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(i) The maximum velocity of a one-dimensional incompressible fully developed

viscous flow between two fixed parallel plates is 6m/s. The mean velocity of the

flow is

(a) 2 m/s

(b) 3 m/s

(c) 4 m/s

(d) 5 m/s

[Ans.(c)]

(ii) Loss of head due to fluid friction for steady, fully developed, incompressible

laminar flow through circular pipe is

(a) h f 32QL4

gD

(b) h f QL

128

gD 4

(c) h f 128QL

gD 4

(d) h f 64QL4

gD

[Ans.(c)]

(iii) The velocity profile of a fully developed laminar flow in a straight circular pipe

R 2 dp r2 dp

is given by vz 1 2

, where is the constant , R is the radius of

4 dz R dz

the pipe and r is the radial distance from the centre of the pipe. The average velocity

of fluid in the pipe is

R 2 dp

(a)

dz

R 2 dp

(b)

2 dz

R 2 dp

(c)

4 dz

R 2 dp

(d)

8 dz

[Ans.(d)]

(iv) For fully developed, incompressible, laminar flow through circular pipes, shear

stress varies

(a) linearly with the radial distance from the axis

(b) parabolically with the radial distance from the axis

(c) exponentially with the radial distance from the axis

(d) linearly with the radial distance from the pipe wall

[Ans.(a)]

1

Q2.

Water at 20C flows between two large stationary parallel plates which are 2 cm apart.

If the maximum velocity is 1m/s, determine (a) average velocity, (b) the velocity

gradients at the plates and (c) the difference in pressure between two points 10 m

apart. Viscosity of water at 20C is 0.001 Pa-s. Consider the flow to be a fully developed

one.

Solution

The flow geometry is shown in the figure below.

y

p1 p2

2 cm

x

10 m

(a) The velocity distribution for fully developed flow between two stationary horizontal

parallel plates can be expressed as

u

1 dp 2

2 dx

y H2

The maximum velocity is obtained as

1 dp 2

umax H

2 dx

The mean velocity is obtained from the above velocity field as

H H

udA udy 1 dp 2

u H

0

H

A H 3 dx

From the above expressions for mean velocity and maximum velocity, one can write

2

u umax

3

Substituting umax 1 m/s in the above equation, we get

2 2

u umax 1 0.667 m/s

3 3

(b)

Substituting the values of u and H in the velocity profile, one can write

y2

1 10000 y 2

3

u 0.667 1 2

2 0.01

The velocity gradients at the plates are

u

20000 y y H 20000 y y H

y y H

2

20000 0.01 200 /s

(c) The mean velocity is given by

1 dp 2

u H

3 dx

dp 3 u

or 2

dx H

The pressure gradient can be expressed as

dp p2 p1

dx L

where p1 and p2 are the pressures at point 1 and 2 respectively, and L is the distance

between the two points. Then, the difference in pressure between two points L distance

apart can be expressed as

3uL

p1 p2

H2

Substituting the respective values in the above equation, we have

3 0.001 0.667 10

p1 p2 200 N/m 2

0.012

Q3.

An oil of viscosity 0.1 Ns/m 2 and density 900 kg/m3 is flowing between two stationary

horizontal parallel plates 10 mm apart. The maximum velocity is 3 m/s. Find the mean

velocity and the location at which this occurs. Also find the velocity at 3 mm from the

wall of the plates. Consider the flow to be a fully developed one.

Solution

The velocity distribution for fully developed flow between two stationary horizontal

parallel plates can be expressed as

u

1 dp 2

2 dx

y H2

The maximum velocity is obtained as

1 dp 2

umax H

2 dx

The mean velocity is obtained from the above velocity field as

H H

udA udy 1 dp 2

u H

0

H

A H 3 dx

From the above expressions for mean velocity and maximum velocity, one can write

2

u umax

3

Substituting umax 3 m/s in the above equation, we get

2

u 3 2 m/s

3

Now, it is given that u u

3

1 dp 2

2 dx

y H2

1 dp 2

3 dx

H

2

or y2 H 2 H 2

3

H

or y 0.577 H

3

Substituting the value of H , we get

y 0.577 0.005 0.002885 m 2.885 mm

The velocity distribution can be expressed in terms average velocity as

3 y2

u u 1 2

2 H

Substituting the respective values in the above equation, we have

3 y2

u 2 1 2

3 1 40000 y 2

2 0.005

The velocity at 3 mm from the plates or equivalently 5 4 1 mm 0.001 m from the

centerline is

u 3 1 40000 0.0012 2.88 m/s

Q4.

An oil with density and viscosity flows between two horizontal parallel plates H

apart. The upper plate is moving with a uniform speed U, while the lower one is kept

dp

stationary. A constant pressure gradient of drives the flow in such a way that the net

dx

flow rate across any section is zero. Find out the point where maximum velocity occurs.

Also find the magnitude of maximum velocity.

Solution

The flow geometry and the velocity profile across a section are shown in the figure

below.

U

dp

dx

y H

x

The governing differential equation is

d 2u dp

2

dy dx

Integrating the above equation twice with respect to y, we get

4

du 1 dp

y C1

dy dx

1 dp 2

u y C1 y C2

2 dx

where C1 and C2 are constants of integration.

To evaluate the constants, we apply the boundary conditions. The boundary conditions

are:

at y 0, u0

at y H , u U.

Applying the boundary conditions, we get

U 1 dp

C1 H and C2 0

H 2 dx

Therefore, the velocity distribution becomes

u

1 dp 2

2 dx

y yH y

U

H

The volume flow rate is given by

H

Q uwdy w width of the plate

0

1 dp 2 y

H

w

2 dx

y Hy U dy

0

H

1 dp 3 UH

w H

12 dx 2

For zero flow rate ( Q 0 ), we have

1 dp UH

w 0

12 dx 2

dp 6 U

or

dx H2

u

For maximum velocity, 0

y

1 dp U

or 2y H 0

2 dx H

1 dp 1 dp U

or y H

dx 2 dx H

1 U

or y H

2 dp

H

dx

1 U 1 1 1

or y H H H H

2 6U 2 6 3

H 2

H

5

The maximum velocity is

u

1 dp 2

2 dx

y yH y

U

H

1 6U H H U H

2

H

2 H 2 3 3 H 3

3U H 2 H 2 U 2U U U

2

H 9 3 3 3 3 3

Q5.

Find the radial location in a steady, fully developed, laminar flow in a circular horizontal

pipe where the local velocity is equal to the average velocity

Solution

The velocity distribution for steady, fully developed, laminar flow in a circular pipe is

given by

R 2 dp r

2

vz 1

4 dz R

where R is the radius of the pipe, r is the radial distance measured from center of the pipe

and dp dz is the constant pressure gradient that drives the flow.

Average velocity is found to be

R

Q o

vz 2 rdr

vz

A R2

R 2 dp

R

1

R 2 o 4 dz

2 rdr

R 2 dp

8 dz

Now, it is given that vz vz

R 2 dp r

2

R 2 dp

1

4 dz R 8 dz

2

r R2

or 1

R 2

R

or r 0.707 R

2

Q6.

An oil with density 900 kg/m3 and viscosity 0.16 Ns/m 2 is flowing through a 20 cm

diameter pipe. The maximum shear stress at the pipe wall is 2.5 N/m 2 . Determine (a) the

pressure gradient, (b) the average velocity of flow and (b) the maximum velocity of flow.

Solution

(a)

6

The velocity distribution for steady, fully developed, laminar flow in a circular pipe is

given by

R 2 dp r

2

vz

1

4 dz R

Shear stress at any point of the pipe flow is given by

v v v 1 dp

rz r z z r

z r z 2 dz

1 dp

or rz r

2 dz

The wall shear stress is given by

1 dp

w rz wall R

2 dz

Substituting the respective values, we obtain

1 dp

2.5 0.1

2 dz

dp

or 50 Pa/m

dz

(b)

The velocity distribution for steady, fully developed, laminar flow in a circular pipe can

be expressed in terms of average velocity as

r2

vz 2vz 1 2

R

The wall shear stress can also be expressed in terms of average velocity as

v v 2r

w rz wall r z vz 2 2

z r r R R r R

4 vz

or w

R

Substituting the respective values, we obtain

4 0.16vz

2.5

0.1

or vz 0.39 m/s

(c)

The maximum velocity of flow is found to be

vz ,max 2vz 2 0.39 0.78 m/s

Q7.

Consider steady, incompressible fully developed flow through a horizontal concentric

pipes of radii R1 and R2 R1 respectively. Find an expression for the velocity

distribution. Also show that the velocity distribution approaches that of pipe flow as

R1 0 .

Solution

7

A small element of thickness dr at a radius r from the centre is considered as shown in

the figure below.

r dr

r p dp

R2 dr p dz

dz

z R1 r

r

dz

For steady, incompressible, fully developed flow in the annular space between two

concentric pipes, the governing differential equation becomes

1 d dvz dp

r

r dr dr dz

d dvz r dp

or, r

dr dr dz

Integrating with respect to r, we get

dv 1 dp 2

r z r C1

dr 2 dz

where C1 is a constant of integration.

dvz 1 dp C

Now, r 1

dr 2 dz r

Integrating once more with respect to r, we have

1 dp 2

vz r C1 ln r C2

4 dz

where C2 is another constant of integration.

To evaluate the constants, we apply the boundary conditions. The boundary conditions

are:

at r R1 , vz 0

At r R2 , vz 0

Applying the boundary conditions, we get

1 dp R12 R22 1 dp R22 R12

C1 and C2 ln R1 R12

4 dz ln R2 R1 4 dz ln R2 R1

Substituting the values of C1 and C2 in the expression of velocity, we obtain

1 dp 2 2 R22 R12 r

vz

4 dz

R1 r ln

ln R2 R1 R1

This is the required expression for the velocity distribution for steady, incompressible,

fully developed flow in the annular space between two concentric pipes.

8

As R1 0 , the above expression for the velocity becomes

1 dp 2 2

vz R2 r

4 dz

This implies that the velocity distribution approaches that of pipe flow.

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