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Incompressible Viscous Flows

Q1. Choose the correct answer


(i) The maximum velocity of a one-dimensional incompressible fully developed
viscous flow between two fixed parallel plates is 6m/s. The mean velocity of the
flow is
(a) 2 m/s
(b) 3 m/s
(c) 4 m/s
(d) 5 m/s
[Ans.(c)]
(ii) Loss of head due to fluid friction for steady, fully developed, incompressible
laminar flow through circular pipe is
(a) h f 32QL4
gD
(b) h f QL
128
gD 4
(c) h f 128QL
gD 4
(d) h f 64QL4
gD
[Ans.(c)]
(iii) The velocity profile of a fully developed laminar flow in a straight circular pipe
R 2 dp r2 dp
is given by vz 1 2
, where is the constant , R is the radius of
4 dz R dz
the pipe and r is the radial distance from the centre of the pipe. The average velocity
of fluid in the pipe is
R 2 dp
(a)
dz
R 2 dp
(b)
2 dz
R 2 dp
(c)
4 dz
R 2 dp
(d)
8 dz
[Ans.(d)]
(iv) For fully developed, incompressible, laminar flow through circular pipes, shear
stress varies
(a) linearly with the radial distance from the axis
(b) parabolically with the radial distance from the axis
(c) exponentially with the radial distance from the axis
(d) linearly with the radial distance from the pipe wall
[Ans.(a)]

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Q2.
Water at 20C flows between two large stationary parallel plates which are 2 cm apart.
If the maximum velocity is 1m/s, determine (a) average velocity, (b) the velocity
gradients at the plates and (c) the difference in pressure between two points 10 m
apart. Viscosity of water at 20C is 0.001 Pa-s. Consider the flow to be a fully developed
one.
Solution
The flow geometry is shown in the figure below.

y
p1 p2
2 cm
x

10 m

(a) The velocity distribution for fully developed flow between two stationary horizontal
parallel plates can be expressed as
u
1 dp 2
2 dx
y H2

where H is channel half height and y is measured from the centerline.


The maximum velocity is obtained as
1 dp 2
umax H
2 dx
The mean velocity is obtained from the above velocity field as
H H

udA udy 1 dp 2
u H
0
H
A H 3 dx
From the above expressions for mean velocity and maximum velocity, one can write
2
u umax
3
Substituting umax 1 m/s in the above equation, we get
2 2
u umax 1 0.667 m/s
3 3
(b)
Substituting the values of u and H in the velocity profile, one can write
y2
1 10000 y 2
3
u 0.667 1 2
2 0.01
The velocity gradients at the plates are
u
20000 y y H 20000 y y H
y y H

2
20000 0.01 200 /s
(c) The mean velocity is given by
1 dp 2
u H
3 dx
dp 3 u
or 2
dx H
The pressure gradient can be expressed as
dp p2 p1

dx L
where p1 and p2 are the pressures at point 1 and 2 respectively, and L is the distance
between the two points. Then, the difference in pressure between two points L distance
apart can be expressed as
3uL
p1 p2
H2
Substituting the respective values in the above equation, we have
3 0.001 0.667 10
p1 p2 200 N/m 2
0.012
Q3.
An oil of viscosity 0.1 Ns/m 2 and density 900 kg/m3 is flowing between two stationary
horizontal parallel plates 10 mm apart. The maximum velocity is 3 m/s. Find the mean
velocity and the location at which this occurs. Also find the velocity at 3 mm from the
wall of the plates. Consider the flow to be a fully developed one.
Solution
The velocity distribution for fully developed flow between two stationary horizontal
parallel plates can be expressed as
u
1 dp 2
2 dx
y H2

where H is channel half height and y is measured from the centerline.


The maximum velocity is obtained as
1 dp 2
umax H
2 dx
The mean velocity is obtained from the above velocity field as
H H

udA udy 1 dp 2
u H
0
H
A H 3 dx
From the above expressions for mean velocity and maximum velocity, one can write
2
u umax
3
Substituting umax 3 m/s in the above equation, we get
2
u 3 2 m/s
3
Now, it is given that u u
3
1 dp 2
2 dx
y H2
1 dp 2
3 dx
H

2
or y2 H 2 H 2
3
H
or y 0.577 H
3
Substituting the value of H , we get
y 0.577 0.005 0.002885 m 2.885 mm
The velocity distribution can be expressed in terms average velocity as
3 y2
u u 1 2
2 H
Substituting the respective values in the above equation, we have
3 y2
u 2 1 2
3 1 40000 y 2
2 0.005
The velocity at 3 mm from the plates or equivalently 5 4 1 mm 0.001 m from the
centerline is
u 3 1 40000 0.0012 2.88 m/s
Q4.
An oil with density and viscosity flows between two horizontal parallel plates H
apart. The upper plate is moving with a uniform speed U, while the lower one is kept
dp
stationary. A constant pressure gradient of drives the flow in such a way that the net
dx
flow rate across any section is zero. Find out the point where maximum velocity occurs.
Also find the magnitude of maximum velocity.
Solution
The flow geometry and the velocity profile across a section are shown in the figure
below.
U

dp
dx
y H

x
The governing differential equation is
d 2u dp
2
dy dx
Integrating the above equation twice with respect to y, we get

4
du 1 dp
y C1
dy dx
1 dp 2
u y C1 y C2
2 dx
where C1 and C2 are constants of integration.
To evaluate the constants, we apply the boundary conditions. The boundary conditions
are:
at y 0, u0
at y H , u U.
Applying the boundary conditions, we get
U 1 dp
C1 H and C2 0
H 2 dx
Therefore, the velocity distribution becomes
u
1 dp 2
2 dx
y yH y
U
H
The volume flow rate is given by
H
Q uwdy w width of the plate
0

1 dp 2 y
H
w
2 dx
y Hy U dy
0
H
1 dp 3 UH
w H
12 dx 2
For zero flow rate ( Q 0 ), we have
1 dp UH
w 0
12 dx 2
dp 6 U
or
dx H2
u
For maximum velocity, 0
y
1 dp U
or 2y H 0
2 dx H
1 dp 1 dp U
or y H
dx 2 dx H
1 U
or y H
2 dp
H
dx
1 U 1 1 1
or y H H H H
2 6U 2 6 3
H 2
H

5
The maximum velocity is
u
1 dp 2
2 dx
y yH y
U
H
1 6U H H U H
2

H
2 H 2 3 3 H 3
3U H 2 H 2 U 2U U U
2
H 9 3 3 3 3 3
Q5.
Find the radial location in a steady, fully developed, laminar flow in a circular horizontal
pipe where the local velocity is equal to the average velocity
Solution
The velocity distribution for steady, fully developed, laminar flow in a circular pipe is
given by
R 2 dp r
2

vz 1
4 dz R
where R is the radius of the pipe, r is the radial distance measured from center of the pipe
and dp dz is the constant pressure gradient that drives the flow.
Average velocity is found to be
R

Q o
vz 2 rdr
vz
A R2
R 2 dp
R
1
R 2 o 4 dz
2 rdr

R 2 dp

8 dz
Now, it is given that vz vz
R 2 dp r
2
R 2 dp
1
4 dz R 8 dz
2
r R2
or 1
R 2
R
or r 0.707 R
2
Q6.
An oil with density 900 kg/m3 and viscosity 0.16 Ns/m 2 is flowing through a 20 cm
diameter pipe. The maximum shear stress at the pipe wall is 2.5 N/m 2 . Determine (a) the
pressure gradient, (b) the average velocity of flow and (b) the maximum velocity of flow.
Solution
(a)

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The velocity distribution for steady, fully developed, laminar flow in a circular pipe is
given by
R 2 dp r
2

vz

1
4 dz R
Shear stress at any point of the pipe flow is given by
v v v 1 dp
rz r z z r
z r z 2 dz
1 dp
or rz r
2 dz
The wall shear stress is given by
1 dp
w rz wall R
2 dz
Substituting the respective values, we obtain
1 dp
2.5 0.1
2 dz
dp
or 50 Pa/m
dz
(b)
The velocity distribution for steady, fully developed, laminar flow in a circular pipe can
be expressed in terms of average velocity as
r2
vz 2vz 1 2
R
The wall shear stress can also be expressed in terms of average velocity as
v v 2r
w rz wall r z vz 2 2
z r r R R r R
4 vz
or w
R
Substituting the respective values, we obtain
4 0.16vz
2.5
0.1
or vz 0.39 m/s
(c)
The maximum velocity of flow is found to be
vz ,max 2vz 2 0.39 0.78 m/s
Q7.
Consider steady, incompressible fully developed flow through a horizontal concentric
pipes of radii R1 and R2 R1 respectively. Find an expression for the velocity
distribution. Also show that the velocity distribution approaches that of pipe flow as
R1 0 .
Solution

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A small element of thickness dr at a radius r from the centre is considered as shown in
the figure below.
r dr
r p dp
R2 dr p dz
dz
z R1 r
r
dz

For steady, incompressible, fully developed flow in the annular space between two
concentric pipes, the governing differential equation becomes
1 d dvz dp
r
r dr dr dz
d dvz r dp
or, r
dr dr dz
Integrating with respect to r, we get
dv 1 dp 2
r z r C1
dr 2 dz
where C1 is a constant of integration.
dvz 1 dp C
Now, r 1
dr 2 dz r
Integrating once more with respect to r, we have
1 dp 2
vz r C1 ln r C2
4 dz
where C2 is another constant of integration.
To evaluate the constants, we apply the boundary conditions. The boundary conditions
are:
at r R1 , vz 0
At r R2 , vz 0
Applying the boundary conditions, we get
1 dp R12 R22 1 dp R22 R12
C1 and C2 ln R1 R12
4 dz ln R2 R1 4 dz ln R2 R1
Substituting the values of C1 and C2 in the expression of velocity, we obtain
1 dp 2 2 R22 R12 r
vz
4 dz
R1 r ln
ln R2 R1 R1
This is the required expression for the velocity distribution for steady, incompressible,
fully developed flow in the annular space between two concentric pipes.

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As R1 0 , the above expression for the velocity becomes
1 dp 2 2
vz R2 r
4 dz
This implies that the velocity distribution approaches that of pipe flow.