILS runway. aligned with the runway and the course may be wider,
resulting in less precision.
(b) Weather Conditions. At or above ceil-
ing 800 feet and/or visibility 2 miles. d. Usable offcourse indications are limited to
35 degrees either side of the course centerline.
(1) No critical area protective action is Instrument indications received beyond 35 degrees
provided under these conditions. should be disregarded.

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e. The SDF antenna may be offset from the runway be noted that inasmuch as the approach course
centerline. Because of this, the angle of convergence originates at the antenna site, an approach which is
between the final approach course and the runway continued beyond the runway threshold will lead the
bearing should be determined by reference to the aircraft to the SDF offset position rather than along
instrument approach procedure chart. This angle is the runway centerline.
generally not more than 3 degrees. However, it should

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FIG 117
FAA Instrument Landing Systems

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f. The SDF signal is fixed at either 6 degrees or advisory data on the performance of the ground
12 degrees as necessary to provide maximum equipment.
flyability and optimum course quality. (b) An elevation station to perform
g. Identification consists of a threeletter identifi- function (c).
er transmitted in Morse Code on the SDF frequency. (c) Distance Measuring Equipment (DME) to
The appropriate instrument approach chart will perform range guidance, both standard DME
indicate the identifier used at a particular airport. (DME/N) and precision DME (DME/P).
6. MLS Expansion Capabilities. The stan-
1111. Microwave Landing System (MLS) dard configuration can be expanded by adding one or
a. General more of the following functions or characteristics.
(a) Back azimuth. Provides lateral guidance
1. The MLS provides precision navigation for missed approach and departure navigation.
guidance for exact alignment and descent of aircraft
on approach to a runway. It provides azimuth, (b) Auxiliary data transmissions. Provides
elevation, and distance. additional data, including refined airborne position-
ing, meteorological information, runway status, and
2. Both lateral and vertical guidance may be other supplementary information.
displayed on conventional course deviation indica-
tors or incorporated into multipurpose cockpit (c) Expanded Service Volume (ESV) propor-
displays. Range information can be displayed by tional guidance to 60 degrees.
conventional DME indicators and also incorporated 7. MLS identification is a fourletter designa-
into multipurpose displays. tion starting with the letter M. It is transmitted in
International Morse Code at least six times per
3. The MLS supplements the ILS as the standard
minute by the approach azimuth (and back azimuth)
landing system in the U.S. for civil, military, and
ground equipment.
international civil aviation. At international airports,
ILS service is protected to 2010. b. Approach Azimuth Guidance
4. The system may be divided into five 1. The azimuth station transmits MLS angle and
functions: data on one of 200 channels within the frequency
range of 5031 to 5091 MHz.
(a) Approach azimuth;
2. The equipment is normally located about
(b) Back azimuth; 1,000 feet beyond the stop end of the runway, but
(c) Approach elevation; there is considerable flexibility in selecting sites. For
example, for heliport operations the azimuth
(d) Range; and transmitter can be collocated with the elevation
transmitter.
(e) Data communications.
3. The azimuth coverage extends:
5. The standard configuration of MLS ground (See FIG 118.)
equipment includes:
(a) Laterally, at least 40 degrees on either side
(a) An azimuth station to perform functions of the runway centerline in a standard configuration,
(a) and (e) above. In addition to providing azimuth
navigation guidance, the station transmits basic data (b) In elevation, up to an angle of 15 degrees
which consists of information associated directly and to at least 20,000 feet, and
with the operation of the landing system, as well as (c) In range, to at least 20 NM.

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FIG 118 FIG 119


Coverage Volume Coverage Volumes
Azimuth Elevation

MAXIMUM LIMIT 20,000


-60

ELEVATION
15 o
-40
o AL
14 NM 30 NORMPATH
o

GLIDE
AZIMUTH
ESV o
3
APPROACH
AZIMUTH 20 NM

d. Range Guidance
1. The MLS Precision Distance Measuring
20 NM
Equipment (DME/P) functions the same as the
ESV
navigation DME described in paragraph 117,
14 NM Distance Measuring Equipment (DME), but there are
+40 some technical differences. The beacon transponder
operates in the frequency band 962 to 1105 MHz and
MAXIMUM LIMIT
+60 responds to an aircraft interrogator. The MLS DME/P
accuracy is improved to be consistent with the
accuracy provided by the MLS azimuth and elevation
stations.
2. A DME/P channel is paired with the azimuth
c. Elevation Guidance and elevation channel. A complete listing of the
200 paired channels of the DME/P with the angle
1. The elevation station transmits signals on the functions is contained in FAA Standard 022 (MLS
same frequency as the azimuth station. A single Interoperability and Performance Requirements).
frequency is timeshared between angle and data 3. The DME/N or DME/P is an integral part of
functions. the MLS and is installed at all MLS facilities unless
a waiver is obtained. This occurs infrequently and
2. The elevation transmitter is normally located only at outlying, low density airports where marker
about 400 feet from the side of the runway between beacons or compass locators are already in place.
runway threshold and the touchdown zone.
e. Data Communications

3. Elevation coverage is provided in the same 1. The data transmission can include both the
airspace as the azimuth guidance signals: basic and auxiliary data words. All MLS facilities
transmit basic data. Where needed, auxiliary data can
be transmitted.
(a) In elevation, to at least +15 degrees;
2. Coverage limits. MLS data are transmitted
throughout the azimuth (and back azimuth when
(b) Laterally, to fill the Azimuth lateral
provided) coverage sectors.
coverage; and
3. Basic data content. Representative data
(c) In range, to at least 20 NM. include:
(See FIG 119.) (a) Station identification;

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(b) Exact locations of azimuth, elevation and FIG 1110


DME/P stations (for MLS receiver processing Coverage Volumes
functions); 3D Representation

(c) Ground equipment performance level;


and

(d) DME/P channel and status.

4. Auxiliary data content: Representative


data include:

(a) 3D locations of MLS equipment;

(b) Waypoint coordinates;

(c) Runway conditions; and

(d) Weather (e.g., RVR, ceiling, altimeter


setting, wind, wake vortex, wind shear).

f. Operational Flexibility

1. The MLS has the capability to fulfill a variety


of needs in the approach, landing, missed approach
and departure phases of flight. For example:
3. Environment. The system has low suscepti-
(a) Curved and segmented approaches; bility to interference from weather conditions and
airport ground traffic.
(b) Selectable glide path angles;
4. Channels. MLS has 200 channels enough
(c) Accurate 3D positioning of the aircraft in for any foreseeable need.
space; and 5. Data. The MLS transmits groundair data
messages associated with the systems operation.
(d) The establishment of boundaries to ensure 6. Range information. Continuous range in-
clearance from obstructions in the terminal area. formation is provided with an accuracy of about
100 feet.
2. While many of these capabilities are
available to any MLSequipped aircraft, the more
1112. NAVAID Identifier Removal During
sophisticated capabilities (such as curved and
Maintenance
segmented approaches) are dependent upon the
particular capabilities of the airborne equipment. During periods of routine or emergency maintenance,
coded identification (or code and voice, where
g. Summary applicable) is removed from certain FAA NAVAIDs.
Removal of identification serves as a warning to
1. Accuracy. The MLS provides precision pilots that the facility is officially off the air for
threedimensional navigation guidance accurate tuneup or repair and may be unreliable even though
enough for all approach and landing maneuvers. intermittent or constant signals are received.
NOTE
2. Coverage. Accuracy is consistent through- During periods of maintenance VHF ranges may radiate
out the coverage volumes. (See FIG 1110.) a TEST code (- D DDD -).

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NOTE 1. Immediate report by direct radio communica-


DO NOT attempt to fly a procedure that is NOTAMed out tion to the controlling Air Route Traffic Control
of service even if the identification is present. In certain Center (ARTCC), Control Tower, or FSS. This
cases, the identification may be transmitted for short method provides the quickest result.
periods as part of the testing.
2. By telephone to the nearest FAA facility.
1113. NAVAIDs with Voice 3. By FAA Form 87405, Safety Improvement
Report, a postagepaid card designed for this
a. Voice equipped en route radio navigational aids purpose. These cards may be obtained at FAA FSSs,
are under the operational control of either an FAA Flight Standards District Offices, and General
Automated Flight Service Station (AFSS) or an Aviation Fixed Base Operations.
approach control facility. The voice communication
c. In aircraft that have more than one receiver,
is available on some facilities. Hazardous Inflight
there are many combinations of possible interference
Weather Advisory Service (HIWAS) broadcast
between units. This can cause either erroneous
capability is available on selected VOR sites
navigation indications or, complete or partial
throughout the conterminous U.S. and does not
blanking out of the communications. Pilots should be
provide two-way voice communication. The avail-
familiar enough with the radio installation of the
ability of two-way voice communication and HIWAS
particular airplanes they fly to recognize this type of
is indicated in the A/FD and aeronautical charts.
interference.
b. Unless otherwise noted on the chart, all radio
navigation aids operate continuously except during 1115. LORAN
shutdowns for maintenance. Hours of operation of
a. Introduction
facilities not operating continuously are annotated on
charts and in the A/FD. 1. The LOng RAnge NavigationC (LORAN)
system is a hyperbolic, terrestrialbased navigation
system operating in the 90110 kHz frequency band.
1114. User Reports on NAVAID LORAN, operated by the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG),
Performance has been in service for over 50 years and is used for
a. Users of the National Airspace System (NAS) navigation by the various transportation modes, as
can render valuable assistance in the early correction well as, for precise time and frequency applications.
of NAVAID malfunctions by reporting their The system is configured to provide reliable, all
observations of undesirable NAVAID performance. weather navigation for marine users along the
Although NAVAIDs are monitored by electronic U.S. coasts and in the Great Lakes.
detectors, adverse effects of electronic interference, 2. In the 1980s, responding to aviation user and
new obstructions or changes in terrain near the industry requests, the USCG and FAA expanded
NAVAID can exist without detection by the ground LORAN coverage to include the entire continental
monitors. Some of the characteristics of malfunction U.S. This work was completed in late 1990, but the
or deteriorating performance which should be LORAN system failed to gain significant user
reported are: erratic course or bearing indications; acceptance and primarily due to transmitter and user
intermittent, or full, flag alarm; garbled, missing or equipment performance limitations, attempts to
obviously improper coded identification; poor obtain FAA certification of nonprecision approach
quality communications reception; or, in the case of capable receivers were unsuccessful. More recently,
frequency interference, an audible hum or tone concern regarding the vulnerability of Global
accompanying radio communications or NAVAID Positioning System (GPS) and the consequences of
identification. losing GPS on the critical U.S. infrastructure
b. Reporters should identify the NAVAID, loca- (e.g., NAS) has renewed and refocused attention on
tion of the aircraft, time of the observation, type of LORAN.
aircraft and describe the condition observed; the type 3. LORAN is also supported in the Canadian
of receivers in use is also useful information. Reports airspace system. Currently, LORAN receivers are
can be made in any of the following ways: only certified for en route navigation.

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4. Additional information can be b. LORAN Chain


found in the LORANC User Handbook, 1. The locations of the U.S. and Canadian
COMDT PUBP16562.6, or the website LORAN transmitters and monitor sites are illustrated
http://www.navcen.uscg.gov. in FIG 1111. Station operations are organized into
subgroups of four to six stations called chains. One
station in the chain is designated the Master and the
others are secondary stations. The resulting chain
based coverage is seen in FIG 1112.

FIG 1111
U.S. and Canadian LORAN System Architecture

FIG 1112
LORAN Chain Based Coverage

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2. The LORAN navigation signal is a carefully from 700 to 1350 feet tall. Depending on the coverage
structured sequence of brief radio frequency pulses area requirements a LORAN station transmits from
centered at 100 kHz. The sequence of signal 400 to 1,600 kilowatts of peak signal power.
transmissions consists of a pulse group from the
Master (M) station followed at precise time intervals 6. The USCG operates the LORAN transmitter
by groups from the secondary stations, which are stations under a reduced staffing structure that is
designated by the U.S. Coast Guard with the letters V, made possible by the remote control and monitoring
W, X, Y and Z. All secondary stations radiate pulses of the critical station and signal parameters. The
in groups of eight, but for identification the Master actual control of the transmitting station is
signal has an additional ninth pulse. (See accomplished remotely at Coast Guard Navigation
FIG 1113.) The timing of the LORAN system is Center (NAVCEN) located in Alexandria, Virginia.
tightly controlled and synchronized to Coordinated East Coast and Midwest stations are controlled by the
Universal Time (UTC). Like the GPS, this is a NAVCEN. Stations on the West Coast and in Alaska
Stratum 1 timing standard. are controlled by the NAVCEN Detachment (Det),
located in Petaluma, California. In the event of a
3. The time interval between the reoccurrence problem at one of these two 24 houraday staffed
of the Master pulse group is called the Group sites, monitoring and control of the entire LORAN
Repetition Interval (GRI). The GRI is the same for all system can be done at either location. If both NACEN
stations in a chain and each LORAN chain has a and NAVCEN Det are down or if there is an
unique GRI. Since all stations in a particular chain equipment problem at a specific station, local station
operate on the same radio frequency, the GRI is the personnel are available to operate and perform repairs
key by which a LORAN receiver can identify and at each LORAN station.
isolate signal groups from a specific chain.
7. The transmitted signal is also monitored in
EXAMPLE
the service areas (i.e., area of published LORAN
Transmitters in the Northeast U.S. chain (FIG 1114)
operate with a GRI of 99,600 microseconds which is coverage) and its status provided to NAVCEN and
shortened to 9960 for convenience. The master station (M) NAVCEN Det. The System Area Monitor (SAM) is
at Seneca, New York, controls secondary stations (W) at a single site used to observe the transmitted signal
Caribou, Maine; (X) at Nantucket, Massachusetts; (Y) at (signal strength, time difference, and pulse shape). If
Carolina Beach, North Carolina, and (Z) at Dana, Indiana. an outoftolerance situation that could affect
In order to keep chain operations precise, monitor navigation accuracy is detected, an alert signal called
receivers are located at Cape Elizabeth, ME; Sandy Hook, Blink is activated. Blink is a distinctive change in
NJ; Dunbar Forest, MI, and Plumbrook, OH. Monitor the group of eight pulses that can be recognized
receivers continuously measure various aspects of the automatically by a receiver so the user is notified
quality (e.g., pulse shape) and accuracy (e.g., timing) of
instantly that the LORAN system should not be used
LORAN signals and report system status to a control
station. for navigation. Outoftolerance situations which
only the local station can detect are also monitored.
4. The line between the Master and each These situations when detected cause signal
secondary station is the baseline for a pair of transmissions from a station to be halted.
stations. Typical baselines are from 600 to
1,000 nautical miles in length. The continuation of 8. Each individual LORAN chain provides
the baseline in either direction is a baseline navigation-quality signal coverage over an identified
extension. area as shown in FIG 1115 for the West Coast
chain, GRI 9940. The chain Master station is at
5. At the LORAN transmitter stations there are Fallon, Nevada, and secondary stations are at George,
cesium oscillators, transmitter time and control Washington; Middletown, California, and Search-
equipment, a transmitter, primary power (e.g., com- light, Nevada. In a signal coverage area the signal
mercial or generator) and auxiliary power equipment strength relative to the normal ambient radio noise
(e.g., uninterruptible power supplies and generators), must be adequate to assure successful reception.
and a transmitting antenna (configurations may either Similar coverage area charts are available for all
have 1 or 4 towers) with the tower heights ranging chains.

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FIG 1113
The LORAN Pulse and Pulse Group

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FIG 1114
Northeast U.S. LORAN Chain

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FIG 1115
West Coast U.S. LORAN Chain

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c. The LORAN Receiver 5. Most certified receivers have various internal


tests for estimating the probable accuracy of the
1. For a currently certified LORAN aviation current TD values and consequent navigation
receiver to provide navigation information for a pilot, solutions. Tests may include verification of the timing
it must successfully receive, or acquire, signals alignment of the receiver clock with the LORAN
from three or more stations in a chain. Acquisition pulse, or a continuous measurement of the
involves the time synchronization of the receiver with signaltonoise ratio (SNR). SNR is the relative
the chain GRI, identification of the Master station strength of the LORAN signals compared to the local
signals from among those checked, identification of ambient noise level. If any of the tests fail, or if the
secondary station signals, and the proper selection of quantities measured are out of the limits set for
the tracking point on each signal at which reliable navigation, then an alarm will be activated to
measurements are made. However, a new generation alert the pilot.
of receivers has been developed that use pulses from
6. LORAN signals operate in the low frequency
all stations that can be received at the pilots location.
band (90110 kHz) that has been reserved for marine
Use of allinview stations by a receiver is made
navigation signals. Adjacent to the band, however,
possible due to the synchronization of LORAN
are numerous low frequency communications
stations signals to UTC. This new generation of
transmitters. Nearby signals can distort the LORAN
receivers, along with improvements at the transmit-
signals and must be eliminated by the receiver to
ting stations and changes in system policy and
assure proper operation. To eliminate interfering
operations doctrine may allow for LORANs use in
signals, LORAN receivers have selective internal
nonprecision approaches. At this time these receivers
filters. These filters, commonly known as notch
are available for purchase, but none have been
filters, reduce the effect of interfering signals.
certified for aviation use.
7. Careful installation of antennas, good metal
2. The basic measurements made by certified tometal electrical bonding, and provisions for
LORAN receivers are the differences in timeof precipitation noise discharge on the aircraft are
arrival between the Master signal and the signals essential for the successful operation of LORAN
from each of the secondary stations of a chain. Each receivers. A LORAN antenna should be installed on
time difference (TD) value is measured to a an aircraft in accordance with the manufacturers
precision of about 0.1 microseconds. As a rule of instructions. Corroded bonding straps should be
thumb, 0.1 microsecond is equal to about 100 feet. replaced, and static discharge devices installed at
points indicated by the aircraft manufacturer.
3. An aircrafts LORAN receiver must recog-
d. LORAN Navigation
nize three signal conditions:
1. An airborne LORAN receiver has four major
(a) Usable signals; parts:
(a) Signal processor;
(b) Absence of signals, and
(b) Navigation computer;
(c) Signal blink. (c) Control/display, and
4. The most critical phase of flight is during the (d) Antenna.
approach to landing at an airport. During the 2. The signal processor acquires LORAN
approach phase the receiver must detect a lost signal, signals and measures the difference between the
or a signal Blink, within 10 seconds of the occurrence timeofarrival of each secondary station pulse
and warn the pilot of the event. At this time there are group and the Master station pulse group. The
no receivers that are certified for nonprecision measured TDs depend on the location of the receiver
approaches. in relation to the three or more transmitters.

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FIG 1116 (c) The intersection of the measured LOPs is


First LineofPosition the position of the aircraft.
FIG 1118
Intersection of LinesofPosition

(a) The first TD will locate an aircraft


somewhere on a lineofposition (LOP) on which the
receiver will measure the same TD value. 3. The navigation computer converts TD values
to corresponding latitude and longitude. Once the
(b) A second LOP is defined by a TD time and position of the aircraft are established at
measurement between the Master station signal and two points, distance to destination, cross track error,
the signal from another secondary station. ground speed, estimated time of arrival, etc., can be
FIG 1117
determined. Cross track error can be displayed as the
Second LineofPosition vertical needle of a course deviation indicator, or
digitally, as decimal parts of a mile left or right of
course.
e. Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs) are issued for
LORAN chain or station outages. Domestic
NOTAM (D)s are issued under the identifier LRN.
International NOTAMs are issued under the KNMH
series. Pilots may obtain these NOTAMs from FSS
briefers upon request.
f. LORAN status information. To find
out more information on the LORAN system
and its operational status you can visit
http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/loran/default.htm
or contact NAVCENs Navigation Information
Service (NIS) watchstander, phone (703) 3135900,
fax (703) 3135920.
g. LORANs future. The U.S. will continue to
operate the LORAN system in the short term. During
this time, the FAA LORAN evaluation program,
being conducted with the support of a team

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comprising government, academia, and industry, will c. AHRSs are electronic devices that provide
identify and assess LORANs potential contributions attitude information to aircraft systems such as
to required navigation services for the National weather radar and autopilot, but do not directly
Airspace System (NAS), and support decisions compute position information.
regarding continued operation of the system. If the
government concludes LORAN should not be kept as
1118. Doppler Radar
part of the mix of federally provided radio navigation
systems, it will give the users of LORAN reasonable Doppler Radar is a semiautomatic selfcontained
notice so that they will have the opportunity to dead reckoning navigation system (radar sensor plus
transition to alternative navigation aids. computer) which is not continuously dependent on
information derived from ground based or external
aids. The system employs radar signals to detect and
1116. VHF Direction Finder
measure ground speed and drift angle, using the
a. The VHF Direction Finder (VHF/DF) is one of aircraft compass system as its directional reference.
the common systems that helps pilots without their Doppler is less accurate than INS, however, and the
being aware of its operation. It is a groundbased use of an external reference is required for periodic
radio receiver used by the operator of the ground updates if acceptable position accuracy is to be
station. FAA facilities that provide VHF/DF service achieved on long range flights.
are identified in the A/FD.
b. The equipment consists of a directional antenna 1119. Global Positioning System (GPS)
system and a VHF radio receiver. a. System Overview
c. The VHF/DF receiver display indicates the 1. System Description. The Global Positioning
magnetic direction of the aircraft from the ground System is a satellitebased radio navigation system,
station each time the aircraft transmits. which broadcasts a signal that is used by receivers to
determine precise position anywhere in the world.
d. DF equipment is of particular value in locating
The receiver tracks multiple satellites and determines
lost aircraft and in helping to identify aircraft on
a pseudorange measurement that is then used to
radar.
determine the user location. A minimum of four
REFERENCE satellites is necessary to establish an accurate
AIM, Direction Finding Instrument Approach Procedure,
Paragraph 623. threedimensional position. The Department of
Defense (DOD) is responsible for operating the GPS
satellite constellation and monitors the GPS satellites
1117. Inertial Reference Unit (IRU), to ensure proper operation. Every satellites orbital
Inertial Navigation System (INS), and parameters (ephemeris data) are sent to each satellite
Attitude Heading Reference System (AHRS) for broadcast as part of the data message embedded
in the GPS signal. The GPS coordinate system is the
a. IRUs are selfcontained systems comprised of
Cartesian earthcentered earthfixed coordinates as
gyros and accelerometers that provide aircraft
specified in the World Geodetic System 1984
attitude (pitch, roll, and heading), position, and
(WGS84).
velocity information in response to signals resulting
from inertial effects on system components. Once 2. System Availability and Reliability
aligned with a known position, IRUs continuously
calculate position and velocity. IRU position (a) The status of GPS satellites is broadcast as
accuracy decays with time. This degradation is part of the data message transmitted by the GPS
known as drift. satellites. GPS status information is also available by
means of the U.S. Coast Guard navigation
b. INSs combine the components of an IRU with information service: (703) 3135907, Internet:
an internal navigation computer. By programming a http://www.navcen.uscg.gov/. Additionally, satel-
series of waypoints, these systems will navigate along lite status is available through the Notice to Airmen
a predetermined track. (NOTAM) system.

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(b) The operational status of GNSS opera- capability, the pilot has no assurance of the accuracy
tions depends upon the type of equipment being used. of the GPS position.
For GPSonly equipment TSOC129(a), the opera- 6. Selective Availability. Selective Availability
tional status of nonprecision approach capability for (SA) is a method by which the accuracy of GPS is
flight planning purposes is provided through a intentionally degraded. This feature is designed to
prediction program that is embedded in the receiver deny hostile use of precise GPS positioning data. SA
or provided separately. was discontinued on May 1, 2000, but many GPS
3. Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring receivers are designed to assume that SA is still
(RAIM). When GNSS equipment is not using active. New receivers may take advantage of the
integrity information from WAAS or LAAS, the GPS discontinuance of SA based on the performance
navigation receiver using RAIM provides GPS signal values in ICAO Annex 10, and do not need to be
integrity monitoring. RAIM is necessary since delays designed to operate outside of that performance.
of up to two hours can occur before an erroneous 7. The GPS constellation of 24 satellites is
satellite transmission can be detected and corrected designed so that a minimum of five is always
by the satellite control segment. The RAIM function observable by a user anywhere on earth. The receiver
is also referred to as fault detection. Another uses data from a minimum of four satellites above the
capability, fault exclusion, refers to the ability of the mask angle (the lowest angle above the horizon at
receiver to exclude a failed satellite from the position which it can use a satellite).
solution and is provided by some GPS receivers and 8. The DOD declared initial operational capa-
by WAAS receivers. bility (IOC) of the U.S. GPS on December 8, 1993.
4. The GPS receiver verifies the integrity The FAA has granted approval for U.S. civil
(usability) of the signals received from the GPS operators to use properly certified GPS equipment as
constellation through receiver autonomous integrity a primary means of navigation in oceanic airspace
monitoring (RAIM) to determine if a satellite is and certain remote areas. Properly certified GPS
providing corrupted information. At least one equipment may be used as a supplemental means of
satellite, in addition to those required for navigation, IFR navigation for domestic en route, terminal
must be in view for the receiver to perform the RAIM operations, and certain instrument approach proce-
function; thus, RAIM needs a minimum of 5 satellites dures (IAPs). This approval permits the use of GPS
in view, or 4 satellites and a barometric altimeter in a manner that is consistent with current navigation
(baroaiding) to detect an integrity anomaly. For requirements as well as approved air carrier
receivers capable of doing so, RAIM needs operations specifications.
6 satellites in view (or 5 satellites with baroaiding) b. VFR Use of GPS
to isolate the corrupt satellite signal and remove it 1. GPS navigation has become a great asset to
from the navigation solution. Baroaiding is a VFR pilots, providing increased navigation capabili-
method of augmenting the GPS integrity solution by ty and enhanced situational awareness, while
using a nonsatellite input source. GPS derived reducing operating costs due to greater ease in flying
altitude should not be relied upon to determine direct routes. While GPS has many benefits to the
aircraft altitude since the vertical error can be quite VFR pilot, care must be exercised to ensure that
large and no integrity is provided. To ensure that system capabilities are not exceeded.
baroaiding is available, the current altimeter setting
must be entered into the receiver as described in the 2. Types of receivers used for GPS navigation
operating manual. under VFR are varied, from a full IFR installation
being used to support a VFR flight, to a VFR only
5. RAIM messages vary somewhat between installation (in either a VFR or IFR capable aircraft)
receivers; however, generally there are two types. to a handheld receiver. The limitations of each type
One type indicates that there are not enough satellites of receiver installation or use must be understood by
available to provide RAIM integrity monitoring and the pilot to avoid misusing navigation information.
another type indicates that the RAIM integrity (See TBL 116.) In all cases, VFR pilots should
monitor has detected a potential error that exceeds the never rely solely on one system of navigation. GPS
limit for the current phase of flight. Without RAIM navigation must be integrated with other forms of

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electronic navigation (when possible), as well as (c) Antenna Location


pilotage and dead reckoning. Only through the (1) In many VFR installations of GPS
integration of these techniques can the VFR pilot receivers, antenna location is more a matter of
ensure accuracy in navigation. convenience than performance. In IFR installations,
3. Some critical concerns in VFR use of GPS care is exercised to ensure that an adequate clear view
include RAIM capability, database currency and is provided for the antenna to see satellites. If an
antenna location. alternate location is used, some portion of the aircraft
may block the view of the antenna, causing a greater
(a) RAIM Capability. Many VFR GPS re- opportunity to lose navigation signal.
ceivers and all handheld units have no RAIM (2) This is especially true in the case of
alerting capability. Loss of the required number of handhelds. The use of handheld receivers for VFR
satellites in view, or the detection of a position error, operations is a growing trend, especially among
cannot be displayed to the pilot by such receivers. In rental pilots. Typically, suction cups are used to place
receivers with no RAIM capability, no alert would be the GPS antennas on the inside of cockpit windows.
provided to the pilot that the navigation solution had While this method has great utility, the antenna
deteriorated, and an undetected navigation error location is limited to the cockpit or cabin only and is
could occur. A systematic crosscheck with other rarely optimized to provide a clear view of available
navigation techniques would identify this failure, and satellites. Consequently, signal losses may occur in
prevent a serious deviation. See subparagraphs a4 and certain situations of aircraftsatellite geometry,
a5 for more information on RAIM. causing a loss of navigation signal. These losses,
(b) Database Currency coupled with a lack of RAIM capability, could
present erroneous position and navigation informa-
(1) In many receivers, an updatable tion with no warning to the pilot.
database is used for navigation fixes, airports, and (3) While the use of a handheld GPS for
instrument procedures. These databases must be VFR operations is not limited by regulation,
maintained to the current update for IFR operation, modification of the aircraft, such as installing a
but no such requirement exists for VFR use. panel or yokemounted holder, is governed by
(2) However, in many cases, the database 14 CFR Part 43. Consult with your mechanic to
drives a moving map display which indicates Special ensure compliance with the regulation, and a safe
Use Airspace and the various classes of airspace, in installation.
addition to other operational information. Without a 4. As a result of these and other concerns, here
current database the moving map display may be are some tips for using GPS for VFR operations:
outdated and offer erroneous information to VFR (a) Always check to see if your unit has
pilots wishing to fly around critical airspace areas, RAIM capability. If no RAIM capability exists, be
such as a Restricted Area or a Class B airspace suspicious of your GPS position when any
segment. Numerous pilots have ventured into disagreement exists with the position derived from
airspace they were trying to avoid by using an other radio navigation systems, pilotage, or dead
outdated database. If you dont have a current reckoning.
database in the receiver, disregard the moving map
display for critical navigation decisions. (b) Check the currency of the database, if any.
If expired, update the database using the current
(3) In addition, waypoints are added, revision. If an update of an expired database is not
removed, relocated, or renamed as required to meet possible, disregard any moving map display of
operational needs. When using GPS to navigate airspace for critical navigation decisions. Be aware
relative to a named fix, a current database must be that named waypoints may no longer exist or may
used to properly locate a named waypoint. Without have been relocated since the database expired. At a
the update, it is the pilots responsibility to verify the minimum, the waypoints planned to be used should
waypoint location referencing to an official current be checked against a current official source, such as
source, such as the Airport/Facility Directory, the Airport/Facility Directory, or a Sectional
Sectional Chart, or En Route Chart. Aeronautical Chart.

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(c) While handhelds can provide excellent published specifically for visual navigation. If
navigation capability to VFR pilots, be prepared for operating in a terminal area, pilots should take
intermittent loss of navigation signal, possibly with advantage of the Terminal Area Chart available for
no RAIM warning to the pilot. If mounting the that area, if published. The use of VFR waypoints
receiver in the aircraft, be sure to comply with does not relieve the pilot of any responsibility to
14 CFR Part 43. comply with the operational requirements of 14 CFR
Part 91.
(d) Plan flights carefully before taking off. If
you wish to navigate to userdefined waypoints, 2. VFR waypoint names (for computerentry
enter them before flight, not onthefly. Verify your and flight plans) consist of five letters beginning with
planned flight against a current source, such as a the letters VP and are retrievable from navigation
current sectional chart. There have been cases in databases. The VFR waypoint names are not intended
which one pilot used waypoints created by another to be pronounceable, and they are not for use in ATC
pilot that were not where the pilot flying was communications. On VFR charts, standalone VFR
expecting. This generally resulted in a navigation waypoints will be portrayed using the same
error. Minimize headdown time in the aircraft and fourpoint star symbol used for IFR waypoints. VFR
keep a sharp lookout for traffic, terrain, and obstacles. waypoints collocated with visual check points on the
Just a few minutes of preparation and planning on the chart will be identified by small magenta flag
ground will make a great difference in the air. symbols. VFR waypoints collocated with visual
check points will be pronounceable based on the
(e) Another way to minimize headdown name of the visual check point and may be used for
time is to become very familiar with your receivers ATC communications. Each VFR waypoint name
operation. Most receivers are not intuitive. The pilot will appear in parentheses adjacent to the geographic
must take the time to learn the various keystrokes, location on the chart. Latitude/longitude data for all
knob functions, and displays that are used in the established VFR waypoints may be found in the
operation of the receiver. Some manufacturers appropriate regional Airport/Facility Directory
provide computerbased tutorials or simulations of (A/FD).
their receivers. Take the time to learn about your
particular unit before you try to use it in flight. 3. VFR waypoints shall not be used to plan
flights under IFR. VFR waypoints will not be
5. In summary, be careful not to rely on GPS to recognized by the IFR system and will be rejected for
solve all your VFR navigational problems. Unless an IFR routing purposes.
IFR receiver is installed in accordance with IFR 4. When filing VFR flight plans, pilots may use
requirements, no standard of accuracy or integrity has the five letter identifier as a waypoint in the route of
been assured. While the practicality of GPS is flight section if there is an intended course change at
compelling, the fact remains that only the pilot can that point or if used to describe the planned route of
navigate the aircraft, and GPS is just one of the pilots flight. This VFR filing would be similar to how a
tools to do the job. VOR would be used in a route of flight. Pilots must
c. VFR Waypoints use the VFR waypoints only when operating under
VFR conditions.
1. VFR waypoints provide VFR pilots with a
supplementary tool to assist with position awareness 5. Any VFR waypoints intended for use during
while navigating visually in aircraft equipped with a flight should be loaded into the receiver while on the
area navigation receivers. VFR waypoints should be ground and prior to departure. Once airborne, pilots
used as a tool to supplement current navigation should avoid programming routes or VFR waypoint
procedures. The uses of VFR waypoints include chains into their receivers.
providing navigational aids for pilots unfamiliar with 6. Pilots should be especially vigilant for other
an area, waypoint definition of existing reporting traffic while operating near VFR waypoints. The
points, enhanced navigation in and around Class B same effort to see and avoid other aircraft near VFR
and Class C airspace, and enhanced navigation waypoints will be necessary, as was the case with
around Special Use Airspace. VFR pilots should rely VORs and NDBs in the past. In fact, the increased
on appropriate and current aeronautical charts accuracy of navigation through the use of GPS will

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demand even greater vigilance, as offcourse flight must rely on other approved equipment, delay
deviations among different pilots and receivers will departure, or cancel the flight.
be less. When operating near a VFR waypoint, use (d) The GPS operation must be conducted in
whatever ATC services are available, even if outside accordance with the FAAapproved aircraft flight
a class of airspace where communications are manual (AFM) or flight manual supplement. Flight
required. Regardless of the class of airspace, monitor crew members must be thoroughly familiar with the
the available ATC frequency closely for information particular GPS equipment installed in the aircraft, the
on other aircraft operating in the vicinity. It is also a receiver operation manual, and the AFM or flight
good idea to turn on your landing light(s) when manual supplement. Unlike ILS and VOR, the basic
operating near a VFR waypoint to make your aircraft operation, receiver presentation to the pilot, and some
more conspicuous to other pilots, especially when capabilities of the equipment can vary greatly. Due to
visibility is reduced. See paragraph 752, VFR in these differences, operation of different brands, or
Congested Areas, for more information. even models of the same brand, of GPS receiver
under IFR should not be attempted without thorough
d. General Requirements
study of the operation of that particular receiver and
1. Authorization to conduct any GPS operation installation. Most receivers have a builtin simulator
under IFR requires that: mode which will allow the pilot to become familiar
with operation prior to attempting operation in the
(a) GPS navigation equipment used must be aircraft. Using the equipment in flight under VFR
approved in accordance with the requirements conditions prior to attempting IFR operation will
specified in Technical Standard Order (TSO) allow further familiarization.
TSOC129, or equivalent, and the installation must (e) Aircraft navigating by IFR approved GPS
be done in accordance with Advisory Circular are considered to be area navigation (RNAV) aircraft
AC 20138, Airworthiness Approval of Global and have special equipment suffixes. File the
Positioning System (GPS) Navigation Equipment for appropriate equipment suffix in accordance with
Use as a VFR and IFR Supplemental Navigation TBL 512, on the ATC flight plan. If GPS avionics
System, or Advisory Circular AC 20130A, Airwor- become inoperative, the pilot should advise ATC and
thiness Approval of Navigation or Flight amend the equipment suffix.
Management Systems Integrating Multiple Naviga-
tion Sensors, or equivalent. Equipment approved in (f) Prior to any GPS IFR operation, the pilot
accordance with TSOC115a does not meet the must review appropriate NOTAMs and aeronautical
requirements of TSOC129. Visual flight rules information. (See GPS NOTAMs/Aeronautical
(VFR) and handheld GPS systems are not Information.)
authorized for IFR navigation, instrument ap- (g) Air carrier and commercial operators
proaches, or as a principal instrument flight must meet the appropriate provisions of their
reference. During IFR operations they may be approved operations specifications.
considered only an aid to situational awareness. e. Use of GPS for IFR Oceanic, Domestic
En Route, and Terminal Area Operations
(b) Aircraft using GPS navigation equipment
under IFR must be equipped with an approved and 1. GPS IFR operations in oceanic areas can be
operational alternate means of navigation appropriate conducted as soon as the proper avionics systems are
to the flight. Active monitoring of alternative installed, provided all general requirements are met.
navigation equipment is not required if the GPS A GPS installation with TSOC129 authorization in
receiver uses RAIM for integrity monitoring. Active class A1, A2, B1, B2, C1, or C2 may be used to
monitoring of an alternate means of navigation is replace one of the other approved means of
required when the RAIM capability of the GPS longrange navigation, such as dual INS. (See
equipment is lost. TBL 115 and TBL 116.) A single GPS installa-
tion with these classes of equipment which provide
(c) Procedures must be established for use in RAIM for integrity monitoring may also be used on
the event that the loss of RAIM capability is predicted short oceanic routes which have only required one
to occur. In situations where this is encountered, the means of longrange navigation.

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2. GPS domestic en route and terminal IFR (a) GPS en route IFR RNAV operations may
operations can be conducted as soon as proper be conducted in Alaska outside the operational
avionics systems are installed, provided all general service volume of groundbased navigation aids
requirements are met. The avionics necessary to when a TSOC145a or TSOC146a GPS/WAAS
receive all of the groundbased facilities appropriate system is installed and operating. Groundbased
for the route to the destination airport and any navigation equipment is not required to be installed
required alternate airport must be installed and and operating for en route IFR RNAV operations
operational. Groundbased facilities necessary for when using GPS WAAS navigation systems. All
these routes must also be operational. operators should ensure that an alternate means of
navigation is available in the unlikely event the GPS
WAAS navigation system becomes inoperative.

TBL 115
GPS IFR Equipment Classes/Categories

TSOC129
Int. Nav. Sys. to Nonprecision
Equipment
RAIM Prov. RAIM Oceanic En Route Terminal Approach
Class
Equiv. Capable
Class A GPS sensor and navigation capability.
A1 yes yes yes yes yes
A2 yes yes yes yes no
Class B GPS sensor data to an integrated navigation system (i.e., FMS, multisensor navigation system, etc.).
B1 yes yes yes yes yes
B2 yes yes yes yes no
B3 yes yes yes yes yes
B4 yes yes yes yes no
Class C GPS sensor data to an integrated navigation system (as in Class B) which provides enhanced guidance to an autopilot, or
flight director, to reduce flight tech. errors. Limited to 14 CFR Part 121 or equivalent criteria.
C1 yes yes yes yes yes
C2 yes yes yes yes no
C3 yes yes yes yes yes
C4 yes yes yes yes no

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TBL 116
GPS Approval Required/Authorized Use
Installation Operational
Equipment Approval Approval IFR IFR IFR Oceanic In Lieu of
Type1 Required Required En Route2 Terminal2 Approach3 Remote ADF and/or
DME3
Hand held4 X5
VFR Panel Mount4 X
IFR En Route X X X X X
and Terminal
IFR Oceanic/ X X X X X X
Remote
IFR En Route, X X X X X X
Terminal, and
Approach

NOTE
1To determine equipment approvals and limitations, refer to the AFM, AFM supplements, or pilot guides.
2Requires verification of data for correctness if database is expired.
3Requires current database.
4VFR and handheld GPS systems are not authorized for IFR navigation, instrument approaches, or as a primary instrument

flight reference. During IFR operations they may be considered only an aid to situational awareness.
5Handheld receivers require no approval. However, any aircraft modification to support the handheld receiver;

i.e., installation of an external antenna or a permanent mounting bracket, does require approval.

3. The GPS Approach Overlay Program is an NOTE


authorization for pilots to use GPS avionics under Overlay approaches are predicated upon the design
IFR for flying designated nonprecision instrument criteria of the groundbased NAVAID used as the basis of
approach procedures, except LOC, LDA, and the approach. As such, they do not adhere to the design
criteria described in paragraph 545k, Area Navigation
simplified directional facility (SDF) procedures.
(RNAV) Instrument Approach Charts, for standalone
These procedures are now identified by the name of GPS approaches.
the procedure and or GPS (e.g., VOR/DME or GPS
RWY 15). Other previous types of overlays have 4. GPS IFR approach operations can be
either been converted to this format or replaced with conducted as soon as proper avionics systems are
standalone procedures. Only approaches contained installed and the following requirements are met:
in the current onboard navigation database are
authorized. The navigation database may contain
information about nonoverlay approach procedures (a) The authorization to use GPS to fly
that is intended to be used to enhance position instrument approaches is limited to U.S. airspace.
orientation, generally by providing a map, while
flying these approaches using conventional (b) The use of GPS in any other airspace must
NAVAIDs. This approach information should not be be expressly authorized by the FAA Administrator.
confused with a GPS overlay approach (see the
receiver operating manual, AFM, or AFM Supple- (c) GPS instrument approach operations
ment for details on how to identify these approaches outside the U.S. must be authorized by the
in the navigation database). appropriate sovereign authority.

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f. Equipment and Database Requirements g. GPS Approach Procedures


1. Authorization to fly approaches under IFR As the production of standalone GPS approaches
using GPS avionics systems requires that: has progressed, many of the original overlay
approaches have been replaced with standalone
(a) A pilot use GPS avionics with TSO procedures specifically designed for use by GPS
C129, or equivalent, authorization in class A1, B1, systems. The title of the remaining GPS overlay
B3, C1, or C3; and procedures has been revised on the approach chart to
(b) All approach procedures to be flown must or GPS (e.g., VOR or GPS RWY 24). Therefore, all
be retrievable from the current airborne navigation the approaches that can be used by GPS now contain
database supplied by the TSOC129 equipment GPS in the title (e.g., VOR or GPS RWY 24,
manufacturer or other FAA approved source. GPS RWY 24, or RNAV (GPS) RWY 24).
During these GPS approaches, underlying ground
(c) Prior to using a procedure or waypoint based NAVAIDs are not required to be operational
retrieved from the airborne navigation database, the and associated aircraft avionics need not be installed,
pilot should verify the validity of the database. This operational, turned on or monitored (monitoring of
verification should include the following preflight the underlying approach is suggested when equip-
and inflight steps: ment is available and functional). Existing overlay
approaches may be requested using the GPS title,
(1) Preflight:
such as GPS RWY 24 for the VOR or GPS
[a] Determine the date of database RWY 24.
issuance, and verify that the date/time of proposed NOTE
use is before the expiration date/time. Any required alternate airport must have an approved
instrument approach procedure other than GPS that is
[b] Verify that the database provider has anticipated to be operational and available at the
not published a notice limiting the use of the specific estimated time of arrival, and which the aircraft is
waypoint or procedure. equipped to fly.
(2) Inflight: h. GPS NOTAMs/Aeronautical Information

[a] Determine that the waypoints and 1. GPS satellite outages are issued as GPS
transition names coincide with names found on the NOTAMs both domestically and internationally.
procedure chart. Do not use waypoints, which do not However, the effect of an outage on the intended
exactly match the spelling shown on published operation cannot be determined unless the pilot has a
procedure charts. RAIM availability prediction program which allows
excluding a satellite which is predicted to be out of
[b] Determine that the waypoints are service based on the NOTAM information.
generally logical in location, in the correct order, and 2. The term UNRELIABLE is used in conjunc-
that their orientation to each other is as found on the tion with GPS NOTAMs. The term UNRELIABLE
procedure chart, both laterally and vertically. is an advisory to pilots indicating the expected level
NOTE of service may not be available. GPS operation may
There is no specific requirement to check each waypoint be NOTAMed UNRELIABLE due to testing or
latitude and longitude, type of waypoint and/or altitude anomalies. Air Traffic Control will advise pilots
constraint, only the general relationship of waypoints in requesting a GPS or RNAV (GPS) approach of GPS
the procedure, or the logic of an individual waypoints UNRELIABLE for:
location.
(a) NOTAMs not contained in the ATIS
[c] If the cursory check of procedure broadcast.
logic or individual waypoint location, specified in [b]
above, indicates a potential error, do not use the (b) Pilot reports of GPS anomalies received
retrieved procedure or waypoint until a verification of within the preceding 15 minutes.
latitude and longitude, waypoint type, and altitude 3. Civilian pilots may obtain GPS RAIM
constraints indicate full conformity with the availability information for nonprecision approach
published data. procedures by specifically requesting GPS

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aeronautical information from an Automated Flight (FAWP), the approach should not be completed
Service Station during preflight briefings. GPS since GPS may no longer provide the required
RAIM aeronautical information can be obtained for accuracy. The receiver performs a RAIM prediction
a period of 3 hours (ETA hour and 1 hour before to 1 by 2 NM prior to the FAWP to ensure that RAIM is
hour after the ETA hour) or a 24 hour time frame at available at the FAWP as a condition for entering the
a particular airport. FAA briefers will provide RAIM approach mode. The pilot should ensure that the
information for a period of 1 hour before to 1 hour receiver has sequenced from Armed to
after the ETA, unless a specific time frame is Approach prior to the FAWP (normally occurs
requested by the pilot. If flying a published GPS 2 NM prior). Failure to sequence may be an
departure, a RAIM prediction should also be indication of the detection of a satellite anomaly,
requested for the departure airport. failure to arm the receiver (if required), or other
problems which preclude completing the approach.
4. The military provides airfield specific GPS
RAIM NOTAMs for nonprecision approach proce- 4. If the receiver does not sequence into the
dures at military airfields. The RAIM outages are approach mode or a RAIM failure/status annunci-
issued as Mseries NOTAMs and may be obtained for ation occurs prior to the FAWP, the pilot should not
up to 24 hours from the time of request. descend to Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA), but
should proceed to the missed approach way-
5. Receiver manufacturers and/or database point (MAWP) via the FAWP, perform a missed
suppliers may supply NOTAM type information approach, and contact ATC as soon as practical. Refer
concerning database errors. Pilots should check these to the receiver operating manual for specific
sources, when available, to ensure that they have the indications and instructions associated with loss of
most current information concerning their electronic RAIM prior to the FAF.
database.
5. If a RAIM failure occurs after the FAWP, the
i. Receiver Autonomous Integrity Monitoring receiver is allowed to continue operating without an
(RAIM) annunciation for up to 5 minutes to allow completion
1. RAIM outages may occur due to an of the approach (see receiver operating manual). If
insufficient number of satellites or due to unsuitable the RAIM flag/status annunciation appears after
satellite geometry which causes the error in the the FAWP, the missed approach should be
position solution to become too large. Loss of satellite executed immediately.
reception and RAIM warnings may occur due to j. Waypoints
aircraft dynamics (changes in pitch or bank angle).
Antenna location on the aircraft, satellite position 1. GPS approaches make use of both flyover
relative to the horizon, and aircraft attitude may affect and flyby waypoints. Flyby waypoints are used
reception of one or more satellites. Since the relative when an aircraft should begin a turn to the next course
positions of the satellites are constantly changing, prior to reaching the waypoint separating the two
prior experience with the airport does not guarantee route segments. This is known as turn anticipation
reception at all times, and RAIM availability should and is compensated for in the airspace and terrain
always be checked. clearances. Approach waypoints, except for the
MAWP and the missed approach holding waypoint
2. If RAIM is not available, another type of (MAHWP), are normally flyby waypoints. Fly
navigation and approach system must be used, over waypoints are used when the aircraft must fly
another destination selected, or the trip delayed until over the point prior to starting a turn. New approach
RAIM is predicted to be available on arrival. On charts depict flyover waypoints as a circled
longer flights, pilots should consider rechecking the waypoint symbol. Overlay approach charts and some
RAIM prediction for the destination during the flight. early stand alone GPS approach charts may not
This may provide early indications that an reflect this convention.
unscheduled satellite outage has occurred since
2. Since GPS receivers are basically ToTo
takeoff.
navigators, they must always be navigating to a
3. If a RAIM failure/status annunciation defined point. On overlay approaches, if no
occurs prior to the final approach waypoint pronounceable fivecharacter name is published for

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an approach waypoint or fix, it was given a database using GPS. Distance and track information are
identifier consisting of letters and numbers. These provided to the next active waypoint, not to a fixed
points will appear in the list of waypoints in the navigation aid. Receivers may sequence when the
approach procedure database, but may not appear on pilot is not flying along an active route, such as when
the approach chart. A point used for the purpose of being vectored or deviating for weather, due to the
defining the navigation track for an airborne proximity to another waypoint in the route. This can
computer system (i.e., GPS or FMS) is called a be prevented by placing the receiver in the
Computer Navigation Fix (CNF). CNFs include nonsequencing mode. When the receiver is in the
unnamed DME fixes, beginning and ending points of nonsequencing mode, bearing and distance are
DME arcs and sensor final approach fixes (FAFs) on provided to the selected waypoint and the receiver
some GPS overlay approaches. To aid in the approach will not sequence to the next waypoint in the route
chart/database correlation process, the FAA has until placed back in the auto sequence mode or the
begun a program to assign fiveletter names to CNFs pilot selects a different waypoint. On overlay
and to chart CNFs on various National Oceanic approaches, the pilot may have to compute the
Service aeronautical products. These CNFs are not to alongtrack distance to stepdown fixes and other
be used for any air traffic control (ATC) application, points due to the receiver showing alongtrack
such as holding for which the fix has not already been distance to the next waypoint rather than DME to the
assessed. CNFs will be charted to distinguish them VOR or ILS ground station.
from conventional reporting points, fixes, intersec-
tions, and waypoints. The CNF name will be enclosed l. Conventional Versus GPS Navigation Data
in parenthesis, e.g., (MABEE), and the name will be There may be slight differences between the course
placed next to the CNF it defines. If the CNF is not at information portrayed on navigational charts and a
an existing point defined by means such as crossing GPS navigation display when flying authorized GPS
radials or radial/DME, the point will be indicated by instrument procedures or along an airway. All
an X. The CNF name will not be used in filing a magnetic tracks defined by any conventional
flight plan or in aircraft/ATC communications. Use navigation aids are determined by the application of
current phraseology, e.g., facility name, radial, the station magnetic variation. In contrast, GPS
distance, to describe these fixes. RNAV systems may use an algorithm, which applies
3. Unnamed waypoints in the database will be the local magnetic variation and may produce small
uniquely identified for each airport but may be differences in the displayed course. However, both
repeated for another airport (e.g., RW36 will be used methods of navigation should produce the same
at each airport with a runway 36 but will be at the desired ground track when using approved, IFR
same location for all approaches at a given airport). navigation system. Should significant differences
between the approach chart and the GPS avionics
4. The runway threshold waypoint, which is application of the navigation database arise, the
normally the MAWP, may have a five letter identifier published approach chart, supplemented by
(e.g., SNEEZ) or be coded as RW## (e.g., RW36, NOTAMs, holds precedence.
RW36L). Those thresholds which are coded as five
letter identifiers are being changed to the RW## Due to the GPS avionics computation of great circle
designation. This may cause the approach chart and courses, and the variations in magnetic variation, the
database to differ until all changes are complete. The bearing to the next waypoint and the course from the
runway threshold waypoint is also used as the center last waypoint (if available) may not be exactly 180
of the Minimum Safe Altitude (MSA) on most GPS apart when long distances are involved. Variations in
approaches. MAWPs not located at the threshold will distances will occur since GPS distancetowaypoint
have a five letter identifier. values are alongtrack distances (ATD) computed to
the next waypoint and the DME values published on
k. Position Orientation
underlying procedures are slantrange distances
As with most RNAV systems, pilots should pay measured to the station. This difference increases
particular attention to position orientation while with aircraft altitude and proximity to the NAVAID.

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m. Departures and Instrument Departure IAWP is inside this 30 mile point, a CDI sensitivity
Procedures (DPs) change will occur once the approach mode is armed
and the aircraft is inside 30 NM. Where the IAWP is
The GPS receiver must be set to terminal (1 NM) beyond 30 NM from the airport/heliport reference
CDI sensitivity and the navigation routes contained in point, CDI sensitivity will not change until the
the database in order to fly published IFR charted aircraft is within 30 miles of the airport/heliport
departures and DPs. Terminal RAIM should be reference point even if the approach is armed earlier.
automatically provided by the receiver. (Terminal Feeder route obstacle clearance is predicated on the
RAIM for departure may not be available unless the receiver being in terminal (1 NM) CDI sensitivity
waypoints are part of the active flight plan rather than and RAIM within 30 NM of the airport/heliport
proceeding direct to the first destination.) Certain reference point, therefore, the receiver should always
segments of a DP may require some manual be armed (if required) not later than the 30 NM
intervention by the pilot, especially when radar annunciation.
vectored to a course or required to intercept a specific
course to a waypoint. The database may not contain 4. The pilot must be aware of what bank
all of the transitions or departures from all runways angle/turn rate the particular receiver uses to compute
and some GPS receivers do not contain DPs in the turn anticipation, and whether wind and airspeed are
database. It is necessary that helicopter procedures be included in the receivers calculations. This informa-
flown at 70 knots or less since helicopter departure tion should be in the receiver operating manual. Over
procedures and missed approaches use a 20:1 ob- or under banking the turn onto the final approach
stacle clearance surface (OCS), which is double the course may significantly delay getting on course and
fixedwing OCS, and turning areas are based on this may result in high descent rates to achieve the next
speed as well. segment altitude.
5. When within 2 NM of the FAWP with the
n. Flying GPS Approaches
approach mode armed, the approach mode will
1. Determining which area of the TAA the switch to active, which results in RAIM changing to
aircraft will enter when flying a T with a TAA must approach sensitivity and a change in CDI sensitivity.
be accomplished using the bearing and distance to the Beginning 2 NM prior to the FAWP, the full scale CDI
IF(IAF). This is most critical when entering the TAA sensitivity will smoothly change from 1 NM to
in the vicinity of the extended runway centerline and 0.3 NM at the FAWP. As sensitivity changes from
determining whether you will be entering the right or 1 NM to 0.3 NM approaching the FAWP, with the
left base area. Once inside the TAA, all sectors and CDI not centered, the corresponding increase in CDI
stepdowns are based on the bearing and distance to displacement may give the impression that the
the IAF for that area, which the aircraft should be aircraft is moving further away from the intended
proceeding direct to at that time, unless on vectors. course even though it is on an acceptable intercept
(See FIG 543 and FIG 544.) heading. Referencing the digital track displacement
information (cross track error), if it is available in the
2. Pilots should fly the full approach from an approach mode, may help the pilot remain position
Initial Approach Waypoint (IAWP) or feeder fix oriented in this situation. Being established on the
unless specifically cleared otherwise. Randomly final approach course prior to the beginning of the
joining an approach at an intermediate fix does not sensitivity change at 2 NM will help prevent
assure terrain clearance. problems in interpreting the CDI display during ramp
3. When an approach has been loaded in the down. Therefore, requesting or accepting vectors
flight plan, GPS receivers will give an arm which will cause the aircraft to intercept the final
annunciation 30 NM straight line distance from the approach course within 2 NM of the FAWP is not
airport/heliport reference point. Pilots should arm the recommended.
approach mode at this time, if it has not already been 6. When receiving vectors to final, most
armed (some receivers arm automatically). Without receiver operating manuals suggest placing the
arming, the receiver will not change from en route receiver in the nonsequencing mode on the FAWP
CDI and RAIM sensitivity of 5 NM either side of and manually setting the course. This provides an
centerline to 1 NM terminal sensitivity. Where the extended final approach course in cases where the

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aircraft is vectored onto the final approach course sequencing once the maneuver is complete. The same
outside of any existing segment which is aligned with waypoint may appear in the route of flight more than
the runway. Assigned altitudes must be maintained once consecutively (e.g., IAWP, FAWP, MAHWP on
until established on a published segment of the a procedure turn). Care must be exercised to ensure
approach. Required altitudes at waypoints outside the that the receiver is sequenced to the appropriate
FAWP or stepdown fixes must be considered. waypoint for the segment of the procedure being
Calculating the distance to the FAWP may be flown, especially if one or more flyovers are skipped
required in order to descend at the proper location. (e.g., FAWP rather than IAWP if the procedure turn
is not flown). The pilot may have to sequence past one
7. Overriding an automatically selected sensi- or more flyovers of the same waypoint in order to
tivity during an approach will cancel the approach start GPS automatic sequencing at the proper place in
mode annunciation. If the approach mode is not the sequence of waypoints.
armed by 2 NM prior to the FAWP, the approach
mode will not become active at 2 NM prior to the 10. Incorrect inputs into the GPS receiver are
FAWP, and the equipment will flag. In these especially critical during approaches. In some cases,
conditions, the RAIM and CDI sensitivity will not an incorrect entry can cause the receiver to leave the
ramp down, and the pilot should not descend to MDA, approach mode.
but fly to the MAWP and execute a missed approach. 11. A fix on an overlay approach identified by a
The approach active annunciator and/or the receiver DME fix will not be in the waypoint sequence on the
should be checked to ensure the approach mode is GPS receiver unless there is a published name
active prior to the FAWP. assigned to it. When a name is assigned, the along
track to the waypoint may be zero rather than the
8. Do not attempt to fly an approach unless the DME stated on the approach chart. The pilot should
procedure is contained in the current, onboard be alert for this on any overlay procedure where the
navigation database and identified as GPS on the original approach used DME.
approach chart. The navigation database may contain
information about nonoverlay approach procedures 12. If a visual descent point (VDP) is published,
that is intended to be used to enhance position it will not be included in the sequence of waypoints.
orientation, generally by providing a map, while Pilots are expected to use normal piloting techniques
flying these approaches using conventional for beginning the visual descent, such as ATD.
NAVAIDs. This approach information should not be 13. Unnamed stepdown fixes in the final
confused with a GPS overlay approach (see the approach segment will not be coded in the waypoint
receiver operating manual, AFM, or AFM Supple- sequence of the aircrafts navigation database and
ment for details on how to identify these procedures must be identified using ATD. Stepdown fixes in the
in the navigation database). Flying point to point on final approach segment of RNAV (GPS) approaches
the approach does not assure compliance with the are being named, in addition to being identified by
published approach procedure. The proper RAIM ATD. However, since most GPS avionics do not
sensitivity will not be available and the CDI accommodate waypoints between the FAF and MAP,
sensitivity will not automatically change to even when the waypoint is named, the waypoints for
0.3 NM. Manually setting CDI sensitivity does not these stepdown fixes may not appear in the sequence
automatically change the RAIM sensitivity on some of waypoints in the navigation database. Pilots must
receivers. Some existing nonprecision approach continue to identify these stepdown fixes using ATD.
procedures cannot be coded for use with GPS and will o. Missed Approach
not be available as overlays.
1. A GPS missed approach requires pilot
9. Pilots should pay particular attention to the action to sequence the receiver past the MAWP to the
exact operation of their GPS receivers for performing missed approach portion of the procedure. The pilot
holding patterns and in the case of overlay must be thoroughly familiar with the activation
approaches, operations such as procedure turns. procedure for the particular GPS receiver installed in
These procedures may require manual intervention the aircraft and must initiate appropriate action
by the pilot to stop the sequencing of waypoints by the after the MAWP. Activating the missed approach
receiver and to resume automatic GPS navigation prior to the MAWP will cause CDI sensitivity to

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immediately change to terminal (1NM) sensitivity 10. Programming and flying an approach with
and the receiver will continue to navigate to the radar vectors to the intermediate segment;
MAWP. The receiver will not sequence past the
11. Indication of the actions required for RAIM
MAWP. Turns should not begin prior to the MAWP.
failure both before and after the FAWP; and
If the missed approach is not activated, the GPS
receiver will display an extension of the inbound final 12. Programming a radial and distance from a
approach course and the ATD will increase from the VOR (often used in departure instructions).
MAWP until it is manually sequenced after crossing
the MAWP. 1120. Wide Area Augmentation System
2. Missed approach routings in which the first (WAAS)
track is via a course rather than direct to the next a. General
waypoint require additional action by the pilot to
1. The FAA developed the Wide Area Aug-
set the course. Being familiar with all of the inputs
mentation System (WAAS) to improve the accuracy,
required is especially critical during this phase of
integrity and availability of GPS signals. WAAS will
flight.
allow GPS to be used, as the aviation navigation
p. GPS Familiarization system, from takeoff through Category I precision
approach when it is complete. WAAS is a critical
Pilots should practice GPS approaches under visual component of the FAAs strategic objective for a
meteorological conditions (VMC) until thoroughly seamless satellite navigation system for civil
proficient with all aspects of their equipment aviation, improving capacity and safety.
(receiver and installation) prior to attempting flight
by IFR in instrument meteorological conditions 2. The International Civil Aviation Organiza-
(IMC). Some of the areas which the pilot should tion (ICAO) has defined Standards and
practice are: Recommended Practices (SARPs) for satellitebased
augmentation systems (SBAS) such as WAAS. Japan
1. Utilizing the receiver autonomous integrity and Europe are building similar systems that are
monitoring (RAIM) prediction function; planned to be interoperable with WAAS: EGNOS,
2. Inserting a DP into the flight plan, including the European Geostationary Navigation Overlay
setting terminal CDI sensitivity, if required, and the System, and MSAS, the Japan Multifunctional
conditions under which terminal RAIM is available Transport Satellite (MTSAT) Satellitebased Aug-
for departure (some receivers are not DP or STAR mentation System. The merging of these systems will
capable); create a worldwide seamless navigation capability
similar to GPS but with greater accuracy, availability
3. Programming the destination airport; and integrity.
4. Programming and flying the overlay 3. Unlike traditional groundbased navigation
approaches (especially procedure turns and arcs); aids, WAAS will cover a more extensive service area.
Precisely surveyed widearea ground reference
5. Changing to another approach after selecting stations (WRS) are linked to form the U.S. WAAS
an approach; network. Signals from the GPS satellites are
6. Programming and flying direct missed monitored by these WRSs to determine satellite clock
approaches; and ephemeris corrections and to model the
propagation effects of the ionosphere. Each station in
7. Programming and flying routed missed the network relays the data to a widearea master
approaches; station (WMS) where the correction information is
8. Entering, flying, and exiting holding patterns, computed. A correction message is prepared and
particularly on overlay approaches with a second uplinked to a geostationary satellite (GEO) via a
waypoint in the holding pattern; ground uplink station (GUS). The message is then
broadcast on the same frequency as GPS (L1,
9. Programming and flying a route from a 1575.42 MHz) to WAAS receivers within the
holding pattern; broadcast coverage area of the WAAS GEO.

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4. In addition to providing the correction signal, increased integrity provided by WAAS. This WAAS
the WAAS GEO provides an additional pseudorange generated angular guidance allows the use of the
measurement to the aircraft receiver, improving the same TERPS approach criteria used for ILS
availability of GPS by providing, in effect, an approaches. The resulting approach procedure
additional GPS satellite in view. The integrity of GPS minima, titled LPV (localizer performance with
is improved through realtime monitoring, and the vertical guidance), may have a decision altitude as
accuracy is improved by providing differential low as 200 feet height above touchdown with
corrections to reduce errors. The performance visibility minimums as low as 1/2 mile, when the
improvement is sufficient to enable approach terrain and airport infrastructure support the lowest
procedures with GPS/WAAS glide paths (vertical minima. LPV minima is published on the RNAV
guidance). (GPS) approach charts (see paragraph 545,
Instrument Approach Procedure Charts).
5. The FAA has completed installation of
25 WRSs, 2 WMSs, 4 GUSs, and the required 3. A new nonprecision WAAS approach, called
terrestrial communications to support the WAAS Localizer Performance (LP) is being added in
network. Prior to the commissioning of the WAAS for locations where the terrain or obstructions do not
public use, the FAA has been conducting a series of allow publication of vertically guided LPV proced-
test and validation activities. Enhancements to the ures. This new approach takes advantage of the
initial phase of WAAS will include additional master angular lateral guidance and smaller position errors
and reference stations, communication satellites, and provided by WAAS to provide a lateral only
transmission frequencies as needed. procedure similar to an ILS Localizer. LP procedures
may provide lower minima than a LNAV procedure
6. GNSS navigation, including GPS and due to the narrower obstacle clearance surface.
WAAS, is referenced to the WGS84 coordinate
NOTE
system. It should only be used where the Aeronautical WAAS receivers certified prior to TSO C145b and TSO
Information Publications (including electronic data C146b, even if they have LPV capability, do not contain
and aeronautical charts) conform to WGS84 or LP capability unless the receiver has been upgraded.
equivalent. Other countries civil aviation authorities Receivers capable of flying LP procedures must contain a
may impose additional limitations on the use of their statement in the Flight Manual Supplement or Approved
SBAS systems. Supplemental Flight Manual stating that the receiver has
LP capability, as well as the capability for the other WAAS
b. Instrument Approach Capabilities and GPS approach procedure types.
1. A new class of approach procedures which 4. WAAS provides a level of service that
provide vertical guidance, but which do not meet the supports all phases of flight, including LNAV, LP,
ICAO Annex 10 requirements for precision ap- LNAV/VNAV and LPV approaches, within system
proaches has been developed to support satellite coverage. Some locations close to the edge of the
navigation use for aviation applications worldwide. coverage may have a lower availability of vertical
These new procedures called Approach with Vertical guidance.
Guidance (APV), are defined in ICAO Annex 6, and c. General Requirements
include approaches such as the LNAV/VNAV
procedures presently being flown with barometric 1. WAAS avionics must be certified in
vertical navigation (BaroVNAV). These approaches accordance with Technical Standard Order (TSO)
provide vertical guidance, but do not meet the more TSOC145A, Airborne Navigation Sensors Using
stringent standards of a precision approach. Properly the (GPS) Augmented by the Wide Area Augmenta-
certified WAAS receivers will be able to fly these tion System (WAAS); or TSO146A, StandAlone
LNAV/VNAV procedures using a WAAS electronic Airborne Navigation Equipment Using the Global
glide path, which eliminates the errors that can be Positioning System (GPS) Augmented by the Wide
introduced by using Barometric altimetery. Area Augmentation System (WAAS), and installed in
accordance with Advisory Circular (AC) 20130A,
2. A new type of APV approach procedure, in Airworthiness Approval of Navigation or Flight
addition to LNAV/VNAV, is being implemented to Management Systems Integrating Multiple Naviga-
take advantage of the high accuracy guidance and tion Sensors, or AC 20138A, Airworthiness

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Approval of Global Positioning System (GPS) (2) Sitespecific WAAS UNRELIABLE


Navigation Equipment for Use as a VFR and IFR NOTAMs indicate an expected level of service,
Navigation System. e.g., LNAV/VNAV or LPV may not be available.
Pilots must request sitespecific WAAS NOTAMs
2. GPS/WAAS operation must be conducted in
during flight planning. In flight, Air Traffic Control
accordance with the FAAapproved aircraft flight
will not advise pilots of WAAS UNRELIABLE
manual (AFM) and flight manual supplements. Flight
NOTAMs.
manual supplements will state the level of approach
procedure that the receiver supports. IFR approved (3) When the approach chart is annotated
WAAS receivers support all GPS only operations as with the symbol, sitespecific WAAS UNRELI-
long as lateral capability at the appropriate level is ABLE NOTAMs or Air Traffic advisories are not
functional. WAAS monitors both GPS and WAAS provided for outages in WAAS LNAV/VNAV and
satellites and provides integrity. LPV vertical service. Vertical outages may occur
daily at these locations due to being close to the edge
3. GPS/WAAS equipment is inherently capable of WAAS system coverage. Use LNAV minima for
of supporting oceanic and remote operations if the flight planning at these locations, whether as a
operator obtains a fault detection and exclusion destination or alternate. For flight operations at these
(FDE) prediction program. locations, when the WAAS avionics indicate that
4. Air carrier and commercial operators must LNAV/VNAV or LPV service is available, then the
meet the appropriate provisions of their approved vertical guidance may be used to complete the
operations specifications. approach using the displayed level of service. Should
an outage occur during the procedure, reversion to
5. Prior to GPS/WAAS IFR operation, the pilot LNAV minima may be required.
must review appropriate Notices to Airmen
NOTE
(NOTAMs) and aeronautical information. This Areawide WAAS UNAVAILABLE NOTAMs apply to all
information is available on request from an airports in the WAAS UNAVAILABLE area designated in
Automated Flight Service Station. The FAA will the NOTAM, including approaches at airports where an
provide NOTAMs to advise pilots of the status of the approach chart is annotated with the symbol.
WAAS and level of service available.
6. GPS/WAAS was developed to be used within
(a) The term UNRELIABLE is used in SBAS GEO coverage (WAAS or other interoperable
conjunction with GPS and WAAS NOTAMs. The system) without the need for other radio navigation
term UNRELIABLE is an advisory to pilots equipment appropriate to the route of flight to be
indicating the expected level of WAAS service flown. Outside the SBAS coverage or in the event of
(LNAV/VNAV, LPV) may not be available; a WAAS failure, GPS/WAAS equipment reverts to
e.g., !BOS BOS WAAS LPV AND LNAV/VNAV GPSonly operation and satisfies the requirements
MNM UNREL WEF 0305231700 0305231815. for basic GPS equipment.
WAAS UNRELIABLE NOTAMs are predictive in 7. Unlike TSOC129 avionics, which were
nature and published for flight planning purposes. certified as a supplement to other means of
Upon commencing an approach at locations navigation, WAAS avionics are evaluated without
NOTAMed WAAS UNRELIABLE, if the WAAS reliance on other navigation systems. As such,
avionics indicate LNAV/VNAV or LPV service is installation of WAAS avionics does not require the
available, then vertical guidance may be used to aircraft to have other equipment appropriate to the
complete the approach using the displayed level of route to be flown.
service. Should an outage occur during the approach,
(a) Pilots with WAAS receivers may flight
reversion to LNAV minima may be required.
plan to use any instrument approach procedure
(1) Areawide WAAS UNAVAILABLE authorized for use with their WAAS avionics as
NOTAMs indicate loss or malfunction of the WAAS the planned approach at a required alternate, with
system. In flight, Air Traffic Control will advise the following restrictions. When using WAAS at
pilots requesting a GPS or RNAV (GPS) approach of an alternate airport, flight planning must be based
WAAS UNAVAILABLE NOTAMs if not contained on flying the RNAV (GPS) LNAV minima line,
in the ATIS broadcast. or minima on a GPS approach procedure, or

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conventional approach procedure with or GPS in For example, if an approach is published with LPV
the title. Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Part 91 minima and the receiver is only certified for
nonprecision weather requirements must be used for LNAV/VNAV, the equipment would indicate
planning. Upon arrival at an alternate, when the LNAV/VNAV available, even though the WAAS
WAAS navigation system indicates that LNAV/ signal would support LPV. If flying an existing
VNAV or LPV service is available, then vertical LNAV/VNAV procedure with no LPV minima, the
guidance may be used to complete the approach using receiver will notify the pilot LNAV/VNAV
the displayed level of service. The FAA has begun available, even if the receiver is certified for LPV
removing the NA (Alternate Minimums Not and the signal supports LPV. If the signal does not
Authorized) symbol from select RNAV (GPS) and support vertical guidance on procedures with LPV
GPS approach procedures so they may be used by and/or LNAV/VNAV minima, the receiver annunci-
approach approved WAAS receivers at alternate ation will read LNAV available. On lateral only
airports. Some approach procedures will still require procedures with LP and LNAV minima the receiver
the NA for other reasons, such as no weather will indicate LP available or LNAV available
reporting, so it cannot be removed from all based on the level of lateral service available. Once
procedures. Since every procedure must be individu- the level of service notification has been given, the
ally evaluated, removal of the NA from RNAV receiver will operate in this mode for the duration of
(GPS) and GPS procedures will take some time. the approach procedure, unless that level of service
becomes unavailable. The receiver cannot change
d. Flying Procedures with WAAS back to a more accurate level of service until the next
time an approach is activated.
1. WAAS receivers support all basic GPS
approach functions and provide additional capabilit- NOTE
ies. One of the major improvements is the ability to Receivers do not fail down to lower levels of service
once the approach has been activated. If only the
generate glide path guidance, independent of ground
vertical off flag appears, the pilot may elect to use the
equipment or barometric aiding. This eliminates LNAV minima if the rules under which the flight is
several problems such as hot and cold temperature operating allow changing the type of approach being flown
effects, incorrect altimeter setting or lack of a local after commencing the procedure. If the lateral integrity
altimeter source. It also allows approach procedures limit is exceeded on an LP approach, a missed approach
to be built without the cost of installing ground will be necessary since there is no way to reset the lateral
stations at each airport or runway. Some approach alarm limit while the approach is active.
certified receivers may only generate a glide path 3. Another additional feature of WAAS receiv-
with performance similar to BaroVNAV and are ers is the ability to exclude a bad GPS signal and
only approved to fly the LNAV/VNAV line of minima continue operating normally. This is normally
on the RNAV (GPS) approach charts. Receivers with accomplished by the WAAS correction information.
additional capability (including faster update rates Outside WAAS coverage or when WAAS is not
and smaller integrity limits) are approved to fly the available, it is accomplished through a receiver
LPV line of minima. The lateral integrity changes algorithm called FDE. In most cases this operation
dramatically from the 0.3 NM (556 meter) limit for will be invisible to the pilot since the receiver will
GPS, LNAV and LNAV/VNAV approach mode, to 40 continue to operate with other available satellites
meters for LPV. It also provides vertical integrity after excluding the bad signal. This capability
monitoring, which bounds the vertical error to 50 increases the reliability of navigation.
meters for LNAV/VNAV and LPVs with minima of
4. Both lateral and vertical scaling for the
250 or above, and bounds the vertical error to 35
LNAV/VNAV and LPV approach procedures are
meters for LPVs with minima below 250.
different than the linear scaling of basic GPS. When
2. When an approach procedure is selected and the complete published procedure is flown, +/1 NM
active, the receiver will notify the pilot of the most linear scaling is provided until two (2) NM prior to the
accurate level of service supported by the combina- FAF, where the sensitivity increases to be similar to
tion of the WAAS signal, the receiver, and the the angular scaling of an ILS. There are two differ-
selected approach, using the naming conventions on ences in the WAAS scaling and ILS: 1) on long final
the minima lines of the selected approach procedure. approach segments, the initial scaling will be

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+/0.3 NM to achieve equivalent performance to that the correct final approach segment was loaded by
GPS (and better than ILS, which is less sensitive far cross checking the Approach ID, which is also
from the runway); 2) close to the runway threshold, provided on the approach chart.
the scaling changes to linear instead of continuing to
7. The AlongTrack Distance (ATD) during the
become more sensitive. The width of the final
final approach segment of an LNAV procedure (with
approach course is tailored so that the total width is
a minimum descent altitude) will be to the MAWP. On
usually 700 feet at the runway threshold. Since the
LNAV/VNAV and LPV approaches to a decision
origin point of the lateral splay for the angular portion
altitude, there is no missed approach waypoint so the
of the final is not fixed due to antenna placement like
alongtrack distance is displayed to a point normally
localizer, the splay angle can remain fixed, making a
located at the runway threshold. In most cases the
consistent width of final for aircraft being vectored
MAWP for the LNAV approach is located on the
onto the final approach course on different length
runway threshold at the centerline, so these distances
runways. When the complete published procedure is
will be the same. This distance will always vary
not flown, and instead the aircraft needs to capture the
slightly from any ILS DME that may be present, since
extended final approach course similar to ILS, the
the ILS DME is located further down the runway.
vector to final (VTF) mode is used. Under VTF the
Initiation of the missed approach on the LNAV/
scaling is linear at +/1 NM until the point where the
VNAV and LPV approaches is still based on reaching
ILS angular splay reaches a width of +/1 NM
the decision altitude without any of the items listed in
regardless of the distance from the FAWP.
14 CFR Section 91.175 being visible, and must not be
5. The WAAS scaling is also different than GPS delayed until the ATD reaches zero. The WAAS
TSOC129 in the initial portion of the missed receiver, unlike a GPS receiver, will automatically
approach. Two differences occur here. First, the sequence past the MAWP if the missed approach
scaling abruptly changes from the approach scaling to procedure has been designed for RNAV. The pilot
the missed approach scaling, at approximately the may also select missed approach prior to the MAWP,
departure end of the runway or when the pilot however, navigation will continue to the MAWP prior
requests missed approach guidance rather than to waypoint sequencing taking place.
ramping as GPS does. Second, when the first leg of
the missed approach is a Track to Fix (TF) leg aligned 1121. GNSS Landing System (GLS)
within 3 degrees of the inbound course, the receiver
a. General
will change to 0.3 NM linear sensitivity until the turn
initiation point for the first waypoint in the missed 1. The GLS provides precision navigation
approach procedure, at which time it will abruptly guidance for exact alignment and descent of aircraft
change to terminal (+/1 NM) sensitivity. This allows on approach to a runway. It provides differential
the elimination of close in obstacles in the early part augmentation to the Global Navigation Satellite
of the missed approach that may cause the DA to be System (GNSS).
raised.
2. The U.S. plans to provide augmentation
6. A new method has been added for selecting services to the GPS for the first phase of GNSS. This
the final approach segment of an instrument section will be revised and updated to reflect
approach. Along with the current method used by international standards and GLS services as they are
most receivers using menus where the pilot selects the provided.
airport, the runway, the specific approach procedure
and finally the IAF, there is also a channel number 1122. Precision Approach Systems other
selection method. The pilot enters a unique 5digit than ILS, GLS, and MLS
number provided on the approach chart, and the
a. General
receiver recalls the matching final approach segment
from the aircraft database. A list of information Approval and use of precision approach systems
including the available IAFs is displayed and the pilot other than ILS, GLS and MLS require the issuance of
selects the appropriate IAF. The pilot should confirm special instrument approach procedures.

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b. Special Instrument Approach Procedure very similar to an air traffic controller providing radar
vectors, and just as with radar vectors, the guidance
1. Special instrument approach procedures
is valid only for the intended aircraft. The TLS
must be issued to the aircraft operator if pilot training,
ground equipment tracks one aircraft, based on its
aircraft equipment, and/or aircraft performance is
transponder code, and provides correction signals to
different than published procedures. Special instru-
course and glidepath based on the position of the
ment approach procedures are not distributed for
tracked aircraft. Flying the TLS corrections com-
general public use. These procedures are issued to an
puted for another aircraft will not provide guidance
aircraft operator when the conditions for operations
relative to the approach; therefore, aircrews must not
approval are satisfied.
use the TLS signal for navigation unless they have
2. General aviation operators requesting ap- received approach clearance and completed the
proval for special procedures should contact the local required coordination with the TLS ground equip-
Flight Standards District Office to obtain a letter of ment operator. Navigation fixes based on
authorization. Air carrier operators requesting conventional NAVAIDs or GPS are provided in the
approval for use of special procedures should contact special instrument approach procedure to allow
their Certificate Holding District Office for authori- aircrews to verify the TLS guidance.
zation through their Operations Specification.
d. Special Category I Differential GPS
c. Transponder Landing System (TLS) (SCATI DGPS)
1. The TLS is designed to provide approach 1. The SCATI DGPS is designed to provide
guidance utilizing existing airborne ILS localizer, approach guidance by broadcasting differential
glide slope, and transponder equipment. correction to GPS.
2. Ground equipment consists of a transponder 2. SCATI DGPS procedures require aircraft
interrogator, sensor arrays to detect lateral and equipment and pilot training.
vertical position, and ILS frequency transmitters. The
TLS detects the aircrafts position by interrogating its 3. Ground equipment consists of GPS receivers
transponder. It then broadcasts ILS frequency signals and a VHF digital radio transmitter. The SCATI
to guide the aircraft along the desired approach path. DGPS detects the position of GPS satellites relative
to GPS receiver equipment and broadcasts differen-
3. TLS instrument approach procedures are
tial corrections over the VHF digital radio.
designated Special Instrument Approach Procedures.
Special aircrew training is required. TLS ground 4. Category I Ground Based Augmentation
equipment provides approach guidance for only one System (GBAS) will displace SCATI DGPS as the
aircraft at a time. Even though the TLS signal is public use service.
received using the ILS receiver, no fixed course or REFERENCE
glidepath is generated. The concept of operation is AIM, Para 547f, Instrument Approach Procedures.

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Section 2. Area Navigation (RNAV) and Required


Navigation Performance (RNP)

121. Area Navigation (RNAV) (a) Flyby waypoints. Flyby waypoints


are used when an aircraft should begin a turn to the
a. General. RNAV is a method of navigation that next course prior to reaching the waypoint separating
permits aircraft operation on any desired flight path the two route segments. This is known as turn
within the coverage of ground or space based anticipation.
navigation aids or within the limits of the capability
of selfcontained aids, or a combination of these. In (b) Flyover waypoints. Flyover way-
the future, there will be an increased dependence on points are used when the aircraft must fly over the
the use of RNAV in lieu of routes defined by point prior to starting a turn.
groundbased navigation aids. NOTE
FIG 121 illustrates several differences between a flyby
RNAV routes and terminal procedures, including and a flyover waypoint.
departure procedures (DPs) and standard terminal
arrivals (STARs), are designed with RNAV systems FIG 121
in mind. There are several potential advantages of Flyby and Flyover Waypoints
RNAV routes and procedures:
1. Time and fuel savings,
2. Reduced dependence on radar vectoring,
altitude, and speed assignments allowing a reduction
in required ATC radio transmissions, and
3. More efficient use of airspace.
In addition to information found in this manual,
guidance for domestic RNAV DPs, STARs, and
routes may also be found in Advisory Circu-
lar 90100A, U.S. Terminal and En Route Area
Navigation (RNAV) Operations.
b. RNAV Operations. RNAV procedures, such
as DPs and STARs, demand strict pilot awareness and
maintenance of the procedure centerline. Pilots
should possess a working knowledge of their aircraft
navigation system to ensure RNAV procedures are 2. RNAV Leg Types. A leg type describes the
flown in an appropriate manner. In addition, pilots desired path proceeding, following, or between
should have an understanding of the various waypoints on an RNAV procedure. Leg types are
waypoint and leg types used in RNAV procedures; identified by a twoletter code that describes the path
these are discussed in more detail below. (e.g., heading, course, track, etc.) and the termination
point (e.g., the path terminates at an altitude, distance,
1. Waypoints. A waypoint is a predetermined fix, etc.). Leg types used for procedure design are
geographical position that is defined in terms of included in the aircraft navigation database, but not
latitude/longitude coordinates. Waypoints may be a normally provided on the procedure chart. The
simple named point in space or associated with narrative depiction of the RNAV chart describes how
existing navaids, intersections, or fixes. A waypoint a procedure is flown. The path and terminator
is most often used to indicate a change in direction, concept defines that every leg of a procedure has a
speed, or altitude along the desired path. RNAV termination point and some kind of path into that
procedures make use of both flyover and flyby termination point. Some of the available leg types are
waypoints. described below.

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(a) Track to Fix. A Track to Fix (TF) leg is (b) Direct to Fix. A Direct to Fix (DF) leg is
intercepted and acquired as the flight track to the a path described by an aircrafts track from an initial
following waypoint. Track to a Fix legs are area direct to the next waypoint. Narrative: left
sometimes called pointtopoint legs for this reason. turn direct BARGN WP. See FIG 123.
Narrative: via 087_ track to CHEZZ WP. See
FIG 122.

FIG 122
Track to Fix Leg Type

FIG 123
Direct to Fix Leg Type

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(c) Course to Fix. A Course to Fix (CF) leg west of PXR VORTAC, right turn heading 360_, fly
is a path that terminates at a fix with a specified course heading 090_, expect radar vectors to DRYHT INT.
at that fix. Narrative: via 078_ course to PRIMY
3. Navigation Issues. Pilots should be aware
WP. See FIG 124.
of their navigation system inputs, alerts, and
FIG 124 annunciations in order to make betterinformed
Course to Fix Leg Type decisions. In addition, the availability and suitability
of particular sensors/systems should be considered.
(a) GPS. Operators using TSOC129 sys-
tems should ensure departure and arrival airports are
entered to ensure proper RAIM availability and CDI
sensitivity.
(b) DME/DME. Operators should be aware
that DME/DME position updating is dependent on
FMS logic and DME facility proximity, availability,
geometry, and signal masking.
(c) VOR/DME. Unique VOR characteris-
tics may result in less accurate values from
VOR/DME position updating than from GPS or
DME/DME position updating.
(d) Inertial Navigation. Inertial reference
units and inertial navigation systems are often
coupled with other types of navigation inputs,
(d) Radius to Fix. A Radius to Fix (RF) leg e.g., DME/DME or GPS, to improve overall
is defined as a constant radius circular path around a navigation system performance.
defined turn center that terminates at a fix. See NOTE
FIG 125. Specific inertial position updating requirements may
apply.
FIG 125
Radius to Fix Leg Type 4. Flight Management System (FMS). An
FMS is an integrated suite of sensors, receivers, and
computers, coupled with a navigation database.
These systems generally provide performance and
RNAV guidance to displays and automatic flight
control systems.
Inputs can be accepted from multiple sources such as
GPS, DME, VOR, LOC and IRU. These inputs may
be applied to a navigation solution one at a time or in
combination. Some FMSs provide for the detection
and isolation of faulty navigation information.
When appropriate navigation signals are available,
FMSs will normally rely on GPS and/or DME/DME
(that is, the use of distance information from two or
more DME stations) for position updates. Other
(e) Heading. A Heading leg may be defined inputs may also be incorporated based on FMS
as, but not limited to, a Heading to Altitude (VA), system architecture and navigation source geometry.
Heading to DME range (VD), and Heading to Manual NOTE
Termination, i.e., Vector (VM). Narrative: climb DME/DME inputs coupled with one or more IRU(s) are
runway heading to 1500, heading 265_, at 9 DME often abbreviated as DME/DME/IRU or D/D/I.

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122. Required Navigation Performance b. RNP Operations.


(RNP)
1. RNP Levels. An RNP level or type is
a. General. RNP is RNAV with onboard applicable to a selected airspace, route, or procedure.
navigation monitoring and alerting, RNP is also a As defined in the Pilot/Controller Glossary, the RNP
statement of navigation performance necessary for Level or Type is a value typically expressed as a
operation within a defined airspace. A critical distance in nautical miles from the intended
component of RNP is the ability of the aircraft centerline of a procedure, route, or path. RNP
navigation system to monitor its achieved navigation applications also account for potential errors at some
performance, and to identify for the pilot whether the multiple of RNP level (e.g., twice the RNP level).
operational requirement is, or is not being met during
an operation. This onboard performance monitor- (a) Standard RNP Levels. U.S. standard
ing and alerting capability therefore allows a lessened values supporting typical RNP airspace are as
reliance on air traffic control intervention (via radar specified in TBL 121 below. Other RNP levels as
monitoring, automatic dependent surveillance identified by ICAO, other states and the FAA may
(ADS), multilateration, communications), and/or also be used.
route separation to achieve the overall safety of the
operation. RNP capability of the aircraft is a major (b) Application of Standard RNP Levels.
component in determining the separation criteria to U.S. standard levels of RNP typically used for
ensure that the overall containment of the operation various routes and procedures supporting RNAV
is met. operations may be based on use of a specific
navigational system or sensor such as GPS, or on
The RNP capability of an aircraft will vary depending multisensor RNAV systems having suitable perfor-
upon the aircraft equipment and the navigation mance.
infrastructure. For example, an aircraft may be
equipped and certified for RNP 1.0, but may not be (c) Depiction of Standard RNP Levels. The
capable of RNP 1.0 operations due to limited navaid applicable RNP level will be depicted on affected
coverage. charts and procedures.

TBL 121
U.S. Standard RNP Levels

RNP Level Typical Application Primary Route Width (NM)


Centerline to Boundary
0.1 to 1.0 RNP SAAAR Approach Segments 0.1 to 1.0
0.3 to 1.0 RNP Approach Segments 0.3 to 1.0
1 Terminal and En Route 1.0
2 En Route 2.0

NOTE
1. The performance of navigation in RNP refers not only to the level of accuracy of a particular sensor or aircraft
navigation system, but also to the degree of precision with which the aircraft will be flown.

2. Specific required flight procedures may vary for different RNP levels.

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TBL 122
RNP Levels Supported for International Operations

RNP Level Typical Application


4 Projected for oceanic/remote areas where 30 NM horizontal separation is applied
10 Oceanic/remote areas where 50 NM lateral separation is applied

c. Other RNP Applications Outside the U.S. RNAV system, a pilot may hold over an outof
The FAA and ICAO member states have led service NDB. This category of use is referred to as
initiatives in implementing the RNP concept to substitute means of navigation.
oceanic operations. For example, RNP10 routes
2. When a VOR, DME, VORTAC, VOR/DME,
have been established in the northern Pacific
TACAN, NDB, or compass locator facility including
(NOPAC) which has increased capacity and
locator outer marker and locator middle marker is
efficiency by reducing the distance between tracks
operational and the respective aircraft is equipped
to 50 NM. (See TBL 122.)
with operational navigation equipment that is
d. Aircraft and Airborne Equipment Eligibility compatible with conventional navaids. For example,
for RNP Operations. Aircraft meeting RNP criteria if equipped with a suitable RNAV system, a pilot may
will have an appropriate entry including special fly a procedure or route based on operational VOR
conditions and limitations in its Aircraft Flight using RNAV equipment but not monitor the VOR.
Manual (AFM), or supplement. Operators of aircraft This category of use is referred to as alternate means
not having specific AFMRNP certification may be of navigation.
issued operational approval including special condi- NOTE
tions and limitations for specific RNP levels. 1. Additional information and associated requirements
are available via a 90series Advisory Circular titled Use
NOTE
of Suitable RNAV Systems on Conventional Routes and
Some airborne systems use Estimated Position Uncer-
Procedures.
tainty (EPU) as a measure of the current estimated
navigational performance. EPU may also be referred to as 2. Good planning and knowledge of your RNAV system are
Actual Navigation Performance (ANP) or Estimated critical for safe and successful operations.
Position Error (EPE). 3. Pilots planning to use their RNAV system as a substitute
means of navigation guidance in lieu of an outofservice
navaid may need to advise ATC of this intent and
123. Use of Suitable Area Navigation
capability.
(RNAV) Systems on Conventional
Procedures and Routes b. Types of RNAV Systems that Qualify as a
Suitable RNAV System. When installed in accord-
a. Discussion. This paragraph sets forth policy ance with appropriate airworthiness installation
concerning the operational use of RNAV systems for requirements and operated in accordance with
the following applications within the U.S. National applicable operational guidance (e.g., aircraft flight
Airspace System (NAS): manual and Advisory Circular material), the
following systems qualify as a suitable RNAV
1. When a veryhigh frequency omni
system:
directional range (VOR), DME, tactical air
navigation (TACAN), VORTAC, VOR/DME, non- 1. An RNAV system with TSOC129/
directional beacon (NDB), or compass locator C145/C146 (including all revisions (AR)) equip-
facility including locator outer marker and locator ment, installed in accordance with AC 20138
middle marker is outofservice (that is, the (including AR) or AC 20130A, and authorized for
navigation aid (navaid) information is not available); instrument flight rules (IFR) en route and terminal
an aircraft is not equipped with an ADF or DME; or operations (including those systems previously
the installed ADF or DME on an aircraft is not qualified for GPS in lieu of ADF or DME
operational. For example, if equipped with a suitable operations), or

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2. An RNAV system with DME/DME/IRU These operations do not include lateral navigation on
inputs that is compliant with the equipment localizerbased courses (including localizer back
provisions of AC 90100A, U.S. Terminal and course guidance) without reference to raw localizer
En Route Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations, for data.
RNAV routes.
NOTE
NOTE 1. These allowances apply only to operations conducted
RNAV systems using DME/DME/IRU, without GPS/WAAS within the NAS.
position input, may only be used as a substitute means of
navigation when specifically authorized by a Notice to 2. The allowances defined in paragraph c apply even when
Airmen (NOTAM) or other FAA guidance for a specific a facility is explicitly identified as required on a procedure
procedure, NAVAID, or fix. The NOTAM or other FAA (e.g., Note ADF required). These allowances do not
guidance authorizing the use of DME/DME/IRU systems apply to procedures that are identified as not authorized
will also identify any required DME facilities based on an (NA) without exception by a NOTAM, as other conditions
FAA assessment of the DME navigation infrastructure. may still exist and result in a procedure not being available.
For example, these allowances do not apply to a procedure
c. Allowable Operations. Operators may use a associated with an expired or unsatisfactory flight
suitable RNAV system in the following ways. inspection, or is based upon a recently decommissioned
1. Determine aircraft position over or distance navaid.
from a VOR (see NOTE 4 below), TACAN, NDB, 3. Pilots may not substitute for the navigation aid
compass locator, DME fix; or a named fix defined by providing lateral guidance for the final approach segment.
a VOR radial, TACAN course, NDB bearing, or This restriction does not refer to instrument approach
compass locator bearing intersecting a VOR or procedures with or GPS in the title when using GPS or
localizer course. WAAS. These allowances do not apply to procedures that
are identified as not authorized (NA) without exception by
2. Navigate to or from a VOR, TACAN, NDB, a NOTAM, as other conditions may still exist and result in
or compass locator. a procedure not being available. For example, these
3. Hold over a VOR, TACAN, NDB, compass allowances do not apply to a procedure associated with an
locator, or DME fix. expired or unsatisfactory flight inspection, or is based upon
a recently decommissioned navaid.
4. Fly an arc based upon DME.
4. For the purpose of paragraph c, VOR includes VOR,
These operations are allowable even when a facility VOR/DME, and VORTAC facilities and compass
is explicitly identified as required on a procedure locator includes locator outer marker and locator middle
(e.g., Note ADF required). marker.

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located along the runway centerline and are spaced at certain runways which are approved for Land and
50foot intervals. When viewed from the landing Hold Short Operations (LAHSO). Land and hold
threshold, the runway centerline lights are white until short lights consist of a row of pulsing white lights
the last 3,000 feet of the runway. The white lights installed across the runway at the hold short point.
begin to alternate with red for the next 2,000 feet, and Where installed, the lights will be on anytime
for the last 1,000 feet of the runway, all centerline LAHSO is in effect. These lights will be off when
lights are red. LAHSO is not in effect.
REFERENCE
b. Touchdown Zone Lights (TDZL). Touch- AIM, Pilot Responsibilities When Conducting Land and Hold Short
Operations (LAHSO), Paragraph 4311.
down zone lights are installed on some precision
approach runways to indicate the touchdown zone
when landing under adverse visibility conditions.
They consist of two rows of transverse light bars 216. Runway Status Light (RWSL)
disposed symmetrically about the runway centerline. System
The system consists of steadyburning white lights
which start 100 feet beyond the landing threshold and a. Introduction.
extend to 3,000 feet beyond the landing threshold or
to the midpoint of the runway, whichever is less. RWSL is a fully automated system that provides
runway status information to pilots and surface
c. Taxiway Centerline LeadOff Lights. Taxi- vehicle operators to indicate when it is unsafe to enter,
way centerline leadoff lights provide visual cross, takeoff from, or land on a runway. The RWSL
guidance to persons exiting the runway. They are system processes information from surveillance
colorcoded to warn pilots and vehicle drivers that systems and activates Runway Entrance Lights
they are within the runway environment or (REL), Takeoff Hold Lights (THL), and Final
instrument landing system/microwave landing sys- Approach Runway Occupancy Signal (FAROS) in
tem (ILS/MLS) critical area, whichever is more accordance with the motion and velocity of the
restrictive. Alternate green and yellow lights are detected traffic. REL and THL are in-pavement light
installed, beginning with green, from the runway fixtures that are directly visible to pilots and surface
centerline to one centerline light position beyond the vehicle operators. FAROS activation is by means of
runway holding position or ILS/MLS critical area flashing the Precision Approach Path Indicator
holding position. (PAPI). RWSL is an independent safety enhance-
ment that does not substitute for an ATC clearance.
Clearance to enter, cross, takeoff from, land on, or
d. Taxiway Centerline LeadOn Lights. Taxi- operate on a runway must be issued by ATC.
way centerline leadon lights provide visual Although ATC has limited control over the system,
guidance to persons entering the runway. These personnel do not directly use, and may not be able
leadon lights are also colorcoded with the same to view, light fixture output in their operations.
color pattern as leadoff lights to warn pilots and
vehicle drivers that they are within the runway b. Runway Entrance Lights (REL): The REL
environment or instrument landing system/micro- system is composed of flush mounted, in-pavement,
wave landing system (ILS/MLS) critical area, unidirectional fixtures that are parallel to and focused
whichever is more conservative. The fixtures used for along the taxiway centerline and directed toward the
leadon lights are bidirectional, i.e., one side emits pilot at the hold line. A specific array of REL lights
light for the leadon function while the other side include the first light at the hold line followed by a
emits light for the leadoff function. Any fixture that series of evenly spaced lights to the runway edge; and
emits yellow light for the leadoff function shall also one additional light at the runway centerline in line
emit yellow light for the leadon function. with the last two lights before the runway edge (See
(See FIG 2110.) FIG 219). When activated, these red lights indicate
that there is high speed traffic on the runway or there
e. Land and Hold Short Lights. Land and hold is an aircraft on final approach within the activation
short lights are used to indicate the hold short point on area.

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FIG 219
Runway Status Light System

1. Operating Characteristics Departing Air- aircraft has slowed to approximately 80 knots (site
craft: adjustable parameter). Below 80 knots, all arrays that
are not within 30 seconds of the aircrafts forward
When a departing aircraft reaches 30 knots, all
path are extinguished. Once the arriving aircraft
taxiway intersections with REL arrays along the
slows to approximately 34 knots (site adjustable
runway ahead of the aircraft will illuminate (see
parameter), it is declared to be in a taxi state, and all
FIG 219.) As the aircraft approaches a REL
lights extinguish.
equipped taxiway intersection, the lights at that
intersection extinguish approximately 2 to 3 seconds 3. What a pilot would observe: A pilot at or
before the aircraft reaches it. This allows controllers approaching the hold line to a runway will observe
to apply anticipated separation to permit ATC to REL illumination and extinguishing in reaction to an
move traffic more expeditiously without comprom- aircraft or vehicle operating on the runway, or an
ising safety. After the aircraft is declared airborne arriving aircraft operating less than 1 mile from the
by the system, all lights will extinguish. runway threshold.
2. Operating Characteristics Arriving Air-
4. Whenever a pilot observes the red lights of
craft:
the REL, that pilot will stop at the hold line, or along
When an aircraft on final approach is approximately the taxiway path and remain stopped. The pilot will
1 mile from the runway threshold all sets of REL then contact ATC for resolution if the clearance is in
light arrays along the runway will illuminate. The conflict with the lights. Should pilots note
distance is adjustable and can be configured for illuminated lights under circumstances when remain-
specific operations at particular airports. Lights ing clear of the runway is impractical for safety
extinguish at each equipped taxiway intersection reasons (i.e., aircraft is already on the runway), the
approximately 2 to 3 seconds before the aircraft crew should proceed according to their best judgment
reaches it to apply anticipated separation until the while understanding the illuminated lights indicate

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the runway is unsafe to enter or cross. Contact ATC lights indicate that continuing the takeoff is unsafe.
at the earliest possible opportunity. Contact ATC at the earliest possible opportunity.
c. Takeoff Hold Lights (THL) : The THL system d. The Final Approach Runway Occupancy
is composed of inpavement, unidirectional fixtures Signal (FAROS) is activated by flashing of the
in a double longitudinal row aligned either side of the Precision Approach Path Indicator (PAPI) (see FIG
runway centerline lighting. Fixtures are focused 2-1-9). When activated, the light fixtures of the PAPI
toward the arrival end of the runway at the position flash or pulse to indicate to the pilot on an approach
and hold point, and they extend for 1,500 feet in that the runway is occupied and that it may be unsafe
front of the holding aircraft (see FIG 219.) to land.
Illuminated red lights provide a signal, to an aircraft
1. Operating Characteristics:
in position for takeoff or rolling, that it is unsafe to
takeoff because the runway is occupied or about to be If an aircraft or surface vehicle occupies a FAROS
occupied by another aircraft or ground vehicle. Two equipped runway, the PAPI(s) on that runway will
aircraft, or a surface vehicle and an aircraft, are flash or pulse. The glide path indication will not be
required for the lights to illuminate. The departing affected, and the allotment of red and white PAPI
aircraft must be in position for takeoff or beginning lights observed by the pilot on approach will not
takeoff roll. Another aircraft or a surface vehicle must change. Some FAROS systems will flash or pulse the
be on or about to cross the runway. PAPI when traffic enters the runway whether or not
there is an aircraft on approach. Others will flash the
1. Operating Characteristics Departing Air- PAPI only if there is an aircraft on approach and
craft: within 1.5 nautical miles of the landing threshold.
THLs will illuminate for an aircraft in position for 2. What a pilot would observe: A pilot on
departure or departing when there is another aircraft approach to the runway will observe the PAPI flash or
or vehicle on the runway or about to enter the runway pulse if there is traffic on the runway and will notice
(see FIG 219.) Once that aircraft or vehicle exits the PAPI ceases to flash or pulse when the traffic
the runway, the THLs extinguish. A pilot may notice moves outside the hold short lines for the runway.
lights extinguish prior to the downfield aircraft or
vehicle being completely clear of the runway but still 3. Whenever a pilot observes a flashing or
moving. Like RELs, THLs have an anticipated pulsing PAPI, the pilot will verify the FAROS
separation feature. activation. At 500 feet above ground level (AGL),
the pilot must look for and acquire the traffic on the
NOTE
runway. At 300 feet AGL, the pilot must contact ATC
When the THLs extinguish, this is not clearance to begin a
for resolution if the clearance is in conflict with the
takeoff roll. All takeoff clearances will be issued by ATC.
FAROS indication. If the PAPI continues to flash or
2. What a pilot would observe: A pilot in pulse, the pilot must execute an immediate go
position to depart from a runway, or has begun takeoff around and contact ATC at the earliest possible
roll, will observe THL illumination in reaction to an opportunity.
aircraft or vehicle on the runway or about to enter or
e. Pilot Actions:
cross it. Lights will extinguish when the runway is
clear. A pilot may observe several cycles of 1. When operating at airports with RWSL, pilots
illumination and extinguishing depending on the will operate with the transponder On when
amount of crossing traffic. departing the gate or parking area until it is shutdown
upon arrival at the gate or parking area. This ensures
3. Whenever a pilot observes the red lights of
interaction with the FAA surveillance systems which
the THLs, the pilot will stop or remain stopped. The
provide information to the RWSL system.
pilot will contact ATC for resolution if any clearance
is in conflict with the lights. Should pilots note 2. Pilots must always inform ATCT when they
illuminated lights while in takeoff roll and under have stopped or are verifying a landing clearance due
circumstances when stopping is impractical for safety to RWSL or FAROS indications that are in conflict
reasons, the crew should proceed according to their with ATC instructions. Pilots must request clarifica-
best judgment while understanding the illuminated tion of the taxi, takeoff, or landing clearance.

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3. Never cross over illuminated red lights. Automatic Terminal Information System (ATIS)
Under normal circumstances, RWSL will confirm the must be updated.
pilots taxi or takeoff clearance. If RWSL indicates
that it is unsafe to takeoff from or taxi across a 217. Control of Lighting Systems
runway, immediately notify ATC of the conflict and
confirm your clearance. Never land if PAPI continues a. Operation of approach light systems and
to flash or pulse. Execute a go around and notify ATC. runway lighting is controlled by the control tower
(ATCT). At some locations the FSS may control the
4. Do not proceed when lights have extin- lights where there is no control tower in operation.
guished without an ATC clearance. RWSL verifies an b. Pilots may request that lights be turned on or
ATC clearance, it does not substitute for an ATC off. Runway edge lights, in-pavement lights and
clearance. approach lights also have intensity controls which
may be varied to meet the pilots request. Sequenced
f. ATC Control of RWSL System: flashing lights (SFL) may be turned on and off. Some
sequenced flashing light systems also have intens-
1. Controllers can set inpavement lights to one ity control.
of five (5) brightness levels to assure maximum
conspicuity under all visibility and lighting condi-
218. Pilot Control of Airport Lighting
tions. REL and THL subsystems may be
independently set. Radio control of lighting is available at selected
airports to provide airborne control of lights by
2. The system can be shutdown should RWSL keying the aircrafts microphone. Control of lighting
operations impact the efficient movement of air systems is often available at locations without
traffic or contribute, in the opinion of the ATC specified hours for lighting and where there is no
Supervisor, to unsafe operations. REL, THL, and control tower or FSS or when the tower or FSS is
FAROS subsystems may be shutdown separately. closed (locations with a part-time tower or FSS) or
Shutdown of the FAROS subsystem will not specified hours. All lighting systems which are radio
extinguish PAPI lights or impact its glide path controlled at an airport, whether on a single runway
function. Whenever the system or a component is or multiple runways, operate on the same radio
shutdown, a NOTAM must be issued, and the frequency. (See TBL 211 and TBL 212.)

FIG 2110
Taxiway LeadOn Light Configuration

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TBL 211
Runways With Approach Lights

No. of Int. Status During Intensity Step Selected Per No. of Mike Clicks
Lighting System
Steps Nonuse Period
3 Clicks 5 Clicks 7 Clicks
Approach Lights (Med. Int.) 2 Off Low Low High
Approach Lights (Med. Int.) 3 Off Low Med High
MIRL 3 Off or Low u u u
HIRL 5 Off or Low u u u
VASI 2 Off L L L
NOTES: u Predetermined intensity step.
L Low intensity for night use. High intensity for day use as determined by photocell control.

TBL 212
Runways Without Approach Lights

No. of Int. Status During Intensity Step Selected Per No. of Mike Clicks
Lighting System
Steps Nonuse Period
3 Clicks 5 Clicks 7 Clicks
MIRL 3 Off or Low Low Med. High
HIRL 5 Off or Low Step 1 or 2 Step 3 Step 5
LIRL 1 Off On On On
VASIL 2 Off u u u
REILL 1 Off Off On/Off On
REILL 3 Off Low Med. High
NOTES: u Low intensity for night use. High intensity for day use as determined by photocell control.
L The control of VASI and/or REIL may be independent of other lighting systems.

a. With FAA approved systems, various combina- intensity, while the 1step cannot. All lighting is
tions of medium intensity approach lights, runway illuminated for a period of 15 minutes from the most
lights, taxiway lights, VASI and/or REIL may be recent time of activation and may not be extinguished
activated by radio control. On runways with both prior to end of the 15 minute period (except for 1step
approach lighting and runway lighting (runway edge and 2step REILs which may be turned off when
lights, taxiway lights, etc.) systems, the approach desired by keying the mike 5 or 3 times respectively).
lighting system takes precedence for air-to-ground
c. Suggested use is to always initially key the mike
radio control over the runway lighting system which
7 times; this assures that all controlled lights are
is set at a predetermined intensity step, based on
turned on to the maximum available intensity. If
expected visibility conditions. Runways without
desired, adjustment can then be made, where the
approach lighting may provide radio controlled
capability is provided, to a lower intensity (or the
intensity adjustments of runway edge lights. Other
REIL turned off) by keying 5 and/or 3 times. Due to
lighting systems, including VASI, REIL, and taxiway
the close proximity of airports using the same
lights may be either controlled with the runway edge
frequency, radio controlled lighting receivers may be
lights or controlled independently of the runway edge
set at a low sensitivity requiring the aircraft to be
lights.
relatively close to activate the system. Consequently,
b. The control system consists of a 3step control even when lights are on, always key mike as directed
responsive to 7, 5, and/or 3 microphone clicks. This when overflying an airport of intended landing or just
3step control will turn on lighting facilities capable prior to entering the final segment of an approach.
of either 3step, 2step or 1step operation. The This will assure the aircraft is close enough to activate
3step and 2step lighting facilities can be altered in the system and a full 15 minutes lighting duration is

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available. Approved lighting systems may be 2. 30 to 45 per minute for beacons marking
activated by keying the mike (within 5 seconds) as heliports.
indicated in TBL 213. b. The colors and color combinations of beacons
TBL 213
are:
Radio Control System 1. White and Green Lighted land airport.
Key Mike Function 2. *Green alone Lighted land airport.
7 times within 5 seconds Highest intensity available 3. White and Yellow Lighted water airport.
5 times within 5 seconds Medium or lower intensity
(Lower REIL or REIL-off) 4. *Yellow alone Lighted water airport.
3 times within 5 seconds Lowest intensity available 5. Green, Yellow, and White Lighted heliport.
(Lower REIL or REIL-off)
NOTE
*Green alone or yellow alone is used only in connection
d. For all public use airports with FAA standard
with a white-and-green or white-and-yellow beacon
systems the Airport/Facility Directory contains the display, respectively.
types of lighting, runway and the frequency that is
used to activate the system. Airports with IAPs c. Military airport beacons flash alternately white
include data on the approach chart identifying the and green, but are differentiated from civil beacons
light system, the runway on which they are installed, by dualpeaked (two quick) white flashes between the
and the frequency that is used to activate the system. green flashes.

NOTE d. In Class B, Class C, Class D and Class E surface


Although the CTAF is used to activate the lights at many areas, operation of the airport beacon during the hours
airports, other frequencies may also be used. The of daylight often indicates that the ground visibility
appropriate frequency for activating the lights on the is less than 3 miles and/or the ceiling is less than
airport is provided in the Airport/Facility Directory and 1,000 feet. ATC clearance in accordance with
the standard instrument approach procedures publica- 14 CFR Part 91 is required for landing, takeoff and
tions. It is not identified on the sectional charts. flight in the traffic pattern. Pilots should not rely
e. Where the airport is not served by an IAP, it may solely on the operation of the airport beacon to
have either the standard FAA approved control indicate if weather conditions are IFR or VFR. At
system or an independent type system of different some locations with operating control towers, ATC
specification installed by the airport sponsor. The personnel turn the beacon on or off when controls are
Airport/Facility Directory contains descriptions of in the tower. At many airports the airport beacon is
pilot controlled lighting systems for each airport turned on by a photoelectric cell or time clocks and
having other than FAA approved systems, and ATC personnel cannot control them. There is no
explains the type lights, method of control, and regulatory requirement for daylight operation and it
operating frequency in clear text. is the pilots responsibility to comply with proper
preflight planning as required by 14 CFR
Section 91.103.
219. Airport/Heliport Beacons
a. Airport and heliport beacons have a vertical 2110. Taxiway Lights
light distribution to make them most effective from a. Taxiway Edge Lights. Taxiway edge lights are
one to ten degrees above the horizon; however, they used to outline the edges of taxiways during periods
can be seen well above and below this peak spread. of darkness or restricted visibility conditions. These
The beacon may be an omnidirectional capacitor-dis- fixtures emit blue light.
charge device, or it may rotate at a constant speed
NOTE
which produces the visual effect of flashes at regular At most major airports these lights have variable intensity
intervals. Flashes may be one or two colors settings and may be adjusted at pilot request or when
alternately. The total number of flashes are: deemed necessary by the controller.
1. 24 to 30 per minute for beacons marking b. Taxiway Centerline Lights. Taxiway center-
airports, landmarks, and points on Federal airways. line lights are used to facilitate ground traffic under

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low visibility conditions. They are located along the e. Stop Bar Lights. Stop bar lights, when
taxiway centerline in a straight line on straight installed, are used to confirm the ATC clearance to
portions, on the centerline of curved portions, and enter or cross the active runway in low visibility
along designated taxiing paths in portions of conditions (below 1,200 ft Runway Visual Range). A
runways, ramp, and apron areas. Taxiway centerline stop bar consists of a row of red, unidirectional,
lights are steady burning and emit green light. steadyburning in-pavement lights installed across
c. Clearance Bar Lights. Clearance bar lights the entire taxiway at the runway holding position, and
are installed at holding positions on taxiways in order elevated steadyburning red lights on each side. A
to increase the conspicuity of the holding position in controlled stop bar is operated in conjunction with the
low visibility conditions. They may also be installed taxiway centerline lead-on lights which extend from
to indicate the location of an intersecting taxiway the stop bar toward the runway. Following the ATC
during periods of darkness. Clearance bars consist of clearance to proceed, the stop bar is turned off and the
three in-pavement steady-burning yellow lights. lead-on lights are turned on. The stop bar and lead-on
lights are automatically reset by a sensor or backup
d. Runway Guard Lights. Runway guard lights
timer.
are installed at taxiway/runway intersections. They
are primarily used to enhance the conspicuity of CAUTION
taxiway/runway intersections during low visibility Pilots should never cross a red illuminated stop bar, even
conditions, but may be used in all weather conditions. if an ATC clearance has been given to proceed onto or
Runway guard lights consist of either a pair of across the runway.
elevated flashing yellow lights installed on either side NOTE
of the taxiway, or a row of in-pavement yellow lights If after crossing a stop bar, the taxiway centerline lead-on
installed across the entire taxiway, at the runway lights inadvertently extinguish, pilots should hold their
holding position marking. position and contact ATC for further instructions.
NOTE
Some airports may have a row of three or five in-pavement
yellow lights installed at taxiway/runway intersections.
They should not be confused with clearance bar lights
described in paragraph 2110c, Clearance Bar Lights.

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arriving aircraft should contact the Class C airspace 5. Aircraft Speed. Unless otherwise autho-
ATC facility on the publicized frequency and give rized or required by ATC, no person may operate an
their position, altitude, radar beacon code, destina- aircraft at or below 2,500 feet above the surface
tion, and request Class C service. Radio contact within 4 nautical miles of the primary airport of a
should be initiated far enough from the Class C Class C airspace area at an indicated airspeed of more
airspace boundary to preclude entering Class C than 200 knots (230 mph).
airspace before two-way radio communications are
established. d. Air Traffic Services. When two-way radio
communications and radar contact are established, all
NOTE participating VFR aircraft are:
1. If the controller responds to a radio call with, (aircraft
callsign) standby, radio communications have been 1. Sequenced to the primary airport.
established and the pilot can enter the Class C airspace.
2. Provided Class C services within the Class C
2. If workload or traffic conditions prevent immediate
airspace and the outer area.
provision of Class C services, the controller will inform the
pilot to remain outside the Class C airspace until 3. Provided basic radar services beyond the
conditions permit the services to be provided. outer area on a workload permitting basis. This can be
3. It is important to understand that if the controller terminated by the controller if workload dictates.
responds to the initial radio call without using the aircraft
identification, radio communications have not been e. Aircraft Separation. Separation is provided
established and the pilot may not enter the Class C within the Class C airspace and the outer area after
airspace. two-way radio communications and radar contact are
established. VFR aircraft are separated from IFR
4. Though not requiring regulatory action, Class C
aircraft within the Class C airspace by any of the
airspace areas have a procedural Outer Area. Normally
this area is 20 NM from the primary Class C airspace
following:
airport. Its vertical limit extends from the lower limits of 1. Visual separation.
radio/radar coverage up to the ceiling of the approach
controls delegated airspace, excluding the Class C 2. 500 feet vertical; except when operating
airspace itself, and other airspace as appropriate. (This beneath a heavy jet.
outer area is not charted.)
3. Target resolution.
5. Pilots approaching an airport with Class C service
should be aware that if they descend below the base altitude NOTE
of the 5 to 10 mile shelf during an instrument or visual 1. Separation and sequencing of VFR aircraft will be
approach, they may encounter nontransponder, VFR suspended in the event of a radar outage as this service is
aircraft. dependent on radar. The pilot will be advised that the
service is not available and issued wind, runway
EXAMPLE information and the time or place to contact the tower.
1. [Aircraft callsign] remain outside the Class Charlie
airspace and standby. 2. Separation of VFR aircraft will be suspended during
CENRAP operations. Traffic advisories and sequencing to
2. Aircraft calling Dulles approach control, standby. the primary airport will be provided on a workload
4. Departures from: permitting basis. The pilot will be advised when CENRAP
is in use.
(a) A primary or satellite airport with an
operating control tower. Two-way radio communica- 3. Pilot participation is voluntary within the outer area
and can be discontinued, within the outer area, at the pilots
tions must be established and maintained with the
request. Class C services will be provided in the outer area
control tower, and thereafter as instructed by ATC
unless the pilot requests termination of the service.
while operating in Class C airspace.
4. Some facilities provide Class C services only during
(b) A satellite airport without an operating published hours. At other times, terminal IFR radar service
control tower. Two-way radio communications must will be provided. It is important to note that the
be established as soon as practicable after departing communications and transponder requirements are
with the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the dependent of the class of airspace established outside of the
Class C airspace. published hours.

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f. Secondary Airports TBL 321


Class C Airspace Areas by State
1. In some locations Class C airspace may State/City Airport
overlie the Class D surface area of a secondary ALABAMA
airport. In order to allow that control tower to provide Birmingham . . . . . . . . . BirminghamShuttlesworth
service to aircraft, portions of the overlapping International
Class C airspace may be procedurally excluded when Huntsville . . . . . . . . . . . InternationalCarl T Jones Fld
the secondary airport tower is in operation. Aircraft Mobile . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regional
operating in these procedurally excluded areas will ALASKA
only be provided airport traffic control services when Anchorage . . . . . . . . . . . Ted Stevens International
ARIZONA
in communication with the secondary airport tower.
DavisMonthan . . . . . . . AFB
Tucson . . . . . . . . . . . . . . International
2. Aircraft proceeding inbound to a satellite ARKANSAS
airport will be terminated at a sufficient distance to Fayetteville (Springdale) Northwest Arkansas Regional
allow time to change to the appropriate tower or Little Rock . . . . . . . . . . Adams Field
advisory frequency. Class C services to these aircraft CALIFORNIA
will be discontinued when the aircraft is instructed to Beale . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AFB
Burbank . . . . . . . . . . . . Bob Hope
contact the tower or change to advisory frequency.
Fresno . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Yosemite International
Monterey . . . . . . . . . . . . Peninsula
3. Aircraft departing secondary controlled Oakland . . . . . . . . . . . . . Metropolitan Oakland
airports will not receive Class C services until they International
have been radar identified and two-way communica- Ontario . . . . . . . . . . . . . International
Riverside . . . . . . . . . . . . March AFB
tions have been established with the Class C airspace
Sacramento . . . . . . . . . . International
facility. San Jose . . . . . . . . . . . . Norman Y. Mineta International
Santa Ana . . . . . . . . . . . John Wayne/Orange County
4. This program is not to be interpreted as Santa Barbara . . . . . . . . Municipal
relieving pilots of their responsibilities to see and COLORADO
avoid other traffic operating in basic VFR weather Colorado Springs . . . . . Municipal
CONNECTICUT
conditions, to adjust their operations and flight path
Windsor Locks . . . . . . . Bradley International
as necessary to preclude serious wake encounters, to
FLORIDA
maintain appropriate terrain and obstruction clear- Daytona Beach . . . . . . . International
ance or to remain in weather conditions equal to or Fort Lauderdale . . . . . . . Hollywood International
better than the minimums required by 14 CFR Fort Myers . . . . . . . . . . SW Florida Regional
Section 91.155. Approach control should be advised Jacksonville . . . . . . . . . . International
and a revised clearance or instruction obtained when Orlando . . . . . . . . . . . . . Sanford International
compliance with an assigned route, heading and/or Palm Beach . . . . . . . . . . International
altitude is likely to compromise pilot responsibility Pensacola . . . . . . . . . . . NAS
with respect to terrain and obstruction clearance, Pensacola . . . . . . . . . . . Regional
vortex exposure, and weather minimums. Sarasota . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bradenton International
Tallahassee . . . . . . . . . . Regional
Whiting . . . . . . . . . . . . . NAS
g. Class C Airspace Areas by State GEORGIA
Columbus . . . . . . . . . . . Metropolitan
Savannah . . . . . . . . . . . . Hilton Head International
These states currently have designated Class C
HAWAII
airspace areas that are depicted on sectional charts. Kahului . . . . . . . . . . . . . Kahului
Pilots should consult current sectional charts and IDAHO
NOTAMs for the latest information on services Boise . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Air Terminal
available. Pilots should be aware that some Class C ILLINOIS
airspace underlies or is adjacent to Class B airspace. Champaign . . . . . . . . . . Urbana U of IllinoisWillard
(See TBL 321.) Chicago . . . . . . . . . . . . . Midway International

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State/City Airport State/City Airport


Moline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Quad City International NORTH CAROLINA
Peoria . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Greater Peoria Regional Asheville . . . . . . . . . . . Regional
Springfield . . . . . . . . . . Abraham Lincoln Capital Fayetteville . . . . . . . . . . Regional/Grannis Field
INDIANA Greensboro . . . . . . . . . . Piedmont Triad International
Evansville . . . . . . . . . . . Regional Pope . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AFB
Fort Wayne . . . . . . . . . . International Raleigh . . . . . . . . . . . . . RaleighDurham International
Indianapolis . . . . . . . . . . International OHIO
South Bend . . . . . . . . . . Regional Akron . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AkronCanton Regional
IOWA Columbus . . . . . . . . . . . Port Columbus International
Cedar Rapids . . . . . . . . . The Eastern Iowa Dayton . . . . . . . . . . . . . James M. Cox International
Des Moines . . . . . . . . . . International Toledo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Express
KANSAS OKLAHOMA
Wichita . . . . . . . . . . . . . MidContinent Oklahoma City . . . . . . . Will Rogers World
KENTUCKY Tinker . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AFB
Lexington . . . . . . . . . . . Blue Grass Tulsa . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . International
Louisville . . . . . . . . . . . InternationalStandiford Field OREGON
LOUISIANA Portland . . . . . . . . . . . . . International
Baton Rouge . . . . . . . . . Metropolitan, Ryan Field PENNSYLVANIA
Lafayette . . . . . . . . . . . . Regional Allentown . . . . . . . . . . . Lehigh Valley International
Shreveport . . . . . . . . . . . Barksdale AFB PUERTO RICO
Shreveport . . . . . . . . . . . Regional San Juan . . . . . . . . . . . . Luis Munoz Marin International
MAINE RHODE ISLAND
Bangor . . . . . . . . . . . . . International Providence . . . . . . . . . . Theodore Francis Green State
Portland . . . . . . . . . . . . . International Jetport SOUTH CAROLINA
MICHIGAN Charleston . . . . . . . . . . . AFB/International
Flint . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bishop International Columbia . . . . . . . . . . . . Metropolitan
Grand Rapids . . . . . . . . Gerald R. Ford International Greer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
GreenvilleSpartanburg
Lansing . . . . . . . . . . . . . Capital City International
MISSISSIPPI Myrtle Beach . . . . . . . . Myrtle Beach International
Columbus . . . . . . . . . . . AFB Shaw . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AFB
Jackson . . . . . . . . . . . . . JacksonEvers International TENNESSEE
MISSOURI Chattanooga . . . . . . . . . Lovell Field
Springfield . . . . . . . . . . SpringfieldBranson National Knoxville . . . . . . . . . . . McGhee Tyson
MONTANA Nashville . . . . . . . . . . . . International
Billings . . . . . . . . . . . . . Logan International TEXAS
NEBRASKA Abilene . . . . . . . . . . . . . Regional
Lincoln . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lincoln Amarillo . . . . . . . . . . . . Rick Husband International
Omaha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Eppley Airfield Austin . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AustinBergstrom International
Offutt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AFB Corpus Christi . . . . . . . . International
NEVADA Dyess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AFB
Reno . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reno/Tahoe International El Paso . . . . . . . . . . . . . International
NEW HAMPSHIRE Harlingen . . . . . . . . . . . Valley International
Manchester . . . . . . . . . . Manchester Laughlin . . . . . . . . . . . . AFB
NEW JERSEY Lubbock . . . . . . . . . . . . Preston Smith International
Atlantic City . . . . . . . . . International Midland . . . . . . . . . . . . . International
NEW MEXICO San Antonio . . . . . . . . . International
Albuquerque . . . . . . . . . International Sunport VERMONT
NEW YORK
Burlington . . . . . . . . . . . International
Albany . . . . . . . . . . . . . International
Buffalo . . . . . . . . . . . . . Niagara International VIRGIN ISLANDS
Islip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Long Island MacArthur St. Thomas . . . . . . . . . . Charlotte Amalie Cyril E. King
Rochester . . . . . . . . . . . Greater Rochester International
Syracuse . . . . . . . . . . . . Hancock International

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State/City Airport 2. If workload or traffic conditions prevent immediate


VIRGINIA entry into Class D airspace, the controller will inform the
Richmond . . . . . . . . . . . International pilot to remain outside the Class D airspace until
Norfolk . . . . . . . . . . . . . International conditions permit entry.
Roanoke . . . . . . . . . . . . Regional/Woodrum Field
EXAMPLE
WASHINGTON
1. [Aircraft callsign] remain outside the Class Delta
Point Roberts . . . . . . . . Vancouver International
airspace and standby.
Spokane . . . . . . . . . . . . Fairchild AFB
It is important to understand that if the controller responds
Spokane . . . . . . . . . . . . International
to the initial radio call without using the aircraft callsign,
Whidbey Island . . . . . . . NAS, Ault Field
WEST VIRGINIA
radio communications have not been established and the
Charleston . . . . . . . . . . . Yeager pilot may not enter the Class D airspace.
WISCONSIN 2. Aircraft calling Manassas tower standby.
Green Bay . . . . . . . . . . .Austin Straubel International At those airports where the control tower does not operate
Madison . . . . . . . . . . . .Dane County RegionalTraux 24 hours a day, the operating hours of the tower will be
Field listed on the appropriate charts and in the A/FD. During
Milwaukee . . . . . . . . . . General Mitchell International the hours the tower is not in operation, the Class E surface
area rules or a combination of Class E rules to 700 feet
above ground level and Class G rules to the surface will
325. Class D Airspace become applicable. Check the A/FD for specifics.
a. Definition. Generally, that airspace from the 4. Departures from:
surface to 2,500 feet above the airport elevation
(charted in MSL) surrounding those airports that have (a) A primary or satellite airport with an
an operational control tower. The configuration of operating control tower. Two-way radio communica-
each Class D airspace area is individually tailored and tions must be established and maintained with the
when instrument procedures are published, the control tower, and thereafter as instructed by ATC
airspace will normally be designed to contain the while operating in the Class D airspace.
procedures. (b) A satellite airport without an operating
b. Operating Rules and Pilot/Equipment control tower. Two-way radio communications must
Requirements: be established as soon as practicable after departing
with the ATC facility having jurisdiction over the
1. Pilot Certification. No specific certifica- Class D airspace as soon as practicable after
tion required. departing.
2. Equipment. Unless otherwise authorized 5. Aircraft Speed. Unless otherwise autho-
by ATC, an operable twoway radio is required. rized or required by ATC, no person may operate an
3. Arrival or Through Flight Entry aircraft at or below 2,500 feet above the surface
Requirements. Twoway radio communication within 4 nautical miles of the primary airport of a
must be established with the ATC facility providing Class D airspace area at an indicated airspeed of more
ATC services prior to entry and thereafter maintain than 200 knots (230 mph).
those communications while in the Class D airspace. c. Class D airspace areas are depicted on Sectional
Pilots of arriving aircraft should contact the control and Terminal charts with blue segmented lines, and
tower on the publicized frequency and give their on IFR En Route Lows with a boxed [D].
position, altitude, destination, and any request(s).
Radio contact should be initiated far enough from the d. Arrival extensions for instrument approach
Class D airspace boundary to preclude entering the procedures may be Class D or Class E airspace. As a
Class D airspace before twoway radio communica- general rule, if all extensions are 2 miles or less, they
tions are established. remain part of the Class D surface area. However, if
any one extension is greater than 2 miles, then all
NOTE extensions become Class E.
1. If the controller responds to a radio call with, [aircraft
callsign] standby, radio communications have been e. Separation for VFR Aircraft. No separation
established and the pilot can enter the Class D airspace. services are provided to VFR aircraft.

328 Controlled Airspace


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g. Transponder Operation Under Visual Flight 4. SQUAWK STANDBY. Switch transponder


Rules (VFR) to standby position.
1. Unless otherwise instructed by an ATC 5. SQUAWK LOW/NORMAL. Operate
facility, adjust transponder to reply on Mode 3/A transponder on low or normal sensitivity as specified.
Code 1200 regardless of altitude. Transponder is operated in NORMAL position
2. Adjust transponder to reply on Mode C, with unless ATC specifies LOW (ON is used instead
altitude reporting capability activated if the aircraft is of NORMAL as a master control label on some
so equipped, unless deactivation is directed by ATC types of transponders.)
or unless the installed equipment has not been tested 6. SQUAWK ALTITUDE. Activate Mode C
and calibrated as required by 14 CFR Section 91.217. with automatic altitude reporting.
If deactivation is required and your transponder is so
designed, turn off the altitude reporting switch and 7. STOP ALTITUDE SQUAWK. Turn off
continue to transmit Mode C framing pulses. If this altitude reporting switch and continue transmitting
capability does not exist, turn off Mode C. Mode C framing pulses. If your equipment does not
have this capability, turn off Mode C.
h. Radar Beacon Phraseology
Air traffic controllers, both civil and military, will use 8. STOP SQUAWK (mode in use). Switch off
the following phraseology when referring to specified mode. (Used for military aircraft when the
operation of the Air Traffic Control Radar Beacon controller is unaware of military service require-
System (ATCRBS). Instructions by ATC refer only to ments for the aircraft to continue operation on another
Mode A/3 or Mode C operation and do not affect the Mode.)
operation of the transponder on other Modes. 9. STOP SQUAWK. Switch off transponder.
1. SQUAWK (number). Operate radar beacon 10. SQUAWK MAYDAY. Operate transpond-
transponder on designated code in Mode A/3. er in the emergency position (Mode A Code 7700 for
2. IDENT. Engage the IDENT feature (mili- civil transponder. Mode 3 Code 7700 and emergency
tary I/P) of the transponder. feature for military transponder.)
3. SQUAWK (number) and IDENT. Operate 11. SQUAWK VFR. Operate radar beacon
transponder on specified code in Mode A/3 and transponder on Code 1200 in the Mode A/3, or other
engage the IDENT (military I/P) feature. appropriate VFR code.

Services Available to Pilots 4117


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FIG 413
Hazardous Area Reporting Service

4121. Hazardous Area Reporting Service expected to land as soon as practicable and cancel
their request for the service. FIG 413 depicts the
a. Selected FSSs provide flight monitoring where areas and the FSS facilities involved in this program.
regularly traveled VFR routes cross large bodies of
water, swamps, and mountains. This service is b. Long Island Sound Reporting Service.
provided for the purpose of expeditiously alerting New York and Bridgeport FSS Radio Sectors
Search and Rescue facilities when required. provide Long Island Sound Reporting service on
(See FIG 413.) request for aircraft traversing Long Island Sound.

1. When requesting the service either in person, 1. When requesting the service, pilots should
by telephone or by radio, pilots should be prepared to ask for SOUND REPORTING SERVICE and should
give the following information: type of aircraft, be prepared to provide the following appropriate
altitude, indicated airspeed, present position, route of information:
flight, heading. (a) Type and color of aircraft;
2. Radio contacts are desired at least every (b) The specific route and altitude across the
10 minutes. If contact is lost for more than sound including the shore crossing point;
15 minutes, Search and Rescue will be alerted. Pilots (c) The overwater crossing time;
are responsible for canceling their request for service
when they are outside the service area boundary. (d) Number of persons on board; and
Pilots experiencing two-way radio failure are (e) True air speed.

4118 Services Available to Pilots


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2. Radio contacts are desired at least every 2. Communications. Pilots are to transmit and
10 minutes; however, for flights of shorter duration a receive on 122.6 MHz.
midsound report is requested. If contact is lost for
NOTE
more than 15 minutes Search and Rescue will be Pilots are advised that 122.6 MHz is a remote receiver
alerted. Pilots are responsible for canceling their located at the Hampton VORTAC site and designed to
request for the Long Island Sound Reporting Service provide radio coverage between Hampton and Block Is-
when outside the service area boundary. Aircraft land. Flights proceeding beyond Block Island may contact
experiencing radio failure will be expected to land as the Bridgeport FSS Radio Sector by transmitting on
soon as practicable and cancel their request for the 122.1 MHz and listening on Groton VOR frequency
service. 110.85 MHz.

3. Communications. Primary communica- d. Cape Cod and Islands Radar Overwater


tions pilots are to transmit on 122.1 MHz and listen Flight Following.
on one of the following VOR frequencies: In addition to normal VFR radar advisory services,
(a) New York FSS Radio Sector Controls: traffic permitting, Cape Approach Control provides
a radar overwater flight following service for aircraft
(1) Hampton RCO (FSS transmits and
traversing the Cape Cod and adjacent Island area.
receives on 122.6 MHz).
Pilots desiring this service may contact Cape
(2) Calverton VOR (FSS transmits on RAPCON on 118.2 MHz.
117.2 and receives on standard FSS frequencies).
1. Pilots requesting this service should be
(3) Kennedy VORTAC (FSS transmits on prepared to give the following information:
115.9 and receives on 122.1 MHz).
(a) Type and color of aircraft;
(b) Bridgeport FSS Radio Sector Controls:
(b) Altitude;
(1) Madison VORTAC (FSS transmits on
110.4 and receives on 122.1 MHz). (c) Position and heading;
(2) Groton VOR (FSS transmits on 110.85 (d) Route of flight; and
and receives on 122.1 MHz).
(e) True airspeed.
(3) Bridgeport VOR (FSS transmits on
108.8 and receives on 122.1 MHz). 2. For best radar coverage, pilots are encour-
aged to fly at 1,500 feet MSL or above.
c. Block Island Reporting Service.
3. Pilots are responsible for canceling their
Within the Long Island Sound Reporting Service,
request for overwater flight following when they are
the New York FSS Radio Sector also provides an
over the mainland and/or outside the service area
additional service for aircraft operating between
boundary.
Montauk Point and Block Island. When requesting
this service, pilots should ask for BLOCK ISLAND e. Lake Reporting Service.
REPORTING SERVICE and should be prepared to
provide the same flight information as required for Cleveland and Lansing FSS Radio Sectors provide
the Long Island Sound Reporting Service. Lake Reporting Service on request for aircraft
traversing the western half of Lake Erie; Green Bay,
1. A minimum of three position reports are Kankakee, Lansing, and Terre Haute FSS Radio
mandatory for this service; these are: Sectors provide Lake Reporting Service on request
(a) Reporting leaving either Montauk Point for aircraft traversing Lake Michigan.
or Block Island. 1. When requesting the service, pilots should
(b) Midway report. ask for LAKE REPORTING SERVICE.
(c) Report when over either Montauk Point or 2. Pilots not on a VFR flight plan should be
Block Island. At this time, the overwater service is prepared to provide all information that is normally
canceled. provided for a complete VFR flight plan.

Services Available to Pilots 4119


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3. Pilots already on a VFR flight plan should be (2) Green Bay RCO (FSS transmits and
prepared to provide the following information: receives on 122.55 MHz).
(a) Aircraft or flight identification. (3) Manistique RCO (FSS transmits and
receives on 122.25 MHz).
(b) Type of aircraft.
(4) Manitowoc VOR (FSS transmits on
(c) Nearshore crossing point or last fix 111.0 and receives on 122.1 MHz).
before crossing.
(5) Menominee VOR (FSS transmits on
(d) Proposed time over nearshore crossing 109.6 and receives on 122.1 MHz).
point or last fix before crossing.
(6) Milwaukee RCO (FSS transmits and
(e) Proposed altitude. receives on 122.65 MHz).
(f) Proposed route of flight. (7) Falls VOR (FSS transmits on 110.0 and
(g) Estimated time over water. receives on 122.1 MHz).
(h) Next landing point. (c) Kankakee FSS Radio Sector Controls:
(i) AFSS/FSS having complete VFR flight (1) Chicago Heights VORTAC (FSS trans-
plan information. mits on 114.2 and receives on 122.1 MHz).
4. Radio contacts must not exceed 10 minutes (2) Meigs RCO (FSS transmits and re-
when pilots fly at an altitude that affords continuous ceives on 122.15 MHz).
communications. If radio contact is lost for more than (3) Waukegan RCO (FSS transmits and
15 minutes (5 minutes after a scheduled reporting receives on 122.55 MHz).
time), Search and Rescue (SAR) will be alerted.
(d) Lansing FSS Radio Sector Controls:
5. The estimated time for crossing the far shore
will be the scheduled reporting time for aircraft that (1) Lake Erie. Detroit City RCO (FSS
fly at an altitude that does not afford continuous transmits and receives on 122.55 MHz).
communication coverage while crossing the lake. If
(2) Lake Michigan:
radio contact is not established within 5 minutes of
that time, SAR will be alerted. [a] Keeler VORTAC (FSS transmits on
116.6 and receives on 122.1 MHz).
6. Pilots are responsible for canceling their
request for Lake Reporting Service when outside the [b] Ludington RCO (FSS transmits and
service area boundary. Aircraft experiencing radio receives on 122.45 MHz).
failure will be expected to land as soon as practicable
and cancel their Lake Reporting Service flight plan. [c] Manistee VORTAC (FSS transmits
on 111.4 and receives on 122.1 MHz).
7. Communications. Primary communica-
tions Pilots should communicate with the following [d] Muskegon RCO (FSS transmits and
facilities on the indicated frequencies: receives on 122.5 MHz).

(a) Cleveland FSS Radio Sector Controls: [e] Pellston RCO (FSS transmits and
receives on 122.3 MHz).
(1) Cleveland RCO (FSS transmits and
receives on 122.35 or 122.55 MHz). [f] Pullman VORTAC (FSS transmits on
112.1 and receives on 122.1 MHz).
(2) Sandusky VOR (FSS transmits on
[g] Traverse City RCO (FSS transmits
109.2 and receives on 122.1 MHz).
and receives on 122.65 MHz).
(b) Green Bay FSS Radio Sector Controls:
(e) Terre Haute FSS Radio Sector Con-
(1) Escanaba VORTAC (FSS transmits on trols. South Bend RCO (FSS transmits and receives
110.8 and receives on 122.1 MHz). on 122.6 MHz).

4120 Services Available to Pilots


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f. Everglades Reporting Service. beginning 72 hours in advance of the operation at the


slot controlled airport. Refer to the Web site or
This service is offered by Miami Automated touchtone phone interface for the current listing of
International Flight Service Station (MIA AIFSS), in slot controlled airports, limitations, and reservation
extreme southern Florida. The service is provided to procedures.
aircraft crossing the Florida Everglades, between Lee
County (Ft. Myers, FL) VORTAC (RSW) on the NOTE
northwest side, and Dolphin (Miami, FL) VOR The web interface/telephone numbers to obtain a
(DHP) on the southeast side. reservation for unscheduled operations at a slot controlled
airport are:
1. The pilot must request the service from 1. http://www.fly.faa.gov/ecvrs.
Miami AIFSS. 2. Touchtone: 18008759694 or 7037070568.
(eCVRS interface).
2. MIA AIFSS frequency information, 122.2, 3. Trouble number: 7039044452.
122.3, and 122.65.
3. For more detailed information on operations
3. The pilot must file a VFR flight plan with the and reservation procedures at a Slot Controlled
remark: ERS. Airport, please see Advisory Circular 931A,
4. The pilot must maintain 2000 feet of altitude. Reservations for Unscheduled Operations at slot
controlled airports. A copy of the Advisory
5. The pilot must make position reports every Circular may be obtained via the Internet at:
ten (10) minutes. SAR begins fifteen (15) minutes http://www.faa.gov.
after position report is not made on time.
b. Special Traffic Management Programs
6. The pilot is expected to land as soon as is (STMP).
practical, in the event of twoway radio failure, and
advise MIA AIFSS that the service is terminated. 1. Special procedures may be established when
a location requires special traffic handling to
7. The pilot must notify Miami AIFSS when the
accommodate above normal traffic demand (e.g., the
flight plan is cancelled or the service is suspended.
Indianapolis 500, Super Bowl) or reduced airport
capacity (e.g., airport runway/taxiway closures for
4122. Airport Reservation Operations airport construction). The special procedures may
and Special Traffic Management Programs remain in effect until the problem has been resolved
or until local traffic management procedures can
This section describes procedures for obtaining handle the situation and a need for special handling no
required airport reservations at airports designated by longer exists.
the FAA and for airports operating under Special
Traffic Management Programs. 2. There will be two methods available for
obtaining slot reservations through the
a. Slot Controlled Airports. ATCSCC: the web interface and the touchtone
1. The FAA may adopt rules to require advance interface. If these methods are used, a NOTAM will
operations for unscheduled operations at certain be issued relaying the web site address and toll free
airports. In addition to the information in the rules telephone number. Be sure to check current
adopted by the FAA, a listing of the airports and NOTAMs to determine: what airports are included
relevant information will be maintained on the FAA in the STMP; the dates and times reservations are
Web site listed below. required; the time limits for reservation requests; the
point of contact for reservations; and any other
2. The FAA has established an Airport instructions.
Reservation Office (ARO) to receive and process
reservations for unscheduled flights at the slot c. Users may contact the ARO at 7039044452
controlled airports. The ARO uses the Enhanced if they have a problem making a reservation or have
Computer Voice Reservation System (eCVRS) to a question concerning the slot controlled airport/
allocate reservations. Reservations will be available STMP regulations or procedures.

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d. Making Reservations. a number. Therefore, when entering an aircraft call


sign or tail number two keys are used to represent
1. Internet Users. Detailed information and
each letter or number. When entering a number,
User Instruction Guides for using the Web interface
precede the number you wish by the number 0 (zero)
to the reservation systems are available on the
i.e., 01, 02, 03, 04, . . .. If you wish to enter a letter, first
websites for the slot controlled airports (eCVRS),
press the key on which the letter appears and then
http://www.fly.faa.gov/ecvrs; and STMPs
press 1, 2, or 3, depending upon whether the letter you
(eSTMP), http://www.fly.faa.gov/estmp.
desire is the first, second, or third letter on that key.
2. Telephone users. When using the telephone For example to enter the letter N first press the
to make a reservation, you are prompted for input of 6 key because N is on that key, then press the
information about what you wish to do. All input is 2 key because the letter N is the second letter on
accomplished using the keypad on the telephone. The the 6 key. Since there are no keys for the letters Q
only problem with a telephone is that most keys have and Z eCVRS pretends they are on the number
a letter and number associated with them. When the 1 key. Therefore, to enter the letter Q, press 11,
system asks for a date or time, it is expecting an input and to enter the letter Z press 12.
of numbers. A problem arises when entering an NOTE
aircraft call sign or tail number. The system does not Users are reminded to enter the N character with their
detect if you are entering a letter (alpha character) or tail numbers. (See TBL 414.)

TBL 414
Codes for Call Sign/Tail Number Input

Codes for Call Sign/Tail Number Input Only


A21 J51 S73 1-01
B22 K52 T81 202
C23 L53 U82 303
D31 M61 V83 404
E32 N62 W91 505
F33 O63 X92 606
G41 P71 Y93 707
H42 Q11 Z12 808
I43 R72 000 909

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k. Pilots conducting practice instrument than minimum) intensities when compared to other
approaches should be particularly alert for other aircraft. Many aircraft have both a rotating beacon
aircraft operating in the local traffic pattern or in and a strobe light system.
proximity to the airport.
c. The FAA has a voluntary pilot safety program,
Operation Lights On, to enhance the see-and-avoid
4322. Option Approach concept. Pilots are encouraged to turn on their landing
lights during takeoff; i.e., either after takeoff
The Cleared for the Option procedure will permit
clearance has been received or when beginning
an instructor, flight examiner or pilot the option to
takeoff roll. Pilots are further encouraged to turn on
make a touch-and-go, low approach, missed
their landing lights when operating below
approach, stop-and-go, or full stop landing. This
10,000 feet, day or night, especially when operating
procedure can be very beneficial in a training
within 10 miles of any airport, or in conditions of
situation in that neither the student pilot nor examinee
reduced visibility and in areas where flocks of birds
would know what maneuver would be accomplished.
may be expected, i.e., coastal areas, lake areas,
The pilot should make a request for this procedure
around refuse dumps, etc. Although turning on
passing the final approach fix inbound on an
aircraft lights does enhance the see-and-avoid
instrument approach or entering downwind for a VFR
concept, pilots should not become complacent about
traffic pattern. The advantages of this procedure as a
keeping a sharp lookout for other aircraft. Not all
training aid are that it enables an instructor or
aircraft are equipped with lights and some pilots may
examiner to obtain the reaction of a trainee or
not have their lights turned on. Aircraft manufactur-
examinee under changing conditions, the pilot would
ers recommendations for operation of landing lights
not have to discontinue an approach in the middle of
and electrical systems should be observed.
the procedure due to student error or pilot proficiency
requirements, and finally it allows more flexibility d. Prop and jet blast forces generated by large
and economy in training programs. This procedure aircraft have overturned or damaged several smaller
will only be used at those locations with an aircraft taxiing behind them. To avoid similar results,
operational control tower and will be subject to ATC and in the interest of preventing upsets and injuries to
approval. ground personnel from such forces, the FAA
recommends that air carriers and commercial
4323. Use of Aircraft Lights operators turn on their rotating beacons anytime their
aircraft engines are in operation. General aviation
a. Aircraft position lights are required to be lighted pilots using rotating beacon equipped aircraft are also
on aircraft operated on the surface and in flight from encouraged to participate in this program which is
sunset to sunrise. In addition, aircraft equipped with designed to alert others to the potential hazard. Since
an anticollision light system are required to operate this is a voluntary program, exercise caution and do
that light system during all types of operations (day not rely solely on the rotating beacon as an indication
and night). However, during any adverse meteorolog- that aircraft engines are in operation.
ical conditions, the pilotincommand may
e. At the discretion of the pilotincommand turn
determine that the anticollision lights should be
on all external illumination, including landing lights,
turned off when their light output would constitute a
when taxiing on, across, or holding in position on any
hazard to safety (14 CFR Section 91.209).
runway. This increases the conspicuity of the aircraft
Supplementary strobe lights should be turned off on
to controllers and other pilots approaching to land,
the ground when they adversely affect ground
taxiing, or crossing the runway. Pilots should comply
personnel or other pilots, and in flight when there are
with any equipment operating limitations and
adverse reflection from clouds.
consider the effects of landing and strobe lights on
b. An aircraft anticollision light system can use other aircraft in their vicinity. When cleared for
one or more rotating beacons and/or strobe lights, be takeoff pilots should turn on any remaining exterior
colored either red or white, and have different (higher lights.

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4324. Flight Inspection/Flight Check FIG 438


Aircraft in Terminal Areas Signalmans Position

a. Flight check is a call sign used to alert pilots and


air traffic controllers when a FAA aircraft is engaged
in flight inspection/certification of NAVAIDs and
flight procedures. Flight check aircraft fly preplanned
high/low altitude flight patterns such as grids, orbits,
DME arcs, and tracks, including low passes along the
full length of the runway to verify NAVAID
performance.
b. Pilots should be especially watchful and avoid
the flight paths of any aircraft using the call sign
Flight Check. These flights will normally receive
special handling from ATC. Pilot patience and
cooperation in allowing uninterrupted recordings can
significantly help expedite flight inspections, mini-
mize costly, repetitive runs, and reduce the burden on
the U.S. taxpayer.
SIGNALMAN
4325. Hand Signals
FIG 439
FIG 437 All Clear
Signalman Directs Towing (O.K.)

SIGNALMAN

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Section 4. ATC Clearances and Aircraft Separation

441. Clearance provide standard separation only between IFR


flights.
a. A clearance issued by ATC is predicated on
known traffic and known physical airport conditions.
An ATC clearance means an authorization by ATC, 442. Clearance Prefix
for the purpose of preventing collision between A clearance, control information, or a response to a
known aircraft, for an aircraft to proceed under request for information originated by an ATC facility
specified conditions within controlled airspace. IT IS and relayed to the pilot through an air-to-ground
NOT AUTHORIZATION FOR A PILOT TO communication station will be prefixed by ATC
DEVIATE FROM ANY RULE, REGULATION, OR clears, ATC advises, or ATC requests.
MINIMUM ALTITUDE NOR TO CONDUCT
UNSAFE OPERATION OF THE AIRCRAFT.
443. Clearance Items
b. 14 CFR Section 91.3(a) states: The pilot-in-
command of an aircraft is directly responsible for, ATC clearances normally contain the following:
and is the final authority as to, the operation of that a. Clearance Limit. The traffic clearance issued
aircraft. If ATC issues a clearance that would cause prior to departure will normally authorize flight to the
a pilot to deviate from a rule or regulation, or in the airport of intended landing. Under certain conditions,
pilots opinion, would place the aircraft in jeopardy, at some locations a short-range clearance procedure
IT IS THE PILOTS RESPONSIBILITY TO is utilized whereby a clearance is issued to a fix within
REQUEST AN AMENDED CLEARANCE. Simi- or just outside of the terminal area and pilots are
larly, if a pilot prefers to follow a different course of advised of the frequency on which they will receive
action, such as make a 360 degree turn for spacing to the long-range clearance direct from the center
follow traffic when established in a landing or controller.
approach sequence, land on a different runway,
takeoff from a different intersection, takeoff from the b. Departure Procedure. Headings to fly and
threshold instead of an intersection, or delay altitude restrictions may be issued to separate a
operation, THE PILOT IS EXPECTED TO departure from other air traffic in the terminal area.
INFORM ATC ACCORDINGLY. When the pilot Where the volume of traffic warrants, DPs have been
requests a different course of action, however, the developed.
pilot is expected to cooperate so as to preclude REFERENCE
disruption of traffic flow or creation of conflicting AIM, Abbreviated IFR Departure Clearance (Cleared. . .as Filed)
Procedures, Paragraph 525.
patterns. The pilot is also expected to use AIM, Instrument Departure Procedures (DP) Obstacle Departure
the appropriate aircraft call sign to acknowledge all Procedures (ODP) and Standard Instrument Departures (SID),
ATC clearances, frequency changes, or advisory Paragraph 528.

information. c. Route of Flight.


c. Each pilot who deviates from an ATC clearance 1. Clearances are normally issued for the
in response to a Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance altitude or flight level and route filed by the pilot.
System resolution advisory shall notify ATC of that However, due to traffic conditions, it is frequently
deviation as soon as possible. necessary for ATC to specify an altitude or flight level
REFERENCE or route different from that requested by the pilot. In
Pilot/Controller Glossary Term Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance addition, flow patterns have been established in
System.
certain congested areas or between congested areas
d. When weather conditions permit, during the whereby traffic capacity is increased by routing all
time an IFR flight is operating, it is the direct traffic on preferred routes. Information on these flow
responsibility of the pilot to avoid other aircraft since patterns is available in offices where preflight
VFR flights may be operating in the same area briefing is furnished or where flight plans are
without the knowledge of ATC. Traffic clearances accepted.

ATC Clearances and Aircraft Separation 441


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2. When required, air traffic clearances include controller may omit all holding instructions except
data to assist pilots in identifying radio reporting the charted holding direction and the statement
points. It is the responsibility of pilots to notify ATC AS PUBLISHED, e.g., HOLD EAST AS
immediately if their radio equipment cannot receive PUBLISHED. Controllers shall always issue
the type of signals they must utilize to comply with complete holding instructions when pilots request
their clearance. them.

d. Altitude Data. NOTE


Only those holding patterns depicted on U.S. government
1. The altitude or flight level instructions in an or commercially produced charts which meet FAA
ATC clearance normally require that a pilot requirements should be used.
MAINTAIN the altitude or flight level at which the 3. If no holding pattern is charted and holding
flight will operate when in controlled airspace. instructions have not been issued, the pilot should ask
Altitude or flight level changes while en route should ATC for holding instructions prior to reaching the fix.
be requested prior to the time the change is desired. This procedure will eliminate the possibility of an
aircraft entering a holding pattern other than that
2. When possible, if the altitude assigned is
desired by ATC. If unable to obtain holding
different from the altitude requested by the pilot, ATC
instructions prior to reaching the fix (due to
will inform the pilot when to expect climb or descent
frequency congestion, stuck microphone, etc.), hold
clearance or to request altitude change from another
in a standard pattern on the course on which you
facility. If this has not been received prior to crossing
approached the fix and request further clearance as
the boundary of the ATC facilitys area and
soon as possible. In this event, the altitude/flight level
assignment at a different altitude is still desired, the
of the aircraft at the clearance limit will be protected
pilot should reinitiate the request with the next
so that separation will be provided as required.
facility.
4. When an aircraft is 3 minutes or less from a
3. The term cruise may be used instead of clearance limit and a clearance beyond the fix has not
MAINTAIN to assign a block of airspace to a pilot been received, the pilot is expected to start a speed
from the minimum IFR altitude up to and including reduction so that the aircraft will cross the fix,
the altitude specified in the cruise clearance. The pilot initially, at or below the maximum holding airspeed.
may level off at any intermediate altitude within this
block of airspace. Climb/descent within the block is 5. When no delay is expected, the controller
to be made at the discretion of the pilot. However, should issue a clearance beyond the fix as soon as
once the pilot starts descent and verbally reports possible and, whenever possible, at least 5 minutes
leaving an altitude in the block, the pilot may not before the aircraft reaches the clearance limit.
return to that altitude without additional ATC
clearance. 6. Pilots should report to ATC the time and
altitude/flight level at which the aircraft reaches the
REFERENCE clearance limit and report leaving the clearance limit.
Pilot/Controller Glossary Term Cruise.
NOTE
e. Holding Instructions. In the event of twoway communications failure, pilots are
required to comply with 14 CFR Section 91.185.
1. Whenever an aircraft has been cleared to a fix
other than the destination airport and delay is
expected, it is the responsibility of the ATC controller 444. Amended Clearances
to issue complete holding instructions (unless the
pattern is charted), an EFC time, and a best estimate a. Amendments to the initial clearance will be
of any additional en route/terminal delay. issued at any time an air traffic controller deems such
action necessary to avoid possible confliction
2. If the holding pattern is charted and the between aircraft. Clearances will require that a flight
controller doesnt issue complete holding instruc- hold or change altitude prior to reaching the point
tions, the pilot is expected to hold as depicted on the where standard separation from other IFR traffic
appropriate chart. When the pattern is charted, the would no longer exist.

442 ATC Clearances and Aircraft Separation


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indicated in FIG 454. TIS users must be alert to multiple radar coverage since an adjacent radar will
altitude encoder malfunctions, as TIS has no provide TIS. If no other TIScapable radar is
mechanism to determine if client altitude reporting is available, the Goodbye message will be received
correct. A failure of this nature will cause erroneous and TIS terminated until coverage is resumed.
and possibly unpredictable TIS operation. If this (e) Intermittent Operations. TIS operation
malfunction is suspected, confirmation of altitude may be intermittent during turns or other maneuver-
reporting with ATC is suggested. ing, particularly if the transponder system does not
(c) Intruder Altitude Reporting. Intruders include antenna diversity (antenna mounted on the
without altitude reporting capability will be dis- top and bottom of the aircraft). As in (d) above, TIS
played without the accompanying altitude tag. is dependent on twoway, line of sight communica-
Additionally, nonaltitude reporting intruders are tions between the aircraft and the Mode S radar.
assumed to be at the same altitude as the TIS client for Whenever the structure of the client aircraft comes
alert computations. This helps to ensure that the pilot between the transponder antenna (usually located on
will be alerted to all traffic under radar coverage, but the underside of the aircraft) and the groundbased
the actual altitude difference may be substantial. radar antenna, the signal may be temporarily
Therefore, visual acquisition may be difficult in this interrupted.
instance. (f) TIS Predictive Algorithm. TIS informa-
tion is collected one radar scan prior to the scan
(d) Coverage Limitations. Since TIS is
during which the uplink occurs. Therefore, the
provided by groundbased, secondary surveillance
surveillance information is approximately 5 seconds
radar, it is subject to all limitations of that radar. If an
old. In order to present the intruders in a real time
aircraft is not detected by the radar, it cannot be
position, TIS uses a predictive algorithm in its
displayed on TIS. Examples of these limitations are
tracking software. This algorithm uses track history
as follows:
data to extrapolate intruders to their expected
(1) TIS will typically be provided within positions consistent with the time of display in the
55 NM of the radars depicted in FIG 455, Terminal cockpit. Occasionally, aircraft maneuvering will
Mode S Radar Sites. This maximum range can vary cause this algorithm to induce errors in the TIS
by radar site and is always subject to line of sight display. These errors primarily affect relative bearing
limitations; the radar and data link signals will be information; intruder distance and altitude will
blocked by obstructions, terrain, and curvature of the remain relatively accurate and may be used to assist
earth. in see and avoid. Some of the more common
examples of these errors are as follows:
(2) TIS will be unavailable at low altitudes
in many areas of the country, particularly in (1) When client or intruder aircraft maneu-
mountainous regions. Also, when flying near the ver excessively or abruptly, the tracking algorithm
floor of radar coverage in a particular area, will report incorrect horizontal position until the
intruders below the client aircraft may not be detected maneuvering aircraft stabilizes.
by TIS. (2) When a rapidly closing intruder is on a
course that crosses the client at a shallow angle (either
(3) TIS will be temporarily disrupted when overtaking or head on) and either aircraft abruptly
flying directly over the radar site providing coverage changes course within NM, TIS will display the
if no adjacent site assumes the service. A intruder on the opposite side of the client than it
groundbased radar, like a VOR or NDB, has a zenith actually is.
cone, sometimes referred to as the cone of confusion
or cone of silence. This is the area of ambiguity These are relatively rare occurrences and will be
directly above the station where bearing information corrected in a few radar scans once the course has
is unreliable. The zenith cone setting for TIS is stabilized.
34 degrees: Any aircraft above that angle with (g) Heading/Course Reference. Not all TIS
respect to the radar horizon will lose TIS coverage aircraft installations will have onboard heading
from that radar until it is below this 34 degree angle. reference information. In these installations, aircraft
The aircraft may not actually lose service in areas of course reference to the TIS display is provided by the

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Mode S radar. The radar only determines ground observed; the type of transponder processor, and
track information and has no indication of the client software in use can also be useful information. Since
aircraft heading. In these installations, all intruder TIS performance is monitored by maintenance
bearing information is referenced to ground track and personnel rather than ATC, it is suggested that
does not account for wind correction. Additionally, malfunctions be reported in the following ways:
since groundbased radar will require several scans
(a) By radio or telephone to the nearest Flight
to determine aircraft course following a course
Service Station (FSS) facility.
change, a lag in TIS display orientation (intruder
aircraft bearing) will occur. As in (f) above, intruder (b) By FAA Form 87405, Safety Improve-
distance and altitude are still usable. ment Report, a postagepaid card designed for this
purpose. These cards may be obtained at FAA FSSs,
(h) CloselySpaced Intruder Errors. General Aviation District Offices, Flight Standards
When operating more than 30 NM from the Mode S District Offices, and General Aviation Fixed Based
sensor, TIS forces any intruder within 3/8 NM of the Operations.
TIS client to appear at the same horizontal position as
the client aircraft. Without this feature, TIS could
457. Automatic Dependent
display intruders in a manner confusing to the pilot in
SurveillanceBroadcast (ADSB) Services
critical situations (e.g., a closelyspaced intruder that
is actually to the right of the client may appear on the a. Introduction
TIS display to the left). At longer distances from the
1. Automatic Dependent SurveillanceBroad-
radar, TIS cannot accurately determine relative
cast (ADSB) is a surveillance technology being
bearing/distance information on intruder aircraft that
deployed in selected areas of the NAS (see
are in close proximity to the client.
FIG 457). ADSB broadcasts a radio transmission
Because TIS uses a groundbased, rotating radar for approximately once per second containing the
surveillance information, the accuracy of TIS data is aircrafts position, velocity, identification, and other
dependent on the distance from the sensor (radar) information. ADSB can also receive reports from
providing the service. This is much the same other suitably equipped aircraft within reception
phenomenon as experienced with groundbased range. Additionally, these broadcasts can be received
navigational aids, such as VOR or NDB. As distance by Ground Based Transceivers (GBTs) and used to
from the radar increases, the accuracy of surveillance provide surveillance services, along with fleet
decreases. Since TIS does not inform the pilot of operator monitoring of aircraft. No ground infrastruc-
distance from the Mode S radar, the pilot must assume ture is necessary for ADSB equipped aircraft to
that any intruder appearing at the same position as the detect each other.
client aircraft may actually be up to 3/8 NM away in 2. In the U.S., two different data links have been
any direction. Consistent with the operation of TIS, adopted for use with ADSB: 1090 MHz Extended
an alert on the display (regardless of distance from the Squitter (1090 ES) and the Universal Access
radar) should stimulate an outside visual scan, Transceiver (UAT). The 1090 ES link is intended for
intruder acquisition, and traffic avoidance based on aircraft that primarily operate at FL 180 and above,
outside reference. whereas the UAT link is intended for use by aircraft
e. Reports of TIS Malfunctions that primarily operate at 18,000 feet and below. From
a pilots standpoint, the two links operate similarly
1. Users of TIS can render valuable assistance in and support ADSB and Traffic Information
the early correction of malfunctions by reporting their ServiceBroadcast (TISB), see paragraph 458.
observations of undesirable performance. Reporters The UAT link additionally supports Flight
should identify the time of observation, location, type Information ServicesBroadcast (FISB), subpara-
and identity of aircraft, and describe the condition graph 7111d.

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FIG 457
ADSB, TISB, and FISB:
Broadcast Services Architecture

b. ADSB Certification and Performance 2. ADSB avionics typically allow pilots to


Requirements enter the aircrafts call sign and Air Traffic Control
(ATC)assigned transponder code, which will be
ADSB equipment may be certified as an airtoair transmitted to other aircraft and ground receivers.
system for enhancing situational awareness and as a Pilots are cautioned to use care when selecting and
surveillance source for air traffic services. Refer to entering the aircrafts identification and transponder
the aircrafts flight manual supplement for the code. Some ADSB avionics panels are not
specific aircraft installation. interconnected to the transponder. Therefore, it is
extremely important to ensure that the transpond-
c. ADSB Capabilities er code is identical in the ADSB and transponder
panel. Additionally, UAT systems provide a VFR
1. ADSB enables improved surveillance ser- privacy mode switch position that may be used by
vices, both airtoair and airtoground, especially pilots when not wanting to receive air traffic services.
in areas where radar is ineffective due to terrain or This feature will broadcast a VFR ID to other
where it is impractical or cost prohibitive. Initial NAS aircraft and ground receivers, similar to the 1200
applications of airtoair ADSB are for advisory, transponder code.
use only, enhancing a pilots visual acquisition of
other nearby equipped aircraft either when airborne 3. ADSB is intended to be used inflight and
or on the airport surface. Additionally, ADSB will on the airport surface. ADSB systems should be
enable ATC and fleet operators to monitor aircraft turned on and remain on whenever
throughout the available ground station coverage operating in the air and on the airport surface, thus
area. Other applications of ADSB may include reducing the likelihood of runway incursions. Civil
enhanced search and rescue operations and advanced and military Mode A/C transponders and ADSB
airtoair applications such as spacing, sequencing, systems should be adjusted to the on or normal
and merging. operating position as soon as practical, unless the

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change to standby has been accomplished NOTE


previously at the request of ATC. Mode S An inoperative or malfunctioning GBT may also cause a
transponders should be left on whenever power is loss of ATC surveillance services.
applied to the aircraft. (c) ATC will inform the flight crew if it
d. ATC Surveillance Services using ADSB becomes necessary to turn off the aircrafts ADSB
Procedures and Recommended Phraseology transmitter.
For Use In Alaska Only PHRASEOLOGY
STOP ADSB TRANSMISSIONS.
Radar procedures, with the exceptions found in this
paragraph, are identical to those procedures pre- (d) Other malfunctions and considerations:
scribed for radar in AIM Chapter 4 and Chapter 5. Loss of automatic altitude reporting capabilities
1. Preflight: (encoder failure) will result in loss of ATC altitude
advisory services.
If a request for ATC services is predicated on ADSB
and such services are anticipated when either a VFR e. ADSB Limitations
or IFR flight plan is filed, the aircrafts N number 1. The ADSB cockpit display of traffic is NOT
or callsign as filed in Block 2 of the Flight Plan intended to be used as a collision avoidance system
shall be entered in the ADSB avionics as the and does not relieve the pilots responsibility to see
aircrafts flight ID. and avoid other aircraft. (See paragraph 558, See
2. Inflight: and Avoid). ADSB shall not be used for avoidance
maneuvers during IMC or other times when there is
When requesting ADSB services while airborne, no visual contact with the intruder aircraft. ADSB is
pilots should ensure that their ADSB equipment is intended only to assist in visual acquisition of other
transmitting their aircrafts N number or call sign aircraft. No avoidance maneuvers are provided nor
prior to contacting ATC. To accomplish this, the pilot authorized, as a direct result of an ADSB target
must select the ADSB broadcast flight ID being displayed in the cockpit.
function.
2. Use of ADSB radar services is limited to the
NOTE service volume of the GBT.
The broadcast VFR or Standby mode built into some
ADSB systems will not provide ATC with the appropriate NOTE
aircraft identification information. This function should The coverage volume of GBTs are limited to lineofsight.
first be disabled before contacting ATC. f. Reports of ADSB Malfunctions
3. Aircraft with an Inoperative/Malfunctioning Users of ADSB can provide valuable assistance in
ADSB Transmitter or in the Event of an Inoperative the correction of malfunctions by reporting instances
Ground Broadcast Transceiver (GBT). of undesirable system performance. Reporters should
(a) ATC will inform the flight crew when the identify the time of observation, location, type and
aircrafts ADSB transmitter appears to be inopera- identity of aircraft, and describe the condition
tive or malfunctioning: observed; the type of avionics system and its software
version in use should also be included. Since ADSB
PHRASEOLOGY performance is monitored by maintenance personnel
YOUR ADSB TRANSMITTER APPEARS TO BE rather than ATC, it is suggested that malfunctions be
INOPERATIVE/MALFUNCTIONING. STOP ADSB
reported in any one of the following ways:
TRANSMISSIONS.
(b) ATC will inform the flight crew when the 1. By radio or telephone to the nearest Flight
GBT transceiver becomes inoperative or malfunc- Service Station (FSS) facility.
tioning, as follows: 2. By FAA Form 87405, Safety Improvement
PHRASEOLOGY Report, a postagepaid card is designed for this
(Name of facility) GROUND BASED TRANSCEIVER purpose. These cards may be obtained from FAA
INOPERATIVE/MALFUNCTIONING. FSSs, Flight Standards District Offices, and general
(And if appropriate) RADAR CONTACT LOST. aviation fixedbased operators.

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3. By reporting the failure directly to the FAA tion will enhance a pilots visual acquisition of other
Safe Flight 21 program at 1877FLYADSB or traffic.
http://www.adsb.gov.
2. Only transponderequipped targets
(i.e., Mode A/C or Mode S transponders) are
458. Traffic Information detected. Current radar siting may result in limited
ServiceBroadcast (TISB) radar surveillance coverage at lower altitudes near
some general aviation airports, with subsequently
a. Introduction limited TISB service volume coverage. If there is no
radar coverage in a given area, then there will be no
Traffic Information ServiceBroadcast (TISB) is
TISB coverage in that area.
the broadcast of traffic information to ADSB
equipped aircraft from ADSB ground stations. The d. TISB Limitations
source of this traffic information is derived from
groundbased air traffic surveillance sensors, 1. TISB is NOT intended to be used as a
typically radar. TISB service is becoming available collision avoidance system and does not relieve the
in selected locations where there are both adequate pilots responsibility to see and avoid other aircraft.
surveillance coverage from ground sensors and (See paragraph 558, See and Avoid). TISB shall
adequate broadcast coverage from Ground Based not be used for avoidance maneuvers during times
Transceivers (GBTs). The quality level of traffic when there is no visual contact with the intruder
information provided by TISB is dependent upon aircraft. TISB is intended only to assist in the visual
the number and type of ground sensors available as acquisition of other aircraft. No avoidance maneu-
TISB sources and the timeliness of the reported data. vers are provided for nor authorized as a direct result
of a TISB target being displayed in the cockpit.
b. TISB Requirements
2. While TISB is a useful aid to visual traffic
In order to receive TISB service, the following avoidance, its inherent system limitations must be
conditions must exist: understood to ensure proper use.
1. The host aircraft must be equipped with a
(a) A pilot may receive an intermittent TISB
UAT ADSB transmitter/receiver or transceiver, and
target of themselves, typically when maneuvering
a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI). As
(e.g., climbing turn) due to the radar not tracking the
the ground system evolves, the ADSB data link may
aircraft as quickly as ADSB.
be either UAT or 1090 ES, or both.
(b) The ADSBtoradar association pro-
2. The host aircraft must fly within the coverage
cess within the ground system may at times have
volume of a compatible GBT that is configured for
difficulty correlating an ADSB report with
TISB uplinks. (Not all GBTs provide TISB due to
corresponding radar returns from the same aircraft.
a lack of radar coverage or because a radar feed is not
When this happens the pilot will see duplicate traffic
available).
symbols (i.e., TISB shadows) on the cockpit
3. The target aircraft must be within the display.
coverage of, and detected by, at least one of the ATC
radars serving the GBT in use. (c) Updates of TISB traffic reports will
occur less often than ADSB traffic updates. (TISB
c. TISB Capabilities position updates will occur approximately once every
313 seconds depending on the radar coverage. In
1. TISB is the broadcast of traffic information comparison, the update rate for ADSB is nominally
to ADSB equipped aircraft. The source of this traffic once per second).
information is derived from groundbased air traffic
radars. TISB is intended to provide ADSB (d) The TISB system only detects and
equipped aircraft with a more complete traffic picture uplinks data pertaining to transponder equipped
in situations where not all nearby aircraft are aircraft. Aircraft without a transponder will not be
equipped with ADSB. The advisoryonly applica- displayed as a TISB target.

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(e) There is no indication provided when any e. Reports of TISB Malfunctions


aircraft is operating inside (or outside) the TISB Users of TISB can provide valuable assistance in the
service volume, therefore it is difficult to know if one correction of malfunctions by reporting instances of
is receiving uplinked TISB traffic information. undesirable system performance. Reporters should
Assume that not all aircraft are displayed as TISB identify the time of observation, location, type and
targets. identity of the aircraft, and describe the condition
3. Pilots and operators are reminded that the observed; the type of avionics system and its software
airborne equipment that displays TISB targets is for version used. Since TISB performance is monitored
pilot situational awareness only and is not approved by maintenance personnel rather than ATC, it is
as a collision avoidance tool. Unless there is an suggested that malfunctions be reported in anyone of
imminent emergency requiring immediate action, the following ways:
any deviation from an air traffic control clearance 1. By radio or telephone to the nearest Flight
based on TISB displayed cockpit information must Service Station (FSS) facility.
be approved beforehand by the controlling ATC 2. By FAA Form 87405, Safety Improvement
facility prior to commencing the maneuver. Uncoor- Report, a postagepaid card is designed for this
dinated deviations may place an aircraft in close purpose. These cards may be obtained from FAA
proximity to other aircraft under ATC control not FSSs, Flight Standards District Offices, and general
seen on the airborne equipment, and may result in a aviation fixedbased operators.
pilot deviation.
3. By reporting the failure directly to the FAA
Safe Flight 21 program at 1877FLYADSB or
http://www.adsb.gov.

4518 Surveillance Systems


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Chapter 5. Air Traffic Procedures


Section 1. Preflight

511. Preflight Preparation and including the number indicated in the FDC NOTAM
legend. Printed NOTAMs are not provided during a
a. Every pilot is urged to receive a preflight briefing unless specifically requested by the pilot since the
briefing and to file a flight plan. This briefing should FSS specialist has no way of knowing whether the pilot has
consist of the latest or most current weather, airport, already checked the Notices to Airmen Publication prior to
and en route NAVAID information. Briefing service calling. Remember to ask for NOTAMs in the Notices to
may be obtained from an FSS either by telephone or Airmen Publication. This information is not normally
interphone, by radio when airborne, or by a personal furnished during your briefing.
visit to the station. Pilots with a current medical REFERENCE
AIM, Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) System, Paragraph 513.
certificate in the 48 contiguous States may access
toll-free the Direct User Access Terminal System e. Pilots are urged to use only the latest issue of
(DUATS) through a personal computer. DUATS will aeronautical charts in planning and conducting flight
provide alpha-numeric preflight weather data and operations. Aeronautical charts are revised and
allow pilots to file domestic VFR or IFR flight plans. reissued on a regular scheduled basis to ensure that
depicted data are current and reliable. In the
REFERENCE
AIM, FAA Weather Services, Paragraph 712, lists DUATS vendors. conterminous U.S., Sectional Charts are updated
every 6 months, IFR En Route Charts every 56 days,
NOTE
Pilots filing flight plans via fast file who desire to have and amendments to civil IFR Approach Charts are
their briefing recorded, should include a statement at the accomplished on a 56day cycle with a change notice
end of the recording as to the source of their weather volume issued on the 28day midcycle. Charts that
briefing. have been superseded by those of a more recent date
may contain obsolete or incomplete flight
b. The information required by the FAA to process
information.
flight plans is contained on FAA Form 72331, Flight
REFERENCE
Plan. The forms are available at all flight service AIM, General Description of Each Chart Series, Paragraph 914.
stations. Additional copies will be provided on
request. f. When requesting a preflight briefing, identify
yourself as a pilot and provide the following:
REFERENCE
AIM, Flight Plan VFR Flights, Paragraph 514. 1. Type of flight planned; e.g., VFR or IFR.
AIM, Flight Plan IFR Flights, Paragraph 518.
2. Aircrafts number or pilots name.
c. Consult an FSS or a Weather Service Office
(WSO) for preflight weather briefing. Supplemental 3. Aircraft type.
Weather Service Locations (SWSLs) do not provide 4. Departure Airport.
weather briefings.
5. Route of flight.
d. FSSs are required to advise of pertinent
6. Destination.
NOTAMs if a standard briefing is requested, but if
they are overlooked, dont hesitate to remind the 7. Flight altitude(s).
specialist that you have not received NOTAM 8. ETD and ETE.
information.
g. Prior to conducting a briefing, briefers are
NOTE
required to have the background information listed
NOTAMs which are known in sufficient time for
publication and are of 7 days duration or longer are above so that they may tailor the briefing to the needs
normally incorporated into the Notices to Airmen of the proposed flight. The objective is to
Publication and carried there until cancellation time. FDC communicate a picture of meteorological and
NOTAMs, which apply to instrument flight procedures, are aeronautical information necessary for the conduct of
also included in the Notices to Airmen Publication up to a safe and efficient flight. Briefers use all available

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weather and aeronautical information to summarize 2. File a flight plan. This is an excellent low cost
data applicable to the proposed flight. They do not insurance policy. The cost is the time it takes to fill it
read weather reports and forecasts verbatim unless out. The insurance includes the knowledge that
specifically requested by the pilot. FSS briefers do someone will be looking for you if you become
not provide FDC NOTAM information for special overdue at your destination.
instrument approach procedures unless specifically 3. Use current charts.
asked. Pilots authorized by the FAA to use special
instrument approach procedures must specifically 4. Use the navigation aids. Practice maintaining
request FDC NOTAM information for these a good coursekeep the needle centered.
procedures. Pilots who receive the information 5. Maintain a constant altitude which is
electronically will receive NOTAMs for special IAPs appropriate for the direction of flight.
automatically. 6. Estimate en route position times.
REFERENCE 7. Make accurate and frequent position reports
AIM, Preflight Briefings, Paragraph 714, contains those items of a
weather briefing that should be expected or requested. to the FSSs along your route of flight.
h. FAA by 14 CFR Part 93, Subpart K, has b. Simulated IFR flight is recommended (under
designated High Density Traffic Airports (HDTAs) the hood); however, pilots are cautioned to review
and has prescribed air traffic rules and requirements and adhere to the requirements specified in 14 CFR
for operating aircraft (excluding helicopter opera- Section 91.109 before and during such flight.
tions) to and from these airports. c. When flying VFR at night, in addition to the
REFERENCE altitude appropriate for the direction of flight, pilots
Airport/Facility Directory, Special Notices Section. should maintain an altitude which is at or above the
AIM, Airport Reservation Operations and Special Traffic Management minimum en route altitude as shown on charts. This
Programs, Paragraph 4122.
is especially true in mountainous terrain, where there
i. In addition to the filing of a flight plan, if the is usually very little ground reference. Do not depend
flight will traverse or land in one or more foreign on your eyes alone to avoid rising unlighted terrain,
countries, it is particularly important that pilots leave or even lighted obstructions such as TV towers.
a complete itinerary with someone directly concerned
and keep that person advised of the flights progress. 513. Notice to Airmen (NOTAM) System
If serious doubt arises as to the safety of the flight, that a. Time-critical aeronautical information which
person should first contact the FSS. is of either a temporary nature or not sufficiently
REFERENCE known in advance to permit publication on
AIM, Flights Outside the U.S. and U.S. Territories, Paragraph 5110.
aeronautical charts or in other operational publica-
j. Pilots operating under provisions of 14 CFR tions receives immediate dissemination via the
Part 135 and not having an FAA assigned 3letter National NOTAM System.
designator, are urged to prefix the normal registration NOTE
(N) number with the letter T on flight plan filing; 1. NOTAM information is that aeronautical information
e.g., TN1234B. that could affect a pilots decision to make a flight. It
REFERENCE
includes such information as airport or aerodome
AIM, Aircraft Call Signs, Paragraph 424. primary runway closures, taxiways, ramps, obstructions,
communications, airspace, changes in the status of
navigational aids, ILSs, radar service availability, and
512. Follow IFR Procedures Even When other information essential to planned en route, terminal,
Operating VFR or landing operations.
2. NOTAM information is transmitted using standard
a. To maintain IFR proficiency, pilots are urged to
contractions to reduce transmission time. See TBL 511
practice IFR procedures whenever possible, even for a listing of the most commonly used contractions. For
when operating VFR. Some suggested practices a complete listing, see FAA Order JO 7340.2,
include: Contractions.
1. Obtain a complete preflight and weather b. NOTAM information is classified into four
briefing. Check the NOTAMs. categories. These are NOTAM (D) or distant, Flight

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Data Center (FDC) NOTAMs, Pointer NOTAMs, and While en route, pilots should contact FSSs and obtain
Military NOTAMs. updated information for their route of flight and
destination.
1. NOTAM (D) information is disseminated for
all navigational facilities that are part of the National 3. Pointer NOTAMs. NOTAMs issued by a
Airspace System (NAS), all public use airports, flight service station to highlight or point out another
seaplane bases, and heliports listed in the Airport/ NOTAM, such as an FDC or NOTAM (D) NOTAM.
Facility Directory (A/FD). The complete file of all This type of NOTAM will assist users in
NOTAM (D) information is maintained in a computer crossreferencing important information that may
database at the Weather Message Switching Center not be found under an airport or NAVAID identifier.
(WMSC), located in Atlanta, Georgia. This category Keywords in pointer NOTAMs must match the
of information is distributed automatically via keywords in the NOTAM that is being pointed out.
Service A telecommunications system. Air traffic The keyword in pointer NOTAMs related to
facilities, primarily FSSs, with Service A capability Temporary Flight Restrictions (TFR) must be
have access to the entire WMSC database of AIRSPACE.
NOTAMs. These NOTAMs remain available via 4. Military NOTAMs. NOTAMs pertaining
Service A for the duration of their validity or until to U.S. Air Force, Army, Marine,and Navy
published. Once published, the NOTAM data is navigational aids/airports that are part of the NAS.
deleted from the system. NOTAM (D) information
includes such data as taxiway closures, personnel c. An integral part of the NOTAM System is the
and equipment near or crossing runways, and airport Notices to Airmen Publication (NTAP) published
lighting aids that do not affect instrument approach every four weeks. Data is included in this publication
criteria, such as VASI. to reduce congestion on the telecommunications
circuits and, therefore, is not available via Service A.
2. FDC NOTAMs
Once published, the information is not provided
(a) On those occasions when it becomes during pilot weather briefings unless specifically
necessary to disseminate information which is requested by the pilot. This publication contains two
regulatory in nature, the National Flight Data Center sections.
(NFDC), in Washington, DC, will issue an FDC
1. The first section consists of notices that meet
NOTAM. FDC NOTAMs contain such things as
the criteria for NOTAM (D) and are expected to
amendments to published IAPs and other current
remain in effect for an extended period and FDC
aeronautical charts. They are also used to advertise
NOTAMs that are current at the time of publication.
temporary flight restrictions caused by such things as
Occasionally, unique information is included in this
natural disasters or large-scale public events that may
section when it will contribute to flight safety.
generate a congestion of air traffic over a site.
(b) FDC NOTAMs are transmitted via 2. The second section contains special notices
Service A only once and are kept on file at the FSS that are either too long or concern a wide or
until published or canceled. FSSs are responsible for unspecified geographic area and are not suitable for
maintaining a file of current, unpublished FDC inclusion in the first section. The content of these
NOTAMs concerning conditions within 400 miles of notices vary widely and there are no specific criteria
their facilities. FDC information concerning condi- for their inclusion, other than their enhancement of
tions that are more than 400 miles from the FSS, or flight safety.
that is already published, is given to a pilot only on 3. The number of the last FDC NOTAM
request. included in the publication is noted on the first page
NOTE to aid the user in updating the listing with any FDC
1. DUATS vendors will provide FDC NOTAMs only upon NOTAMs which may have been issued between the
site-specific requests using a location identifier. cut-off date and the date the publication is received.
2. NOTAM data may not always be current due to the All information contained will be carried until the
changeable nature of national airspace system compo- information expires, is canceled, or in the case of
nents, delays inherent in processing information, and permanent conditions, is published in other publica-
occasional temporary outages of the U.S. NOTAM system. tions, such as the A/FD.

Preflight 513
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4. All new notices entered, excluding FDC C


NOTAMs, will be published only if the information CAAS . . . . . . . . . Class A Airspace
is expected to remain in effect for at least 7 days after CAT . . . . . . . . . . Category
the effective date of the publication. CBAS . . . . . . . . . Class B Airspace
CBSA . . . . . . . . . Class B Surface Area
CCAS . . . . . . . . . Class C Airspace
d. NOTAM information is not available from a
CCLKWS . . . . . . Counterclockwise
Supplemental Weather Service Locations (SWSL). CCSA . . . . . . . . . Class C Surface Area
CD . . . . . . . . . . . Clearance Delivery
TBL 511 CDAS . . . . . . . . . Class D Airspace
NOTAM CONTRACTIONS CDSA . . . . . . . . . Class D Surface Area
CEAS . . . . . . . . . Class E Airspace
CESA . . . . . . . . . Class E Surface Area
A
CFA . . . . . . . . . . Controlled Firing Area
AADC . . . . . . . . Approach and Departure Control
CGAS . . . . . . . . . Class G Airspace
ABV . . . . . . . . . . Above
CHG . . . . . . . . . . Change
A/C . . . . . . . . . . .
Approach Control
CLKWS . . . . . . . Clockwise
ACCUM . . . . . . . Accumulate
CLNC . . . . . . . . . Clearance
ACFT . . . . . . . . . Aircraft
CLSD . . . . . . . . . Closed
ACR . . . . . . . . . . Air Carrier
CMSN/CMSND . Commission/Commissioned
ACTV/ACTVT . Active/Activate
CNCL/CNCLD/ Cancel/Canceled/Cancel
ADF . . . . . . . . . . Automatic Direction Finder CNL . . . . . . . . . .
ADJ . . . . . . . . . . Adjacent CNTRLN . . . . . . Centerline
ADZ/ADZD . . . . Advise/Advised CONC . . . . . . . . Concrete
AFD . . . . . . . . . . Airport/Facility Directory CONT . . . . . . . . . Continue/Continuously
AFSS . . . . . . . . . Automated Flight Service Station CRS . . . . . . . . . . Course
ALS . . . . . . . . . . Approach Light System CTAF . . . . . . . . . Common Traffic Advisory Frequency
ALTM . . . . . . . . . Altimeter CTLZ . . . . . . . . . Control Zone
ALTN/ALTNLY . Alternate/Alternately
ALSTG . . . . . . . . Altimeter Setting
D
AMDT . . . . . . . . Amendment DALGT . . . . . . . Daylight
APCH . . . . . . . . . Approach DCMS/DCMSND Decommission/Decommissioned
APL . . . . . . . . . . Airport Lights DCT . . . . . . . . . .Direct
ARFF . . . . . . . . . Aircraft Rescue & Fire Fighting DEP . . . . . . . . . .Depart/Departure
ARPT . . . . . . . . . Airport DEPT . . . . . . . . . Department
ARSR . . . . . . . . . Air Route Surveillance Radar DH . . . . . . . . . . .
Decision Height
ASDE . . . . . . . . . Airport Surface Detection Equipment DISABLD . . . . . Disabled
ASOS . . . . . . . . . Automated Surface Observing System DLA/DLAD . . . . Delay/Delayed
ASPH . . . . . . . . . Asphalt DLT/DLTD . . . . . Delete/Deleted
ASR . . . . . . . . . . Airport Surveillance Radar DLY . . . . . . . . . .Daily
ATC . . . . . . . . . . Air Traffic Control DME . . . . . . . . . .Distance Measuring Equipment
ATCT . . . . . . . . . Airport Traffic Control Tower DMSTN . . . . . . . Demonstration
ATIS . . . . . . . . . .Automated Terminal Information DP . . . . . . . . . . .
Instrument Departure Procedure
Service DPCR . . . . . . . . . Departure Procedure
AVBL . . . . . . . . . Available DRCT . . . . . . . . . Direct
AWOS . . . . . . . . Automatic Weather Observing System DRFT/DRFTD . . Drift/Drifted Snowbank/s Caused By
AZM . . . . . . . . . . Azimuth Wind Action
B DSPLCD . . . . . . Displaced
DSTC . . . . . . . . . Distance
BC . . . . . . . . . . . Back Course
DWPNT . . . . . . . Dew Point
BCN . . . . . . . . . . Beacon
BERM . . . . . . . . Snowbank/s Containing Earth/Gravel E
BLO . . . . . . . . . . Below E ............. East
BND . . . . . . . . . . Bound EBND . . . . . . . . . Eastbound
BRAF . . . . . . . . . Braking Action Fair EFAS . . . . . . . . . En Route Flight Advisory Service
BRAG . . . . . . . . Braking Action Good EFF . . . . . . . . . . . Effective
BRAN . . . . . . . . Braking Action Nil ELEV . . . . . . . . . Elevate/Elevation
BRAP . . . . . . . . . Braking Action Poor ENG . . . . . . . . . . Engine
BYD . . . . . . . . . . Beyond ENTR . . . . . . . . . Entire

514 Preflight
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EXCP . . . . . . . . . Except LCL . . . . . . . . . . Local


F LCTD . . . . . . . . . Located
LDA . . . . . . . . . . Localizer Type Directional Aid
FA . . . . . . . . . . . . Final Approach
LDIN . . . . . . . . . Lead In Lighting System
FAC . . . . . . . . . . Facility
LGT/LGTD/ Light/Lighted/Lights
FAF . . . . . . . . . . . Final Approach Fix LGTS . .
FDC . . . . . . . . . . Flight Data Center
LIRL . . . . . . . . . . Low Intensity Runway Edge Lights
FM . . . . . . . . . . . Fan Marker
LLWAS . . . . . . . . Low Level Wind Shear Alert System
FREQ . . . . . . . . . Frequency
LMM . . . . . . . . . Compass Locator at ILS Middle Marker
FRH . . . . . . . . . . Fly Runway Heading
LNDG . . . . . . . . Landing
FRZN . . . . . . . . . Frozen
LOC . . . . . . . . . . Localizer
FRNZ SLR . . . . . Frozen Slush on Runway/s
LOM . . . . . . . . . . Compass Locator at ILS Outer Marker
FSS . . . . . . . . . . . Flight Service Station
LONG . . . . . . . . Longitude
G LRN . . . . . . . . . . LORAN
GC . . . . . . . . . . . Ground Control LSR . . . . . . . . . . Loose Snow on Runway/s
GCA . . . . . . . . . . Ground Controlled Approach LT . . . . . . . . . . . . Left Turn After Take-off
GOVT . . . . . . . . Government M
GP . . . . . . . . . . . Glide Path MALS . . . . . . . . Medium Intensity Approach Lighting
GPS . . . . . . . . . . Global Positioning System System
GRVL . . . . . . . . . Gravel MALSF . . . . . . . Medium Intensity Approach Lighting
GS . . . . . . . . . . . Glide Slope System with Sequenced Flashers
H MALSR . . . . . . . Medium Intensity Approach Lighting
System with Runway Alignment
HAA . . . . . . . . . . Height Above Airport
Indicator Lights
HAT . . . . . . . . . . Height Above Touchdown
MAP . . . . . . . . . . Missed Approach Point
HAZ . . . . . . . . . . Hazard
MCA . . . . . . . . . Minimum Crossing Altitude
HEL . . . . . . . . . . Helicopter
MDA . . . . . . . . . Minimum Descent Altitude
HELI . . . . . . . . . Heliport
MEA . . . . . . . . . . Minimum En Route Altitude
HF . . . . . . . . . . . High Frequency
MED . . . . . . . . . . Medium
HIRL . . . . . . . . . High Intensity Runway Lights
MIN . . . . . . . . . . Minute
HIWAS . . . . . . . . Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory
MIRL . . . . . . . . . Medium Intensity Runway Edge Lights
Service
MLS . . . . . . . . . . Microwave Landing System
HOL . . . . . . . . . . Holiday
MM . . . . . . . . . . Middle Marker
HP . . . . . . . . . . . Holding Pattern
MNM . . . . . . . . . Minimum
I MOCA . . . . . . . . Minimum Obstruction Clearance
IAP . . . . . . . . . . . Instrument Approach Procedure Altitude
IBND . . . . . . . . . Inbound MONTR . . . . . . . Monitor
ID . . . . . . . . . . . . Identification MSA . . . . . . . . . . Minimum Safe Altitude/Minimum
IDENT . . . . . . . . Identify/Identifier/Identification Sector Altitude
IFR . . . . . . . . . . . Instrument Flight Rules MSAW . . . . . . . . Minimum Safe Altitude Warning
ILS . . . . . . . . . . . Instrument Landing System MSL . . . . . . . . . . Mean Sea Level
IM . . . . . . . . . . . . Inner Marker MU . . . . . . . . . . . Designate a Friction Value Representing
IN . . . . . . . . . . . . Inch/Inches Runway Surface Conditions
INDEFLY . . . . . . Indefinitely MUD . . . . . . . . . Mud
INOP . . . . . . . . . Inoperative MUNI . . . . . . . . . Municipal
INST . . . . . . . . . . Instrument N
INT . . . . . . . . . . . Intersection N............. North
INTST . . . . . . . . Intensity NA . . . . . . . . . . . Not Authorized
IR . . . . . . . . . . . . Ice On Runway/s NBND . . . . . . . . Northbound
L NDB . . . . . . . . . . Nondirectional Radio Beacon
L ............. Left NE . . . . . . . . . . . Northeast
LAA . . . . . . . . . . Local Airport Advisory NGT . . . . . . . . . . Night
LAT . . . . . . . . . . Latitude NM . . . . . . . . . . . Nautical Mile/s
LAWRS . . . . . . . Limited Aviation Weather Reporting NMR . . . . . . . . . Nautical Mile Radius
Station NOPT . . . . . . . . . No Procedure Turn Required
LB . . . . . . . . . . . Pound/Pounds NTAP . . . . . . . . . Notice To Airmen Publication
LC . . . . . . . . . . . Local Control NW . . . . . . . . . . . Northwest

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O RY/RWY . . . . . . Runway
OBSC . . . . . . . . . Obscured S
OBSTN . . . . . . . Obstruction S ............. South
OM . . . . . . . . . . . Outer Marker SBND . . . . . . . . . Southbound
OPER . . . . . . . . . Operate SDF . . . . . . . . . . Simplified Directional Facility
OPN . . . . . . . . . . Operation SE . . . . . . . . . . . . Southeast
ORIG . . . . . . . . . Original SECRA . . . . . . . . Secondary Radar
OTS . . . . . . . . . . Out of Service SFL . . . . . . . . . . . Sequenced Flashing Lights
OVR . . . . . . . . . . Over SI . . . . . . . . . . . . Straight-In Approach
P SIR . . . . . . . . . . . Packed or Compacted Snow and Ice on
PAEW . . . . . . . . . Personnel and Equipment Working Runway/s
PAJA . . . . . . . . . Parachute Jumping Activities SKED . . . . . . . . . Scheduled
PAPI . . . . . . . . . . Precision Approach Path Indicator SLR . . . . . . . . . . Slush on Runway/s
PAR . . . . . . . . . . Precision Approach Radar SNBNK . . . . . . . Snowbank/s Caused by Plowing
PARL . . . . . . . . . Parallel SND . . . . . . . . . . Sand/Sanded
PAT . . . . . . . . . . . Pattern SNGL . . . . . . . . . Single
PCL . . . . . . . . . . Pilot Controlled Lighting SNW . . . . . . . . . . Snow
PERM/PERMLY Permanent/Permanently SPD . . . . . . . . . . Speed
PLA . . . . . . . . . . Practice Low Approach SR . . . . . . . . . . . . Sunrise
PLW . . . . . . . . . . Plow/Plowed SS . . . . . . . . . . . . Sunset
PN . . . . . . . . . . . Prior Notice Required SSALF . . . . . . . . Simplified Short Approach Lighting
PPR . . . . . . . . . . Prior Permission Required System with Sequenced Flashers
PREV . . . . . . . . . Previous SSALR . . . . . . . . Simplified Short Approach Lighting
System with Runway Alignment
PRIRA . . . . . . . . Primary Radar
Indicator Lights
PROC . . . . . . . . . Procedure
SSALS . . . . . . . . Simplified Short Approach Lighting
PROP . . . . . . . . . Propeller System
PSGR . . . . . . . . . Passenger/s
STAR . . . . . . . . . Standard Terminal Arrival
PSR . . . . . . . . . . Packed Snow on Runway/s
SVC . . . . . . . . . . Service
PT/PTN . . . . . . . Procedure Turn
SW . . . . . . . . . . . Southwest
PVT . . . . . . . . . . Private
SWEPT . . . . . . . . Swept or Broom/Broomed
R T
RAIL . . . . . . . . . Runway Alignment Indicator Lights
TACAN . . . . . . . Tactical Air Navigational Aid
RCAG . . . . . . . . Remote Communication Air/Ground
TDZ/TDZL . . . . . Touchdown Zone/Touchdown Zone
Facility
Lights
RCL . . . . . . . . . . Runway Centerline
TFC . . . . . . . . . . Traffic
RCLS . . . . . . . . . Runway Centerline Light System
TFR . . . . . . . . . . Temporary Flight Restriction
RCO . . . . . . . . . . Remote Communication Outlet
TGL . . . . . . . . . . Touch and Go Landings
RCV/RCVR . . . . Receive/Receiver
THN . . . . . . . . . . Thin
REF . . . . . . . . . . Reference
THR . . . . . . . . . . Threshold
REIL . . . . . . . . . . Runway End Identifier Lights
THRU . . . . . . . . . Through
RELCTD . . . . . . Relocated
TIL . . . . . . . . . . . Until
RMDR . . . . . . . . Remainder
TKOF . . . . . . . . . Takeoff
RNAV . . . . . . . . . Area Navigation
TMPRY . . . . . . . Temporary
RPRT . . . . . . . . . Report
TRML . . . . . . . . Terminal
RQRD . . . . . . . . Required
TRNG . . . . . . . . . Training
RRL . . . . . . . . . . Runway Remaining Lights
TRSA . . . . . . . . . Terminal Radar Service Area
RSVN . . . . . . . . . Reservation
TRSN . . . . . . . . . Transition
RT . . . . . . . . . . . . Right Turn after Take-off
TSNT . . . . . . . . . Transient
RTE . . . . . . . . . . Route
TWEB . . . . . . . . Transcribed Weather Broadcast
RTR . . . . . . . . . . Remote Transmitter/Receiver
TWR . . . . . . . . . . Tower
RTS . . . . . . . . . . Return to Service
TWY . . . . . . . . . Taxiway
RUF . . . . . . . . . . Rough
RVR . . . . . . . . . . Runway Visual Range U
RVRM . . . . . . . . RVR Midpoint UNAVBL ...... Unavailable
RVRR . . . . . . . . . RVR Rollout UNLGTD ...... Unlighted
RVRT . . . . . . . . . RVR Touchdown UNMKD ...... Unmarked
RVV . . . . . . . . . . Runway Visibility Value UNMON ...... Unmonitored

516 Preflight
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UNRELBL . . . . . Unreliable NOTE


UNUSBL . . . . . . Unusable Some states operate aeronautical communications facili-
V ties which will accept and forward flight plans to the FSS
VASI . . . . . . . . . .Visual Approach Slope Indicator for further handling.
VDP . . . . . . . . . . Visual Descent Point
d. When a stopover flight is anticipated, it is
VFR . . . . . . . . . . Visual Flight Rules
VIA . . . . . . . . . . By Way Of recommended that a separate flight plan be filed for
VICE . . . . . . . . . Instead/Versus each leg when the stop is expected to be more than
VIS/VSBY . . . . . Visibility 1 hour duration.
VMC . . . . . . . . . Visual Meteorological Conditions
VOL . . . . . . . . . . Volume
e. Pilots are encouraged to give their departure
VOLMET . . . . . . Meteorlogical Information for Aircraft times directly to the FSS serving the departure airport
in Flight or as otherwise indicated by the FSS when the flight
VOR . . . . . . . . . . VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range plan is filed. This will ensure more efficient flight
VORTAC . . . . . . VOR and TACAN (collocated) plan service and permit the FSS to advise you of
VOT . . . . . . . . . . VOR Test Signal significant changes in aeronautical facilities or
W meteorological conditions. When a VFR flight plan
W ............ West
is filed, it will be held by the FSS until 1 hour after the
WBND . . . . . . . . Westbound
WEA/WX . . . . . . Weather
proposed departure time unless:
WI . . . . . . . . . . . Within 1. The actual departure time is received.
WKDAYS . . . . . Monday through Friday
WKEND . . . . . . . Saturday and Sunday 2. A revised proposed departure time is
WND . . . . . . . . . Wind received.
WP . . . . . . . . . . . Waypoint
WSR . . . . . . . . . . Wet Snow on Runway/s 3. At a time of filing, the FSS is informed that
WTR . . . . . . . . . . Water on Runway/s the proposed departure time will be met, but actual
WX . . . . . . . . . . . Weather time cannot be given because of inadequate
/ ............. And communications (assumed departures).
+ ............. In Addition/Also
f. On pilots request, at a location having an active
tower, the aircraft identification will be forwarded by
514. Flight Plan VFR Flights the tower to the FSS for reporting the actual departure
time. This procedure should be avoided at busy
a. Except for operations in or penetrating a Coastal airports.
or Domestic ADIZ or DEWIZ a flight plan is not
required for VFR flight. g. Although position reports are not required for
VFR flight plans, periodic reports to FAA FSSs along
REFERENCE
AIM, National Security, Paragraph 561. the route are good practice. Such contacts permit
significant information to be passed to the transiting
b. It is strongly recommended that a flight plan aircraft and also serve to check the progress of the
(for a VFR flight) be filed with an FAA FSS. This will flight should it be necessary for any reason to locate
ensure that you receive VFR Search and Rescue the aircraft.
Protection.
EXAMPLE
REFERENCE
AIM, Search and Rescue, Paragraph 627gives the proper method of
1. Bonanza 314K, over Kingfisher at (time), VFR flight
filing a VFR flight plan. plan, Tulsa to Amarillo.
c. To obtain maximum benefits from the flight 2. Cherokee 5133J, over Oklahoma City at (time),
plan program, flight plans should be filed directly Shreveport to Denver, no flight plan.
with the nearest FSS. For your convenience, FSSs h. Pilots not operating on an IFR flight plan and
provide aeronautical and meteorological briefings when in level cruising flight, are cautioned to
while accepting flight plans. Radio may be used to conform with VFR cruising altitudes appropriate to
file if no other means are available. the direction of flight.

Preflight 517
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7110.65R
AIM
AIM CHG 2 3/15/07
8/27/09
2/14/08

i. When filing VFR flight plans, indicate aircraft j. Under some circumstances, ATC computer
equipment capabilities by appending the appropriate tapes can be useful in constructing the radar history
suffix to aircraft type in the same manner as that of a downed or crashed aircraft. In each case,
prescribed for IFR flight. knowledge of the aircrafts transponder equipment is
REFERENCE
necessary in determining whether or not such
AIM, Flight Plan IFR Flights, Paragraph 518. computer tapes might prove effective.
FIG 511
FAA Flight Plan
Form 72331 (882)

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION


FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (FAA USE ONLY) PILOT BRIEFING VNR TIME STARTED SPECIALIST
INITIALS
FLIGHT PLAN STOPOVER
1. TYPE 2. AIRCRAFT 3. AIRCRAFT TYPE/ 4. TRUE 5. DEPARTURE POINT 6. DEPARTURE TIME 7. CRUISING
VFR IDENTIFICATION SPECIAL EQUIPMENT AIRSPEED ALTITUDE
PROPOSED (Z) ACTUAL (Z)
IFR
DVFR KTS
8. ROUTE OF FLIGHT

9. DESTINATION (Name of airport 10. EST. TIME ENROUTE 11. REMARKS


and city) HOURS MINUTES

12. FUEL ON BOARD 13. ALTERNATE AIRPORT(S) 14. PILOTS NAME, ADDRESS & TELEPHONE NUMBER & AIRCRAFT HOME BASE 15. NUMBER
HOURS ABOARD
MINUTES
17. DESTINATION CONTACT/TELEPHONE (OPTIONAL)

16. COLOR OF AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT PILOTS, FAR 91 requires you file an IFR flight plan to operate under instrument flight rules in
controlled airspace. Failure to file could result in a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000 for each violation (Section 901 of the
Federal Aviation Act of 1958, as amended). Filing of a VFR flight plan is recommended as a good operating practice. See also
Part 99 for requirements concerning DVFR flight plans.

FAA Form 7233-1 (8-82) CLOSE VFR FLIGHT PLAN WITH _________________ FSS ON ARRIVAL

k. Flight Plan Form (See FIG 511). 6. Block 6. Enter the proposed departure time
in Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) (Z). If
l. Explanation of VFR Flight Plan Items. airborne, specify the actual or proposed departure
time as appropriate.
1. Block 1. Check the type flight plan. Check
both the VFR and IFR blocks if composite VFR/IFR. 7. Block 7. Enter the appropriate VFR altitude
(to assist the briefer in providing weather and wind
2. Block 2. Enter your complete aircraft information).
identification including the prefix N if applicable.
8. Block 8. Define the route of flight by using
3. Block 3. Enter the designator for the aircraft, NAVAID identifier codes and airways.
or if unknown, consult an FSS briefer. 9. Block 9. Enter the destination airport
4. Block 4. Enter your true airspeed (TAS). identifier code, or if unknown, the airport name.
NOTE
5. Block 5. Enter the departure airport identifi- Include the city name (or even the state name) if needed for
er code, or if unknown, the name of the airport. clarity.

518 Preflight
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8/27/09
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10. Block 10. Enter your estimated time disseminated electronically by the ATCSCC that
en route in hours and minutes. contains information pertinent to the NAS.
11. Block 11. Enter only those remarks perti- 1. Advisories are normally issued for the
nent to ATC or to the clarification of other flight plan following items:
information, such as the appropriate radiotelephony
(a) Ground Stops.
(call sign) associated with the designator filed in
Block 2. Items of a personal nature are not accepted. (b) Ground Delay Programs.
12. Block 12. Specify the fuel on board in (c) Route Information.
hours and minutes.
(d) Plan of Operations.
13. Block 13. Specify an alternate airport if
desired. (e) Facility Outages and Scheduled Facility
Outages.
14. Block 14. Enter your complete name,
address, and telephone number. Enter sufficient (f) Volcanic Ash Activity Bulletins.
information to identify home base, airport, or (g) Special Traffic Management Programs.
operator.
2. This list is not allinclusive. Any time there
NOTE is information that may be beneficial to a large
This information is essential in the event of search and
number of people, an advisory may be sent.
rescue operations.
Additionally, there may be times when an advisory is
15. Block 15. Enter total number of persons on not sent due to workload or the short length of time of
board (POB) including crew. the activity.
16. Block 16. Enter the predominant colors. 3. Route information is available on the web site
17. Block 17. Record the FSS name for closing and in specific advisories. Some route information,
the flight plan. If the flight plan is closed with a subject to the 56day publishing cycle, is located on
different FSS or facility, state the recorded FSS name the OIS under Products, Route Management
that would normally have closed your flight plan. Tool (RMT), and Whats New Playbook. The RMT
and Playbook contain routings for use by Air Traffic
NOTE
and NAS operators when they are coordinated
1. Optional record a destination telephone number to
assist search and rescue contact should you fail to report realtime and are then published in an ATCSCC
or cancel your flight plan within 1/2 hour after your advisory.
estimated time of arrival (ETA). 4. Route advisories are identified by the word
2. The information transmitted to the destination FSS will Route in the header; the associated action is
consist only of flight plan blocks 2, 3, 9, and 10. Estimated required (RQD), recommended (RMD), planned
time en route (ETE) will be converted to the correct ETA. (PLN), or for your information (FYI). Operators are
expected to file flight plans consistent with the Route
515. Operational Information System RQD advisories.
(OIS)
a. The FAAs Air Traffic Control System 516. Flight Plan Defense VFR (DVFR)
Command Center (ATCSCC) maintains a web site Flights
with near realtime National Airspace System (NAS)
VFR flights into a Coastal or Domestic ADIZ/
status information. NAS operators are encouraged to
DEWIZ are required to file DVFR flight plans for
access the web site at http://www.fly.faa.gov prior to
security purposes. Detailed ADIZ procedures are
filing their flight plan.
found in Section 6, National Security and Intercep-
b. The web site consolidates information from tion Procedures, of this chapter. (See 14 CFR
advisories. An advisory is a message that is Part 99.)

Preflight 519
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7110.65R
AIM
AIM CHG 2 3/15/07
3/12/09
8/27/09
2/14/08

517. Composite Flight Plan (VFR/IFR available). Pilots should file IFR flight plans at least
Flights) 30 minutes prior to estimated time of departure to
preclude possible delay in receiving a departure
a. Flight plans which specify VFR operation for clearance from ATC. In order to provide FAA traffic
one portion of a flight, and IFR for another portion, management units strategic route planning capabili-
will be accepted by the FSS at the point of departure. ties, nonscheduled operators conducting IFR
If VFR flight is conducted for the first portion of the operations above FL 230 are requested to voluntarily
flight, pilots should report their departure time to the file IFR flight plans at least 4 hours prior to estimated
FSS with whom the VFR/IFR flight plan was filed; time of departure (ETD). To minimize your delay in
and, subsequently, close the VFR portion and request entering Class B, Class C, Class D, and Class E
ATC clearance from the FSS nearest the point at surface areas at destination when IFR weather
which change from VFR to IFR is proposed. conditions exist or are forecast at that airport, an IFR
Regardless of the type facility you are communicat- flight plan should be filed before departure.
ing with (FSS, center, or tower), it is the pilots Otherwise, a 30 minute delay is not unusual in
responsibility to request that facility to CLOSE VFR receiving an ATC clearance because of time spent in
FLIGHT PLAN. The pilot must remain in VFR processing flight plan data. Traffic saturation
weather conditions until operating in accordance with frequently prevents control personnel from accepting
the IFR clearance. flight plans by radio. In such cases, the pilot is advised
b. When a flight plan indicates IFR for the first to contact the nearest FSS for the purpose of filing the
portion of flight and VFR for the latter portion, the flight plan.
pilot will normally be cleared to the point at which the NOTE
change is proposed. After reporting over the 1. There are several methods of obtaining IFR clearances
clearance limit and not desiring further IFR at nontower, nonFSS, and outlying airports. The
clearance, the pilot should advise ATC to cancel the procedure may vary due to geographical features, weather
IFR portion of the flight plan. Then, the pilot should conditions, and the complexity of the ATC system. To
contact the nearest FSS to activate the VFR portion of determine the most effective means of receiving an IFR
the flight plan. If the pilot desires to continue the IFR clearance, pilots should ask the nearest FSS the most
appropriate means of obtaining the IFR clearance.
flight plan beyond the clearance limit, the pilot should
contact ATC at least 5 minutes prior to the clearance 2. When requesting an IFR clearance, it is highly
limit and request further IFR clearance. If the recommended that the departure airport be identified by
requested clearance is not received prior to reaching stating the city name and state and/or the airport location
the clearance limit fix, the pilot will be expected to identifier in order to clarify to ATC the exact location of the
enter into a standard holding pattern on the radial or intended airport of departure.
course to the fix unless a holding pattern for the 2. When filing an IFR flight plan, include as a
clearance limit fix is depicted on a U.S. Government prefix to the aircraft type, the number of aircraft when
or commercially produced (meeting FAA require- more than one and/or heavy aircraft indicator H/ if
ments) low or high altitude enroute, area or STAR appropriate.
chart. In this case the pilot will hold according to the
EXAMPLE
depicted pattern.
H/DC10/A
2/F15/A
518. Flight Plan IFR Flights 3. When filing an IFR flight plan, identify the
a. General equipment capability by adding a suffix, preceded by
a slant, to the AIRCRAFT TYPE, as shown in
1. Prior to departure from within, or prior to TBL 512, Aircraft Suffixes.
entering controlled airspace, a pilot must submit a
NOTE
complete flight plan and receive an air traffic 1. ATC issues clearances based on filed suffixes. Pilots
clearance, if weather conditions are below VFR should determine the appropriate suffix based upon
minimums. Instrument flight plans may be submitted desired services and/or routing. For example, if a desired
to the nearest FSS or ATCT either in person or by route/procedure requires GPS, a pilot should file /G even
telephone (or by radio if no other means are if the aircraft also qualifies for other suffixes.

5110 Preflight
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3/12/09
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2. For procedures requiring GPS, if the navigation system all facets of navigational equipment and transponder
does not automatically alert the flight crew of a loss of GPS, capabilities available.
the operator must develop procedures to verify correct GPS
operation. 5. When filing an IFR flight plan via telephone
or radio, it is highly recommended that the departure
3. The suffix is not to be added to the aircraft identification
or be transmitted by radio as part of the aircraft
airport be clearly identified by stating the city name
identification. and state and/or airport location identifier. With cell
phone use and flight service specialists covering
4. It is recommended that pilots file the larger areas of the country, clearly identifying the
maximum transponder or navigation capability of departure airport can prevent confusing your airport
their aircraft in the equipment suffix. This will of departure with those of identical or similar names
provide ATC with the necessary information to utilize in other states.

TBL 512
Aircraft Suffixes

Suffix Equipment Capability


NO DME
/X No transponder
/T Transponder with no Mode C
/U Transponder with Mode C
DME
/D No transponder
/B Transponder with no Mode C
/A Transponder with Mode C
TACAN ONLY
/M No transponder
/N Transponder with no Mode C
/P Transponder with Mode C
AREA NAVIGATION (RNAV)
/Y LORAN, VOR/DME, or INS with no transponder
/C LORAN, VOR/DME, or INS, transponder with no Mode C
/I LORAN, VOR/DME, or INS, transponder with Mode C
ADVANCED RNAV WITH TRANSPONDER AND MODE C (If an aircraft is unable to operate with a
transponder and/or Mode C, it will revert to the appropriate code listed above under Area Navigation.)
/E Flight Management System (FMS) with DME/DME and IRU position updating
/F FMS with DME/DME position updating
/G Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), including GPS or Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS), with
en route and terminal capability.
/R Required Navigational Performance (RNP). The aircraft meets the RNP type prescribed for the route segment(s),
route(s) and/or area concerned.
REDUCED VERTICAL SEPARATION MINIMUM (RVSM). Prior to conducting RVSM operations within the
U.S., the operator must obtain authorization from the FAA or from the responsible authority, as appropriate.
/J /E with RVSM
/K /F with RVSM
/L /G with RVSM
/Q /R with RVSM
/W RVSM

Preflight 5111
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AIM 2/14/08

b. Airways and Jet Routes Depiction on Flight EXAMPLE


Plan LAX J5 LKV J3 GEG YXC FL 330 J500 VLR J515 YWG
Spelled out: from Los Angeles International via Jet Route 5
1. It is vitally important that the route of flight Lakeview, Jet Route 3 Spokane, direct Cranbrook, British
be accurately and completely described in the flight Columbia VOR/DME, Flight Level 330 Jet Route 500 to
plan. To simplify definition of the proposed route, Langruth, Manitoba VORTAC, Jet Route 515 to Winnepeg,
and to facilitate ATC, pilots are requested to file via Manitoba.
airways or jet routes established for use at the altitude 5. When filing IFR, it is to the pilots advantage
or flight level planned. to file a preferred route.
2. If flight is to be conducted via designated REFERENCE
airways or jet routes, describe the route by indicating Preferred IFR Routes are described and tabulated in the Airport/Facility
Directory.
the type and number designators of the airway(s) or
jet route(s) requested. If more than one airway or jet 6. ATC may issue a SID or a STAR, as
route is to be used, clearly indicate points of appropriate.
transition. If the transition is made at an unnamed REFERENCE
intersection, show the next succeeding NAVAID or AIM, Instrument Departure Procedures (DP) Obstacle Departure
Procedures (ODP) and Standard Instrument Departures (SID),
named intersection on the intended route and the Paragraph 528.
complete route from that point. Reporting points may AIM, Standard Terminal Arrival (STAR), Area Navigation (RNAV) STAR,
be identified by using authorized name/code as and Flight Management System Procedures (FMSP) for Arrivals,
Paragraph 541.
depicted on appropriate aeronautical charts. The
following two examples illustrate the need to specify NOTE
the transition point when two routes share more than Pilots not desiring a SID or STAR should so indicate in the
one transition fix. remarks section of the flight plan as no SID or no
STAR.
EXAMPLE
1. ALB J37 BUMPY J14 BHM c. Direct Flights
Spelled out: from Albany, New York, via Jet Route 37 1. All or any portions of the route which will not
transitioning to Jet Route 14 at BUMPY intersection, be flown on the radials or courses of established
thence via Jet Route 14 to Birmingham, Alabama. airways or routes, such as direct route flights, must be
defined by indicating the radio fixes over which the
2. ALB J37 ENO J14 BHM flight will pass. Fixes selected to define the route shall
Spelled out: from Albany, New York, via Jet Route 37 be those over which the position of the aircraft can be
transitioning to Jet Route 14 at Smyrna VORTAC (ENO) accurately determined. Such fixes automatically
thence via Jet Route 14 to Birmingham, Alabama. become compulsory reporting points for the flight,
3. The route of flight may also be described by unless advised otherwise by ATC. Only those
naming the reporting points or NAVAIDs over which navigational aids established for use in a particular
the flight will pass, provided the points named are structure; i.e., in the low or high structures, may be
established for use at the altitude or flight level used to define the en route phase of a direct flight
planned. within that altitude structure.
EXAMPLE 2. The azimuth feature of VOR aids and that
BWI V44 SWANN V433 DQO azimuth and distance (DME) features of VORTAC
Spelled out: from Baltimore-Washington International, via and TACAN aids are assigned certain frequency
Victor 44 to Swann intersection, transitioning to Victor 433 protected areas of airspace which are intended for
at Swann, thence via Victor 433 to Dupont.
application to established airway and route use, and
4. When the route of flight is defined by named to provide guidance for planning flights outside of
reporting points, whether alone or in combination established airways or routes. These areas of airspace
with airways or jet routes, and the navigational aids are expressed in terms of cylindrical service volumes
(VOR, VORTAC, TACAN, NDB) to be used for the of specified dimensions called class limits or
flight are a combination of different types of aids, categories.
enough information should be included to clearly REFERENCE
indicate the route requested. AIM, Navigational Aid (NAVAID) Service Volumes, Paragraph 118.

5112 Preflight
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8/27/09
2/14/08 AIM

FIG 512
FAA Flight Plan
Form 72331 (882)

U.S. DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION


FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION (FAA USE ONLY) PILOT BRIEFING VNR TIME STARTED SPECIALIST
INITIALS
FLIGHT PLAN STOPOVER
1. TYPE 2. AIRCRAFT 3. AIRCRAFT TYPE/ 4. TRUE 5. DEPARTURE POINT 6. DEPARTURE TIME 7. CRUISING
VFR IDENTIFICATION SPECIAL EQUIPMENT AIRSPEED ALTITUDE
PROPOSED (Z) ACTUAL (Z)
IFR
DVFR KTS
8. ROUTE OF FLIGHT

9. DESTINATION (Name of airport 10. EST. TIME ENROUTE 11. REMARKS


and city) HOURS MINUTES

12. FUEL ON BOARD 13. ALTERNATE AIRPORT(S) 14. PILOTS NAME, ADDRESS & TELEPHONE NUMBER & AIRCRAFT HOME BASE 115.
5. NUMBER
HOURS ABOARD
MINUTES
17. DESTINATION CONTACT/TELEPHONE (OPTIONAL)

16. COLOR OF AIRCRAFT CIVIL AIRCRAFT PILOTS, FAR 91 requires you file an IFR flight plan to operate under instrument flight rules in
controlled airspace. Failure to file could result in a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000 for each violation (Section 901 of the
Federal Aviation Act of 1958, as amended). Filing of a VFR flight plan is recommended as a good operating practice. See also
Part 99 for requirements concerning DVFR flight plans.

FAA Form 7233-1 (8-82) CLOSE VFR FLIGHT PLAN WITH _________________ FSS ON ARRIVAL

4. Block 4. Enter your computed true airspeed NOTE


(TAS). Enter only the initial requested altitude in this block. When
more than one IFR altitude or flight level is desired along
NOTE the route of flight, it is best to make a subsequent request
If the average TAS changes plus or minus 5 percent or direct to the controller.
10 knots, whichever is greater, advise ATC.
5. Block 5. Enter the departure airport identifi- 8. Block 8. Define the route of flight by using
er code (or the airport name, city and state, if the NAVAID identifier codes (or names if the code is
identifier is unknown). unknown), airways, jet routes, and waypoints (for
RNAV).
NOTE
Use of identifier codes will expedite the processing of your NOTE
flight plan. Use NAVAIDs or waypoints to define direct routes and
6. Block 6. Enter the proposed departure time in radials/bearings to define other unpublished routes.
Coordinated Universal Time (UTC) (Z). If airborne,
9. Block 9. Enter the destination airport
specify the actual or proposed departure time as
identifier code (or name if the identifier is unknown).
appropriate.
7. Block 7. Enter the requested en route altitude 10. Block 10. Enter your estimated time en
or flight level. route based on latest forecast winds.

Preflight 5115
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11. Block 11. Enter only those remarks perti- necessity for an alternate airport even when the
nent to ATC or to the clarification of other flight plan forecast weather conditions would technically relieve
information, such as the appropriate radiotelephony them from the requirement to file one.
(call sign) associated with the designator filed in REFERENCE
Block 2. Items of a personal nature are not accepted. 14 CFR Section 91.167.
Do not assume that remarks will be automatically AIM, Tower En Route Control (TEC), Paragraph 4119.
transmitted to every controller. Specific ATC or
en route requests should be made directly to the b. The FAA has identified three possible situations
appropriate controller. where the failure to plan for an alternate airport when
NOTE flying IFR to such a destination airport could result in
DVRSN should be placed in Block 11 only if the a critical situation if the weather is less than forecast
pilot/company is requesting priority handling to their and sufficient fuel is not available to proceed to a
original destination from ATC as a result of a diversion as suitable airport.
defined in the Pilot/Controller Glossary.
1. An IFR flight to an airport where the
12. Block 12. Specify the fuel on board, Minimum Descent Altitudes (MDAs) or landing
computed from the departure point. visibility minimums for all instrument approaches
13. Block 13. Specify an alternate airport if are higher than the forecast weather minimums
desired or required, but do not include routing to the specified in 14 CFR Section 91.167(b). For example,
alternate airport. there are 3 high altitude airports in the U.S. with
approved instrument approach procedures where all
14. Block 14. Enter the complete name, of the MDAs are greater than 2,000 feet and/or the
address, and telephone number of pilot-in-command, landing visibility minimums are greater than 3 miles
or in the case of a formation flight, the formation (Bishop, California; South Lake Tahoe, California;
commander. Enter sufficient information to identify and AspenPitkin Co./Sardy Field, Colorado). In the
home base, airport, or operator. case of these airports, it is possible for a pilot to elect,
NOTE on the basis of forecasts, not to carry sufficient fuel to
This information would be essential in the event of search get to an alternate when the ceiling and/or visibility
and rescue operation. is actually lower than that necessary to complete the
approach.
15. Block 15. Enter the total number of persons
on board including crew. 2. A small number of other airports in
mountainous terrain have MDAs which are slightly
16. Block 16. Enter the predominant colors.
(100 to 300 feet) below 2,000 feet AGL. In situations
NOTE where there is an option as to whether to plan for an
Close IFR flight plans with tower, approach control, or alternate, pilots should bear in mind that just a slight
ARTCC, or if unable, with FSS. When landing at an airport worsening of the weather conditions from those
with a functioning control tower, IFR flight plans are
forecast could place the airport below the published
automatically canceled.
IFR landing minimums.
g. The information transmitted to the ARTCC for
IFR flight plans will consist of only flight plan 3. An IFR flight to an airport which requires
blocks 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11. special equipment; i.e., DME, glide slope, etc., in
order to make the available approaches to the lowest
h. A description of the International Flight Plan minimums. Pilots should be aware that all other
Form is contained in the International Flight minimums on the approach charts may require
Information Manual (IFIM). weather conditions better than those specified in
14 CFR Section 91.167(b). An inflight equipment
519. IFR Operations to High Altitude malfunction could result in the inability to comply
Destinations with the published approach procedures or, again, in
the position of having the airport below the published
a. Pilots planning IFR flights to airports located in IFR landing minimums for all remaining instrument
mountainous terrain are cautioned to consider the approach alternatives.

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5113. Closing VFR/DVFR Flight Plans e. If operating on an IFR flight plan to an airport
with a functioning control tower, the flight plan is
A pilot is responsible for ensuring that his/her VFR or automatically closed upon landing.
DVFR flight plan is canceled. You should close your
flight plan with the nearest FSS, or if one is not f. If operating on an IFR flight plan to an airport
available, you may request any ATC facility to relay where there is no functioning control tower, the pilot
your cancellation to the FSS. Control towers do not must initiate cancellation of the IFR flight plan. This
automatically close VFR or DVFR flight plans since can be done after landing if there is a functioning FSS
they do not know if a particular VFR aircraft is on a or other means of direct communications with ATC.
flight plan. If you fail to report or cancel your flight In the event there is no FSS and/or air/ground
plan within 1/2 hour after your ETA, search and rescue communications with ATC is not possible below a
procedures are started. certain altitude, the pilot should, weather conditions
permitting, cancel the IFR flight plan while still
REFERENCE
14 CFR Section 91.153. airborne and able to communicate with ATC by radio.
14 CFR Section 91.169. This will not only save the time and expense of
canceling the flight plan by telephone but will quickly
release the airspace for use by other aircraft.
5114. Canceling IFR Flight Plan

a. 14 CFR Sections 91.153 and 91.169 include the 5115. RNAV and RNP Operations
statement When a flight plan has been activated, the
pilot-in-command, upon canceling or completing the a. During the preflight planning phase the
flight under the flight plan, shall notify an FAA Flight availability of the navigation infrastructure required
Service Station or ATC facility. for the intended operation, including any nonRNAV
contingencies, must be confirmed for the period of
b. An IFR flight plan may be canceled at any time intended operation. Availability of the onboard
the flight is operating in VFR conditions outside navigation equipment necessary for the route to be
Class A airspace by pilots stating CANCEL MY IFR flown must be confirmed.
FLIGHT PLAN to the controller or air/ground
station with which they are communicating. b. If a pilot determines a specified RNP level
Immediately after canceling an IFR flight plan, a pilot cannot be achieved, revise the route or delay the
should take the necessary action to change to the operation until appropriate RNP level can be ensured.
appropriate air/ground frequency, VFR radar beacon
code and VFR altitude or flight level. c. The onboard navigation database must be
appropriate for the region of intended operation and
c. ATC separation and information services will must include the navigation aids, waypoints, and
be discontinued, including radar services (where coded terminal airspace procedures for the departure,
applicable). Consequently, if the canceling flight arrival and alternate airfields.
desires VFR radar advisory service, the pilot must
specifically request it. d. During system initialization, pilots of aircraft
equipped with a Flight Management System or other
NOTE RNAVcertified system, must confirm that the
Pilots must be aware that other procedures may be navigation database is current, and verify that the
applicable to a flight that cancels an IFR flight plan within aircraft position has been entered correctly. Flight
an area where a special program, such as a designated crews should crosscheck the cleared flight plan
TRSA, Class C airspace, or Class B airspace, has been
against charts or other applicable resources, as well as
established.
the navigation system textual display and the aircraft
d. If a DVFR flight plan requirement exists, the map display. This process includes confirmation of
pilot is responsible for filing this flight plan to replace the waypoints sequence, reasonableness of track
the canceled IFR flight plan. If a subsequent IFR angles and distances, any altitude or speed
operation becomes necessary, a new IFR flight plan constraints, and identification of flyby or flyover
must be filed and an ATC clearance obtained before waypoints. A procedure shall not be used if validity
operating in IFR conditions. of the navigation database is in doubt.

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e. Prior to commencing takeoff, the flight crew 4. Operators may use a third party interface,
must verify that the RNAV system is operating incorporating FAA/VOLPE RAIM prediction data
correctly and the correct airport and runway data have without altering performance values, to predict
been loaded. RAIM outages for the aircrafts predicted flight path
and times;
f. During the preflight planning phase RAIM
prediction must be performed if TSOC129()
equipment is used to solely satisfy the RNAV and 5. Operators may use the receivers installed
RNP requirement. GPS RAIM availability must be RAIM prediction capability (for TSOC129a/Class
confirmed for the intended route of flight (route and A1/B1/C1 equipment) to provide nonprecision
time) using current GPS satellite information. In the approach RAIM, accounting for the latest GPS
event of a predicted, continuous loss of RAIM of constellation status (e.g., NOTAMs or NANUs).
more than five (5) minutes for any part of the intended Receiver nonprecision approach RAIM should be
flight, the flight should be delayed, canceled, or checked at airports spaced at intervals not to exceed
rerouted where RAIM requirements can be met. 60 NM along the RNAV 1 procedures flight track.
Operators may satisfy the predictive RAIM require- Terminal or Approach RAIM must be available
ment through any one of the following methods: at the ETA over each airport checked; or,
1. Operators may monitor the status of each
satellite in its plane/slot position, by accounting for 6. Operators not using modelspecific software
the latest GPS constellation status (e.g., NOTAMs or or FAA/VOLPE RAIM data will need FAA
NANUs), and compute RAIM availability using operational approval.
modelspecific RAIM prediction software;
NOTE
2. Operators may use the FAA en route and If TSOC145/C146 equipment is used to satisfy the RNAV
terminal RAIM prediction website: and RNP requirement, the pilot/operator need not perform
www.raimprediction.net; the prediction if WAAS coverage is confirmed to be
available along the entire route of flight. Outside the U.S.
3. Operators may contact a Flight Service or in areas where WAAS coverage is not available,
Station (not DUATS) to obtain nonprecision operators using TSOC145/C146 receivers are required to
approach RAIM; check GPS RAIM availability.

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4. Expect Departure Clearance Time continuously while operating on the airport surface if
(EDCT). The EDCT is the runway release time so equipped. Pilots should not change to the departure
assigned to an aircraft included in traffic management control frequency until requested. Controllers may
programs. Aircraft are expected to depart no earlier omit the departure control frequency if a DP has or
than 5 minutes before, and no later than 5 minutes af- will be assigned and the departure control frequency
ter the EDCT. is published on the DP.
b. If practical, pilots departing uncontrolled air-
ports should obtain IFR clearances prior to becoming 528. Instrument Departure Procedures
airborne when two-way communications with the (DP) Obstacle Departure Procedures
controlling ATC facility is available. (ODP) and Standard Instrument Departures
(SID)

527. Departure Control Instrument departure procedures are preplanned in-


strument flight rule (IFR) procedures which provide
a. Departure Control is an approach control func- obstruction clearance from the terminal area to the
tion responsible for ensuring separation between appropriate en route structure. There are two types of
departures. So as to expedite the handling of depar- DPs, Obstacle Departure Procedures (ODPs), printed
tures, Departure Control may suggest a takeoff either textually or graphically, and Standard Instru-
direction other than that which may normally have ment Departures (SIDs), always printed graphically.
been used under VFR handling. Many times it is pre- All DPs, either textual or graphic may be designed us-
ferred to offer the pilot a runway that will require the ing either conventional or RNAV criteria. RNAV
fewest turns after takeoff to place the pilot on course procedures will have RNAV printed in the title,
or selected departure route as quickly as possible. At e.g., SHEAD TWO DEPARTURE (RNAV). ODPs
many locations particular attention is paid to the use provide obstruction clearance via the least onerous
of preferential runways for local noise abatement pro- route from the terminal area to the appropriate en
grams, and route departures away from congested route structure. ODPs are recommended for obstruc-
areas. tion clearance and may be flown without ATC
b. Departure Control utilizing radar will normally clearance unless an alternate departure procedure
clear aircraft out of the terminal area using DPs via ra- (SID or radar vector) has been specifically assigned
dio navigation aids. When a departure is to be by ATC. Graphic ODPs will have (OBSTACLE)
vectored immediately following takeoff, the pilot printed in the procedure title, e.g., GEYSR THREE
will be advised prior to takeoff of the initial heading DEPARTURE (OBSTACLE), or, CROWN ONE
to be flown but may not be advised of the purpose of DEPARTURE (RNAV) (OBSTACLE). Standard In-
the heading. Pilots operating in a radar environment strument Departures are air traffic control (ATC)
are expected to associate departure headings with procedures printed for pilot/controller use in graphic
vectors to their planned route or flight. When given form to provide obstruction clearance and a transition
a vector taking the aircraft off a previously assigned from the terminal area to the appropriate en route
nonradar route, the pilot will be advised briefly what structure. SIDs are primarily designed for system en-
the vector is to achieve. Thereafter, radar service will hancement and to reduce pilot/controller workload.
be provided until the aircraft has been reestablished ATC clearance must be received prior to flying a SID.
on-course using an appropriate navigation aid and All DPs provide the pilot with a way to depart the air-
the pilot has been advised of the aircrafts position or port and transition to the en route structure safely.
a handoff is made to another radar controller with fur- Pilots operating under 14 CFR Part 91 are strongly
ther surveillance capabilities. encouraged to file and fly a DP at night, during mar-
ginal Visual Meteorological Conditions (VMC) and
c. Controllers will inform pilots of the departure Instrument Meteorological Conditions (IMC), when
control frequencies and, if appropriate, the trans- one is available. The following paragraphs will pro-
ponder code before takeoff. Pilots should not operate vide an overview of the DP program, why DPs are
their transponder until ready to start the takeoff roll, developed, what criteria are used, where to find them,
except at ASDEX facilities where transponders how they are to be flown, and finally pilot and ATC
should be transmitting on with altitude reporting responsibilities.

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a. Why are DPs necessary? The primary reason is may have minimum and/or maximum crossing alti-
to provide obstacle clearance protection information tudes that must be adhered to prior to passing the fix.
to pilots. A secondary reason, at busier airports, is to In rare instances, obstacles that exist on the extended
increase efficiency and reduce communications and runway centerline may make an early turn more de-
departure delays through the use of SIDs. When an in- sirable than proceeding straight ahead. In these cases,
strument approach is initially developed for an the published departure instructions will include the
airport, the need for DPs is assessed. The procedure language turn left(right) as soon as practicable.
designer conducts an obstacle analysis to support de- These departures will also include a ceiling and visi-
parture operations. If an aircraft may turn in any bility minimum of at least 300 and 1. Pilots
direction from a runway within the limits of the as- encountering one of these DPs should preplan the
sessment area (see paragraph 528b3) and remain climb out to gain altitude and begin the turn as quickly
clear of obstacles, that runway passes what is called as possible within the bounds of safe operating prac-
a diverse departure assessment and no ODP will be tices and operating limitations. This type of departure
published. A SID may be published if needed for air procedure is being phased out.
traffic control purposes. However, if an obstacle pen-
NOTE
etrates what is called the 40:1 obstacle identification Practical or feasible may exist in some existing de-
surface, then the procedure designer chooses whether parture text instead of practicable.
to:
2. ODPs and SIDs assume normal aircraft per-
1. Establish a steeper than normal climb gradi- formance, and that all engines are operating.
ent; or Development of contingency procedures, required
2. Establish a steeper than normal climb gradi- to cover the case of an engine failure or other
ent with an alternative that increases takeoff minima emergency in flight that may occur after liftoff, is
to allow the pilot to visually remain clear of the ob- the responsibility of the operator. (More detailed
stacle(s); or information on this subject is available in Advisory
Circular AC 12091, Airport Obstacle Analysis, and
3. Design and publish a specific departure route;
in the Departure Procedures section of chapter 2 in
or
the Instrument Procedures Handbook,
4. A combination or all of the above. FAAH82611.)
b. What criteria is used to provide obstruction 3. The 40:1 obstacle identification surface
clearance during departure? (OIS) begins at the departure end of runway (DER)
1. Unless specified otherwise, required obstacle and slopes upward at 152 FPNM until reaching the
clearance for all departures, including diverse, is minimum IFR altitude or entering the en route struc-
based on the pilot crossing the departure end of the ture. This assessment area is limited to 25 NM from
runway at least 35 feet above the departure end of run- the airport in nonmountainous areas and 46 NM in
way elevation, climbing to 400 feet above the designated mountainous areas. Beyond this distance,
departure end of runway elevation before making the the pilot is responsible for obstacle clearance if not
initial turn, and maintaining a minimum climb gradi- operating on a published route, if below (having not
ent of 200 feet per nautical mile (FPNM), unless reached) the MEA or MOCA of a published route, or
required to level off by a crossing restriction, until the an ATC assigned altitude. See FIG 521. (Ref 14
minimum IFR altitude. A greater climb gradient may CFR 91.177 for further information on en route alti-
be specified in the DP to clear obstacles or to achieve tudes.)
an ATC crossing restriction. If an initial turn higher NOTE
than 400 feet above the departure end of runway ODPs are normally designed to terminate within these dis-
elevation is specified in the DP, the turn should be tance limitations, however, some ODPs will contain routes
commenced at the higher altitude. If a turn is speci- that may exceed 25/46 NM; these routes will insure
fied at a fix, the turn must be made at that fix. Fixes obstacle protection until reaching the end of the ODP.

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FIG 521
Diverse Departure Obstacle Assessment to 25/46 NM

4. Obstacles that are located within 1 NM of the purposes is mandatory when the procedure is part of
DER and penetrate the 40:1 OCS are referred to as the ATC clearance, unless increased takeoff minim-
low, closein obstacles. The standard required ums are provided and weather conditions allow
obstacle clearance (ROC) of 48 feet per NM to clear compliance with these minimums. Additionally, ATC
these obstacles would require a climb gradient greater required crossing restrictions may also require climb
than 200 feet per NM for a very short distance, only gradients greater than 200 FPNM. These climb gradi-
until the aircraft was 200 feet above the DER. To ents may be amended or canceled at ATCs discretion.
eliminate publishing an excessive climb gradient, the Multiple ATC climb gradients are permitted. An ATC
obstacle AGL/MSL height and location relative to the climb gradient will not be used on an ODP.
DER is noted in the Takeoff Minimums and EXAMPLE
(OBSTACLE) Departure Procedures section of a Cross ALPHA intersection at or below 4000; maintain
given Terminal Procedures Publication (TPP) book- 6000. The pilot climbs at least 200 FPNM to 6000. If 4000
let. The purpose of this note is to identify the is reached before ALPHA, the pilot levels off at 4000 until
obstacle(s) and alert the pilot to the height and loca- passing ALPHA; then immediately resumes at least 200
tion of the obstacle(s) so they can be avoided. This FPNM climb.
can be accomplished in a variety of ways, e.g., the EXAMPLE
pilot may be able to see the obstruction and maneuver TAKEOFF MINIMUMS: RWY 27, Standard with a min-
around the obstacle(s) if necessary; early liftoff/climb imum climb of 280 per NM to 2500, ATC climb of 310 per
performance may allow the aircraft to cross well NM to 4000 ft. A climb of at least 280 FPNM is required
above the obstacle(s); or if the obstacle(s) cannot be to 2500 and is mandatory when the departure procedure is
visually acquired during departure, preflight plan- included in the ATC clearance. ATC requires a climb gradi-
ent of 310 FPNM to 4000, however, this ATC climb
ning should take into account what turns or other
gradient may be amended or canceled.
maneuver may be necessary immediately after
takeoff to avoid the obstruction(s). 6. Climb gradients may be specified only to an
altitude/fix, above which the normal gradient applies.
5. Climb gradients greater than 200 FPNM are EXAMPLE
specified when required to support procedure design Minimum climb 340 FPNM to ALPHA. The pilot climbs
constraints, obstacle clearance, and/or airspace re- at least 340 FPNM to ALPHA, then at least 200 FPNM to
strictions. Compliance with a climb gradient for these MIA.

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7. Some DPs established solely for obstacle 2. ATC may assume responsibility for obstacle
avoidance require a climb in visual conditions to clearance by vectoring the aircraft prior to reaching
cross the airport or an onairport NAVAID in a speci- the minimum vectoring altitude by using a Diverse
fied direction, at or above a specified altitude. These Vector Area (DVA). The DVA has been assessed for
procedures are called Visual Climb Over the Airport departures which do not follow a specific ground
(VCOA). track. ATC may also vector an aircraft off a previous-
EXAMPLE
ly assigned DP. In all cases, the 200 FPNM climb
Climb in visual conditions so as to cross the McElory Air- gradient is assumed and obstacle clearance is not pro-
port southbound, at or above 6000, then climb via vided by ATC until the controller begins to provide
Keemmling radial zero three three to Keemmling VOR- navigational guidance in the form of radar vectors.
TAC. NOTE
c. Who is responsible for obstacle clearance? DPs When used by the controller during departure, the term
are designed so that adherence to the procedure by the radar contact should not be interpreted as relieving pi-
lots of their responsibility to maintain appropriate terrain
pilot will ensure obstacle protection. Additionally:
and obstruction clearance which may include flying the ob-
1. Obstacle clearance responsibility also rests stacle DP.
with the pilot when he/she chooses to climb in visual 3. Pilots must preplan to determine if the aircraft
conditions in lieu of flying a DP and/or depart under can meet the climb gradient (expressed in feet per
increased takeoff minima rather than fly the climb nautical mile) required by the departure procedure,
gradient. Standard takeoff minima are one statute and be aware that flying at a higher than anticipated
mile for aircraft having two engines or less and one ground speed increases the climb rate requirement in
half statute mile for aircraft having more than two feet per minute. Higher than standard climb gradients
engines. Specified ceiling and visibility minima are specified by a note on the departure procedure
(VCOA or increased takeoff minima) will allow visu- chart for graphic DPs, or in the TakeOff Minimums
al avoidance of obstacles until the pilot enters the and (Obstacle) Departure Procedures section of the
standard obstacle protection area. Obstacle avoid- U.S. Terminal Procedures booklet for textual ODPs.
ance is not guaranteed if the pilot maneuvers farther The required climb gradient, or higher, must be main-
from the airport than the specified visibility minimum tained to the specified altitude or fix, then the
prior to reaching the specified altitude. DPs may also standard climb gradient of 200 ft/NM can be re-
contain what are called Low Close in Obstacles. sumed. A table for the conversion of climb gradient
These obstacles are less than 200 feet above the de- (feet per nautical mile) to climb rate (feet per minute),
parture end of runway elevation and within one NM at a given ground speed, is included on page D1 of the
of the runway end, and do not require increased take- U.S. Terminal Procedures booklets.
off minimums. These obstacles are identified on the
d. Where are DPs located? DPs will be listed by
SID chart or in the Takeoff Minimums and (Ob-
airport in the IFR Takeoff Minimums and (Obstacle)
stacle) Departure Procedures section of the U. S.
Departure Procedures Section, Section C, of the Ter-
Terminal Procedure booklet. These obstacles are es-
minal Procedures Publications (TPPs). If the DP is
pecially critical to aircraft that do not lift off until
textual, it will be described in TPP Section C. SIDs
close to the departure end of the runway or which
and complex ODPs will be published graphically and
climb at the minimum rate. Pilots should also consid-
named. The name will be listed by airport name and
er drift following liftoff to ensure sufficient
runway in Section C. Graphic ODPs will also have
clearance from these obstacles. That segment of the
the term (OBSTACLE) printed in the charted pro-
procedure that requires the pilot to see and avoid ob-
cedure title, differentiating them from SIDs.
stacles ends when the aircraft crosses the specified
point at the required altitude. In all cases continued 1. An ODP that has been developed solely for
obstacle clearance is based on having climbed a mini- obstacle avoidance will be indicated with the symbol
mum of 200 feet per nautical mile to the specified T on appropriate Instrument Approach Procedure
point and then continuing to climb at least 200 foot (IAP) charts and DP charts for that airport. The T
per nautical mile during the departure until reaching symbol will continue to refer users to TPP Section C.
the minimum enroute altitude, unless specified other- In the case of a graphic ODP, the TPP Section C will
wise. only contain the name of the ODP. Since there may be

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both a textual and a graphic DP, Section C should still issued/reissued all applicable restrictions or shall be
be checked for additional information. The nonstan- advised to comply with those restrictions.
dard takeoff minimums and minimum climb
gradients found in TPP Section C also apply to 4. If prior to or after takeoff an altitude restric-
charted DPs and radar vector departures unless differ- tion is issued by ATC, all previously issued ATC
ent minimums are specified on the charted DP. altitude restrictions are cancelled including those
Takeoff minimums and departure procedures apply to published on a SID.
all runways unless otherwise specified. New graphic
DPs will have all the information printed on the 5. ATC crossing altitude restrictions published
graphic depiction. As a general rule, ATC will only on SIDs are identified on the chart with (ATC) fol-
assign an ODP from a nontowered airport when com- lowing the minimum altitude restriction. This will
pliance with the ODP is necessary for aircraft to indicate to the pilot and the controller that this
aircraft separation. Pilots may use the ODP to help restriction is for ATC purposes and may be deleted by
ensure separation from terrain and obstacles. ATC. When an ATC crossing altitude has been
established prior to the beginning of a transition
e. Responsibilities. route, a minimum altitude for obstruction clearance
1. Each pilot, prior to departing an airport on an or other design constraints will also be published at
IFR flight should: the same fix adjacent/below the (ATC) altitude.
The absence of (ATC) at a minimum altitude
(a) Consider the type of terrain and other ob- indicates the restriction is there to support obstacle
stacles on or in the vicinity of the departure airport; clearance, airspace restrictions, Navaid reception,
(b) Determine whether an ODP is available; and/or other reason(s) that mandate compliance.
These altitudes CANNOT be lowered or cancelled by
(c) Determine if obstacle avoidance can be
ATC. A standalone (ATC) altitude restriction may
maintained visually or if the ODP should be flown;
also be located on a transition route; however, it must
and
never be lower than the published Minimum Enroute
(d) Consider the effect of degraded climb per- Altitude (MEA).
formance and the actions to take in the event of an
engine loss during the departure. Pilots should notify 6. Altitude restrictions published on an ODP are
ATC as soon as possible of reduced climb capability necessary for obstacle clearance and/or design con-
in that circumstance. straints. Compliance with these restrictions is
NOTE mandatory and CANNOT be lowered or cancelled by
Guidance concerning contingency procedures that ATC.
address an engine failure on takeoff after V1 speed on a
large or turbinepowered transport category airplane may f. RNAV Departure Procedures
be found in AC 12091, Airport Obstacle Analysis.
All public RNAV SIDs and graphic ODPs are
2. After an aircraft is established on an SID and RNAV 1. These procedures generally start with an
subsequently vectored or cleared off of the SID or initial RNAV or heading leg near the departure run-
SID transition, pilots must consider the SID canceled, way end. In addition, these procedures require system
unless the controller adds expect to resume SID. performance currently met by GPS or DME/DME/
Aircraft may not be vectored off of an ODP until at or IRU RNAV systems that satisfy the criteria discussed
above the MVA/MIA, at which time the ODP is can- in AC 90100A, U.S. Terminal and En Route Area
celed. Navigation (RNAV) Operations. RNAV 1 proce-
3. Aircraft instructed to resume a SID that con- dures require the aircrafts total system error remain
tains ATC altitude restrictions, shall be bounded by 1 NM for 95% of the total flight time.

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NOTE certain reporting points. Reporting points are


The exchange of information between an aircraft and an indicated by symbols on en route charts. The
ARTCC through an FSS is quicker than relay via company designated compulsory reporting point symbol is a
radio because the FSS has direct interphone lines to the
responsible ARTCC sector. Accordingly, when circum- solid triangle and the on request reporting
stances dictate a choice between the two, during an point symbol is the open triangle . Reports
ARTCC frequency outage, relay via FSS radio is passing an on request reporting point are only
recommended. necessary when requested by ATC.

c. Position Reporting Requirements.


532. Position Reporting
1. Flights along airways or routes. A position
The safety and effectiveness of traffic control report is required by all flights regardless of altitude,
depends to a large extent on accurate position including those operating in accordance with an ATC
reporting. In order to provide the proper separation clearance specifying VFRontop, over each
and expedite aircraft movements, ATC must be able designated compulsory reporting point along the
to make accurate estimates of the progress of every route being flown.
aircraft operating on an IFR flight plan.
2. Flights Along a Direct Route. Regardless
a. Position Identification.
of the altitude or flight level being flown, including
1. When a position report is to be made passing flights operating in accordance with an ATC
a VOR radio facility, the time reported should be the clearance specifying VFRontop, pilots shall
time at which the first complete reversal of the report over each reporting point used in the flight plan
to/from indicator is accomplished. to define the route of flight.

2. When a position report is made passing a 3. Flights in a Radar Environment. When


facility by means of an airborne ADF, the time informed by ATC that their aircraft are in Radar
reported should be the time at which the indicator Contact, pilots should discontinue position reports
makes a complete reversal. over designated reporting points. They should
resume normal position reporting when ATC advises
3. When an aural or a light panel indication is RADAR CONTACT LOST or RADAR SERVICE
used to determine the time passing a reporting point, TERMINATED.
such as a fan marker, Z marker, cone of silence or
intersection of range courses, the time should be NOTE
noted when the signal is first received and again when ATC will inform pilots that they are in radar contact:
it ceases. The mean of these two times should then be (a) when their aircraft is initially identified in the ATC
taken as the actual time over the fix. system; and
(b) when radar identification is reestablished after
4. If a position is given with respect to distance radar service has been terminated or radar contact lost.
and direction from a reporting point, the distance and Subsequent to being advised that the controller has
direction should be computed as accurately as established radar contact, this fact will not be repeated to
the pilot when handed off to another controller. At times,
possible.
the aircraft identity will be confirmed by the receiving
5. Except for terminal area transition purposes, controller; however, this should not be construed to mean
that radar contact has been lost. The identity of
position reports or navigation with reference to aids
transponder equipped aircraft will be confirmed by asking
not established for use in the structure in which flight the pilot to ident, squawk standby, or to change codes.
is being conducted will not normally be required by Aircraft without transponders will be advised of their
ATC. position to confirm identity. In this case, the pilot is
expected to advise the controller if in disagreement with the
b. Position Reporting Points. CFRs require position given. Any pilot who cannot confirm the accuracy
pilots to maintain a listening watch on the appropriate of the position given because of not being tuned to the
frequency and, unless operating under the provisions NAVAID referenced by the controller, should ask for
of subparagraph c, to furnish position reports passing another radar position relative to the tuned in NAVAID.

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d. Position Report Items: NOTE


The reports in subparagraphs (f) and (g) may be omitted by
1. Position reports should include the follow- pilots of aircraft involved in instrument training at military
ing items: terminal area facilities when radar service is being
(a) Identification; provided.

(b) Position; (h) Any loss, in controlled airspace, of VOR,


TACAN, ADF, low frequency navigation receiver
(c) Time; capability, GPS anomalies while using installed
(d) Altitude or flight level (include actual IFRcertified GPS/GNSS receivers, complete or
altitude or flight level when operating on a clearance partial loss of ILS receiver capability or impairment
specifying VFRontop); of air/ground communications capability. Reports
should include aircraft identification, equipment
(e) Type of flight plan (not required in IFR affected, degree to which the capability to operate
position reports made directly to ARTCCs or under IFR in the ATC system is impaired, and the
approach control); nature and extent of assistance desired from ATC.
(f) ETA and name of next reporting point;
NOTE
(g) The name only of the next succeeding 1. Other equipment installed in an aircraft may effectively
reporting point along the route of flight; and impair safety and/or the ability to operate under IFR. If
such equipment (e.g., airborne weather radar) malfunc-
(h) Pertinent remarks. tions and in the pilots judgment either safety or IFR
capabilities are affected, reports should be made as above.
533. Additional Reports 2. When reporting GPS anomalies, include the location
a. The following reports should be made to and altitude of the anomaly. Be specific when describing
ATC or FSS facilities without a specific ATC the location and include duration of the anomaly if
necessary.
request:
1. At all times. (i) Any information relating to the safety of
flight.
(a) When vacating any previously assigned
altitude or flight level for a newly assigned altitude or 2. When not in radar contact.
flight level.
(a) When leaving final approach fix inbound
(b) When an altitude change will be made if on final approach (nonprecision approach) or when
operating on a clearance specifying VFRontop. leaving the outer marker or fix used in lieu of the outer
(c) When unable to climb/descend at a rate of marker inbound on final approach (precision
a least 500 feet per minute. approach).

(d) When approach has been missed. (b) A corrected estimate at anytime it
(Request clearance for specific action; i.e., to becomes apparent that an estimate as previously
alternative airport, another approach, etc.) submitted is in error in excess of 3 minutes. For
flights in the North Atlantic (NAT), a revised
(e) Change in the average true airspeed (at
estimate is required if the error is 3 minutes or more.
cruising altitude) when it varies by 5 percent or
10 knots (whichever is greater) from that filed in the b. Pilots encountering weather conditions which
flight plan. have not been forecast, or hazardous conditions
(f) The time and altitude or flight level upon which have been forecast, are expected to forward a
reaching a holding fix or point to which cleared. report of such weather to ATC.
REFERENCE
(g) When leaving any assigned holding fix or AIM, Pilot Weather Reports (PIREPs), Paragraph 7120.
point. 14 CFR Section 91.183(B) and (C).

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534. Airways and Route Systems flight plan by specifying the type of facility to be used after
the location name in the following manner: Newark L/MF,
a. Three fixed route systems are established for air Allentown VOR.
navigation purposes. They are the Federal airway
(2) With respect to position reporting,
system (consisting of VOR and L/MF routes), the jet
reporting points are designated for VOR Airway
route system, and the RNAV route system. To the
Systems. Flights using Victor Airways will report
extent possible, these route systems are aligned in an
over these points unless advised otherwise by ATC.
overlying manner to facilitate transition between
each. (b) The L/MF airways (colored airways) are
predicated solely on L/MF navigation aids and are
1. The VOR and L/MF (nondirectional radio depicted in brown on aeronautical charts and are
beacons) Airway System consists of airways identified by color name and number (e.g., Amber
designated from 1,200 feet above the surface (or in One). Green and Red airways are plotted east and
some instances higher) up to but not including 18,000 west. Amber and Blue airways are plotted north and
feet MSL. These airways are depicted on Enroute south.
Low Altitude Charts.
NOTE
NOTE Except for G13 in North Carolina, the colored airway
The altitude limits of a victor airway should not be system exists only in the state of Alaska. All other such
exceeded except to effect transition within or between route airways formerly so designated in the conterminous U.S.
structures. have been rescinded.
(a) Except in Alaska and coastal North (c) The use of TSOC145a or TSOC146a
Carolina, the VOR airways are: predicated solely on GPS/WAAS navigation systems is allowed in Alaska
VOR or VORTAC navigation aids; depicted in blue as the only means of navigation on published air
on aeronautical charts; and identified by a V traffic routes including those Victor and colored
(Victor) followed by the airway number (e.g., V12). airway segments designated with a second minimum
NOTE en route altitude (MEA) depicted in blue and
Segments of VOR airways in Alaska and North Carolina followed by the letter G at those lower altitudes. The
(V56, V290) are based on L/MF navigation aids and altitudes so depicted are below the minimum
charted in brown instead of blue on en route charts. reception altitude (MRA) of the landbased
(1) A segment of an airway which is navigation facility defining the route segment, and
common to two or more routes carries the numbers of guarantee standard en route obstacle clearance and
all the airways which coincide for that segment. twoway communications. Air carrier operators
When such is the case, pilots filing a flight plan need requiring operations specifications are authorized to
to indicate only that airway number for the route filed. conduct operations on those routes in accordance
with FAA operations specifications.
NOTE
A pilot who intends to make an airway flight, using VOR 2. The jet route system consists of jet routes
facilities, will simply specify the appropriate victor established from 18,000 feet MSL to FL 450
airways(s) in the flight plan. For example, if a flight is to inclusive.
be made from Chicago to New Orleans at 8,000 feet, using
(a) These routes are depicted on Enroute
omniranges only, the route may be indicated as departing
from ChicagoMidway, cruising 8,000 feet via Victor 9 to High Altitude Charts. Jet routes are depicted in black
Moisant International. If flight is to be conducted in part on aeronautical charts and are identified by a J (Jet)
by means of L/MF navigation aids and in part on followed by the airway number (e.g., J12). Jet routes,
omniranges, specifications of the appropriate airways in as VOR airways, are predicated solely on VOR or
the flight plan will indicate which types of facilities will be VORTAC navigation facilities (except in Alaska).
used along the described routes, and, for IFR flight, permit NOTE
ATC to issue a traffic clearance accordingly. A route may Segments of jet routes in Alaska are based on L/MF
also be described by specifying the station over which the navigation aids and are charted in brown color instead of
flight will pass, but in this case since many VORs and L/MF black on en route charts.
aids have the same name, the pilot must be careful to
indicate which aid will be used at a particular location. (b) With respect to position reporting,
This will be indicated in the route of flight portion of the reporting points are designated for jet route systems.

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Flights using jet routes will report over these points turning prior to/over a waypoint en route to another
unless otherwise advised by ATC. waypoint. Pilots should use this bearing as a reference
only, because their RNAV/GPS/GNSS navigation
3. Area Navigation (RNAV) Routes.
system will fly the true course between the
(a) Published RNAV routes, including waypoints.
QRoutes and TRoutes, can be flight planned for b. Operation above FL 450 may be conducted on
use by aircraft with RNAV capability, subject to any a point-to-point basis. Navigational guidance is
limitations or requirements noted on en route charts, provided on an area basis utilizing those facilities
in applicable Advisory Circulars, or by NOTAM. depicted on the enroute high altitude charts.
RNAV routes are depicted in blue on aeronautical
charts and are identified by the letter Q or T c. Radar Vectors. Controllers may vector air-
followed by the airway number (e.g., Q13, T205). craft within controlled airspace for separation
Published RNAV routes are RNAV2 except when purposes, noise abatement considerations, when an
specifically charted as RNAV1. These routes operational advantage will be realized by the pilot or
require system performance currently met by GPS or the controller, or when requested by the pilot. Vectors
DME/DME/IRU RNAV systems that satisfy the outside of controlled airspace will be provided only
criteria discussed in AC 90100A, U.S. Terminal and on pilot request. Pilots will be advised as to what the
En Route Area Navigation (RNAV) Operations. vector is to achieve when the vector is controller
initiated and will take the aircraft off a previously
NOTE assigned nonradar route. To the extent possible,
AC 90100A does not apply to over water RNAV routes
(reference 14 CFR 91.511, including the Qroutes in the
aircraft operating on RNAV routes will be allowed to
Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic routes) or Alaska remain on their own navigation.
VOR/DME RNAV routes (JxxxR). The AC does not apply d. When flying in Canadian airspace, pilots are
to offroute RNAV operations, Alaska GPS routes or cautioned to review Canadian Air Regulations.
Caribbean routes.
1. Special attention should be given to the parts
(1) Qroutes are available for use by RNAV which differ from U.S. CFRs.
equipped aircraft between 18,000 feet MSL and
FL 450 inclusive. Qroutes are depicted on Enroute (a) The Canadian Airways Class B airspace
High Altitude Charts. restriction is an example. Class B airspace is all
controlled low level airspace above 12,500 feet MSL
(2) Troutes are available for use by RNAV or the MEA, whichever is higher, within which only
equipped aircraft from 1,200 feet above the surface IFR and controlled VFR flights are permitted. (Low
(or in some instances higher) up to but not including level airspace means an airspace designated and
18,000 feet MSL. Troutes are depicted on Enroute defined as such in the Designated Airspace
Low Altitude Charts. Handbook.)
(b) Unpublished RNAV routes are direct (b) Regardless of the weather conditions or
routes, based on area navigation capability, between the height of the terrain, no person shall operate an
waypoints defined in terms of latitude/longitude aircraft under VFR conditions within Class B
coordinates, degreedistance fixes, or offsets from airspace except in accordance with a clearance for
established routes/airways at a specified distance and VFR flight issued by ATC.
direction. Radar monitoring by ATC is required on all
unpublished RNAV routes. (c) The requirement for entry into Class B
airspace is a student pilot permit (under the guidance
(c) Magnetic Reference Bearing (MRB) is the or control of a flight instructor).
published bearing between two waypoints on an
(d) VFR flight requires visual contact with
RNAV/GPS/GNSS route. The MRB is calculated by
the ground or water at all times.
applying magnetic variation at the waypoint to the
calculated true course between two waypoints. The 2. Segments of VOR airways and high level
MRB enhances situational awareness by indicating a routes in Canada are based on L/MF navigation aids
reference bearing (nowind heading) that a pilot and are charted in brown color instead of blue on
should see on the compass/HSI/RMI etc., when en route charts.

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account the interrelationship between airports, aircraft is equipped with the required NAVAID(s) in
facilities, and the surrounding environment, terrain, order to execute the approach, including the missed
obstacles, noise sensitivity, etc. Appropriate approach.
altitudes, courses, headings, distances, and other NOTE
limitations are specified and, once approved, the Some military (i.e., U.S. Air Force and U.S. Navy)
procedures are published and distributed by IAPs have these additional equipment required
government and commercial cartographers as notes charted only in the planview of the approach
instrument approach charts. procedure and do not conform to the same application
standards used by the FAA.
2. Not all IAPs are published in chart form.
Radar IAPs are established where requirements and (c) The FAA has initiated a program to
facilities exist but they are printed in tabular form in provide a new notation for LOC approaches when
appropriate U.S. Government Flight Information charted on an ILS approach requiring other
Publications. navigational aids to fly the final approach course. The
LOC minimums will be annotated with the NAVAID
3. The navigation equipment required to join required (e.g., DME Required or RADAR
and fly an instrument approach procedure is indicated Required). During the transition period, ILS
by the title of the procedure and notes on the chart. approaches will still exist without the annotation.
(a) Straightin IAPs are identified by the (d) Many ILS approaches having minima
navigational system providing the final approach based on RVR are eligible for a landing minimum of
guidance and the runway to which the approach is RVR 1800. Some of these approaches are to runways
aligned (e.g., VOR RWY 13). Circling only that have touchdown zone and centerline lights. For
approaches are identified by the navigational system many runways that do not have touchdown and
providing final approach guidance and a letter centerline lights, it is still possible to allow a landing
(e.g., VOR A). More than one navigational system minimum of RVR 1800. For these runways, the
separated by a slash indicates that more than one type normal ILS minimum of RVR 2400 is annotated
of equipment must be used to execute the final with a double asterisk, for example ** 696/24 200
approach (e.g., VOR/DME RWY 31). More than (200/1/2). A note is included on the chart
one navigational system separated by the word or stating **RVR 1800 authorized with use of FD or
indicates either type of equipment may be used to AP or HUD to DA. The pilot must use the flight
execute the final approach (e.g., VOR or GPS director, or autopilot with an approved approach
RWY 15). coupler, or head up display to decision altitude or to
the initiation of a missed approach. A NOTAM may
(b) In some cases, other types of navigation be issued authorizing the use of the RVR 1800
systems including radar may be required to execute minimum until the new approach chart can be
other portions of the approach or to navigate to the published.
IAF (e.g., an NDB procedure turn to an ILS, an NDB
(e) The naming of multiple approaches of the
in the missed approach, or radar required to join the
same type to the same runway is also changing.
procedure or identify a fix). When radar or other
Multiple approaches with the same guidance will be
equipment is required for procedure entry from the
annotated with an alphabetical suffix beginning at the
en route environment, a note will be charted in the
end of the alphabet and working backwards for
planview of the approach procedure chart
subsequent procedures (e.g., ILS Z RWY 28, ILS Y
(e.g., RADAR REQUIRED or ADF REQUIRED).
RWY 28, etc.). The existing annotations such as
When radar or other equipment is required on
ILS 2 RWY 28 or Silver ILS RWY 28 will be phased
portions of the procedure outside the final approach
out and replaced with the new designation. The Cat II
segment, including the missed approach, a note will
and Cat III designations are used to differentiate
be charted in the notes box of the pilot briefing
between multiple ILSs to the same runway unless
portion of the approach chart (e.g., RADAR
there are multiples of the same type.
REQUIRED or DME REQUIRED). Notes are not
charted when VOR is required outside the final (f) WAAS (LPV, LNAV/VNAV and LNAV),
approach segment. Pilots should ensure that the and GPS (LNAV) approach procedures are charted as

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RNAV (GPS) RWY (Number) (e.g., RNAV (GPS) pilots understand these procedures and their use prior
RWY 21). VOR/DME RNAV approaches will to attempting to fly instrument approaches.
continue to be identified as VOR/DME RNAV RWY
7. TERPS criteria are provided for the following
(Number) (e.g., VOR/DME RNAV RWY 21).
types of instrument approach procedures:
VOR/DME RNAV procedures which can be flown by
GPS will be annotated with or GPS (a) Precision Approach (PA). An instrument
(e.g., VOR/DME RNAV or GPS RWY 31). approach based on a navigation system that provides
course and glidepath deviation information meeting
4. Approach minimums are based on the local the precision standards of ICAO Annex 10. For
altimeter setting for that airport, unless annotated example, PAR, ILS, and GLS are precision
otherwise; e.g., Oklahoma City/Will Rogers World approaches.
approaches are based on having a Will Rogers World
altimeter setting. When a different altimeter source is (b) Approach with Vertical Guidance (APV).
required, or more than one source is authorized, it will An instrument approach based on a navigation
be annotated on the approach chart; e.g., use Sidney system that is not required to meet the precision
altimeter setting, if not received, use Scottsbluff approach standards of ICAO Annex 10 but provides
altimeter setting. Approach minimums may be raised course and glidepath deviation information. For
when a nonlocal altimeter source is authorized. When example, BaroVNAV, LDA with glidepath,
more than one altimeter source is authorized, and the LNAV/VNAV and LPV are APV approaches.
minima are different, they will be shown by separate (c) Nonprecision Approach (NPA). An in-
lines in the approach minima box or a note; e.g., use strument approach based on a navigation system
Manhattan altimeter setting; when not available use which provides course deviation information, but no
Salina altimeter setting and increase all MDAs glidepath deviation information. For example, VOR,
40 feet. When the altimeter must be obtained from a NDB and LNAV. As noted in subparagraph i, Vertical
source other than air traffic a note will indicate the Descent Angle (VDA) on Nonprecision Approaches,
source; e.g., Obtain local altimeter setting on CTAF. some approach procedures may provide a Vertical
When the altimeter setting(s) on which the approach Descent Angle as an aid in flying a stabilized
is based is not available, the approach is not approach, without requiring its use in order to fly the
authorized. BaroVNAV must be flown using the procedure. This does not make the approach an APV
local altimeter setting only. Where no local altimeter procedure, since it must still be flown to an MDA and
is available, the LNAV/VNAV line will still be has not been evaluated with a glidepath.
published for use by WAAS receivers with a note that
b. The method used to depict prescribed altitudes
BaroVNAV is not authorized. When a local and at
on instrument approach charts differs according to
least one other altimeter setting source is authorized
techniques employed by different chart publishers.
and the local altimeter is not available BaroVNAV
Prescribed altitudes may be depicted in four different
is not authorized; however, the LNAV/VNAV
configurations: minimum, maximum, mandatory,
minima can still be used by WAAS receivers using the
and recommended. The U.S. Government distributes
alternate altimeter setting source.
charts produced by National GeospatialIntelligence
5. A pilot adhering to the altitudes, flight paths, Agency (NGA) and FAA. Altitudes are depicted on
and weather minimums depicted on the IAP chart or these charts in the profile view with underscore,
vectors and altitudes issued by the radar controller, is overscore, both or none to identify them as minimum,
assured of terrain and obstruction clearance and maximum, mandatory or recommended.
runway or airport alignment during approach for 1. Minimum altitude will be depicted with the
landing. altitude value underscored. Aircraft are required to
maintain altitude at or above the depicted value,
6. IAPs are designed to provide an IFR descent
e.g., 3000.
from the en route environment to a point where a safe
landing can be made. They are prescribed and 2. Maximum altitude will be depicted with the
approved by appropriate civil or military authority to altitude value overscored. Aircraft are required to
ensure a safe descent during instrument flight maintain altitude at or below the depicted value,
conditions at a specific airport. It is important that e.g., 4000.

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3. Mandatory altitude will be depicted with the for routing traffic into the terminal environment with
altitude value both underscored and overscored. little required air traffic control interface, and with
Aircraft are required to maintain altitude at the minimum altitudes depicted that provide standard
depicted value, e.g., 5000. obstacle clearance compatible with the instrument
procedure associated with it. The TAA will not be
4. Recommended altitude will be depicted with found on all RNAV procedures, particularly in areas
no overscore or underscore. These altitudes are of heavy concentration of air traffic. When the TAA
depicted for descent planning, e.g., 6000. is published, it replaces the MSA for that approach
NOTE procedure. See FIG 549 for a depiction of a RNAV
Pilots are cautioned to adhere to altitudes as prescribed approach chart with a TAA.
because, in certain instances, they may be used as the basis
for vertical separation of aircraft by ATC. When a depicted 2. The RNAV procedure underlying the TAA
altitude is specified in the ATC clearance, that altitude will be the T design (also called the Basic T), or
becomes mandatory as defined above. a modification of the T. The T design
incorporates from one to three IAFs; an intermediate
c. Minimum Safe/Sector Altitudes (MSA) are
fix (IF) that serves as a dual purpose IF (IAF); a final
published for emergency use on IAP charts. For
approach fix (FAF), and a missed approach point
conventional navigation systems, the MSA is
(MAP) usually located at the runway threshold. The
normally based on the primary omnidirectional
three IAFs are normally aligned in a straight line
facility on which the IAP is predicated. The MSA
perpendicular to the intermediate course, which is an
depiction on the approach chart contains the facility
extension of the final course leading to the runway,
identifier of the NAVAID used to determine the MSA
forming a T. The initial segment is normally from
altitudes. For RNAV approaches, the MSA is based
36 NM in length; the intermediate 57 NM, and the
on the runway waypoint (RWY WP) for straightin
final segment 5 NM. Specific segment length may be
approaches, or the airport waypoint (APT WP) for
varied to accommodate specific aircraft categories
circling approaches. For GPS approaches, the MSA
for which the procedure is designed. However, the
center will be the missed approach waypoint
published segment lengths will reflect the highest
(MAWP). MSAs are expressed in feet above mean
category of aircraft normally expected to use the
sea level and normally have a 25 NM radius;
procedure.
however, this radius may be expanded to 30 NM if
necessary to encompass the airport landing surfaces.
(a) A standard racetrack holding pattern may
Ideally, a single sector altitude is established and
be provided at the center IAF, and if present may be
depicted on the plan view of approach charts;
necessary for course reversal and for altitude
however, when necessary to obtain relief from
adjustment for entry into the procedure. In the latter
obstructions, the area may be further sectored and as
case, the pattern provides an extended distance for the
many as four MSAs established. When established,
descent required by the procedure. Depiction of this
sectors may be no less than 90 in spread. MSAs
pattern in U.S. Government publications will utilize
provide 1,000 feet clearance over all obstructions but
the holdinlieuofPT holding pattern symbol.
do not necessarily assure acceptable navigation
signal coverage.
(b) The published procedure will be anno-
d. Terminal Arrival Area (TAA) tated to indicate when the course reversal is not
necessary when flying within a particular TAA area;
1. The objective of the TAA is to provide a e.g., NoPT. Otherwise, the pilot is expected to
seamless transition from the en route structure to the execute the course reversal under the provisions of
terminal environment for arriving aircraft equipped 14 CFR Section 91.175. The pilot may elect to use
with Flight Management System (FMS) and/or the course reversal pattern when it is not required by
Global Positioning System (GPS) navigational the procedure, but must inform air traffic control and
equipment. The underlying instrument approach receive clearance to do so. (See FIG 541,
procedure is an area navigation (RNAV) procedure FIG 542, FIG 549, and paragraph 549,
described in this section. The TAA provides the pilot Procedure Turn and Holdinlieu of Procedure
and air traffic controller with a very efficient method Turn).

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3. The T design may be modified by the 4. Another modification of the T design may
procedure designers where required by terrain or air be found at airports with parallel runway configura-
traffic control considerations. For instance, the T tions. Each parallel runway may be served by its own
design may appear more like a regularly or irregularly T IAF, IF (IAF), and FAF combination, resulting in
shaped Y, or may even have one or both outboard parallel final approach courses. (See FIG 544).
IAFs eliminated resulting in an upside down L or Common IAFs may serve both runways; however,
an I configuration. (See FIG 543 and only the intermediate and final approach segments for
FIG 5410). Further, the leg lengths associated with the landing runway will be shown on the approach
the outboard IAFs may differ. (See FIG 545 and chart. (See FIG 545 and FIG 546).
FIG 546).

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FIG 541
Basic T Design

FIG 542
Basic T Design

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FIG 543
Modified Basic T

FIG 544
Modified T Approach to Parallel Runways

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FIG 545
T Approach with Common IAFs to Parallel Runways

FIG 546
T Approach with Common IAFs to Parallel Runways

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FIG 547
TAA Area

5. The standard TAA consists of three areas areas. Using the end IAFs may give a false indication
defined by the extension of the IAF legs and the of which area the aircraft will enter. This is critical
intermediate segment course. These areas are called when approaching the TAA near the extended
the straightin, leftbase, and rightbase areas. (See boundary between the left and rightbase areas,
FIG 547). TAA area lateral boundaries are especially where these areas contain different
identified by magnetic courses TO the IF (IAF). The minimum altitude requirements.
straightin area can be further divided into
(b) Pilots entering the TAA and cleared by air
pieshaped sectors with the boundaries identified by
traffic control, are expected to proceed directly to the
magnetic courses TO the IF (IAF), and may contain
IAF associated with that area of the TAA at the
stepdown sections defined by arcs based on RNAV
altitude depicted, unless otherwise cleared by air
distances (DME or ATD) from the IF (IAF). The
traffic control. Cleared direct to an Initial Approach
right/leftbase areas can only be subdivided using
Fix (IAF) without a clearance for the procedure does
arcs based on RNAV distances from the IAFs for
not authorize a pilot to descend to a lower TAA
those areas. Minimum MSL altitudes are charted
altitude. If a pilot desires a lower altitude without an
within each of these defined areas/subdivisions that
approach clearance, request the lower TAA altitude.
provide at least 1,000 feet of obstacle clearance, or
If a pilot is not sure of what they are authorized or
more as necessary in mountainous areas.
expected to do by air traffic, they should ask air traffic
(a) Prior to arriving at the TAA boundary, the or request a specific clearance. Pilots entering the
pilot can determine which area of the TAA the aircraft TAA with twoway radio communications failure
will enter by selecting the IF (IAF) to determine the (14 CFR Section 91.185, IFR Operations: Twoway
magnetic bearing TO the center IF (IAF). That Radio Communications Failure), must maintain the
bearing should then be compared with the published highest altitude prescribed by Section 91.185(c)(2)
bearings that define the lateral boundaries of the TAA until arriving at the appropriate IAF.

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FIG 548
Sectored TAA Areas

(c) Depiction of the TAA on U.S. Govern- (d) Each waypoint on the T, except the
ment charts will be through the use of icons located missed approach waypoint, is assigned a pronounce-
in the plan view outside the depiction of the actual able 5character name used in air traffic control
approach procedure. (See FIG 549). Use of icons communications, and which is found in the RNAV
is necessary to avoid obscuring any portion of the T databases for the procedure. The missed approach
procedure (altitudes, courses, minimum altitudes, waypoint is assigned a pronounceable name when it
etc.). The icon for each TAA area will be located and is not located at the runway threshold.
oriented on the plan view with respect to the direction 6. Once cleared to fly the TAA, pilots are
of arrival to the approach procedure, and will show all expected to obey minimum altitudes depicted within
TAA minimum altitudes and sector/radius subdivi- the TAA icons, unless instructed otherwise by air
sions for that area. The IAF for each area of the TAA traffic control. In FIG 548, pilots within the left or
is included on the icon where it appears on the ap- rightbase areas are expected to maintain a minimum
proach, to help the pilot orient the icon to the altitude of 6,000 feet until within 17 NM of the
approach procedure. The IAF name and the distance associated IAF. After crossing the 17 NM arc, descent
of the TAA area boundary from the IAF are included is authorized to the lower charted altitudes. Pilots
on the outside arc of the TAA area icon. Examples approaching from the northwest are expected to
here are shown with the TAA around the approach to maintain a minimum altitude of 6,000 feet, and when
aid pilots in visualizing how the TAA corresponds to within 22 NM of the IF (IAF), descend to a minimum
the approach and should not be confused with the altitude of 2,000 feet MSL until reaching the IF
actual approach chart depiction. (IAF).

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FIG 549
RNAV (GPS) Approach Chart

NOTE
This chart has been modified to depict new concepts and may not reflect actual approach minima.

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FIG 5410
TAA with Left and Right Base Areas Eliminated

7. Just as the underlying T approach proce- (IAF). Design criteria require a course reversal
dure may be modified in shape, the TAA may contain whenever this turn exceeds 120 degrees. In this
modifications to the defined area shapes and sizes. generalized example, pilots approaching on a bearing
Some areas may even be eliminated, with other areas TO the IF (IAF) from 300 clockwise through 060
expanded as needed. FIG 5410 is an example of a are expected to execute a course reversal. The term
design limitation where a course reversal is necessary NoPT will be annotated on the boundary of the
when approaching the IF (IAF) from certain TAA icon for the other portion of the TAA.
directions due to the amount of turn required at the IF

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FIG 5411
TAA with Right Base Eliminated

8. FIG 5411 depicts another TAA modifica- Aircraft operating in all other areas from 060 
tion that pilots may encounter. In this generalized clockwise to 360 bearing TO the IF (IAF) need not
example, the rightbase area has been eliminated. perform the course reversal, and the term NoPT
Pilots operating within the TAA between 360clock- will be annotated on the TAA boundary of the icon in
wise to 060 bearing TO the IF (IAF) are expected to these areas. TAAs are no longer being produced with
execute the course reversal in order to properly align sections removed; however, some may still exist on
the aircraft for entry onto the intermediate segment. previously published procedures.

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FIG 5412
Examples of a TAA with Feeders from an Airway

9. When an airway does not cross the lateral the TAA boundary, and will be aligned along a path
TAA boundaries, a feeder route will be established to pointing to the associated IAF. Pilots should descend
provide a transition from the en route structure to the to the TAA altitude after crossing the TAA boundary
appropriate IAF. Each feeder route will terminate at and cleared by air traffic control. (See FIG 5412).

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FIG 5413
Minimum Vectoring Altitude Charts

N
013
348

5500
057
2500
5000

289 3000

277
1500 3000
3500

5
2000 102

250 10
3000
15

20

25

30 160

e. Minimum Vectoring Altitudes (MVAs) are NOTE


established for use by ATC when radar ATC is OROCA is an offroute altitude which provides obstruc-
exercised. MVA charts are prepared by air traffic tion clearance with a 1,000 foot buffer in nonmountainous
facilities at locations where there are numerous terrain areas and a 2,000 foot buffer in designated
mountainous areas within the U.S. This altitude may not
different minimum IFR altitudes. Each MVA chart
provide signal coverage from groundbased navigational
has sectors large enough to accommodate vectoring aids, air traffic control radar, or communications
of aircraft within the sector at the MVA. Each sector coverage.
boundary is at least 3 miles from the obstruction
determining the MVA. To avoid a large sector with an 2. Because of differences in the areas consid-
excessively high MVA due to an isolated prominent ered for MVA, and those applied to other minimum
obstruction, the obstruction may be enclosed in a altitudes, and the ability to isolate specific obstacles,
buffer area whose boundaries are at least 3 miles from some MVAs may be lower than the nonradar
the obstruction. This is done to facilitate vectoring Minimum En Route Altitudes (MEAs), Minimum
around the obstruction. (See FIG 5413.) Obstruction Clearance Altitudes (MOCAs) or other
minimum altitudes depicted on charts for a given
location. While being radar vectored, IFR altitude
1. The minimum vectoring altitude in each
assignments by ATC will be at or above MVA.
sector provides 1,000 feet above the highest obstacle
in nonmountainous areas and 2,000 feet above the f. Visual Descent Points (VDPs) are being
highest obstacle in designated mountainous areas. incorporated in nonprecision approach procedures.
Where lower MVAs are required in designated The VDP is a defined point on the final approach
mountainous areas to achieve compatibility with course of a nonprecision straight-in approach
terminal routes or to permit vectoring to an IAP, procedure from which normal descent from the MDA
1,000 feet of obstacle clearance may be authorized to the runway touchdown point may be commenced,
with the use of Airport Surveillance Radar (ASR). provided visual reference required by 14 CFR
The minimum vectoring altitude will provide at least Section 91.175(c)(3) is established. The VDP will
300 feet above the floor of controlled airspace. normally be identified by DME on VOR and LOC

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procedures and by alongtrack distance to the next NOTE


waypoint for RNAV procedures. The VDP is The FAA Administrator retains the authority to approve
identified on the profile view of the approach chart by instrument approach procedures where the pilot may not
the symbol: V. necessarily have one of the visual references specified in
CFR 14, part 91.175 and related rules. It is not a function
of procedure design to ensure compliance with part
1. VDPs are intended to provide additional 91.175. The annotation Fly Visual to Airport provides
guidance where they are implemented. No special relief from part 91.175 requirements that the pilot have dis-
technique is required to fly a procedure with a VDP. tinctly visible and identifiable visual references prior to
The pilot should not descend below the MDA prior to descent below MDA/DA.
reaching the VDP and acquiring the necessary visual h. Charting of Close in Obstacles on Instru-
reference. ment Procedure Charts. Obstacles that are close to
the airport may be depicted in either the planview of
2. Pilots not equipped to receive the VDP should the instrument approach chart or the airport sketch.
fly the approach procedure as though no VDP had Obstacles are charted in only one of the areas, based
been provided. on space available and distance from the runway.
These obstacles could be in the visual segment of the
g. Visual Segment of a Published Instrument instrument approach procedure. On nonprecision
Approach Procedure. Instrument procedures de- approaches, these obstacles should be considered
signers perform a visual area obstruction evaluation when determining where to begin descent from the
off the approach end of each runway authorized for MDA (see Pilot Operational Considerations When
instrument landing, straightin, or circling. Restric- Flying Nonprecision Approaches in this paragraph).
tions to instrument operations are imposed if
penetrations of the obstruction clearance surfaces i. Vertical Descent Angle (VDA) on Nonpreci-
exist. These restrictions vary based on the severity of sion Approaches. FAA policy is to publish VDAs on
the penetrations, and may include increasing required all nonprecision approaches. Published along with
visibility, denying VDPs, prohibiting night instru- VDA is the threshold crossing height (TCH) that was
ment operations to the runway, and/or provide a Fly used to compute the angle. The descent angle may be
Visual option to the landing surface. computed from either the final approach fix (FAF), or
a stepdown fix, to the runway threshold at the
1. In isolated cases, due to procedure design published TCH. A stepdown fix is only used as the
peculiarities, an IAP may contain a published visual start point when an angle computed from the FAF
flight path. These procedures are annotated Fly would place the aircraft below the stepdown fix
Visual to Airport or Fly Visual. A dashed arrow altitude. The descent angle and TCH information are
indicating the visual flight path will be included in the charted on the profile view of the instrument
profile and plan views with an approximate heading approach chart following the fix the angle was based
and distance to the end of the runway. The depicted on. The optimum descent angle is 3.00 degrees; and
ground track associated with the visual segment whenever possible the approach will be designed
should be flown as a DR course. When executing using this angle.
the visual segment, the flight visibility must not be 1. The VDA provides the pilot with information
less than that prescribed in the IAP, the pilot must re- not previously available on nonprecision approaches.
main clear of clouds and proceed to the airport It provides a means for the pilot to establish a
maintaining visual contact with the ground. Altitude stabilized descent from the FAF or stepdown fix to the
on the visual flight path is at the discretion of the pilot. MDA. Stabilized descent is a key factor in the
reduction of controlled flight into terrain (CFIT)
2. Since missed approach obstacle clearance is incidents. However, pilots should be aware that the
assured only if the missed approach is commenced at published angle is for information only it is
the published MAP or above the DA/MDA, the pilot strictly advisory in nature. There is no implicit
should have preplanned climb out options based on additional obstacle protection below the MDA. Pilots
aircraft performance and terrain features. Obstacle must still respect the published minimum descent
clearance is the sole responsibility of the pilot when altitude (MDA) unless the visual cues stated 14 CFR
the approach is continued beyond the MAP. Section 91.175 are present and they can visually

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acquire and avoid obstacles once below the MDA. must keep in mind the information in this paragraph
The presence of a VDA does not guarantee obstacle and in paragraph 545j.
protection in the visual segment and does not change
any of the requirements for flying a nonprecision j. Pilot Operational Considerations When
approach. Flying Nonprecision Approaches. The missed
approach point (MAP) on a nonprecision approach
2. Additional protection for the visual segment is not designed with any consideration to where
below the MDA is provided if a VDP is published and the aircraft must begin descent to execute a safe
descent below the MDA is started at or after the VDP. landing. It is developed based on terrain, obstruc-
Protection is also provided, if a Visual Glide Slope tions, NAVAID location and possibly air traffic
Indicator (VGSI); e.g., VASI or PAPI, is installed and considerations. Because the MAP may be located
the aircraft remains on the VGSI glide path angle anywhere from well prior to the runway threshold to
from the MDA. In either case, a chart note will past the opposite end of the runway, the descent from
indicate if the VDP or VGSI are not coincident with the Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) to the runway
the VDA. On RNAV approach charts, a small shaded threshold cannot be determined based on the MAP
arrowhead shaped symbol (see the legend of the U.S. location. Descent from MDA at the MAP when the
Terminal Procedures books, page H1) from the end of MAP is located close to the threshold would require
the VDA to the runway indicates that the 34:1 visual an excessively steep descent gradient to land in the
surface is clear. normal touchdown zone. Any turn from the final
3. Pilots may use the published angle and approach course to the runway heading may also be
estimated/actual groundspeed to find a target rate of a factor in when to begin the descent.
descent from the rate of descent table published in the 1. Pilots are cautioned that descent to a
back of the U.S. Terminal Procedures Publication. straightin landing from the MDA at the MAP may
This rate of descent can be flown with the Vertical be inadvisable or impossible, on a nonprecision
Velocity Indicator (VVI) in order to use the VDA as approach, even if current weather conditions meet the
an aid to flying a stabilized descent. No special published ceiling and visibility. Aircraft speed, height
equipment is required. above the runway, descent rate, amount of turn and
4. Since one of the reasons for publishing a circ- runway length are some of the factors which must be
ling only instrument landing procedure is that the considered by the pilot to determine if a landing can
descent rate required exceeds the maximum allowed be accomplished.
for a straight in approach, circling only procedures
2. Visual descent points (VDPs) provide pilots
may have VDAs which are considerably steeper than
with a reference for the optimal location to begin
the standard 3 degree angle on final. In this case, the
descent from the MDA, based on the designed
VDA provides the crew with information about the
vertical descent angle (VDA) for the approach
descent rate required to land straight in from the FAF
procedure, assuming required visual references are
or step down fix to the threshold. This is not intended
available. Approaches without VDPs have not been
to imply that landing straight ahead is recommended,
assessed for terrain clearance below the MDA, and
or even possible, since the descent rate may exceed
may not provide a clear vertical path to the runway at
the capabilities of many aircraft. The pilot must
the normally expected descent angle. Therefore,
determine how to best maneuver the aircraft within
pilots must be especially vigilant when descending
the circling obstacle clearance area in order to land.
below the MDA at locations without VDPs. This does
5. In rare cases the LNAV minima may have a not necessarily prevent flying the normal angle; it
lower HAT than minima with a glide path due to the only means that obstacle clearance in the visual
location of the obstacles. This should be a clear indic- segment could be less and greater care should be
ation to the pilot that obstacles exist below the MDA exercised in looking for obstacles in the visual
which the pilot must see in order to ensure adequate segment. Use of visual glide slope indicator (VGSI)
clearance. In those cases, the glide path may be systems can aid the pilot in determining if the aircraft
treated as a VDA and used to descend to the LNAV is in a position to make the descent from the MDA.
MDA as long as all the rules for a nonprecision However, when the visibility is close to minimums,
approach are applied at the MDA. However, the pilot the VGSI may not be visible at the start descent point

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for a normal glidepath, due to its location down the minimums for which the aircraft is certified: e.g. a
runway. WAAS equipped aircraft utilize the LPV or LP
minima but a GPS only aircraft may not. The RNAV
3. Accordingly, pilots are advised to carefully
chart includes information formatted for quick
review approach procedures, prior to initiating the
reference by the pilot or flight crew at the top of the
approach, to identify the optimum position(s), and
chart. This portion of the chart, developed based on
any unacceptable positions, from which a descent to
a study by the Department of Transportation, Volpe
landing can be initiated (in accordance with 14 CFR
National Transportation System Center, is commonly
Section 91.175(c)).
referred to as the pilot briefing.
k. Area Navigation (RNAV) Instrument 1. The minima lines are:
Approach Charts. Reliance on RNAV systems for
(a) GLS. GLS is the acronym for GNSS
instrument operations is becoming more common-
landing system; GNSS is the ICAO acronym for
place as new systems such as GPS and augmented
Global Navigation Satellite System (the international
GPS such as the Wide Area Augmentation System
term for all GPS type systems). This line was
(WAAS) are developed and deployed. In order to
originally published as a placeholder for both WAAS
support full integration of RNAV procedures into the
and LAAS minima and marked as N/A since no
National Airspace System (NAS), the FAA
minima was published. As the concepts for LAAS
developed a new charting format for IAPs (See
and WAAS procedure publication have evolved, GLS
FIG 549). This format avoids unnecessary
will now be used only for LAAS minima, which will
duplication and proliferation of instrument approach
be on a separate approach chart. Most RNAV(GPS)
charts. The original stand alone GPS charts, titled
approach charts have had the GLS minima line
simply GPS, are being converted to the newer
replaced by a WAAS LPV line of minima.
format as the procedures are revised. One reason for
the revision could be the addition of WAAS based (b) LPV. LPV is the acronym for localizer
minima to the approach chart. The reformatted performance with vertical guidance. LPV identifies
approach chart is titled RNAV (GPS) RWY XX. Up WAAS APV approach minimums with electronic
to four lines of minima are included on these charts. lateral and vertical guidance. The lateral guidance is
GLS (Global Navigation Satellite System [GNSS] equivalent to localizer and the protected area for LPV
Landing System) was a placeholder for future WAAS procedures is now the same as for an ILS. The
and LAAS minima, and the minima was always listed obstacle clearance area is considerably smaller than
as N/A. The GLS minima line has now been replaced the LNAV/VNAV protection, allowing lower minima
by the WAAS LPV (Localizer Performance with in many cases. Aircraft can fly this minima line with
Vertical Guidance) minima on most RNAV (GPS) a statement in the Aircraft Flight Manual that the
charts. LNAV/VNAV (lateral navigation/vertical installed equipment supports LPV approaches. This
navigation) was added to support both WAAS includes Class 3 and 4 TSOC146 WAAS equipment.
electronic vertical guidance and Barometric VNAV. (c) LNAV/VNAV. LNAV/VNAV identifies
LPV and LNAV/VNAV are both APV procedures as APV minimums developed to accommodate an
described in paragraph 545a7. The original GPS RNAV IAP with vertical guidance, usually provided
minima, titled SXX, for straight in runway XX, is by approach certified BaroVNAV, but with lateral
retitled LNAV (lateral navigation). Circling minima and vertical integrity limits larger than a precision
may also be published. A new type of nonprecision approach or LPV. LNAV stands for Lateral
WAAS minima will also be published on this chart Navigation; VNAV stands for Vertical Navigation.
and titled LP (localizer performance). LP will be This minima line can be flown by aircraft with a
published in locations where vertically guided statement in the Aircraft Flight Manual that the
minima cannot be provided due to terrain and installed equipment supports GPS approaches and
obstacles and therefore, no LPV or LNAV/VNAV has an approachapproved barometric VNAV, or if
minima will be published. Current plans call for the aircraft has been demonstrated to support
LAAS based procedures to be published on a separate LNAV/VNAV approaches. This includes Class 2, 3
chart and for the GLS minima line to be used only for and 4 TSOC146 WAAS equipment. Aircraft using
LAAS. ATC clearance for the RNAV procedure LNAV/VNAV minimums will descend to landing via
authorizes a properly certified pilot to utilize any an internally generated descent path based on satellite

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or other approach approved VNAV systems. Since TSOC145 or TSOC146 and installed in accordance with
electronic vertical guidance is provided, the minima Advisory Circular AC 20138A, Airworthiness Approval
will be published as a DA. Other navigation systems of Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) Equipment.
may be specifically authorized to use this line of 2. Other systems may be authorized to utilize
minima, see Section A, Terms/Landing Minima Data, these approaches. See the description in Section A of
of the U.S. Terminal Procedures books. the U.S. Terminal Procedures books for details. These
systems may include aircraft equipped with an FMS
(d) LP. LP is the acronym for localizer that can file /E or /F. Operational approval must also
performance. LP identifies nonprecision WAAS be obtained for BaroVNAV systems to operate to the
procedures which are equivalent to ILS Localizer LNAV/VNAV minimums. BaroVNAV may not be
procedures. LP is intended for use in locations where authorized on some approaches due to other factors,
vertical guidance cannot be provided due to terrain or such as no local altimeter source being available.
other obstacles. The protected area is considerably BaroVNAV is not authorized on LPV procedures.
smaller than the area for LNAV lateral protection and Pilots are directed to their local Flight Standards
will provide a lower MDA in many cases. WAAS District Office (FSDO) for additional information.
equipment may not support LP, even if it supports
LPV, if it was approved before TSO C145B and NOTE
RNAV and BaroVNAV systems must have a manufacturer
TSO C146B. Receivers approved under previous
supplied electronic database which shall include the
TSOs may require an upgrade by the manufacturer in waypoints, altitudes, and vertical data for the procedure to
order to be used to fly to LP minima. Receivers be flown. The system shall also be able to extract the
approved for LP must have a statement in the procedure in its entirety, not just as a manually entered
approved Flight Manual or Supplemental Flight series of waypoints.
Manual including LP as one of the approved
3. ILS or RNAV (GPS) charts. Some RNAV
approach types. LPV and LP cannot be published as
(GPS) charts will also contain an ILS line of minima
part of the same instrument procedure due to the
to make use of the ILS precision final in conjunction
inability to change integrity limits during an
with the RNAV GPS capabilities for the portions of
approach.
the procedure prior to the final approach segment and
(e) LNAV. This minima is for lateral for the missed approach. Obstacle clearance for the
navigation only, and the approach minimum altitude portions of the procedure other than the final
will be published as a minimum descent altitude approach segment is still based on GPS criteria.
(MDA). LNAV provides the same level of service as NOTE
the present GPS stand alone approaches. LNAV Some GPS receiver installations inhibit GPS navigation
minimums support the following navigation systems: whenever ANY ILS frequency is tuned. Pilots flying
WAAS, when the navigation solution will not support aircraft with receivers installed in this manner must wait
vertical navigation; and, GPS navigation systems until they are on the intermediate segment of the procedure
prior to the PFAF (PFAF is the active waypoint) to tune the
which are presently authorized to conduct GPS
ILS frequency and must tune the ILS back to a VOR fre-
approaches. Existing GPS approaches continue to be quency in order to fly the GPS based missed approach.
converted to the RNAV (GPS) format as they are
revised or reviewed. 4. Required Navigation Performance (RNP)
(a) Pilots are advised to refer to the
NOTE
GPS receivers approved for approach operations in TERMS/LANDING MINIMUMS DATA
accordance with: AC 20138, Airworthiness Approval of (Section A) of the U.S. Government Terminal
Global Positioning System (GPS) Navigation Equipment Procedures books for aircraft approach eligibility
for Use as a VFR and IFR Supplemental Navigation requirements by specific RNP level requirements.
System, for standalone Technical Standard Order (TSO)
(b) Some aircraft have RNP approval in their
TSOC129 Class A(1) systems; or AC 20130A,
Airworthiness Approval of Navigation or Flight AFM without a GPS sensor. The lowest level of
Management Systems Integrating Multiple Navigation sensors that the FAA will support for RNP service is
Sensors, for GPS as part of a multisensor system, qualify DME/DME. However, necessary DME signal may
for this minima. WAAS navigation equipment must be not be available at the airport of intended operations.
approved in accordance with the requirements specified in For those locations having an RNAV chart published

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with LNAV/VNAV minimums, a procedure note may (b) The minima title box indicates the nature
be provided such as DME/DME RNP0.3 NA. of the minimum altitude for the IAP. For example:
This means that RNP aircraft dependent on
(1) DA will be published next to the
DME/DME to achieve RNP0.3 are not authorized to
minima line title for minimums supporting vertical
conduct this approach. Where DME facility
guidance such as for GLS, LPV or LNAV/VNAV.
availability is a factor, the note may read DME/DME
RNP0.3 Authorized; ABC and XYZ Required. (2) MDA will be published where the
This means that ABC and XYZ facilities have been minima line was designed to support aircraft with
determined by flight inspection to be required in the only lateral guidance available, such as LNAV.
navigation solution to assure RNP0.3. VOR/DME Descent below the MDA, including during the missed
updating must not be used for approach procedures. approach, is not authorized unless the visual
conditions stated in 14 CFR Section 91.175 exist.
5. Chart Terminology
(3) Where two or more systems, such as
(a) Decision Altitude (DA) replaces the LPV and LNAV/VNAV, share the same minima, each
familiar term Decision Height (DH). DA conforms to line of minima will be displayed separately.
the international convention where altitudes relate to 7. Chart Symbology changed slightly to
MSL and heights relate to AGL. DA will eventually include:
be published for other types of instrument approach
procedures with vertical guidance, as well. DA (a) Descent Profile. The published descent
indicates to the pilot that the published descent profile profile and a graphical depiction of the vertical path
is flown to the DA (MSL), where a missed approach to the runway will be shown. Graphical depiction of
will be initiated if visual references for landing are not the RNAV vertical guidance will differ from the
established. Obstacle clearance is provided to allow traditional depiction of an ILS glide slope (feather)
a momentary descent below DA while transitioning through the use of a shorter vertical track beginning
from the final approach to the missed approach. The at the decision altitude.
aircraft is expected to follow the missed instructions (1) It is FAA policy to design IAPs with
while continuing along the published final approach minimum altitudes established at fixes/waypoints to
course to at least the published runway threshold achieve optimum stabilized (constant rate) descents
waypoint or MAP (if not at the threshold) before within each procedure segment. This design can
executing any turns. enhance the safety of the operations and contribute
(b) Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) has toward reduction in the occurrence of controlled
been in use for many years, and will continue to be flight into terrain (CFIT) accidents. Additionally, the
used for the LNAV only and circling procedures. National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB)
recently emphasized that pilots could benefit from
(c) Threshold Crossing Height (TCH) has publication of the appropriate IAP descent angle for
been traditionally used in precision approaches as a stabilized descent on final approach. The RNAV
the height of the glide slope above threshold. With IAP format includes the descent angle to the
publication of LNAV/VNAV minimums and RNAV hundredth of a degree; e.g., 3.00 degrees. The angle
descent angles, including graphically depicted will be provided in the graphically depicted descent
descent profiles, TCH also applies to the height of the profile.
descent angle, or glidepath, at the threshold. Unless (2) The stabilized approach may be
otherwise required for larger type aircraft which may performed by reference to vertical navigation
be using the IAP, the typical TCH is 30 to 50 feet. information provided by WAAS or LNAV/VNAV
6. The MINIMA FORMAT will also change systems; or for LNAVonly systems, by the pilot
slightly. determining the appropriate aircraft
attitude/groundspeed combination to attain a
(a) Each line of minima on the RNAV IAP is constant rate descent which best emulates the
titled to reflect the level of service available; e.g., published angle. To aid the pilot, U.S. Government
GLS, LPV, LNAV/VNAV, and LNAV. CIRCLING Terminal Procedures Publication charts publish an
minima will also be provided. expanded Rate of Descent Table on the inside of the

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back hard cover for use in planning and executing on all RNAV procedures because of airspace
precision descents under known or approximate congestion or other reasons.
groundspeed conditions.
(f) Hot and Cold Temperature Limitations.
(b) Visual Descent Point (VDP). A VDP A minimum and maximum temperature limitation
will be published on most RNAV IAPs. VDPs apply is published on procedures which authorize
only to aircraft utilizing LP or LNAV minima, not BaroVNAV operation. These temperatures
LPV or LNAV/VNAV minimums. represent the airport temperature above or below
which BaroVNAV is not authorized to
(c) Missed Approach Symbology. In order
LNAV/VNAV minimums. As an example, the
to make missed approach guidance more readily
limitation will read: Uncompensated BaroVNAV
understood, a method has been developed to display
NA below 8C (18F) or above 47C (117F).
missed approach guidance in the profile view through
This information will be found in the upper left hand
the use of quick reference icons. Due to limited space
box of the pilot briefing. When the temperature is
in the profile area, only four or fewer icons can be
above the high temperature or below the low
shown. However, the icons may not provide
temperature limit, BaroVNAV may be used to
representation of the entire missed approach
provide a stabilized descent to the LNAV MDA;
procedure. The entire set of textual missed approach
however, extra caution should be used in the visual
instructions are provided at the top of the approach
segment to ensure a vertical correction is not
chart in the pilot briefing. (See FIG 549).
required. If the VGSI is aligned with the published
(d) Waypoints. All RNAV or GPS glidepath, and the aircraft instruments indicate on
standalone IAPs are flown using data pertaining to glidepath, an above or below glidepath indication on
the particular IAP obtained from an onboard the VGSI may indicate that temperature error is
database, including the sequence of all WPs used for causing deviations to the glidepath. These deviations
the approach and missed approach, except that step should be considered if the approach is continued
down waypoints may not be included in some below the MDA.
TSOC129 receiver databases. Included in the NOTE
database, in most receivers, is coding that informs the Many systems which apply BaroVNAV temperature
navigation system of which WPs are flyover (FO) or compensation only correct for cold temperature. In this
flyby (FB). The navigation system may provide case, the high temperature limitation still applies. Also,
guidance appropriately including leading the turn temperature compensation may require activation by
prior to a flyby WP; or causing overflight of a maintenance personnel during installation in order to be
flyover WP. Where the navigation system does not functional, even though the system has the feature. Some
provide such guidance, the pilot must accomplish the systems may have a temperature correction capability, but
correct the Baroaltimeter all the time, rather than just on
turn lead or waypoint overflight manually. Chart
the final, which would create conflicts with other aircraft
symbology for the FB WP provides pilot awareness if the feature were activated. Pilots should be aware of
of expected actions. Refer to the legend of the U.S. compensation capabilities of the system prior to
Terminal Procedures books. disregarding the temperature limitations.
(e) TAAs are described in paragraph 545d, NOTE
Terminal Arrival Area (TAA). When published, the Temperature limitations do not apply to flying the LNAV/
RNAV chart depicts the TAA areas through the use of VNAV line of minima using approach certified WAAS
icons representing each TAA area associated with receivers when LPV or LNAV/VNAV are annunciated to be
available.
the RNAV procedure (See FIG 549). These icons
are depicted in the plan view of the approach chart, (g) WAAS Channel Number/Approach ID.
generally arranged on the chart in accordance with The WAAS Channel Number is an optional
their position relative to the aircrafts arrival from the equipment capability that allows the use of a 5digit
en route structure. The WP, to which navigation is number to select a specific final approach segment
appropriate and expected within each specific TAA without using the menu method. The Approach ID is
area, will be named and depicted on the associated an airport unique 4character combination for
TAA icon. Each depicted named WP is the IAF for verifying the selection and extraction of the correct
arrivals from within that area. TAAs may not be used final approach segment information from the aircraft

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database. It is similar to the ILS ident, but displayed feeder route; i.e., the aircraft would not be expected
visually rather than aurally. The Approach ID to overfly the feeder route and return to it. The pilot
consists of the letter W for WAAS, the runway is expected to commence the approach in a similar
number, and a letter other than L, C or R, which could manner at the IAF, if the IAF for the procedure is
be confused with Left, Center and Right, e.g., W35A. located along the route of flight to the holding fix.
Approach IDs are assigned in the order that WAAS
c. If a route of flight directly to the initial approach
approaches are built to that runway number at that
fix is desired, it should be so stated by the controller
airport. The WAAS Channel Number and Approach
with phraseology to include the words direct . . . ,
ID are displayed in the upper left corner of the
proceed direct or a similar phrase which the pilot
approach procedure pilot briefing.
can interpret without question. When uncertain of the
(h) At locations where outages of WAAS clearance, immediately query ATC as to what route of
vertical guidance may occur daily due to initial flight is desired.
system limitations, a negative W symbol ( ) will be d. The name of an instrument approach, as
placed on RNAV (GPS) approach charts. Many of published, is used to identify the approach, even
these outages will be very short in duration, but may though a component of the approach aid, such as the
result in the disruption of the vertical portion of the glideslope on an Instrument Landing System, is
approach. The symbol indicates that NOTAMs or inoperative or unreliable. The controller will use the
Air Traffic advisories are not provided for outages name of the approach as published, but must advise
which occur in the WAAS LNAV/VNAV or LPV the aircraft at the time an approach clearance is issued
vertical service. Use LNAV minima for flight that the inoperative or unreliable approach aid
planning at these locations, whether as a destination component is unusable.
or alternate. For flight operations at these locations,
when the WAAS avionics indicate that LNAV/VNAV
547. Instrument Approach Procedures
or LPV service is available, then vertical guidance
may be used to complete the approach using the a. Aircraft approach category means a grouping of
displayed level of service. Should an outage occur aircraft based on a speed of VREF, if specified, or if
during the procedure, reversion to LNAV minima VREF is not specified, 1.3 VSO at the maximum
may be required. As the WAAS coverage is certified landing weight. V REF, V SO , and the
expanded, the will be removed. maximum certified landing weight are those values as
established for the aircraft by the certification
546. Approach Clearance authority of the country of registry. A pilot must use
the minima corresponding to the category determined
a. An aircraft which has been cleared to a holding during certification or higher. Helicopters may use
fix and subsequently cleared . . . approach has not Category A minima. If it is necessary to operate at a
received new routing. Even though clearance for the speed in excess of the upper limit of the speed range
approach may have been issued prior to the aircraft for an aircrafts category, the minimums for the
reaching the holding fix, ATC would expect the pilot higher category must be used. For example, an
to proceed via the holding fix (his/her last assigned airplane which fits into Category B, but is circling to
route), and the feeder route associated with that fix (if land at a speed of 145 knots, must use the approach
a feeder route is published on the approach chart) to Category D minimums. As an additional example, a
the initial approach fix (IAF) to commence the Category A airplane (or helicopter) which is
approach. WHEN CLEARED FOR THE operating at 130 knots on a straightin approach must
APPROACH, THE PUBLISHED OFF AIRWAY use the approach Category C minimums. See the
(FEEDER) ROUTES THAT LEAD FROM THE following category limits:
EN ROUTE STRUCTURE TO THE IAF ARE PART
1. Category A: Speed less than 91 knots.
OF THE APPROACH CLEARANCE.
2. Category B: Speed 91 knots or more but less
b. If a feeder route to an IAF begins at a fix located
than 121 knots.
along the route of flight prior to reaching the holding
fix, and clearance for an approach is issued, a pilot 3. Category C: Speed 121 knots or more but
should commence the approach via the published less than 141 knots.

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4. Category D: Speed 141 knots or more but c. Several IAPs, using various navigation and
less than 166 knots. approach aids may be authorized for an airport. ATC
may advise that a particular approach procedure is
5. Category E: Speed 166 knots or more. being used, primarily to expedite traffic. If issued a
NOTE clearance that specifies a particular approach
VREF in the above definition refers to the speed used in procedure, notify ATC immediately if a different one
establishing the approved landing distance under the is desired. In this event it may be necessary for ATC
airworthiness regulations constituting the type to withhold clearance for the different approach until
certification basis of the airplane, regardless of whether such time as traffic conditions permit. However, a
that speed for a particular airplane is 1.3 VSO, 1.23 VSR, or pilot involved in an emergency situation will be given
some higher speed required for airplane controllability. priority. If the pilot is not familiar with the specific
This speed, at the maximum certificated landing weight, approach procedure, ATC should be advised and they
determines the lowest applicable approach category for
will provide detailed information on the execution of
all approaches regardless of actual landing weight.
the procedure.
b. When operating on an unpublished route or REFERENCE
while being radar vectored, the pilot, when an AIM, Advance Information on Instrument Approach, Paragraph 544.
approach clearance is received, shall, in addition to d. At times ATC may not specify a particular
complying with the minimum altitudes for IFR approach procedure in the clearance, but will state
operations (14 CFR Section 91.177), maintain the CLEARED APPROACH. Such clearance
last assigned altitude unless a different altitude is indicates that the pilot may execute any one of the
assigned by ATC, or until the aircraft is established on authorized IAPs for that airport. This clearance does
a segment of a published route or IAP. After the not constitute approval for the pilot to execute a
aircraft is so established, published altitudes apply to contact approach or a visual approach.
descent within each succeeding route or approach
e. Except when being radar vectored to the final
segment unless a different altitude is assigned by
approach course, when cleared for a specifically
ATC. Notwithstanding this pilot responsibility, for
prescribed IAP; i.e., cleared ILS runway one niner
aircraft operating on unpublished routes or while
approach or when cleared approach i.e., execution
being radar vectored, ATC will, except when
of any procedure prescribed for the airport, pilots
conducting a radar approach, issue an IFR approach
shall execute the entire procedure commencing at an
clearance only after the aircraft is established on a
IAF or an associated feeder route as described on the
segment of a published route or IAP, or assign an
IAP chart unless an appropriate new or revised ATC
altitude to maintain until the aircraft is established on
clearance is received, or the IFR flight plan is
a segment of a published route or instrument
canceled.
approach procedure. For this purpose, the procedure
turn of a published IAP shall not be considered a f. Pilots planning flights to locations which are
segment of that IAP until the aircraft reaches the private airfields or which have instrument approach
initial fix or navigation facility upon which the procedures based on private navigation aids should
procedure turn is predicated. obtain approval from the owner. In addition, the pilot
must be authorized by the FAA to fly special
EXAMPLE
instrument approach procedures associated with
Cross Redding VOR at or above five thousand, cleared
VOR runway three four approach.
private navigation aids (see paragraph 548).
or Owners of navigation aids that are not for public use
Five miles from outer marker, turn right heading three three may elect to turn off the signal for whatever reason
zero, maintain two thousand until established on the they may have; e.g., maintenance, energy
localizer, cleared ILS runway three six approach. conservation, etc. Air traffic controllers are not
required to question pilots to determine if they have
NOTE
The altitude assigned will assure IFR obstruction permission to land at a private airfield or to use
clearance from the point at which the approach clearance procedures based on privately owned navigation aids,
is issued until established on a segment of a published route and they may not know the status of the navigation
or IAP. If uncertain of the meaning of the clearance, aid. Controllers presume a pilot has obtained
immediately request clarification from ATC. approval from the owner and the FAA for use of

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special instrument approach procedures and is aware Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Part 97,
of any details of the procedure if an IFR flight plan and are available for use by appropriately qualified
was filed to that airport. pilots operating properly equipped and airworthy
aircraft in accordance with operating rules and
g. Pilots should not rely on radar to identify a fix
procedures acceptable to the FAA. Special IAPs are
unless the fix is indicated as RADAR on the IAP.
also developed using TERPS but are not given public
Pilots may request radar identification of an OM, but
notice in the FR. The FAA authorizes only certain
the controller may not be able to provide the service
individual pilots and/or pilots in individual
due either to workload or not having the fix on the
organizations to use special IAPs, and may require
video map.
additional crew training and/or aircraft equipment or
h. If a missed approach is required, advise ATC performance, and may also require the use of landing
and include the reason (unless initiated by ATC). aids, communications, or weather services not
Comply with the missed approach instructions for the available for public use. Additionally, IAPs that
instrument approach procedure being executed, service private use airports or heliports are generally
unless otherwise directed by ATC. special IAPs.
REFERENCE
AIM, Missed Approach, Paragraph 5421. 549. Procedure Turn and Holdinlieu of
AIM, Missed Approach, Paragraph 555.
Procedure Turn
i. ATC may clear aircraft that have filed an
a. A procedure turn is the maneuver prescribed
Advanced RNAV equipment suffix to the
when it is necessary to reverse direction to establish
intermediate fix when clearing aircraft for an
the aircraft inbound on an intermediate or final
instrument approach procedure. ATC will take the
approach course. The procedure turn or
following actions when clearing Advanced RNAV
holdinlieuofPT is a required maneuver when it
aircraft to the intermediate fix:
is depicted on the approach chart. However, the
1. Provide radar monitoring to the intermediate procedure turn or holdinlieuofPT is not
fix. permitted when the symbol No PT is depicted on
the initial segment being used, when a RADAR
2. Advise the pilot to expect clearance direct to
VECTOR to the final approach course is provided,
the intermediate fix at least 5 miles from the fix.
or when conducting a timed approach from a holding
NOTE fix. The altitude prescribed for the procedure turn is
This is to allow the pilot to program the RNAV equipment a minimum altitude until the aircraft is established on
to allow the aircraft to fly to the intermediate fix when the inbound course. The maneuver must be
cleared by ATC.
completed within the distance specified in the
3. Assign an altitude to maintain until the profile view. For a holdinlieuofPT, the holding
intermediate fix. pattern should be flown as depicted, to include leg
length or timing.
4. Insure the aircraft is on a course that will
intercept the intermediate segment at an angle not NOTE
greater than 90 degrees and is at an altitude that will The pilot may elect to use the procedure turn or
holdinlieuofPT when it is not required by the
permit normal descent from the intermediate fix to
procedure, but must first receive an amended clearance
the final approach fix. from ATC. When ATC is radar vectoring to the final
approach course or to the intermediate fix, ATC may
548. Special Instrument Approach specify in the approach clearance CLEARED
Procedures STRAIGHTIN (type) APPROACH to ensure the
procedure turn or holdinlieuofPT is not to be flown. If
Instrument Approach Procedure (IAP) charts reflect the pilot is uncertain whether the ATC clearance intends
the criteria associated with the U.S. Standard for for a procedure turn to be conducted or to allow for a
Terminal Instrument [Approach] Procedures straightin approach, the pilot shall immediately request
(TERPs), which prescribes standardized methods for clarification from ATC (14 CFR Section 91.123).
use in developing IAPs. Standard IAPs are published 1. On U.S. Government charts, a barbed arrow
in the Federal Register (FR) in accordance with indicates the maneuvering side of the outbound

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course on which the procedure turn is made. 2. Descent to the procedure turn (PT)
Headings are provided for course reversal using the completion altitude from the PT fix altitude (when
45 degree type procedure turn. However, the point at one has been published or assigned by ATC) must not
which the turn may be commenced and the type and begin until crossing over the PT fix or abeam and
rate of turn is left to the discretion of the pilot (limited proceeding outbound. Some procedures contain a
by the charted remain within distance). Some of the note in the chart profile view that says Maintain
options are the 45 degree procedure turn, the (altitude) or above until established outbound for
racetrack pattern, the tear-drop procedure turn, or the procedure turn (See FIG 5414). Newer
80 degree  260 degree course reversal. Racetrack procedures will simply depict an at or above
entries should be conducted on the maneuvering side altitude at the PT fix without a chart note (See
where the majority of protected airspace resides. If an FIG 5415). Both are there to ensure required
entry places the pilot on the nonmaneuvering side of obstacle clearance is provided in the procedure turn
the PT, correction to intercept the outbound course entry zone (See FIG 5416). Absence of a chart note
ensures remaining within protected airspace. Some or specified minimum altitude adjacent to the PT fix
procedure turns are specified by procedural track. is an indication that descent to the procedure turn
These turns must be flown exactly as depicted. altitude can commence immediately upon crossing
over the PT fix, regardless of the direction of flight.
This is because the minimum altitudes in the PT entry
zone and the PT maneuvering zone are the same.

FIG 5414

FIG 5415

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FIG 5416

3. When the approach procedure involves a 4. A teardrop procedure or penetration turn may
procedure turn, a maximum speed of not greater than be specified in some procedures for a required course
200 knots (IAS) should be observed from first reversal. The teardrop procedure consists of
overheading the course reversal IAF through the departure from an initial approach fix on an outbound
procedure turn maneuver to ensure containment course followed by a turn toward and intercepting the
within the obstruction clearance area. Pilots should inbound course at or prior to the intermediate fix or
begin the outbound turn immediately after passing point. Its purpose is to permit an aircraft to reverse
the procedure turn fix. The procedure turn maneuver direction and lose considerable altitude within
must be executed within the distance specified in the reasonably limited airspace. Where no fix is available
profile view. The normal procedure turn distance is to mark the beginning of the intermediate segment, it
10 miles. This may be reduced to a minimum of shall be assumed to commence at a point 10 miles
5 miles where only Category A or helicopter aircraft prior to the final approach fix. When the facility is
are to be operated or increased to as much as 15 miles located on the airport, an aircraft is considered to be
to accommodate high performance aircraft. on final approach upon completion of the penetration
turn. However, the final approach segment begins on
the final approach course 10 miles from the facility.
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5. A holding pattern in lieu of procedure turn ATC and a clearance is received to execute a
may be specified for course reversal in some procedure turn.
procedures. In such cases, the holding pattern is
2. When a teardrop procedure turn is depicted
established over an intermediate fix or a final
and a course reversal is required, this type turn must
approach fix. The holding pattern distance or time
be executed.
specified in the profile view must be observed. For a
holdinlieuofPT, the holding pattern should be 3. When a holding pattern replaces a procedure
flown as depicted, to include leg length or timing. turn, the holding pattern must be followed, except
Maximum holding airspeed limitations as set forth when RADAR VECTORING is provided or when
for all holding patterns apply. The holding pattern NoPT is shown on the approach course. The
maneuver is completed when the aircraft is recommended entry procedures will ensure the
established on the inbound course after executing the aircraft remains within the holding patterns
appropriate entry. If cleared for the approach prior to protected airspace. As in the procedure turn, the
returning to the holding fix, and the aircraft is at the descent from the minimum holding pattern altitude to
prescribed altitude, additional circuits of the holding the final approach fix altitude (when lower) may not
pattern are not necessary nor expected by ATC. If commence until the aircraft is established on the
pilots elect to make additional circuits to lose inbound course. Where a holding pattern is
excessive altitude or to become better established on established inlieuof a procedure turn, the
course, it is their responsibility to so advise ATC upon maximum holding pattern airspeeds apply.
receipt of their approach clearance. REFERENCE
AIM, Holding, Paragraph 537j2.
NOTE
Some approach charts have an arrival holding pattern 4. The absence of the procedure turn barb in the
depicted at the IAF using a thin line holding symbol. It plan view indicates that a procedure turn is not
is charted where holding is frequently required prior to authorized for that procedure.
starting the approach procedure so that detailed holding
instructions are not required. The arrival holding pattern
is not authorized unless assigned by Air Traffic Control. 5410. Timed Approaches from a Holding
Holding at the same fix may also be depicted on the enroute Fix
chart. A holdinlieu of procedure turn is depicted by a
a. TIMED APPROACHES may be conducted
thick line symbol, and is part of the instrument approach
procedure as described in paragraph 549.(See U. S. when the following conditions are met:
Terminal Procedures booklets page G1 for both examples.) 1. A control tower is in operation at the airport
where the approaches are conducted.
6. A procedure turn is not required when an
approach can be made directly from a specified 2. Direct communications are maintained
intermediate fix to the final approach fix. In such between the pilot and the center or approach
cases, the term NoPT is used with the appropriate controller until the pilot is instructed to contact the
course and altitude to denote that the procedure turn tower.
is not required. If a procedure turn is desired, and
when cleared to do so by ATC, descent below the 3. If more than one missed approach procedure
procedure turn altitude should not be made until the is available, none require a course reversal.
aircraft is established on the inbound course, since 4. If only one missed approach procedure is
some NoPT altitudes may be lower than the available, the following conditions are met:
procedure turn altitudes.
(a) Course reversal is not required; and,
b. Limitations on Procedure Turns. (b) Reported ceiling and visibility are equal
to or greater than the highest prescribed circling
1. In the case of a radar initial approach to a final
minimums for the IAP.
approach fix or position, or a timed approach from a
holding fix, or where the procedure specifies NoPT, 5. When cleared for the approach, pilots shall
no pilot may make a procedure turn unless, when final not execute a procedure turn. (14 CFR
approach clearance is received, the pilot so advises Section 91.175.)

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b. Although the controller will not specifically c. Each pilot in an approach sequence will be given
state that timed approaches are in progress, the advance notice as to the time they should leave the
assigning of a time to depart the final approach fix holding point on approach to the airport. When a time
inbound (nonprecision approach) or the outer marker to leave the holding point has been received, the pilot
or fix used in lieu of the outer marker inbound should adjust the flight path to leave the fix as closely
(precision approach) is indicative that timed as possible to the designated time. (See FIG 5417.)
approach procedures are being utilized, or in lieu of
holding, the controller may use radar vectors to the
Final Approach Course to establish a mileage interval
between aircraft that will insure the appropriate time
sequence between the final approach fix/outer marker
or fix used in lieu of the outer marker and the airport.

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FIG 5417
Timed Approaches from a Holding Fix

LOM LMM

1000 FT.

REPORT LEAVING
PREVIOUS ALTITUDE FOR
NEW ASSIGNED ALTITUDE
1000 FT.

1000 FT.

1000 FT.

ONE MINUTE APPROXIMATELY 5 MILES AIRPORT


FLYING TIME
12:03 CLEARANCE RECEIVED
:04 INITIAL TIME
OVER FIX
:06 1/2
30 SEC.
:05 :07 REPORT
:05 1/2 LEAVING FINAL
APPROACH TIME

EXAMPLE
At 12:03 local time, in the example shown, a pilot holding, receives instructions to leave the fix inbound at 12:07. These
instructions are received just as the pilot has completed turn at the outbound end of the holding pattern and is proceeding
inbound towards the fix. Arriving back over the fix, the pilot notes that the time is 12:04 and that there are 3 minutes to lose
in order to leave the fix at the assigned time. Since the time remaining is more than two minutes, the pilot plans to fly a race
track pattern rather than a 360 degree turn, which would use up 2 minutes. The turns at the ends of the race track pattern
will consume approximately 2 minutes. Three minutes to go, minus 2 minutes required for the turns, leaves 1 minute for level
flight. Since two portions of level flight will be required to get back to the fix inbound, the pilot halves the 1 minute remaining

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and plans to fly level for 30 seconds outbound before starting the turn back to the fix on final approach. If the winds were
negligible at flight altitude, this procedure would bring the pilot inbound across the fix precisely at the specified time of
12:07. However, if expecting headwind on final approach, the pilot should shorten the 30 second outbound course somewhat,
knowing that the wind will carry the aircraft away from the fix faster while outbound and decrease the ground speed while
returning to the fix. On the other hand, compensating for a tailwind on final approach, the pilot should lengthen the
calculated 30 second outbound heading somewhat, knowing that the wind would tend to hold the aircraft closer to the fix
while outbound and increase the ground speed while returning to the fix.

5411. Radar Approaches Range from touchdown is given at least once each
mile. If an aircraft is observed by the controller to
a. The only airborne radio equipment required for
proceed outside of specified safety zone limits in
radar approaches is a functioning radio transmitter
azimuth and/or elevation and continue to operate
and receiver. The radar controller vectors the aircraft
outside these prescribed limits, the pilot will be
to align it with the runway centerline. The controller
directed to execute a missed approach or to fly a
continues the vectors to keep the aircraft on course
specified course unless the pilot has the runway
until the pilot can complete the approach and landing
environment (runway, approach lights, etc.) in sight.
by visual reference to the surface. There are two types
Navigational guidance in azimuth and elevation is
of radar approaches: Precision (PAR) and
provided the pilot until the aircraft reaches the
Surveillance (ASR).
published Decision Height (DH). Advisory course
b. A radar approach may be given to any aircraft and glidepath information is furnished by the
upon request and may be offered to pilots of aircraft controller until the aircraft passes over the landing
in distress or to expedite traffic, however, an ASR threshold, at which point the pilot is advised of any
might not be approved unless there is an ATC deviation from the runway centerline. Radar service
operational requirement, or in an unusual or is automatically terminated upon completion of the
emergency situation. Acceptance of a PAR or ASR by approach.
a pilot does not waive the prescribed weather
minimums for the airport or for the particular aircraft 2. A SURVEILLANCE APPROACH (ASR)
operator concerned. The decision to make a radar is one in which a controller provides navigational
approach when the reported weather is below the guidance in azimuth only. The pilot is furnished
established minimums rests with the pilot. headings to fly to align the aircraft with the extended
centerline of the landing runway. Since the radar
c. PAR and ASR minimums are published on
information used for a surveillance approach is
separate pages in the FAA Terminal Procedures
considerably less precise than that used for a
Publication (TPP).
precision approach, the accuracy of the approach will
1. A PRECISION APPROACH (PAR) is one not be as great and higher minimums will apply.
in which a controller provides highly accurate Guidance in elevation is not possible but the pilot will
navigational guidance in azimuth and elevation to a be advised when to commence descent to the
pilot. Pilots are given headings to fly, to direct them Minimum Descent Altitude (MDA) or, if appropriate,
to, and keep their aircraft aligned with the extended to an intermediate step-down fix Minimum Crossing
centerline of the landing runway. They are told to Altitude and subsequently to the prescribed MDA. In
anticipate glidepath interception approximately 10 to addition, the pilot will be advised of the location of
30 seconds before it occurs and when to start descent. the Missed Approach Point (MAP) prescribed for the
The published Decision Height will be given only if procedure and the aircrafts position each mile on
the pilot requests it. If the aircraft is observed to final from the runway, airport or heliport or MAP, as
deviate above or below the glidepath, the pilot is appropriate. If requested by the pilot, recommended
given the relative amount of deviation by use of terms altitudes will be issued at each mile, based on the
slightly or well and is expected to adjust the descent gradient established for the procedure, down
aircrafts rate of descent/ascent to return to the to the last mile that is at or above the MDA. Normally,
glidepath. Trend information is also issued with navigational guidance will be provided until the
respect to the elevation of the aircraft and may be aircraft reaches the MAP. Controllers will terminate
modified by the terms rapidly and slowly; guidance and instruct the pilot to execute a missed
e.g., well above glidepath, coming down rapidly. approach unless at the MAP the pilot has the runway,

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airport or heliport in sight or, for a helicopter 5412. Radar Monitoring of Instrument
point-in-space approach, the prescribed visual Approaches
reference with the surface is established. Also, if, at a. PAR facilities operated by the FAA and the
any time during the approach the controller considers military services at some joint-use (civil and military)
that safe guidance for the remainder of the approach and military installations monitor aircraft on
cannot be provided, the controller will terminate instrument approaches and issue radar advisories to
guidance and instruct the pilot to execute a missed the pilot when weather is below VFR minimums
approach. Similarly, guidance termination and (1,000 and 3), at night, or when requested by a pilot.
missed approach will be effected upon pilot request This service is provided only when the PAR Final
and, for civil aircraft only, controllers may terminate Approach Course coincides with the final approach
guidance when the pilot reports the runway, of the navigational aid and only during the
airport/heliport or visual surface route operational hours of the PAR. The radar advisories
(point-in-space approach) in sight or otherwise serve only as a secondary aid since the pilot has
indicates that continued guidance is not required. selected the navigational aid as the primary aid for the
Radar service is automatically terminated at the approach.
completion of a radar approach.
b. Prior to starting final approach, the pilot will be
advised of the frequency on which the advisories will
NOTE
1. The published MDA for straightin approaches will be
be transmitted. If, for any reason, radar advisories
issued to the pilot before beginning descent. When a cannot be furnished, the pilot will be so advised.
surveillance approach will terminate in a circletoland c. Advisory information, derived from radar
maneuver, the pilot must furnish the aircraft approach observations, includes information on:
category to the controller. The controller will then provide
1. Passing the final approach fix inbound
the pilot with the appropriate MDA.
(nonprecision approach) or passing the outer marker
2. ASR APPROACHES ARE NOT AVAILABLE WHEN or fix used in lieu of the outer marker inbound
AN ATC FACILITY IS USING CENRAP. (precision approach).
NOTE
3. A NO-GYRO APPROACH is available to At this point, the pilot may be requested to report sighting
a pilot under radar control who experiences the approach lights or the runway.
circumstances wherein the directional gyro or other 2. Trend advisories with respect to elevation
stabilized compass is inoperative or inaccurate. and/or azimuth radar position and movement will be
When this occurs, the pilot should so advise ATC and provided.
request a No-Gyro vector or approach. Pilots of NOTE
aircraft not equipped with a directional gyro or other Whenever the aircraft nears the PAR safety limit, the pilot
stabilized compass who desire radar handling may will be advised that the aircraft is well above or below the
also request a No-Gyro vector or approach. The pilot glidepath or well left or right of course. Glidepath
should make all turns at standard rate and should information is given only to those aircraft executing a
precision approach, such as ILS or MLS. Altitude
execute the turn immediately upon receipt of
information is not transmitted to aircraft executing other
instructions. For example, TURN RIGHT, STOP than precision approaches because the descent portions of
TURN. When a surveillance or precision approach these approaches generally do not coincide with the
is made, the pilot will be advised after the aircraft has depicted PAR glidepath. At locations where the MLS
been turned onto final approach to make turns at half glidepath and PAR glidepath are not coincidental, only
standard rate. azimuth monitoring will be provided.

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3. If, after repeated advisories, the aircraft c. The close proximity of adjacent aircraft
proceeds outside the PAR safety limit or if a radical conducting simultaneous parallel ILS/MLS and
deviation is observed, the pilot will be advised to simultaneous close parallel ILS PRM approaches
execute a missed approach unless the prescribed mandates strict pilot compliance with all ATC
visual reference with the surface is established. clearances. ATC assigned airspeeds, altitudes, and
headings must be complied with in a timely manner.
d. Radar service is automatically terminated upon Autopilot coupled ILS/MLS approaches require pilot
completion of the approach. knowledge of procedures necessary to comply with
ATC instructions. Simultaneous parallel ILS/MLS
5413. ILS/MLS Approaches to Parallel and simultaneous close parallel ILS PRM approaches
Runways necessitate precise localizer tracking to minimize
final monitor controller intervention, and unwanted
a. ATC procedures permit ILS instrument No Transgression Zone (NTZ) penetration. In the
approach operations to dual or triple parallel runway unlikely event of a breakout, ATC will not assign
configurations. ILS/MLS approaches to parallel altitudes lower than the minimum vectoring altitude.
runways are grouped into three classes: Parallel Pilots should notify ATC immediately if there is a
(dependent) ILS/MLS Approaches; Simultaneous degradation of aircraft or navigation systems.
Parallel (independent) ILS/MLS Approaches; and
Simultaneous Close Parallel (independent) ILS d. Strict radio discipline is mandatory during
Precision Runway Monitor (PRM) Approaches. (See parallel ILS/MLS approach operations. This includes
FIG 5418.) The classification of a parallel runway an alert listening watch and the avoidance of lengthy,
approach procedure is dependent on adjacent parallel unnecessary radio transmissions. Attention must be
runway centerline separation, ATC procedures, and given to proper call sign usage to prevent the
airport ATC radar monitoring and communications inadvertent execution of clearances intended for
capabilities. At some airports one or more parallel another aircraft. Use of abbreviated call signs must be
localizer courses may be offset up to 3 degrees. Offset avoided to preclude confusion of aircraft with similar
localizer configurations result in loss of Category II sounding call signs. Pilots must be alert to unusually
capabilities and an increase in decision height (50). long periods of silence or any unusual background
sounds in their radio receiver. A stuck microphone
b. Parallel approach operations demand may block the issuance of ATC instructions by the
heightened pilot situational awareness. A thorough final monitor controller during simultaneous parallel
Approach Procedure Chart review should be ILS/MLS and simultaneous close parallel ILS PRM
conducted with, as a minimum, emphasis on the approaches.
following approach chart information: name and REFERENCE
number of the approach, localizer frequency, inbound AIM, Chapter 4, Section 2, Radio Communications Phraseology and
localizer/azimuth course, glide slope intercept Techniques, gives additional communications information.

altitude, decision height, missed approach e. Use of Traffic Collision Avoidance Systems
instructions, special notes/procedures, and the (TCAS) provides an additional element of safety to
assigned runway location/proximity to adjacent parallel approach operations. Pilots should follow
runways. Pilots will be advised that simultaneous recommended TCAS operating procedures presented
ILS/MLS or simultaneous close parallel ILS PRM in approved flight manuals, original equipment
approaches are in use. This information may be manufacturer recommendations, professional
provided through the ATIS. newsletters, and FAA publications.

Arrival Procedures 5435


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FIG 5418
Parallel ILS Approaches

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5414. Parallel ILS/MLS Approaches (Dependent)


(See FIG 5419.)

FIG 5419
Staggered ILS Approaches

a. Parallel approaches are an ATC procedure when runway centerlines are at least 2,500 feet but no
permitting parallel ILS/MLS approaches to airports more than 4,300 feet apart. When runway centerlines
having parallel runways separated by at least are more than 4,300 feet but no more than 9,000 feet
2,500 feet between centerlines. Integral parts of a apart a minimum of 2 miles diagonal radar separation
total system are ILS/MLS, radar, communications, is provided. Aircraft on the same localizer/azimuth
ATC procedures, and required airborne equipment. course within 10 miles of the runway end are
provided a minimum of 2.5 miles radar separation. In
b. A parallel (dependent) approach differs from a addition, a minimum of 1,000 feet vertical or a
simultaneous (independent) approach in that, the minimum of three miles radar separation is provided
minimum distance between parallel runway between aircraft during turn on to the parallel final
centerlines is reduced; there is no requirement for approach course.
radar monitoring or advisories; and a staggered d. Whenever parallel ILS/MLS approaches are in
separation of aircraft on the adjacent progress, pilots are informed that approaches to both
localizer/azimuth course is required. runways are in use. In addition, the radar controller
c. Aircraft are afforded a minimum of 1.5 miles will have the interphone capability of communicating
radar separation diagonally between successive with the tower controller where separation
aircraft on the adjacent localizer/azimuth course responsibility has not been delegated to the tower.

Arrival Procedures 5437


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5415. Simultaneous Parallel ILS/MLS Approaches (Independent)


(See FIG 5420.)

FIG 5420
Simultaneous Parallel ILS Approaches

(RUNWAY CENTERLINES SPACED 4300 OR MORE [DUAL RUNWAYS]


OR 5000 OR MORE, [TRIPLE OR QUADRUPLE RUNWAYS] - RADAR MONITORING REQUIRED)

AIRCRAFT MAY BE
VECTORED TO EITHER
14L OR 14R ILS
3200
FROM OUTER FIX. 2200
MEADOWVIEW INT (NW COURSE OHA ILS &
OBK VOR R-227) ESTABLISHED WHERE
3200 ALTITUDE INTERCEPTS GLIDE SLOPE.
2200 320
0
220
0

220
0
RADAR MONITORING PROVIDED TO ENSURE SEPARATION
BETWEEN AIRCRAFT ON PARALLEL LOCALIZERS. WHEN GLIDE
SLOPE INOPERATIVE BEGIN DESCENT AT MEADOW INTERSECTION.
OM
INTERCEPT GLIDE NO
OM
RADAR MONITORING SLOPE AT 2200 TR
AN
PROVIDED TO SG
ENSURE SEPARATION RE
SS
IO
BETWEEN AIRCRAFT ON N
ZO
PARALLEL LOCALIZERS. NE

14L
14R

EXTEND RADAR MONITORING AND NTZ TO 7NM BEYOND RUNWAY


DEPARTURE END FOR QUADRUPLE SIMULTANEOUS ILS APPROACHES.

7NM

a. System. An approach system permitting parallel ILS/MLS approaches will contain the note
simultaneous ILS/MLS approaches to parallel simultaneous approaches authorized RWYS 14L
runways with centerlines separated by 4,300 to and 14R, identifying the appropriate runways as the
9,000 feet, and equipped with final monitor case may be. When advised that simultaneous parallel
controllers. Simultaneous parallel ILS/MLS ILS/MLS approaches are in progress, pilots shall
approaches require radar monitoring to ensure advise approach control immediately of
separation between aircraft on the adjacent parallel malfunctioning or inoperative receivers, or if a
approach course. Aircraft position is tracked by final simultaneous parallel ILS/MLS approach is not
monitor controllers who will issue instructions to desired.
aircraft observed deviating from the assigned
localizer course. Staggered radar separation b. Radar Monitoring. This service is provided
procedures are not utilized. Integral parts of a total for each simultaneous parallel ILS/MLS approach to
system are ILS/MLS, radar, communications, ATC ensure aircraft do not deviate from the final approach
procedures, and required airborne equipment. The course. Radar monitoring includes instructions if an
Approach Procedure Chart permitting simultaneous aircraft nears or penetrates the prescribed NTZ (an

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area 2,000 feet wide located equidistant between PHRASEOLOGY


parallel final approach courses). This service will be (Aircraft call sign) YOU HAVE CROSSED THE FINAL
provided as follows: APPROACH COURSE. TURN (left/right)
IMMEDIATELY AND RETURN TO THE
1. During turn on to parallel final approach, LOCALIZER/AZIMUTH COURSE,
aircraft will be provided 3 miles radar separation or
a minimum or 1,000 feet vertical separation. The or
assigned altitude must be maintained until
(aircraft call sign) TURN (left/right) AND RETURN TO
intercepting the glide path, unless cleared otherwise THE LOCALIZER/AZIMUTH COURSE.
by ATC. Aircraft will not be vectored to intercept the
final approach course at an angle greater than thirty 5. If a deviating aircraft fails to respond to such
degrees. instructions or is observed penetrating the NTZ, the
aircraft on the adjacent final approach course may be
2. The final monitor controller will have the instructed to alter course.
capability of overriding the tower controller on the PHRASEOLOGY
tower frequency. TRAFFIC ALERT (aircraft call sign) TURN (left/right)
IMMEDIATELY HEADING (degrees), (climb/descend)
3. Pilots will be instructed to monitor the tower AND MAINTAIN (altitude).
frequency to receive advisories and instructions.
6. Radar monitoring will automatically be
4. Aircraft observed to overshoot the turn-on or terminated when visual separation is applied, the
to continue on a track which will penetrate the NTZ aircraft reports the approach lights or runway in sight,
will be instructed to return to the correct final or the aircraft is 1 mile or less from the runway
approach course immediately. The final monitor threshold (for runway centerlines spaced 4,300 feet
controller may also issue missed approach or or greater). Final monitor controllers will not advise
breakout instructions to the deviating aircraft. pilots when radar monitoring is terminated.

Arrival Procedures 5439


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5416. Simultaneous Close Parallel ILS PRM Approaches (Independent) and


Simultaneous Offset Instrument Approaches (SOIA) (See FIG 5421.)
FIG 5421
ILS PRM Approaches
(Simultaneous Close Parallel)

a. System. controllers, one for each approach course. To qualify


for reduced lateral runway separation, monitor
1. ILS/PRM is an acronym for Instrument
controllers must be equipped with high update radar
Landing System/Precision Runway Monitor.
and high resolution ATC radar displays, collectively
(a) An approach system that permits called a PRM system. The PRM system displays
simultaneous ILS/PRM approaches to dual runways almost instantaneous radar information. Automated
with centerlines separated by less than 4,300 feet but tracking software provides PRM monitor controllers
at least 3,400 feet for parallel approach courses, and with aircraft identification, position, speed and a
at least 3,000 feet if one ILS if offset by 2.5 to tensecond projected position, as well as visual and
3.0 degrees. The airspace between the final approach aural controller alerts. The PRM system is a
courses contains a No Transgression Zone (NTZ) supplemental requirement for simultaneous close
with surveillance provided by two PRM monitor parallel approaches in addition to the system

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requirements for simultaneous parallel ILS/MLS for the generic SOIA approach geometry. A visual
approaches described in paragraph 5415, segment of the LDA/PRM approach is established
Simultaneous Parallel ILS/MLS Approaches between the LDA MAP and the runway threshold.
(Independent). Aircraft transition in visual conditions from the LDA
course, beginning at the LDA MAP, to align with the
(b) Simultaneous close parallel ILS/PRM runway and can be stabilized by 500 feet above
approaches are depicted on a separate Approach ground level (AGL) on the extended runway
Procedure Chart titled ILS/PRM Rwy XXX centerline. Aircraft will be paired in SOIA
(Simultaneous Close Parallel). operations, with the ILS aircraft ahead of the LDA
aircraft prior to the LDA aircraft reaching the LDA
2. SOIA is an acronym for Simultaneous Offset MAP. A cloud ceiling for the approach is established
Instrument Approach, a procedure used to conduct so that the LDA aircraft has nominally 30 seconds to
simultaneous approaches to runways spaced less than acquire the leading ILS aircraft prior to the LDA
3,000 feet, but at least 750 feet apart. The SOIA aircraft reaching the LDA MAP. If visual acquisition
procedure utilizes an ILS/PRM approach to one is not accomplished, a missed approach must be
runway and an offset Localizer Type Directional Aid executed.
(LDA)/PRM approach with glide slope to the
adjacent runway. b. Requirements.

(a) The ILS/PRM approach plates used in Besides system requirements as identified in
SOIA operations are identical to other ILS/PRM subpara a above all pilots must have completed
approach plates, with an additional note, which special training before accepting a clearance to
provides the separation between the two runways conduct ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM Simultaneous Close
used for simultaneous approaches. The LDA/PRM Parallel Approaches.
approach plate displays the required notations for
closely spaced approaches as well as depicting the 1. Pilot Training Requirement. Pilots must
visual segment of the approach, and a note that complete special pilot training, as outlined below,
provides the separation between the two runways before accepting a clearance for a simultaneous close
used for simultaneous operations. parallel ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM approach.

(b) Controllers monitor the SOIA ILS/PRM (a) For operations under 14 CFR Parts 121,
and LDA/PRM approaches with a PRM system using 129, and 135 pilots must comply with FAA approved
high update radar and highresolution ATC radar company training as identified in their Operations
displays in exactly the same manner as is done for Specifications. Training, at a minimum, must require
ILS/PRM approaches. The procedures and system pilots to view the FAA video ILS PRM AND SOIA
requirements for SOIA ILS/PRM and LDA/PRM APPROACHES: INFORMATION FOR AIR
approaches are identical with those used for CARRIER PILOTS. Refer to http://www.faa.gov
simultaneous close parallel ILS/PRM approaches for additional information and to view or download
until near the LDA/PRM approach missed approach the video.
point (MAP)where visual acquisition of the ILS
aircraft by the LDA aircraft must be accomplished. (b) For operations under Part 91:
Since the ILS/PRM and LDA/PRM approaches are
identical except for the visual segment in the SOIA (1) Pilots operating transport category
concept, an understanding of the procedures for aircraft must be familiar with PRM operations as
conducting ILS/PRM approaches is essential before contained in this section of the Aeronautical
conducting a SOIA ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM Information Manual (AIM). In addition, pilots
operation. operating transport category aircraft must view the
FAA video ILS PRM AND SOIA APPROACHES:
(c) In SOIA, the approach course separation INFORMATION FOR AIR CARRIER PILOTS.
(instead of the runway separation) meets established Refer to http://www.faa.gov for additional
close parallel approach criteria. Refer to FIG 5422 information and to view or download the video.

Arrival Procedures 5441


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FIG 5422
SOIA Approach Geometry

NOTE

SAP The SAP is a design point along the extended centerline of the intended landing runway on the
glide slope at 500 feet above the landing threshold. It is used to verify a sufficient distance is pro-
vided for the visual maneuver after the missed approach point (MAP) to permit the pilots to con-
form to approved, stabilized approach criteria.
MAP The point along the LDA where the course separation with the adjacent ILS reaches 3,000 feet.
The altitude of the glide slope at that point determines the approach minimum descent altitude
and is where the NTZ terminates. Maneuvering inside the MAP is done in visual conditions.
Angle Angle formed at the intersection of the extended LDA runway centerline and a line drawn between
the LDA MAP and the SAP. The size of the angle is determined by the FAA SOIA computer design
program, and is dependent on whether Heavy aircraft use the LDA and the spacing between the
runways.
Visibility Distance from MAP to runway threshold in statute miles (light credit applies).
Procedure LDA aircraft must see the runway landing environment and, if less than standard radar separa-
tion exists between the aircraft on the adjacent ILS course, the LDA aircraft must visually acquire
the ILS aircraft and report it in sight to ATC prior to the LDA MAP.
CC Clear Clouds.

(2) Pilots not operating transport category 2. ATC Directed Breakout. An ATC directed
aircraft must be familiar with PRM and SOIA breakout is defined as a vector off the ILS or LDA
operations as contained in this section of the AIM. approach course in response to another aircraft
The FAA strongly recommends that pilots not penetrating the NTZ, the 2,000 foot wide area located
involved in transport category aircraft operations equidistance between the two approach courses that
view the FAA video, ILS PRM AND SOIA is monitored by the PRM monitor controllers.
APPROACHES: INFORMATION FOR GENERAL 3. Dual Communications. The aircraft flying
AVIATION PILOTS. Refer to http://www.faa.gov the ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM approach must have the
for additional information and to view or download capability of enabling the pilot/s to listen to two
the video. communications frequencies simultaneously.

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c. Radar Monitoring. Simultaneous close failure that would preclude participation in PRM
parallel ILS/PRM and LDA/PRM approaches require approaches should notify ATC as soon as practical.
that final monitor controllers utilize the PRM system
2. The AAUP covers the following operational
to ensure prescribed separation standards are met.
topics:
Procedures and communications phraseology are
also described in paragraph 5415, Simultaneous (a) ATIS. When the ATIS broadcast advises
Parallel ILS/MLS Approaches (Independent). A ILS/PRM approaches are in progress (or ILS PRM
minimum of 3 miles radar separation or 1,000 feet and LDA PRM approaches in the case of SOIA),
vertical separation will be provided during the pilots should brief to fly the ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM
turnon to close parallel final approach courses. To approach. If later advised to expect the ILS or LDA
ensure separation is maintained, and in order to avoid approach (should one be published), the ILS/PRM or
an imminent situation during simultaneous close LDA/PRM chart may be used after completing the
parallel ILS/PRM or SOIA ILS/PRM and LDA/PRM following briefing items:
approaches, pilots must immediately comply with
(1) Minimums and missed approach
PRM monitor controller instructions. In the event of
procedures are unchanged.
a missed approach, radar monitoring is provided to
onehalf mile beyond the most distant of the two (2) PRM Monitor frequency no longer
runway departure ends for ILS/RPM approaches. In required.
SOIA, PRM radar monitoring terminates at the LDA
(3) ATC may assign a lower altitude for
MAP. Final monitor controllers will not notify pilots
glide slope intercept.
when radar monitoring is terminated.
NOTE
d. Attention All Users Page (AAUP). ILS/PRM In the case of the LDA/PRM approach, this briefing
and LDA/PRM approach charts have an AAUP procedure only applies if an LDA approach is also
associated with them that must be referred to in published.
preparation for conducting the approach. This page
In the case of the SOIA ILS/PRM and LDA/PRM
contains the following instructions that must be
procedure, the AAUP describes the weather
followed if the pilot is unable to accept an ILS/PRM
conditions in which simultaneous approaches are
or LDA/PRM approach.
authorized:
1. At airports that conduct PRM operations,
Simultaneous approach weather minimums are
(ILS/PRM or, in the case of airports where SOIAs are
X,XXX feet (ceiling), x miles (visibility).
conducted, ILS/PRM and LDA/PRM approaches)
pilots not qualified to except PRM approaches must (b) Dual VHF Communications Required.
contact the FAA Command Center prior to departure To avoid blocked transmissions, each runway will
(18003334286) to obtain an arrival reservation have two frequencies, a primary and a monitor
(see FAA Advisory Circular 9098, Simultaneous frequency. The tower controller will transmit on both
Closely Spaced Parallel Operations at Airports Using frequencies. The monitor controllers transmissions,
Precision Runway Monitor (PRM) Systems). if needed, will override both frequencies. Pilots will
Arriving flights that are unable to participate in ONLY transmit on the tower controllers frequency,
ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM approaches and have not but will listen to both frequencies. Begin to monitor
received an arrival reservation are subject to the PRM monitor controller when instructed by ATC
diversion to another airport or delays. Pilots en route to contact the tower. The volume levels should be set
to a PRM airport designated as an alternate, unable to about the same on both radios so that the pilots will
reach their filed destination, and who are not qualified be able to hear transmissions on at least one frequency
to participate in ILS/PRM or LDA/PRM approaches if the other is blocked. Site specific procedures take
must advise ATC as soon as practical that they are precedence over the general information presented in
unable to participate. Pilots who are qualified to this paragraph. Refer to the AAUP for applicable
participate but experience an en route equipment procedures at specific airports.

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(c) Breakouts. Breakouts differ from other contact with the ILS traffic. Under normal
types of abandoned approaches in that they can circumstances these aircraft will not pass the ILS
happen anywhere and unexpectedly. Pilots directed traffic.
by ATC to break off an approach must assume that an
aircraft is blundering toward them and a breakout SOIA LDA/PRM AAUP Items. The AAUP for the
must be initiated immediately. SOIA LDA/PRM approach contains most
information found on ILS/PRM AAUPs. It replaces
(1) Handfly breakouts. All breakouts certain information as seen below and provides pilots
are to be handflown to ensure the maneuver is with the procedures to be used in the visual segment
accomplished in the shortest amount of time. of the LDA/PRM approach, from the time the ILS
aircraft is visually acquired until landing.
(2) ATC Directed Breakouts. ATC
directed breakouts will consist of a turn and a climb (f) SOIA LDA/PRM Navigation (replaces
or descent. Pilots must always initiate the breakout in ILS/PRM (d) and (e) above). The pilot may find
response to an air traffic controllers instruction. crossing altitudes along the final approach course.
Controllers will give a descending breakout only The pilot is advised that descending on the LDA
when there are no other reasonable options available, glideslope ensures complying with any charted
but in no case will the descent be below the minimum crossing restrictions. Remain on the LDA course
vectoring altitude (MVA) which provides at least until passing XXXXX (LDA MAP name)
1,000 feet required obstruction clearance. The AAUP intersection prior to maneuvering to align with the
provides the MVA in the final approach segment as centerline of runway XXX.
X,XXX feet at (Name) Airport.
NOTE
(g) SOIA (Name) Airport Visual Segment
TRAFFIC ALERT. If an aircraft enters the NO (replaces ILS/PRM (e) above). Pilot procedures for
TRANSGRESSION ZONE (NTZ), the controller will navigating beyond the LDA MAP are spelled out. If
breakout the threatened aircraft on the adjacent approach. ATC advises that there is traffic on the adjacent ILS,
The phraseology for the breakout will be: pilots are authorized to continue past the LDA MAP
PHRASEOLOGY to align with runway centerline when:
TRAFFIC ALERT, (aircraft call sign) TURN (left/right)
IMMEDIATELY, HEADING (degrees),
(1) the ILS traffic is in sight and is expected
CLIMB/DESCEND AND MAINTAIN (altitude). to remain in sight,

(d) ILS/PRM Navigation. The pilot may (2) ATC has been advised that traffic is in
find crossing altitudes along the final approach sight.
course. The pilot is advised that descending on the
ILS glideslope ensures complying with any charted (3) the runway environment is in sight.
crossing restrictions.
Otherwise, a missed approach must be executed.
SOIA AAUP differences from ILS PRM AAUP Between the LDA MAP and the runway threshold,
pilots of the LDA aircraft are responsible for
(e) ILS/PRM LDA Traffic (only published separating themselves visually from traffic on the ILS
on ILS/PRM AAUP when the ILS PRM approach approach, which means maneuvering the aircraft as
is used in conjunctions with an LDA/PRM necessary to avoid the ILS traffic until landing, and
approach to the adjacent runway). To provide providing wake turbulence avoidance, if applicable.
better situational awareness, and because traffic on Pilots should advise ATC, as soon as practical, if
the LDA may be visible on the ILS aircrafts TCAS, visual contact with the ILS traffic is lost and execute
pilots are reminded of the fact that aircraft will be a missed approach unless otherwise instructed by
maneuvering behind them to align with the adjacent ATC.
runway. While conducting the ILS/PRM approach to
Runway XXX, other aircraft may be conducting the e. SOIA LDA Approach Wake Turbulence.
offset LDA/PRM approach to Runway XXX. These Pilots are responsible for wake turbulence avoidance
aircraft will approach from the (left/right)rear and when maneuvering between the LDA missed
will realign with runway XXX after making visual approach point and the runway threshold.

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f. Differences between ILS and ILS/PRM 3. Handflown Breakouts. The use of the
approaches of importance to the pilot. autopilot is encouraged while flying an ILS/PRM or
LDA/PRM approach, but the autopilot must be
1. Runway Spacing. Prior to ILS/PRM and disengaged in the rare event that a breakout is issued.
LDA/PRM approaches, most ATC directed breakouts Simulation studies of breakouts have shown that a
were the result of two aircraft intrail on the same handflown breakout can be initiated consistently
final approach course getting too close together. faster than a breakout performed using the autopilot.
Two aircraft going in the same direction did not 4. TCAS. The ATC breakout instruction is the
mandate quick reaction times. With PRM primary means of conflict resolution. TCAS, if
approaches, two aircraft could be along side each installed, provides another form of conflict resolution
other, navigating on courses that are separated by less in the unlikely event other separation standards
than 4,300 feet. In the unlikely event that an aircraft would fail. TCAS is not required to conduct a closely
blunders off its course and makes a worst case turn spaced approach.
of 30 degrees toward the adjacent final approach
course, closing speeds of 135 feet per second could The TCAS provides only vertical resolution of
occur that constitute the need for quick reaction. A aircraft conflicts, while the ATC breakout instruction
blunder has to be recognized by the monitor provides both vertical and horizontal guidance for
controller, and breakout instructions issued to the conflict resolutions. Pilots should always
endangered aircraft. The pilot will not have any immediately follow the TCAS Resolution Advisory
warning that a breakout is imminent because the (RA), whenever it is received. Should a TCAS RA be
blundering aircraft will be on another frequency. It is received before, during, or after an ATC breakout
important that, when a pilot receives breakout instruction is issued, the pilot should follow the RA,
instructions, he/she assumes that a blundering aircraft even if it conflicts with the climb/descent portion of
is about to or has penetrated the NTZ and is heading the breakout maneuver. If following an RA requires
toward his/her approach course. The pilot must deviating from an ATC clearance, the pilot shall
initiate a breakout as soon as safety allows. While advise ATC as soon as practical. While following an
conducting PRM approaches, pilots must maintain an RA, it is extremely important that the pilot also
increased sense of awareness in order to immediately comply with the turn portion of the ATC breakout
react to an ATC instruction (breakout) and maneuver instruction unless the pilot determines safety to be
as instructed by ATC, away from a blundering factor. Adhering to these procedures assures the pilot
aircraft. that acceptable breakout separation margins will
always be provided, even in the face of a normal
procedural or system failure.
2. Communications. To help in avoiding
communication problems caused by stuck 5. Breakouts. The probability is extremely
microphones and two parties talking at the same time, low that an aircraft will blunder from its assigned
two frequencies for each runway will be in use during approach course and enter the NTZ, causing ATC to
ILS/PRM and LDA/PRM approach operations, the breakout the aircraft approaching on the adjacent
primary tower frequency and the PRM monitor ILS course. However, because of the close proximity
frequency. The tower controller transmits and of the final approach courses, it is essential that pilots
receives in a normal fashion on the primary frequency follow the ATC breakout instructions precisely and
and also transmits on the PRM monitor frequency. expeditiously. The controllers breakout
The monitor controllers transmissions override on instructions provide conflict resolution for the
both frequencies. The pilots flying the approach will threatened aircraft, with the turn portion of the
listen to both frequencies but only transmit on the breakout being the single most important element
primary tower frequency. If the PRM monitor in achieving maximum protection. A descending
controller initiates a breakout and the primary breakout will only be issued when it is the only
frequency is blocked by another transmission, the controller option. In no case will the controller
breakout instruction will still be heard on the PRM descend an aircraft below the MVA, which will
monitor frequency. provide at least 1,000 feet clearance above obstacles.

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The pilot is not expected to exceed 1,000 feet per requirements. A minimum RNP type is documented
minute rate of descent in the event a descending as part of the RNP SAAAR authorization for each
breakout is issued. operator and may vary depending on aircraft
configuration or operational procedures (e.g., GPS
5417. Simultaneous Converging inoperative, use of flight director vice autopilot).
Instrument Approaches
2. Curved path procedures. Some RNP
a. ATC may conduct instrument approaches approaches have a curved path, also called a
simultaneously to converging runways; i.e., runways radiustoafix (RF) leg. Since not all aircraft have
having an included angle from 15 to 100 degrees, at the capability to fly these arcs, pilots are responsible
airports where a program has been specifically for knowing if they can conduct an RNP approach
approved to do so. with an arc or not. Aircraft speeds, winds and bank
b. The basic concept requires that dedicated, angles have been taken into consideration in the
separate standard instrument approach procedures be development of the procedures.
developed for each converging runway included. 3. RNP required for extraction or not.
Missed Approach Points must be at least 3 miles apart Where required, the missed approach procedure may
and missed approach procedures ensure that missed use RNP values less than RNP1. The reliability of
approach protected airspace does not overlap. the navigation system has to be very high in order to
conduct these approaches. Operation on these
c. Other requirements are: radar availability,
procedures generally requires redundant equipment,
nonintersecting final approach courses, precision
as no single point of failure can cause loss of both
(ILS/MLS) approach systems on each runway and, if
approach and missed approach navigation.
runways intersect, controllers must be able to apply
visual separation as well as intersecting runway 4. Nonstandard speeds or climb gradients.
separation criteria. Intersecting runways also require RNP SAAAR approaches are developed based on
minimums of at least 700 foot ceilings and 2 miles standard approach speeds and a 200 ft/NM climb
visibility. Straight in approaches and landings must gradient in the missed approach. Any exceptions to
be made. these standards will be indicated on the approach
procedure, and the operator should ensure they can
d. Whenever simultaneous converging
comply with any published restrictions before
approaches are in progress, aircraft will be informed
conducting the operation.
by the controller as soon as feasible after initial
contact or via ATIS. Additionally, the radar controller 5. Temperature Limits. For aircraft using
will have direct communications capability with the barometric vertical navigation (without temperature
tower controller where separation responsibility has compensation) to conduct the approach, low and
not been delegated to the tower. hightemperature limits are identified on the
procedure. Cold temperatures reduce the glidepath
5418. RNP SAAAR Instrument Approach angle while high temperatures increase the glidepath
Procedures angle. Aircraft using baro VNAV with temperature
compensation or aircraft using an alternate means for
These procedures require authorization analogous to
the special authorization required for Category II or vertical guidance (e.g., SBAS) may disregard the
temperature restrictions. The charted temperature
III ILS procedures. Special aircraft and aircrew
authorization required (SAAAR) procedures are to limits are evaluated for the final approach segment
only. Regardless of charted temperature limits or
be conducted by aircrews meeting special training
requirements in aircraft that meet the specified temperature compensation by the FMS, the pilot may
need to manually compensate for cold temperature on
performance and functional requirements.
minimum altitudes and the decision altitude.
a. Unique characteristics of RNP SAAAR
6. Aircraft size. The achieved minimums may
Approaches
be dependent on aircraft size. Large aircraft may
1. RNP value. Each published line of minima require higher minimums due to gear height and/or
has an associated RNP value. The indicated value wingspan. Approach procedure charts will be
defines the lateral and vertical performance annotated with applicable aircraft size restrictions.

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b. Types of RNP SAAAR Approach Operations FIG 5424

1. RNP Standalone Approach Operations.


RNP SAAAR procedures can provide access to
runways regardless of the groundbased NAVAID
infrastructure, and can be designed to avoid
obstacles, terrain, airspace, or resolve environmental
constraints.

2. RNP Parallel Approach (RPA)


Operations. RNP SAAAR procedures can be used
for parallel approaches where the runway separation
is adequate (See FIG 5423). Parallel approach
procedures can be used either simultaneously or as
standalone operations. They may be part of either
independent or dependent operations depending on
the ATC ability to provide radar monitoring.

FIG 5423

4. RNP Converging Runway Operations. At


airports where runways converge, but may or may not
intersect, an RNP SAAAR approach can provide a
precise curved missed approach path that conforms to
aircraft separation minimums for simultaneous
operations (See FIG 5425). By flying this curved
missed approach path with high accuracy and
containment provided by RNP, dual runway
operations may continue to be used to lower ceiling
and visibility values than currently available. This
type of operation allows greater capacity at airports
where it can be applied.
FIG 5425

3. RNP Parallel Approach Runway


Transitions (RPAT) Operations. RPAT
approaches begin as a parallel IFR approach
operation using simultaneous independent or
dependent procedures. (See FIG 5424). Visual
separation standards are used in the final segment of
the approach after the final approach fix, to permit the
RPAT aircraft to transition in visual conditions along
a predefined lateral and vertical path to align with the
runway centerline.

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5419. Side-step Maneuver TBL 541


RVR Value Conversions
a. ATC may authorize a standard instrument RVR Visibility
approach procedure which serves either one of (statute miles)
parallel runways that are separated by 1,200 feet or 1600 1/
4
less followed by a straight-in landing on the adjacent 2400 1/
2
runway. 3200 5/
8
4000 3/
4
b. Aircraft that will execute a side-step maneuver 4500 7/
8
will be cleared for a specified approach procedure 5000 1
and landing on the adjacent parallel runway. 6000 1 1 /4
Example, cleared ILS runway 7 left approach,
side-step to runway 7 right. Pilots are expected to b. Obstacle Clearance. Final approach obstacle
commence the side-step maneuver as soon as clearance is provided from the start of the final
possible after the runway or runway environment is segment to the runway or missed approach point,
in sight. Compliance with minimum altitudes whichever occurs last. Side-step obstacle protection
associated with stepdown fixes is expected even after is provided by increasing the width of the final
the sidestep maneuver is initiated. approach obstacle clearance area.

NOTE 1. Circling approach protected areas are defined


Sidestep minima are flown to a Minimum Descent Altitude by the tangential connection of arcs drawn from each
(MDA) regardless of the approach authorized. runway end. The arc radii distance differs by aircraft
approach category (see FIG 5426). Because of
c. Landing minimums to the adjacent runway will obstacles near the airport, a portion of the circling
be based on nonprecision criteria and therefore higher area may be restricted by a procedural note: e.g.,
than the precision minimums to the primary runway, Circling NA E of RWY 1735. Obstacle clearance
but will normally be lower than the published circling is provided at the published minimums (MDA) for
minimums. the pilot who makes a straightin approach,
sidesteps, or circles. Once below the MDA the pilot
5420. Approach and Landing Minimums must see and avoid obstacles. Executing the missed
approach after starting to maneuver usually places the
a. Landing Minimums. The rules applicable to aircraft beyond the MAP. The aircraft is clear of
landing minimums are contained in 14 CFR obstacles when at or above the MDA while inside the
Section 91.175. TBL 541 may be used to convert circling area, but simply joining the missed approach
RVR to ground or flight visibility. For converting ground track from the circling maneuver may not
RVR values that fall between listed values, use the provide vertical obstacle clearance once the aircraft
next higher RVR value; do not interpolate. For exits the circling area. Additional climb inside the
example, when converting 1800 RVR, use 2400 RVR circling area may be required before joining the
with the resultant visibility of 1/2 mile. missed approach track. See paragraph 5421,

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Missed Approach, for additional considerations 2. Precision Obstacle Free Zone (POFZ). A
when starting a missed approach at other than the volume of airspace above an area beginning at the
MAP. runway threshold, at the threshold elevation, and
FIG 5426 centered on the extended runway centerline. The
Final Approach Obstacle Clearance POFZ is 200 feet (60m) long and 800 feet (240m)
wide. The POFZ must be clear when an aircraft on a
CIRCLING APPROACH AREA RADII vertically guided final approach is within 2 nautical
miles of the runway threshold and the reported ceiling
Approach Category Radius (Miles) is below 250 feet or visibility less than 3/4 statute mile
(SM) (or runway visual range below 4,000 feet). If the
A 1.3 POFZ is not clear, the MINIMUM authorized height
B 1.5 above touchdown (HAT) and visibility is 250 feet and
C 1.7 3/ SM. The POFZ is considered clear even if the wing
D 2.3 4
E 4.5 of the aircraft holding on a taxiway waiting for
runway clearance penetrates the POFZ; however,
RADI (r) DEFINING SIZE
OF AREAS, VARY WITH THE neither the fuselage nor the tail may infringe on the
APPROACH CATEGORY
POFZ. The POFZ is applicable at all runway ends
including displaced thresholds.
r
CIRCLING APPROACH AREA

r
r

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FIG 5427

c. Straight-in Minimums are shown on the IAP d. Side-Step Maneuver Minimums. Landing
when the final approach course is within 30 degrees minimums for a side-step maneuver to the adjacent
of the runway alignment (15 degrees for GPS IAPs) runway will normally be higher than the minimums
and a normal descent can be made from the IFR to the primary runway.
altitude shown on the IAP to the runway surface.
When either the normal rate of descent or the runway e. Published Approach Minimums. Approach
alignment factor of 30 degrees (15 degrees for GPS minimums are published for different aircraft
IAPs) is exceeded, a straight-in minimum is not categories and consist of a minimum altitude (DA,
published and a circling minimum applies. The fact DH, MDA) and required visibility. These minimums
that a straight-in minimum is not published does not are determined by applying the appropriate TERPS
preclude pilots from landing straight-in if they have criteria. When a fix is incorporated in a nonprecision
the active runway in sight and have sufficient time to final segment, two sets of minimums may be
make a normal approach for landing. Under such published: one for the pilot that is able to identify the
conditions and when ATC has cleared them for fix, and a second for the pilot that cannot. Two sets of
landing on that runway, pilots are not expected to minimums may also be published when a second
circle even though only circling minimums are altimeter source is used in the procedure. When a
published. If they desire to circle, they should advise nonprecision procedure incorporates both a
ATC. stepdown fix in the final segment and a second

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altimeter source, two sets of minimums are published for the procedure being used or with an alternate
to account for the stepdown fix and a note addresses missed approach procedure specified by ATC.
minimums for the second altimeter source.
b. Obstacle protection for missed approach is
f. Circling Minimums. In some busy terminal
predicated on the missed approach being initiated at
areas, ATC may not allow circling and circling
the decision altitude/height (DA/H) or at the missed
minimums will not be published. Published circling
approach point and not lower than minimum descent
minimums provide obstacle clearance when pilots
altitude (MDA). A climb gradient of at least 200 feet
remain within the appropriate area of protection.
per nautical mile is required, (except for Copter
Pilots should remain at or above the circling altitude
approaches, where a climb of at least 400 feet per
until the aircraft is continuously in a position from
nautical mile is required), unless a higher climb
which a descent to a landing on the intended runway
gradient is published in the notes section of the
can be made at a normal rate of descent using normal
approach procedure chart. When higher than standard
maneuvers. Circling may require maneuvers at low
climb gradients are specified, the end point of the
altitude, at low airspeed, and in marginal weather
nonstandard climb will be specified at either an
conditions. Pilots must use sound judgment, have an
altitude or a fix. Pilots must preplan to ensure that the
indepth knowledge of their capabilities, and fully
aircraft can meet the climb gradient (expressed in feet
understand the aircraft performance to determine the
per nautical mile) required by the procedure in the
exact circling maneuver since weather, unique airport
event of a missed approach, and be aware that flying
design, and the aircraft position, altitude, and
at a higher than anticipated ground speed increases
airspeed must all be considered. The following basic
the climb rate requirement (feet per minute). Tables
rules apply:
for the conversion of climb gradients (feet per
1. Maneuver the shortest path to the base or nautical mile) to climb rate (feet per minute), based
downwind leg, as appropriate, considering existing on ground speed, are included on page D1 of the U.S.
weather conditions. There is no restriction from Terminal Procedures booklets. Reasonable buffers
passing over the airport or other runways. are provided for normal maneuvers. However, no
2. It should be recognized that circling consideration is given to an abnormally early turn.
maneuvers may be made while VFR or other flying Therefore, when an early missed approach is
is in progress at the airport. Standard left turns or executed, pilots should, unless otherwise cleared by
specific instruction from the controller for ATC, fly the IAP as specified on the approach plate
maneuvering must be considered when circling to to the missed approach point at or above the MDA or
land. DH before executing a turning maneuver.

3. At airports without a control tower, it may be c. If visual reference is lost while circling-to-land
desirable to fly over the airport to observe wind and from an instrument approach, the missed approach
turn indicators and other traffic which may be on the specified for that particular procedure must be
runway or flying in the vicinity of the airport. followed (unless an alternate missed approach
g. Instrument Approach at a Military Field. procedure is specified by ATC). To become
When instrument approaches are conducted by civil established on the prescribed missed approach
aircraft at military airports, they shall be conducted in course, the pilot should make an initial climbing turn
accordance with the procedures and minimums toward the landing runway and continue the turn until
approved by the military agency having jurisdiction established on the missed approach course. Inasmuch
over the airport. as the circling maneuver may be accomplished in
more than one direction, different patterns will be
required to become established on the prescribed
5421. Missed Approach
missed approach course, depending on the aircraft
a. When a landing cannot be accomplished, advise position at the time visual reference is lost.
ATC and, upon reaching the missed approach point Adherence to the procedure will help assure that an
defined on the approach procedure chart, the pilot aircraft will remain laterally within the circling and
must comply with the missed approach instructions missed approach obstruction clearance areas. Refer

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to paragraph h concerning vertical obstruction missed approach when necessary, such as when the
clearance when starting a missed approach at other primary missed approach NAVAID fails during the
than the MAP. (See FIG 5428.) approach. Pilots may reject an ATC clearance for an
alternate missed approach that requires equipment
d. At locations where ATC radar service is
not necessary for the published approach procedure
provided, the pilot should conform to radar vectors
when the alternate missed approach is issued after
when provided by ATC in lieu of the published
beginning the approach. However, when the alternate
missed approach procedure. (See FIG 5429.)
missed approach is issued prior to beginning the
e. Some locations may have a preplanned alternate approach the pilot must either accept the entire
missed approach procedure for use in the event the procedure (including the alternate missed approach),
primary NAVAID used for the missed approach request a different approach procedure, or coordinate
procedure is unavailable. To avoid confusion, the with ATC for alternative action to be taken, i.e.,
alternate missed approach instructions are not proceed to an alternate airport, etc.
published on the chart. However, the alternate missed
approach holding pattern will be depicted on the f. When approach has been missed, request
instrument approach chart for pilot situational clearance for specific action; i.e., to alternative
awareness and to assist ATC by not having to issue airport, another approach, etc.
detailed holding instructions. The alternate missed
approach may be based on NAVAIDs not used in the g. Pilots must ensure that they have climbed to a
approach procedure or the primary missed approach. safe altitude prior to proceeding off the published
When the alternate missed approach procedure is missed approach, especially in nonradar
implemented by NOTAM, it becomes a mandatory environments. Abandoning the missed approach
part of the procedure. The NOTAM will specify both prior to reaching the published altitude may not
the textual instructions and any additional equipment provide adequate terrain clearance. Additional climb
requirements necessary to complete the procedure. may be required after reaching the holding pattern
Air traffic may also issue instructions for the alternate before proceeding back to the IAF or to an alternate.

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FIG 5428 h. Missed approach obstacle clearance is


Circling and Missed Approach Obstruction predicated on beginning the missed approach
Clearance Areas procedure at the Missed Approach Point (MAP) from
MDA or DA and then climbing 200 feet/NM or
greater. Initiating a goaround after passing the
DECISION TO MISS published MAP may result in total loss of obstacle
HERE
CLIMBING TURN clearance. To compensate for the possibility of
reduced obstacle clearance during a goaround, a
X pilot should apply procedures used in takeoff
planning. Pilots should refer to airport obstacle and
CLIMBING TURN departure data prior to initiating an instrument
approach procedure. Such information may be found
in the TAKEOFF MINIMUMS AND
X (OBSTACLE) DEPARTURE PROCEDURES
section of the U.S. TERMINAL PROCEDURES
CIRCLING DECISION publication.
MANEUVER VOR TO MISS HERE

(WHEN 5422. Visual Approach


CLEARED IN
RIGHT HAND VOR a. A visual approach is conducted on an IFR flight
TRAFFIC
PATTERN) plan and authorizes a pilot to proceed visually and
clear of clouds to the airport. The pilot must have
either the airport or the preceding identified aircraft
in sight. This approach must be authorized and
controlled by the appropriate air traffic control
facility. Reported weather at the airport must have a
ceiling at or above 1,000 feet and visibility 3 miles or
greater. ATC may authorize this type approach when
FIG 5429
Missed Approach it will be operationally beneficial. Visual approaches
are an IFR procedure conducted under IFR in visual
meteorological conditions. Cloud clearance
requirements of 14 CFR Section 91.155 are not
applicable, unless required by operation
specifications.
1450 1265
1581
b. Operating to an Airport Without Weather
Reporting Service. ATC will advise the pilot when
1180
090
1172 weather is not available at the destination airport.
ATC may initiate a visual approach provided there is

056 a reasonable assurance that weather at the airport is a
CHANUTE
ceiling at or above 1,000 feet and visibility 3 miles or

011

36 109.2 CNU

R2 greater (e.g., area weather reports, PIREPs, etc.).


191

c. Operating to an Airport With an Operating


Portion of a Published Procedure
VOR
Control Tower. Aircraft may be authorized to
Remain within
10 NM MISSED APPROACH conduct a visual approach to one runway while other
236 Climbing right turn to
2600 2600 direct to VOR aircraft are conducting IFR or VFR approaches to
056 another parallel, intersecting, or converging runway.
When operating to airports with parallel runways
x
2500
5.7 NM separated by less than 2,500 feet, the succeeding
aircraft must report sighting the preceding aircraft
unless standard separation is being provided by ATC.
When operating to parallel runways separated by at

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least 2,500 feet but less than 4,300 feet, controllers h. Radar service is automatically terminated,
will clear/vector aircraft to the final at an angle not without advising the pilot, when the aircraft is
greater than 30 degrees unless radar, vertical, or instructed to change to advisory frequency.
visual separation is provided during the turn-on. The
purpose of the 30 degree intercept angle is to reduce
the potential for overshoots of the final and to
5423. Charted Visual Flight Procedure
preclude side-by-side operations with one or both
(CVFP)
aircraft in a belly-up configuration during the
turn-on. Once the aircraft are established within
30 degrees of final, or on the final, these operations a. CVFPs are charted visual approaches
may be conducted simultaneously. When the parallel established for environmental/noise considerations,
runways are separated by 4,300 feet or more, or and/or when necessary for the safety and efficiency of
intersecting/converging runways are in use, ATC air traffic operations. The approach charts depict
may authorize a visual approach after advising all prominent landmarks, courses, and recommended
aircraft involved that other aircraft are conducting altitudes to specific runways. CVFPs are designed to
operations to the other runway. This may be be used primarily for turbojet aircraft.
accomplished through use of the ATIS.
b. These procedures will be used only at airports
d. Separation Responsibilities. If the pilot has with an operating control tower.
the airport in sight but cannot see the aircraft to be
followed, ATC may clear the aircraft for a visual c. Most approach charts will depict some
approach; however, ATC retains both separation and NAVAID information which is for supplemental
wake vortex separation responsibility. When visually navigational guidance only.
following a preceding aircraft, acceptance of the
visual approach clearance constitutes acceptance of d. Unless indicating a Class B airspace floor, all
pilot responsibility for maintaining a safe approach depicted altitudes are for noise abatement purposes
interval and adequate wake turbulence separation. and are recommended only. Pilots are not prohibited
from flying other than recommended altitudes if
e. A visual approach is not an IAP and therefore operational requirements dictate.
has no missed approach segment. If a go around is
necessary for any reason, aircraft operating at e. When landmarks used for navigation are not
controlled airports will be issued an appropriate visible at night, the approach will be annotated
advisory/clearance/instruction by the tower. At PROCEDURE NOT AUTHORIZED AT NIGHT.
uncontrolled airports, aircraft are expected to remain
clear of clouds and complete a landing as soon as f. CVFPs usually begin within 20 flying miles
possible. If a landing cannot be accomplished, the from the airport.
aircraft is expected to remain clear of clouds and
contact ATC as soon as possible for further clearance. g. Published weather minimums for CVFPs are
Separation from other IFR aircraft will be maintained based on minimum vectoring altitudes rather than the
under these circumstances. recommended altitudes depicted on charts.

f. Visual approaches reduce pilot/controller h. CVFPs are not instrument approaches and do
workload and expedite traffic by shortening flight not have missed approach segments.
paths to the airport. It is the pilots responsibility to
advise ATC as soon as possible if a visual approach i. ATC will not issue clearances for CVFPs when
is not desired. the weather is less than the published minimum.

g. Authorization to conduct a visual approach is an j. ATC will clear aircraft for a CVFP after the pilot
IFR authorization and does not alter IFR flight plan reports siting a charted landmark or a preceding
cancellation responsibility. aircraft. If instructed to follow a preceding aircraft,
REFERENCE
pilots are responsible for maintaining a safe approach
AIM, Canceling IFR Flight Plan, Paragraph 5114. interval and wake turbulence separation.

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k. Pilots should advise ATC if at any point they are 5425. Landing Priority
unable to continue an approach or lose sight of a
preceding aircraft. Missed approaches will be A clearance for a specific type of approach (ILS,
handled as a go-around. MLS, ADF, VOR or Straight-in Approach) to an
aircraft operating on an IFR flight plan does not mean
that landing priority will be given over other traffic.
5424. Contact Approach ATCTs handle all aircraft, regardless of the type of
flight plan, on a first-come, first-served basis.
a. Pilots operating in accordance with an IFR Therefore, because of local traffic or runway in use,
flight plan, provided they are clear of clouds and have it may be necessary for the controller in the interest
at least 1 mile flight visibility and can reasonably of safety, to provide a different landing sequence. In
expect to continue to the destination airport in those any case, a landing sequence will be issued to each
conditions, may request ATC authorization for a aircraft as soon as possible to enable the pilot to
contact approach. properly adjust the aircrafts flight path.
b. Controllers may authorize a contact approach
provided:
5426. Overhead Approach Maneuver
1. The contact approach is specifically
requested by the pilot. ATC cannot initiate this a. Pilots operating in accordance with an
approach. IFR flight plan in Visual Meteorological
Conditions (VMC) may request ATC authorization
EXAMPLE for an overhead maneuver. An overhead maneuver is
Request contact approach. not an instrument approach procedure. Overhead
2. The reported ground visibility at the maneuver patterns are developed at airports where
destination airport is at least 1 statute mile. aircraft have an operational need to conduct the
maneuver. An aircraft conducting an overhead
3. The contact approach will be made to an maneuver is considered to be VFR and the IFR flight
airport having a standard or special instrument plan is cancelled when the aircraft reaches the initial
approach procedure. point on the initial approach portion of the maneuver.
(See FIG 5430.) The existence of a standard
4. Approved separation is applied between
overhead maneuver pattern does not eliminate the
aircraft so cleared and between these aircraft and
possible requirement for an aircraft to conform to
other IFR or special VFR aircraft.
conventional rectangular patterns if an overhead
EXAMPLE maneuver cannot be approved. Aircraft operating to
Cleared contact approach (and, if required) at or below an airport without a functioning control tower must
(altitude) (routing) if not possible (alternative procedures) initiate cancellation of an IFR flight plan prior to
and advise. executing the overhead maneuver. Cancellation of
c. A contact approach is an approach procedure the IFR flight plan must be accomplished after
that may be used by a pilot (with prior authorization crossing the landing threshold on the initial portion of
from ATC) in lieu of conducting a standard or special the maneuver or after landing. Controllers may
IAP to an airport. It is not intended for use by a pilot authorize an overhead maneuver and issue the
on an IFR flight clearance to operate to an airport not following to arriving aircraft:
having a published and functioning IAP. Nor is it
1. Pattern altitude and direction of traffic. This
intended for an aircraft to conduct an instrument
information may be omitted if either is standard.
approach to one airport and then, when in the clear,
discontinue that approach and proceed to another PHRASEOLOGY
airport. In the execution of a contact approach, the PATTERN ALTITUDE (altitude). RIGHT TURNS.
pilot assumes the responsibility for obstruction
2. Request for a report on initial approach.
clearance. If radar service is being received, it will
automatically terminate when the pilot is instructed to PHRASEOLOGY
change to advisory frequency. REPORT INITIAL.

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3. Break information and a request for the PHRASEOLOGY


pilot to report. The Break Point will be specified if BREAK AT (specified point).
nonstandard. Pilots may be requested to report REPORT BREAK.
break if required for traffic or other reasons.

FIG 5430
Overhead Maneuver

INITIAL APPROACH

180 TURN 3 - 5 NM
BREAK POINT

X X

ROLL OUT
INITIAL POINT

X 180 TURN

5456 Arrival Procedures


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5. If the remaining usable fuel supply suggests (b) Insert a waypoint along the published
the need for traffic priority to ensure a safe landing, route to assist in complying with ATC instruction,
you should declare an emergency due to low fuel and example, Descend via the WILMS arrival except
report fuel remaining in minutes. cross 30 north of BRUCE at/or below FL 210. This
REFERENCE is limited only to systems that allow alongtrack
Pilot/Controller Glossary Item Fuel Remaining. waypoint construction.
b. Controller. 5. Pilots of FMSequipped aircraft, who are
1. When an aircraft declares a state of minimum assigned an RNAV DP or STAR procedure and
fuel, relay this information to the facility to whom subsequently receive a change of runway, transition
control jurisdiction is transferred. or procedure, shall verify that the appropriate
changes are loaded and available for navigation.
2. Be alert for any occurrence which might
delay the aircraft. 6. For RNAV 1 DPs and STARs, pilots must use
a CDI, flight director and/or autopilot, in lateral
5516. RNAV and RNP Operations navigation mode. Other methods providing an
equivalent level of performance may also be
a. Pilot. acceptable.
1. If unable to comply with the requirements of 7. For RNAV 1 DPs and STARs, pilots of
an RNAV or RNP procedure, pilots must advise air aircraft without GPS, using DME/DME/IRU, must
traffic control as soon as possible. For example, ensure the aircraft navigation system position is
N1234, failure of GPS system, unable RNAV, confirmed, within 1,000 feet, at the start point of
request amended clearance. takeoff roll. The use of an automatic or manual
2. Pilots are not authorized to fly a published runway update is an acceptable means of compliance
RNAV or RNP procedure (instrument approach, with this requirement. Other methods providing an
departure, or arrival procedure) unless it is retrievable equivalent level of performance may also be
by the procedure name from the aircraft navigation acceptable.
database and conforms to the charted procedure. 8. For procedures or routes requiring the use of
3. Whenever possible, RNAV routes (Q or GPS, if the navigation system does not automatically
Troute) should be extracted from the database in alert the flight crew of a loss of GPS, the operator
their entirety, rather than loading RNAV route must develop procedures to verify correct GPS
waypoints from the database into the flight plan operation.
individually. However, selecting and inserting
9. RNAV terminal procedures (DP and STAR)
individual, named fixes from the database is
may be amended by ATC issuing radar vectors and/or
permitted, provided all fixes along the published
clearances direct to a waypoint. Pilots should avoid
route to be flown are inserted.
premature manual deletion of waypoints from their
4. Pilots must not change any database active legs page to allow for rejoining procedures.
waypoint type from a flyby to flyover, or vice
10. RAIM Prediction: If TSOC129 equipment
versa. No other modification of database waypoints
is used to solely satisfy the RNAV and RNP
or the creation of userdefined waypoints on
requirement, GPS RAIM availability must be
published RNAV or RNP procedures is permitted,
confirmed for the intended route of flight (route and
except to:
time). If RAIM is not available, pilots need an
(a) Change altitude and/or airspeed waypoint approved alternate means of navigation.
constraints to comply with an ATC clearance/ REFERENCE
instruction. AIM, RNAV and RNP Operations, Paragraph 5115.

Pilot/Controller Roles and Responsibilities 557


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Section 6. National Security and Interception Procedures

561. National Security 4. Position Reporting.


a. National security in the control of air traffic is (a) For IFR flight. Normal IFR position
governed by 14 CFR Part 99. reporting.
b. All aircraft entering domestic U.S. airspace
(b) For DVFR flights. The estimated time
from points outside must provide for identification
of ADIZ penetration must be filed with the
prior to entry. To facilitate early aircraft identification
aeronautical facility at least 15 minutes prior to
of all aircraft in the vicinity of U.S. and international
penetration except for flight in the Alaskan ADIZ, in
airspace boundaries, Air Defense Identification
which case report prior to penetration.
Zones (ADIZ) have been established.
REFERENCE (c) For inbound aircraft of foreign regis-
AIM, ADIZ Boundaries and Designated Mountainous Areas,
Paragraph 565.
try. The pilot must report to the aeronautical facility
at least one hour prior to ADIZ penetration.
c. Operational requirements for aircraft oper-
ations associated with an ADIZ are as follows: 5. Aircraft Position Tolerances.
1. Flight Plan. Except as specified in subpara- (a) Over land, the tolerance is within plus or
graphs d and e below, an IFR or DVFR flight plan minus five minutes from the estimated time over a
must be filed with an appropriate aeronautical facility reporting point or point of penetration and within
as follows: 10 NM from the centerline of an intended track over
(a) Generally, for all operations that enter an an estimated reporting point or penetration point.
ADIZ.
(b) Over water, the tolerance is plus or minus
(b) For operations that will enter or exit the five minutes from the estimated time over a reporting
U.S. and which will operate into, within or across the point or point of penetration and within 20 NM from
Contiguous U.S. ADIZ regardless of true airspeed. the centerline of the intended track over an estimated
(c) The flight plan must be filed before reporting point or point of penetration (to include the
departure except for operations associated with the Aleutian Islands).
Alaskan ADIZ when the airport of departure has no
6. LandBased ADIZ. LandBased ADIZ are
facility for filing a flight plan, in which case the flight
activated and deactivated over U.S. metropolitan
plan may be filed immediately after takeoff or when
areas as needed, with dimensions, activation dates
within range of the aeronautical facility.
and other relevant information disseminated via
2. Two-way Radio. For the majority of opera- NOTAM.
tions associated with an ADIZ, an operating two-way
radio is required. See 14 CFR Section 99.1 for (a) In addition to requirements outlined in
exceptions. subparagraphs c1 through c3, pilots operating within
a LandBased ADIZ must report landing or leaving
3. Transponder Requirements. Unless other- the LandBased ADIZ if flying too low for radar
wise authorized by ATC, each aircraft conducting coverage.
operations into, within, or across the Contiguous U.S.
ADIZ must be equipped with an operable radar (b) Pilots unable to comply with all require-
beacon transponder having altitude reporting capa- ments shall remain clear of LandBased ADIZ. Pilots
bility (Mode C), and that transponder must be turned entering a LandBased ADIZ without authorization
on and set to reply on the appropriate code or as or who fail to follow all requirements risk
assigned by ATC. interception by military fighter aircraft.

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d. Except when applicable under 14 CFR 5. In view of the above, all pilots should guard
Section 99.7, 14 CFR Part 99 does not apply to an ATC or FSS frequency at all times while
aircraft operations: conducting flight operations.
1. Within the 48 contiguous states and the
District of Columbia, or within the State of Alaska, 562. Interception Procedures
and remains within 10 miles of the point of departure;
a. General.
2. Over any island, or within three nautical
miles of the coastline of any island, in the Hawaii 1. Identification intercepts during peacetime
ADIZ; or operations are vastly different than those conducted
3. Associated with any ADIZ other than the under increased states of readiness. Unless otherwise
Contiguous U.S. ADIZ, when the aircraft true directed by the control agency, intercepted aircraft
airspeed is less than 180 knots. will be identified by type only. When specific
information is required (i.e., markings, serial
e. Authorizations to deviate from the requirements numbers, etc.) the interceptor aircrew will respond
of Part 99 may also be granted by the ARTCC, on a only if the request can be conducted in a safe manner.
local basis, for some operations associated with an During hours of darkness or Instrument Meteorologi-
ADIZ. cal Conditions (IMC), identification of unknown
aircraft will be by type only. The interception pattern
f. An airfiled VFR Flight Plan makes an aircraft described below is the typical peacetime method used
subject to interception for positive identification by air interceptor aircrews. In all situations, the
when entering an ADIZ. Pilots are, therefore, urged interceptor aircrew will use caution to avoid startling
to file the required DVFR flight plan either in person the intercepted aircrew and/or passengers.
or by telephone prior to departure.
2. All aircraft operating in the U.S. national
g. Special Security Instructions. airspace, if capable, will maintain a listening watch
1. During defense emergency or air defense on VHF guard 121.5 or UHF 243.0. It is incumbent
emergency conditions, additional special security on all aviators to know and understand their
instructions may be issued in accordance with the responsibilities if intercepted. Additionally, if the
Emergency Security Control of Air Traffic (ESCAT) U.S. military intercepts an aircraft and flares are
Plan. dispensed in the area of that aircraft, aviators will pay
strict attention, contact air traffic control immediately
2. Under the provisions of the ESCAT Plan, the on the local frequency or on VHF guard 121.5 or
military will direct the action to be taken in regard UHF 243.0 and follow the intercepts visual ICAO
to landing, grounding, diversion, or dispersal of signals. Be advised that noncompliance may result in
aircraft and the control of air navigation aids in the the use of force.
defense of the U.S. during emergency conditions.
b. Intercept phases (See FIG 561).
3. At the time a portion or all of ESCAT is
implemented, ATC facilities will broadcast 1. Phase One Approach Phase.
appropriate instructions received from theAir Traffic During peacetime, intercepted aircraft will be
Control System Command Center (ATCSCC) over approached from the stern. Generally two interceptor
available ATC frequencies. Depending on aircraft will be employed to accomplish the
instructions received from the ATCSCC, VFR flights identification. The flight leader and wingman will
may be directed to land at the nearest available coordinate their individual positions in conjunction
airport, and IFR flights will be expected to proceed as with the ground controlling agency. Their relation-
directed by ATC. ship will resemble a line abreast formation. At night
or in IMC, a comfortable radar trail tactic will be
4. Pilots on the ground may be required to file a used. Safe vertical separation between interceptor
flight plan and obtain an approval (through FAA) aircraft and unknown aircraft will be maintained at all
prior to conducting flight operation. times.

562 National Security and Interception Procedures


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Section 4. Two-way Radio Communications Failure

641. Two-way Radio Communications required to land at an unauthorized airport, at an airport


Failure unsuitable for the type of aircraft flown, or to land only
minutes short of their intended destination.
a. It is virtually impossible to provide regulations
3. IFR conditions. If the failure occurs in IFR
and procedures applicable to all possible situations
conditions, or if subparagraph 2 above cannot be
associated with two-way radio communications
complied with, each pilot shall continue the flight
failure. During two-way radio communications
according to the following:
failure, when confronted by a situation not covered in
the regulation, pilots are expected to exercise good (a) Route.
judgment in whatever action they elect to take. (1) By the route assigned in the last ATC
Should the situation so dictate they should not be clearance received;
reluctant to use the emergency action contained in
14 CFR Section 91.3(b). (2) If being radar vectored, by the direct
route from the point of radio failure to the fix, route,
b. Whether two-way communications failure or airway specified in the vector clearance;
constitutes an emergency depends on the circum-
stances, and in any event, it is a determination made (3) In the absence of an assigned route, by
by the pilot. 14 CFR Section 91.3(b) authorizes a the route that ATC has advised may be expected in a
pilot to deviate from any rule in Subparts A and B to further clearance; or
the extent required to meet an emergency. (4) In the absence of an assigned route or a
c. In the event of two-way radio communications route that ATC has advised may be expected in a
failure, ATC service will be provided on the basis that further clearance by the route filed in the flight plan.
the pilot is operating in accordance with 14 CFR (b) Altitude. At the HIGHEST of the
Section 91.185. A pilot experiencing two-way following altitudes or flight levels FOR THE ROUTE
communications failure should (unless emergency SEGMENT BEING FLOWN:
authority is exercised) comply with 14 CFR
Section 91.185 quoted below: (1) The altitude or flight level assigned in
the last ATC clearance received;
1. General. Unless otherwise authorized by
(2) The minimum altitude (converted, if
ATC, each pilot who has two-way radio communica-
appropriate, to minimum flight level as prescribed in
tions failure when operating under IFR shall comply
14 CFR Section 91.121(c)) for IFR operations; or
with the rules of this section.
(3) The altitude or flight level ATC has
2. VFR conditions. If the failure occurs in advised may be expected in a further clearance.
VFR conditions, or if VFR conditions are encoun-
tered after the failure, each pilot shall continue the NOTE
flight under VFR and land as soon as practicable. The intent of the rule is that a pilot who has experienced
two-way radio failure should select the appropriate
NOTE altitude for the particular route segment being flown and
This procedure also applies when two-way radio failure make the necessary altitude adjustments for subsequent
occurs while operating in Class A airspace. The primary route segments. If the pilot received an expect further
objective of this provision in 14 CFR Section 91.185 is to clearance containing a higher altitude to expect at a
preclude extended IFR operation by these aircraft within specified time or fix, maintain the highest of the following
the ATC system. Pilots should recognize that operation altitudes until that time/fix:
under these conditions may unnecessarily as well as
adversely affect other users of the airspace, since ATC may (1) the last assigned altitude; or
be required to reroute or delay other users in order to (2) the minimum altitude/flight level for IFR
protect the failure aircraft. However, it is not intended that operations.
the requirement to land as soon as practicable be
construed to mean as soon as possible. Pilots retain the Upon reaching the time/fix specified, the pilot should
prerogative of exercising their best judgment and are not commence climbing to the altitude advised to expect. If the

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radio failure occurs after the time/fix specified, the altitude calculated from the filed or amended (with ATC)
to be expected is not applicable and the pilot should Estimated Time En Route (ETE).
maintain an altitude consistent with 1 or 2 above. If the
pilot receives an expect further clearance containing a (2) If the clearance limit is not a fix from
lower altitude, the pilot should maintain the highest of 1 or which an approach begins, leave the clearance limit
2 above until that time/fix specified in subparagraph (c) at the expect further clearance time if one has been
Leave clearance limit, below. received, or if none has been received, upon arrival
EXAMPLE over the clearance limit, and proceed to a fix from
1. A pilot experiencing two-way radio failure at an which an approach begins and commence descent or
assigned altitude of 7,000 feet is cleared along a direct descent and approach as close as possible to the
route which will require a climb to a minimum IFR altitude estimated time of arrival as calculated from the filed
of 9,000 feet, should climb to reach 9,000 feet at the time or amended (with ATC) estimated time en route.
or place where it becomes necessary (see 14 CFR
Section 91.177(b)). Later while proceeding along an 642. Transponder Operation During
airway with an MEA of 5,000 feet, the pilot would descend
Two-way Communications Failure
to 7,000 feet (the last assigned altitude), because that
altitude is higher than the MEA. a. If an aircraft with a coded radar beacon
2. A pilot experiencing two-way radio failure while being transponder experiences a loss of two-way radio
progressively descended to lower altitudes to begin an capability, the pilot should adjust the transponder to
approach is assigned 2,700 feet until crossing the VOR and reply on Mode A/3, Code 7600.
then cleared for the approach. The MOCA along the airway b. The pilot should understand that the aircraft
is 2,700 feet and MEA is 4,000 feet. The aircraft is within
may not be in an area of radar coverage.
22 NM of the VOR. The pilot should remain at 2,700 feet
until crossing the VOR because that altitude is the
minimum IFR altitude for the route segment being flown. 643. Reestablishing Radio Contact
3. The MEA between a and b: 5,000 feet. The MEA a. In addition to monitoring the NAVAID voice
between b and c: 5,000 feet. The MEA between c and d: feature, the pilot should attempt to reestablish
11,000 feet. The MEA between d and e: 7,000 feet. A pilot communications by attempting contact:
had been cleared via a, b, c, d, to e. While flying between
a and b the assigned altitude was 6,000 feet and the pilot 1. On the previously assigned frequency; or
was told to expect a clearance to 8,000 feet at b. Prior to 2. With an FSS or *ARINC.
receiving the higher altitude assignment, the pilot
experienced two-way failure. The pilot would maintain b. If communications are established with an FSS
6,000 to b, then climb to 8,000 feet (the altitude advised to or ARINC, the pilot should advise that radio
expect). The pilot would maintain 8,000 feet, then climb to communications on the previously assigned frequen-
11,000 at c, or prior to c if necessary to comply with an cy has been lost giving the aircrafts position, altitude,
MCA at c. (14 CFR Section 91.177(b).) Upon reaching d, last assigned frequency and then request further
the pilot would descend to 8,000 feet (even though the MEA clearance from the controlling facility. The preceding
was 7,000 feet), as 8,000 was the highest of the altitude does not preclude the use of 121.5 MHz. There is no
situations stated in the rule (14 CFR Section 91.185). priority on which action should be attempted first. If
(c) Leave clearance limit. the capability exists, do all at the same time.
NOTE
(1) When the clearance limit is a fix from
*Aeronautical Radio/Incorporated (ARINC) is a commer-
which an approach begins, commence descent or cial communications corporation which designs,
descent and approach as close as possible to the constructs, operates, leases or otherwise engages in radio
expect further clearance time if one has been activities serving the aviation community. ARINC has the
received, or if one has not been received, as close as capability of relaying information to/from ATC facilities
possible to the Estimated Time of Arrival (ETA) as throughout the country.

642 Two-way Radio Communications Failure


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Chapter 7. Safety of Flight

Section 1. Meteorology

711. National Weather Service Aviation warrant. Winds aloft forecasts are provided for
Products 176 locations in the 48 contiguous States and
21 locations in Alaska for flight planning purposes.
a. Weather service to aviation is a joint effort of the (Winds aloft forecasts for Hawaii are prepared
National Weather Service (NWS), the Federal locally.) All the aviation weather forecasts are given
Aviation Administration (FAA), the military weather wide distribution through the Weather Message
services, and other aviation oriented groups and Switching Center Replacement (WMSCR) in
individuals. The NWS maintains an extensive Atlanta, Georgia, and Salt Lake City, Utah.
surface, upper air, and radar weather observing
REFERENCE
program; a nationwide aviation weather forecasting AIM, Para 716, Inflight Aviation Weather Advisories.
service; and provides limited pilot briefing service
c. Weather element values may be expressed by
(interpretational). Pilot weather briefings are pro-
using different measurement systems depending on
vided by personnel at Flight Service Stations
several factors, such as whether the weather products
operated by FAA (in Alaska) or by federal contract
will be used by the general public, aviation interests,
facilities (elsewhere in the U.S.). Aviation routine
international services, or a combination of these
weather reports (METAR) are taken manually by
users. FIG 711 provides conversion tables for the
NWS, FAA, contractors, or supplemental observers.
most used weather elements that will be encountered
METAR reports are also provided by Automated
by pilots.
Weather Observing System (AWOS) and Automated
Surface Observing System (ASOS).
712. FAA Weather Services
REFERENCE
AIM, Para 7112, Weather Observing Programs.
a. The FAA maintains a nationwide network of
b. Aerodrome forecasts are prepared by approxi- Automated Flight Service Stations (AFSSs/FSSs) to
mately 100 Weather Forecast Offices (WFOs). These serve the weather needs of pilots. In addition, NWS
offices prepare and distribute approximately meteorologists are assigned to most ARTCCs as part
525 aerodrome forecasts 4 times daily for specific of the Center Weather Service Unit (CWSU). They
airports in the 50 States, Puerto Rico, the Caribbean provide Center Weather Advisories (CWAs) and
and Pacific Islands. These forecasts are valid for gather weather information to support the needs of
24 hours and amended as required. WFOs prepare the FAA and other users of the system.
over 300 route forecasts and 39 synopses for b. The primary source of preflight weather
Transcribed Weather Broadcasts (TWEB), and briefings is an individual briefing obtained from a
briefing purposes. The route forecasts are issued briefer at the AFSS/FSS. These briefings, which are
4 times daily, each forecast is valid for 12 hours. A tailored to your specific flight, are available 24 hours
centralized aviation forecast program originating a day through the use of the toll free number
from the Aviation Weather Center (AWC) in Kansas (1800WX BRIEF). Numbers for these services
City was implemented in October 1995. In the can be found in the Airport/Facility Directory
conterminous U.S., all Inflight Advisories Signifi- (A/FD) under FAA and NWS Telephone Numbers
cant Meteorological Information (SIGMETs), section. They may also be listed in the U.S.
Convective SIGMETs, and Airmens Meteorological Government section of your local telephone directory
Information (AIRMETs) and all Area Forecasts under Department of Transportation, Federal
(FAs) (6 areas) are now issued by AWC. FAs are Aviation Administration.
prepared 3 times a day in the conterminous U.S. and
REFERENCE
Alaska (4 times in Hawaii), and amended as required. AIM, Para 714, Preflight Briefing, explains the types of preflight
Inflight Advisories are issued only when conditions briefings available and the information contained in each.

Meteorology 711
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AIM 2/14/08

FIG 711
Weather Elements Conversion Tables

712 Meteorology
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c. Other Sources of Weather Information 2. En Route Flight Advisory Service (EFAS) is


provided to serve the nonroutine weather needs of
1. Telephone Information Briefing Service pilots in flight.
(TIBS) (AFSS); and in Alaska, Transcribed Weather REFERENCE
Broadcast (TWEB) locations, and telephone access AIM, En Route Flight Advisory Service (EFAS), Paragraph 715, gives
details on this service.
to the TWEB (TELTWEB) provide continuously
updated recorded weather information for short or
local flights. Separate paragraphs in this section give 713. Use of Aviation Weather Products
additional information regarding these services.
a. Air carriers and operators certificated under the
REFERENCE provisions of 14 CFR Part 119 are required to use the
AIM, Telephone Information Briefing Service (TIBS), Paragraph 718. aeronautical weather information systems defined in
AIM, Transcribed Weather Broadcast (TWEB) (Alaska Only),
Paragraph 719.
the Operations Specifications issued to that certifi-
cate holder by the FAA. These systems may utilize
2. Weather and aeronautical information are basic FAA/National Weather Service (NWS) weather
also available from numerous private industry services, contractor or operatorproprietary weath-
sources on an individual or contract pay basis. er services and/or Enhanced Weather Information
Information on how to obtain this service should be System (EWINS) when approved in the Operations
available from local pilot organizations. Specifications. As an integral part of this system
approval, the procedures for collecting, producing
3. The Direct User Access Terminal Sys- and disseminating aeronautical weather information,
tem (DUATS) can be accessed by pilots with a as well as the crew member and dispatcher training to
current medical certificate toll-free in the 48 contigu- support the use of system weather products, must be
ous States via personal computer. Pilots can receive accepted or approved.
alpha-numeric preflight weather data and file b. Operators not certificated under the provisions
domestic VFR and IFR flight plans. The following of 14 CFR Part 119 are encouraged to use FAA/NWS
are the contract DUATS vendors: products through Flight Service Stations, Direct User
Access Terminal System (DUATS), and/or Flight
Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) Information Services Data Link (FISDL).
15000 Conference Center Drive
Chantilly, VA 220213808 c. The suite of available aviation weather product
Internet Access: http://www.duats.com types is expanding, with the development of new
Telnet Access (modem terminalstyle): sensor systems, algorithms and forecast models. The
(800) 7679989 or FAA and NWS, supported by the National Center for
telnet://direct.duats.com Atmospheric Research and the Forecast Systems
For customer service: (800) 3453828 Laboratory, develop and implement new aviation
weather product types through a comprehensive
Data Transformation Corporation (DTC) process known as the Aviation Weather Technology
108D Greentree Road Transfer process. This process ensures that user needs
Turnersville, NJ 08012 and technical readiness requirements are met before
Internet Access: http://www.duat.com experimental products mature to operational
For customer service: (800)2433828 application.
d. The FAA, in conjunction with the NWS,
d. Inflight weather information is available from established the Aviation Weather Technology
any FSS within radio range. The common frequency Transfer (AWTT) Board so that newly developed
for all AFSSs is 122.2. Discrete frequencies for aviation weather products meet regulatory
individual stations are listed in the A/FD. requirements and enhance safety. The AWTT is
charged with managing and accelerating the transfer
1. Information on In-Flight Weather broadcasts. of these products into operational use. Members of
REFERENCE
the AWTT Board include midlevel managers from
AIM, Inflight Weather Broadcasts, Paragraph 7110. the FAA and NWS who are responsible for various

Meteorology 713
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aspects of the development and use of aviation NOTE


weather products (e.g., aviation weather R & D, When in doubt, consult with a FAA Flight Service Station
transition of weather products from R & D to Specialist.
operational use, etc.). h. In addition, pilots and operators should be
aware there are weather services and products
e. The AWTT is a managementreview and available from government organizations beyond the
decisionmaking process that applies criteria to scope of the AWTT process mentioned earlier in this
weather products at various development stages section. For example, governmental agencies such as
(decision stages, i.e., Dstages). The Dstages are the NWS, the Aviation Weather Center (AWC), and
composed of the following: the National Center for Atmospheric Research
1. (D1) Sponsorship of user needs. (NCAR) display weather model data and
experimental products which require training
2. (D2) R & D and controlled testing. and/or expertise to properly interpret and use. These
products are developmental prototypes that are
3. (D3) Experimental application. subject to ongoing research and can change without
notice. Therefore, some data on display by
4. (D4) Operational application. government organizations, or government data on
f. Weather products maturing into the D3 display by independent organizations may be
experimental stage of the AWTT process are often unsuitable for flight planning purposes. Operators
made available to the public on the Aviation Weather and pilots contemplating using such services should
Centers Experimental Aviation Digital Data Service request and/or review an appropriate description of
(ADDS) website at: http://weather.aero/. The intent services and provider disclosure. This should include,
is to allow public access to this information in order but is not limited to, the type of weather product (e.g.,
to obtain feedback for product development and current weather or forecast weather), the currency of
improvement. However, it is important to note that the product (i.e., product issue and valid times), and
weather products displayed on this site are the relevance of the product. Pilots and operators
experimental, and although they may appear to be should be cautious when using unfamiliar weather
fully operational products, they are subject to change products.
without notification and may not be used for any NOTE
flight related decisions. At the D4 stage, the FAA When in doubt, consult with a FAA Flight Service Station
approves a weather product for operational use by Specialist.
end users (with restrictions, if necessary), and the i. The development of new weather products
product is made available to the public via longline coupled with increased access to these products via
circuit, satellite, and/or other means of the public Internet, created confusion within the
communication. aviation community regarding the relationship
between regulatory requirements and new weather
g. Pilots and operators should be aware that products. Consequently, FAA differentiates between
weather services provided by entities other than FAA, those weather products that may be utilized to comply
NWS or their contractors (such as the DUATS and with regulatory requirements and those that may only
FISDL providers) may not meet FAA/NWS quality be used to improve situational awareness. To clarify
control standards. Hence, operators and pilots the proper use of aviation weather products to meet
contemplating using such services should request the requirements of 14 CFR, FAA defines weather
and/or review an appropriate description of services products as follows:
and provider disclosure. This should include, but is
not limited to, the type of weather product (e.g., 1. Primary Weather Product. An aviation
current weather or forecast weather), the currency of weather product that meets all the regulatory
the product (i.e., product issue and valid times), and requirements and safety needs for use in making
the relevance of the product. Pilots and operators flight related, aviation weather decisions.
should be cautious when using unfamiliar products, 2. Supplementary Weather Product. An
or products not supported by FAA/NWS technical aviation weather product that may be used for
specifications. enhanced situational awareness. If utilized, a

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supplementary weather product must only be used in meteorological observations and various
conjunction with one or more primary weather mathematical models.
product. In addition, the FAA may further restrict the
m. Not all sources of aviation weather information
use of supplementary aviation weather products
are able to provide all three types of weather
through limitations described in the product label.
information. The FAA has determined that operators
NOTE and pilots may utilize the following approved sources
An aviation weather product produced by the Federal of aviation weather information:
Government and managed by the AWTT is classified a
primary weather product unless designated a 1. Federal Government. The FAA and NWS
supplementary weather product by the FAA. collect raw weather data, analyze the observations,
and produce forecasts. The FAA and NWS
j. In developing the definitions of primary and disseminate meteorological observations, analyses,
supplementary weather products, it is not the intent of and forecasts through a variety of systems. In
FAA to change or increase the regulatory burden on addition, the Federal Government is the only
the user. Rather, the definitions are meant to eliminate approval authority for sources of weather
confusion by differentiating between weather observations; for example, contract towers and
products that may be utilized to meet regulatory airport operators may be approved by the Federal
requirements and other weather products that may Government to provide weather observations.
only be used to improve situational awareness.
2. Enhanced Weather Information System
k. All flightrelated, aviation weather decisions (EWINS). An EWINS is an FAA approved,
must be based on primary weather products. proprietary system for tracking, evaluating,
Supplementary weather products augment the reporting, and forecasting the presence or lack of
primary products by providing additional weather adverse weather phenomena. An EWINS is
information but may not be used as standalone authorized to produce flight movement forecasts,
weather products to meet aviation weather regulatory adverse weather phenomena forecasts, and other
requirements or without the relevant primary meteorological advisories. For more detailed
products. When discrepancies exist between primary information regarding EWINS, see the Aviation
and supplementary weather products describing the Weather Services Advisory Circular 0045 and the
same weather phenomena, users must base flight Air Transportation Operations Inspectors
related decisions on the primary weather product. Handbook 8400.10.
Furthermore, multiple primary products may be 3. Commercial Weather Information
necessary to meet all aviation weather regulatory Providers. In general, commercial providers
requirements. produce proprietary weather products based on
NWS/FAA products with formatting and layout
l. The development of enhanced communications modifications but no material changes to the weather
capabilities, most notably the Internet, has allowed information itself. This is also referred to as
pilots access to an everincreasing range of weather repackaging. In addition, commercial providers
service providers and proprietary products. The FAA may produce analyses, forecasts, and other
has identified three distinct types of weather proprietary weather products that substantially alter
information available to pilots and operators. the information contained in governmentproduced
1. Observations. Raw weather data collected products. However, those proprietary weather
by some type of sensor suite including surface and products that substantially alter government
airborne observations, radar, lightning, satellite produced weather products or information, may only
imagery, and profilers. be approved for use by 14 CFR Part 121 and Part 135
certificate holders if the commercial provider is
2. Analysis. Enhanced depiction and/or EWINS qualified.
interpretation of observed weather data. NOTE
Commercial weather information providers contracted by
3. Forecasts. Predictions of the development FAA to provide weather observations, analyses, and
and/or movement of weather phenomena based on forecasts (e.g., contract towers) are included in the Federal

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Government category of approved sources by virtue of to check data as soon as practical after entering
maintaining required technical and quality assurance foreign airspace, unless you advise that you have the
standards under Federal Government oversight. international cautionary advisory. The briefer will
n. As a point of clarification, Advisory automatically provide the following information in
Circular 0062, Internet Communications of the sequence listed, except as noted, when it is
Aviation Weather and NOTAMS, describes the applicable to your proposed flight.
process for a weather information provider to become 1. Adverse Conditions. Significant meteoro-
a Qualified Internet Communications Provider logical and/or aeronautical information that might
(QICP) and only applies to 14 CFR Part 121 and influence the pilot to alter or cancel the proposed
Part 135 certificate holders. Therefore, pilots flight; for example, hazardous weather conditions,
conducting operations under 14 CFR Part 91 may airport closures, air traffic delays, etc. Pilots should
access weather products via the public Internet. be especially alert for current or forecast weather
that could reduce flight minimums below VFR or
714. Preflight Briefing IFR conditions. Pilots should also be alert for any
reported or forecast icing if the aircraft is not certified
a. Flight Service Stations (AFSSs/FSSs) are the for operating in icing conditions. Flying into areas
primary source for obtaining preflight briefings and of icing or weather below minimums could have
inflight weather information. Flight Service Special- disastrous results.
ists are qualified and certificated by the NWS as Pilot
2. VFR Flight Not Recommended. When
Weather Briefers. They are not authorized to make
VFR flight is proposed and sky conditions or
original forecasts, but are authorized to translate and
visibilities are present or forecast, surface or aloft,
interpret available forecasts and reports directly into
that, in the briefers judgment, would make flight
terms describing the weather conditions which you
under VFR doubtful, the briefer will describe the
can expect along your flight route and at your
conditions, describe the affected locations, and use
destination. Available aviation weather reports,
the phrase VFR flight not recommended. This
forecasts and aviation weather charts are displayed at
recommendation is advisory in nature. The final
each AFSS/FSS, for pilot use. Pilots should feel free
decision as to whether the flight can be conducted
to use these self briefing displays where available, or
safely rests solely with the pilot. Upon receiving a
to ask for a briefing or assistance from the specialist
VFR flight not recommended statement, the
on duty. Three basic types of preflight briefings are
nonIFR rated pilot will need to make a go or no go
available to serve your specific needs. These are:
decision. This decision should be based on weighing
Standard Briefing, Abbreviated Briefing, and
the current and forecast weather conditions against
Outlook Briefing. You should specify to the briefer
the pilots experience and ratings. The aircrafts
the type of briefing you want, along with your
equipment, capabilities and limitations should also
appropriate background information. This will
be considered.
enable the briefer to tailor the information to your
intended flight. The following paragraphs describe NOTE
the types of briefings available and the information Pilots flying into areas of minimal VFR weather could
provided in each briefing. encounter unforecasted lowering conditions that place the
aircraft outside the pilots ratings and experience level.
REFERENCE This could result in spatial disorientation and/or loss of
AIM, Preflight Preparation, Paragraph 511, for items that are
required. control of the aircraft.

b. Standard Briefing. You should request a 3. Synopsis. A brief statement describing the
Standard Briefing any time you are planning a flight type, location and movement of weather systems
and you have not received a previous briefing or have and/or air masses which might affect the proposed
not received preliminary information through mass flight.
dissemination media; e.g., TIBS, TWEB (Alaska NOTE
only), etc. International data may be inaccurate or These first 3 elements of a briefing may be combined in any
incomplete. If you are planning a flight outside of order when the briefer believes it will help to more clearly
U.S. controlled airspace, the briefer will advise you describe conditions.

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4. Current Conditions. Reported weather 9. ATC Delays. Any known ATC delays and
conditions applicable to the flight will be summarized flow control advisories which might affect the
from all available sources; e.g., METARs/ SPECIs, proposed flight.
PIREPs, RAREPs. This element will be omitted if the 10. Pilots may obtain the following from
proposed time of departure is beyond 2 hours, unless AFSS/FSS briefers upon request:
the information is specifically requested by the pilot.
(a) Information on Special Use Airspace
5. En Route Forecast. Forecast en route (SUA), SUA related airspace and Military Training
conditions for the proposed route are summarized in Routes (MTRs) activity within the flight plan area
logical order; i.e., departure/climbout, en route, and and a 100 NM extension around the flight plan area.
descent. (Heights are MSL, unless the contractions
NOTE
AGL or CIG are denoted indicating that heights 1. SUA and related airspace includes the following types
are above ground.) of airspace: Alert Area, Military Operations Area (MOA),
Prohibited Area, Restricted Area, Refueling Anchor,
6. Destination Forecast. The destination fore-
Warning Area and Air Traffic Control Assigned Airspace
cast for the planned ETA. Any significant changes (ATCAA). MTR data includes the following types of
within 1 hour before and after the planned arrival are airspace: IFR Military Training Route (IR), VFR Military
included. Training Route (VR), Slow Training Route (SR) and Aerial
Refueling Track (AR).
7. Winds Aloft. Forecast winds aloft will be
provided using degrees of the compass. The briefer 2. Pilots are encouraged to request updated information
will interpolate wind directions and speeds between from ATC facilities while in flight.
levels and stations as necessary to provide expected (b) A review of the Notices to Airmen
conditions at planned altitudes. (Heights are MSL.) Publication for pertinent NOTAMs and Special
Temperature information will be provided on request. Notices.
8. Notices to Airmen (NOTAMs). (c) Approximate density altitude data.
(d) Information regarding such items as air
(a) Available NOTAM (D) information perti-
traffic services and rules, customs/immigration
nent to the proposed flight.
procedures, ADIZ rules, search and rescue, etc.
(b) NOTAM (L) information pertinent to the (e) LORANC NOTAMs, available military
departure and/or local area, if available, and pertinent NOTAMs, and runway friction measurement value
FDC NOTAMs within approximately 400 miles of NOTAMs.
the FSS providing the briefing. AFSS facilities will
provide FDC NOTAMs for the entire route of flight. (f) GPS RAIM availability for 1 hour before
to 1 hour after ETA or a time specified by the pilot.
(c) FSS briefers do not provide FDC NOTAM
(g) Other assistance as required.
information for special instrument approach proce-
dures unless specifically asked. Pilots authorized by c. Abbreviated Briefing. Request an Abbrevia-
the FAA to use special instrument approach ted Briefing when you need information to
procedures must specifically request FDC NOTAM supplement mass disseminated data, update a
information for these procedures. previous briefing, or when you need only one or two
specific items. Provide the briefer with appropriate
NOTE
NOTAM information may be combined with current
background information, the time you received the
conditions when the briefer believes it is logical to do so. previous information, and/or the specific items
needed. You should indicate the source of the
NOTE information already received so that the briefer can
NOTAM (D) information and FDC NOTAMs which have
limit the briefing to the information that you have not
been published in the Notices to Airmen Publication are
not included in pilot briefings unless a review of this received, and/or appreciable changes in meteorologi-
publication is specifically requested by the pilot. For cal/aeronautical conditions since your previous
complete flight information you are urged to review the briefing. To the extent possible, the briefer will
printed NOTAMs in the Notices to Airmen Publication and provide the information in the sequence shown for a
the A/FD in addition to obtaining a briefing. Standard Briefing. If you request only one or two

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specific items, the briefer will advise you if adverse lessens the chance of important items being
conditions are present or forecast. (Adverse condi- overlooked.
tions contain both meteorological and/or aeronautical
information.) Details on these conditions will be 715. En Route Flight Advisory Service
provided at your request. International data may be (EFAS)
inaccurate or incomplete. If you are planning a flight a. EFAS (radio call Flight Watch) is a service
outside of U.S. controlled airspace, the briefer will specifically designed to provide en route aircraft with
advise you to check data as soon as practical after timely and meaningful weather advisories pertinent
entering foreign airspace, unless you advise that you to the type of flight intended, route of flight, and
have the international cautionary advisory. altitude. In conjunction with this service, EFAS is
also a central collection and distribution point for
d. Outlook Briefing. You should request an pilot reported weather information. EFAS is provided
Outlook Briefing whenever your proposed time of by specially trained FSS specialists controlling
departure is six or more hours from the time of the multiple Remote Communications Outlets covering
briefing. The briefer will provide available forecast a large geographical area and is normally available
data applicable to the proposed flight. This type of throughout the conterminous U.S. and Puerto Rico
briefing is provided for planning purposes only. You from 6 a.m. to 10 p.m. EFAS provides communica-
should obtain a Standard or Abbreviated Briefing tions capabilities for aircraft flying at 5,000 feet
prior to departure in order to obtain such items as above ground level to 17,500 feet MSL on a common
adverse conditions, current conditions, updated frequency of 122.0 MHz. Discrete EFAS frequencies
forecasts, winds aloft and NOTAMs, etc. have been established to ensure communications
coverage from 18,000 through 45,000 MSL serving
e. When filing a flight plan only, you will be asked in each specific ARTCC area. These discrete
if you require the latest information on adverse frequencies may be used below 18,000 feet when
conditions pertinent to the route of flight. coverage permits reliable communication.
f. Inflight Briefing. You are encouraged to NOTE
obtain your preflight briefing by telephone or in When an EFAS outlet is located in a time zone different from
the zone in which the flight watch control station is located,
person before departure. In those cases where you
the availability of service may be plus or minus one hour
need to obtain a preflight briefing or an update to a from the normal operating hours.
previous briefing by radio, you should contact the
nearest AFSS/FSS to obtain this information. After b. In some regions of the contiguous U.S.,
communications have been established, advise the especially those that are mountainous, it is necessary
specialist of the type briefing you require and provide to be above 5000 feet AGL in order to be at an altitude
appropriate background information. You will be where the EFAS frequency, 122.0 MHz, is available.
provided information as specified in the above Pilots should take this into account when flight
paragraphs, depending on the type of briefing planning. Other AFSS communication frequencies
requested. In addition, the specialist will recommend may be available at lower altitudes. See FIG 712.
shifting to the Flight Watch frequency when c. Contact flight watch by using the name of the
conditions along the intended route indicate that it ARTCC facility identification serving the area of
would be advantageous to do so. Remember that your location, followed by your aircraft identifica-
weather conditions can change rapidly and that a go tion, and the name of the nearest VOR to your
or no go decision, as mentioned in paragraph position. The specialist needs to know this
714b2, should be assessed at all phases of flight. approximate location to select the most appropriate
transmitter/receiver outlet for communications
g. Following any briefing, feel free to ask for any coverage.
information that you or the briefer may have missed EXAMPLE
or are not understood. This way, the briefer is able to Cleveland Flight Watch, Cessna One Two Three Four Kilo,
present the information in a logical sequence, and Mansfield VOR, over.

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d. Charts depicting the location of the flight watch 716. Inflight Aviation Weather Advisories
control stations (parent facility) and the outlets they a. Background
use are contained in the A/FD. If you do not know in
1. Inflight Aviation Weather Advisories are
which flight watch area you are flying, initiate contact
forecasts to advise en route aircraft of development of
by using the words Flight Watch, your aircraft
potentially hazardous weather. All inflight aviation
identification, and the name of the nearest VOR. The
weather advisories in the conterminous U.S. are
facility will respond using the name of the flight
issued by the Aviation Weather Center (AWC) in
watch facility.
Kansas City, Missouri. The Weather Forecast
EXAMPLE Office (WFO) in Honolulu issues advisories for the
Flight Watch, Cessna One Two Three Four Kilo, Hawaiian Islands. In Alaska, the Alaska Aviation
Mansfield VOR,over. Weather Unit (AAWU) issues inflight aviation
e. Radio outlets that provide En Route Flight weather advisories. All heights are referenced MSL,
Advisory Service are listed regionally in the A/FDs.