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(Worldwide interoperability for Bio-metrics)

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Contents:- page-no:-

1. Brief on Security System 1

2. Introduction to Bio-metrics 2

3. A Few Definition 3

4. History of Bio-metrics 4

5. International Bio-metrics society 5

5.1 Purpose
5.2 Journal
5.3 Meetings
5.3 Biometrics Bulletin

6. Generic model of bio-metrics 6

6.1 Data Acquisition:-
6.2 Transmission: -
6.3 Signal Processing:-
6.4 Decision Making:-
6.5 Data Storage:-

7. Phases of Bio-metrics 8
7.1 Input
7.2 Process
7.3 Output

8. Bio-metrics Identification 10
8.1 Voice Print
8.2 Finger Print
8.3 Iris Pattern
8.4 Face Print
8.5 Hand Geometry
8.6 Retinal Scan
8.7 Keystroke Dynamics
8.8 Facial Recognition
8.9 Signature Recognition

9. Captured Using Web Cam and Microphone 19

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10. Comparison of Bio-metrics technique 20

10.1 Uniqueness of biometric features

11. How well do Bio-metrics works? 23

11.1 False Accept Rates
11.2 False Reject Rates
11.3 Equal Error Rates
11.4 Validity of Test Data

12. Is DNA Bio-metrics ? 25

13. About Bio-metrics 26

13.1 Will Bio-metrics solve all security concerns?
13.2 Which is the best identification technique?
13.3 Is Bio-metrics more ‘securing’ then password?
13.4 Applications
13.5 New Opportunities
13.6 Future Technology
13.7 Benefits

14. Conclusion 30

15. Reference 31

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‰ From the beginning of the human culture, people are always trying to
secure their properties. Because some people are always eager to snatch
others properties.

‰ Security refers to prohibit some unauthorized persons from some

important data or from some precious assets.

‰ To restrict this kind of theft human beings are making special systems that
can prevent the thieves such systems are known as security systems.

‰ We can consider the starting of these kinds of systems through lock and

‰ A Frenchman Alexander Fish has made a strong, fire proof safe in 1844.
And Linas Yel –an American, has invented a Pin lock kind of lock. Both
these equipments are used to provide security to money, important
documents and jewellary. So this is the first step in the world of security

‰ At that point of time this arrangement for security was considered the best.
But as time passes it was found that any unauthorized person could access
these through duplicate keys or using any technique. So as the world
progresses, the thieves become more intelligent to break the security.

‰ Thus, we always need a new and strong security system to protect our

‰ So, security system is ever developing field.

‰ Today in the world of e-commerce and Internet this thing is becoming

more and more important because today the world is like village, from
anywhere, any time, any body can harm you.

e.g. :-If you are purchasing something from web and because of
lack of security someone come to know your bank account
number. Then that person will have all the information of your
bank account, which can perhaps put you in a big trouble!

‰ Now a days, there are many security systems are available. But we shall
concentrate on ‘BIO-METRICS’.

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BIO=Pertaining to biology; MATRICS=Science and art of measurement.

¾ The term 'biometrics' is used to refer to any and all of a variety of

identification techniques which are based on some physical and difficult-
to-alienate characteristic.

¾ Today, the science of biometric technology refers to the "automated"

methods used to recognize a person based upon physiological or
behavioral characteristics.

¾ Biometric technologies are becoming the foundation of an extensive array

of highly secure identification and personal verification solutions.

‰ Biometrics is a modern technological field that focuses on identifying an

individual through his or her unique physical traits.

‰ A biometric is a measurable, physical characteristic or personal behavioral

trait used to recognize the identity or verify the claimed identity of an
enrolled user.

‰ Biometrics is automated methods of recognizing a person based on a

physiological or behavioral characteristic.
Physiological techniques include fingerprint recognition, retinal and iris
scanning, facial recognition, hand and finger geometry and DNA analysis.
Behavioral techniques include handwriting recognition, voice or speech
recognition, gait, and keystroke dynamics.

¾ In all automated systems, the fundamental operational steps are:

1. Capture: The biometric data is captured, digitized and entered into a database.
2. Extraction: A template is created using this measurable unique data.
3. Comparison: The template is compared with a new sample.
4. Match/Non-Match: The existing template matches the new sample or it does

¾ The goal of most automated biometric ID systems is one of two

1. Verification: Is the person who the they claim to be?
2. Identification or recognition: Who is this? Is the person already known to the
system under a different identity?

“Only biometrics can identify you as you [Not Password].”

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¾ Biometrics Authentication

Person authentication or simply authentication is a task of confirming or

denying a person’s claimed identity. Biometrics is a measurement using a
person’s behavioural or physiological characteristics. Examples of these
characteristics are fingerprints, face, voice and signature. Biometric
authentication is a task of confirming or denying a person’s claimed
identity using his behavioural or physiological characteristics.

¾ Biometrics, Biometric or Biometry

Biometry refers to a much broader field involving application from

statistics to biology and medicine. Biometrics is a noun and biometric is
an adjective.

Note the distinction between the terms biometrics and biometry. Biometry
refers to a much broader field involving application from statistics to
biology and medicine. Biometrics is a noun and biometric is an adjective.

¾ Authentication versus Identification

According to [Jain, 1999], associating an identity with an individual is

called personal identification. This problem can be categorised into: (i)
authentication and (ii) identification. Authentication refers to the problem
of confirming or denying a person’s claimed identity while identification
refers to the problem of establishing a subject’s identity. The differences
between identification and authentication can be summarised in Table A.1.

Table A.1 Identification versus authentication

Identification Authentication

It determines the identity of the person. It determines whether the person is indeed
who he claims to be.
There is no identity claim from the user. The user makes an identity claim. By using
The system has to search through its record the claim as a key, the system searches the
to find the identity. This search is called a user’s record to compare. It is a one to one
many-to-one mapping. The cost of mapping. The system uses the identity as a
computation in the identification task key to call for the identity’s record. The
increases in proportion to the number of cost of computation is not dependant on
record of users. the number of record of users.
It is often assumed that a captured The captured biometric signature comes

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biometric signature comes from a set of from a large set of unknown users. This is
known biometric feature stored in the referred to as open-set verification.
system. This is referred to as closed-set


¾ Francis Gal ton is one of the founders of Bio-metrics. In 1892, Gal ton
¾ Invented the first system of fingerprinting.

¾ He has observed that No two persons have same finger print. Each and
¾ every person has got a unique finger print pattern.

¾ In 1968, Bio-metrics technique was implemented successfully when well-

known bank of New York has arranged the finger print scanning to access the
currency Walt , first time in the world.

¾ But after 1990, when IT (Information Technology) comes into the picture,
through its advancement and simplicity Bio-metrics technique becomes very

¾ This new technology is very easy to understand compare to its heavy

label. Because of user-friendly environment this technique is very well
welcomed by various fields.


The International Biometric Society, founded in 1947, is an

international organization for the advancement of the subject-matter sciences
through the development of quantitative the orgies and the development,
application, and dissemination of effective mathematical and statistical

5.1. Purpose

To this end, it welcomes to membership biologists,

statisticians, and others interested in applying statistical techniques to research
data. The International Biometric Society and its journal, Biometrics, serve as
an invaluable means of communication between the subject-matter specialists
and the statisticians.

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5.2. Journal

Biometrics is published quarterly. Its general objectives are to

promote and extend the use of mathematical and statistical methods in the
various subject-matter disciplines, by describing and exemplifying
developments in these methods and their application in a form readily
assimilable by experimenters and those concerned primarily with analysis of
data. The journal is a ready medium for publication of papers by both the
experimentalist and the statistician. The papers in the journal include statistical,
authoritative expository or review articles, and analytical or methodological
papers contributing to the planning or analysis of experiments and surveys, or
the interpretation of data. Many of the papers in Biometrics contain actual
worked examples of the statistical analyses proposed.

5.3. Meeting

Encouragements is given the subject-matter experimenter by

holding symposia dealing with applied statistics as a part of annual meetings of
the biological, chemical, engineering, and physical science societies. Such
symposia afford an opportunity for subject-matter specialists and statisticians to
discuss problems of mutual interest. At Regional meetings of the Society, a
member is afforded an opportunity to present technical papers. This permits the
exchange of ideas and information through formal presentation and informal
contacts with fellow statisticians and experimentalists.

5.4. Biometric Bulletin

The International Biometric Society also publishes an

informal newsletter containing news about membership activities, letters to the
editor, and membership and editorial commentaries. It is a means for expressing
ideas on a wide range of statistical and biometrical matters and is also published

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6.1 Data Acquisition:-

Data collection involves use of sensors to detect & measure an individual’s
physiological or behavioral characteristics. The biometric feature must have the
following characteristics:-
(a) Universality, which means that every person should have the characteristic,
(b) Uniqueness, two persons should not have the same term or measurement of
(c) Permanence, the characteristic should be invariant with time,
(d) Measurability, the characteristic can be quantified that is the origin of the
Cameras used in biometric systems are generally either CCD (charge couple
device) or CMOS (combined metal oxide semiconductor) image sensors.CCD is
comparatively more costly than CMOS. The cost of CCD is nearly 2500 Rs. And
CMOS is about 800 to 1000 Rs. Price depends on the resolution which reflects the
accuracy of biometric system.

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6.2 Transmission: -
Not all the biometric systems process and store data on the measuring
device. Often measurement is made using relatively simple device to a
computer or server for processing and/or storage. Depending on the system, the
data may be relatively large and thus would need to be compressed for quick
transfer. The compression algorithm needs to be selected carefully; otherwise it
may introduce some artefacts that could impact the decision process.
In any image scanning Biometric system, JPEG compression is
preferred due to the block ness it produces at high compression ratios. The data
can also be transmitted to the database for storage as raw data.

6.3 Signal Processing:-

The signal processing unit uses features extraction algorithms to extract
true biometric information from the sample in presence of noise introduced
during data collection and transmission. Additional measurements are made if
any flaw or corruption is noted, to ensure good quality.
Pattern matching involves comparing the feature sample to a stored
sample. (The biometric data can be stored locally on the biometric data can be
stored locally on the biometric device, some central database/server, or on a
smart card issued to users.) The result of the comparison is sent to the decision
system to determine the match.

6.4 Decision Making:-

The final step is the decision to accept or reject user, and is based on a
security threshold. The threshold value is either a parameter of comparison
process itself, or the system compares the resulting match value with the
threshold value. If for example, in a system performing identity verification, the
match value is equal to or higher than the threshold value, the user is accepted.
In an identification system, acceptance might require a match value that is both
higher than threshold value and higher than the second-best match by a specific

6.5 Data Storage:-

After extracting the biometric features, the system stores and maintains
the new master template. Choosing proper discriminating characteristics for
categorizing records can facilitate future searches. The system stores the
templates in one of four locations: a card, a server’s central database, a
workstation, or an authentication terminal. If privacy is a concern, a card is the
only choice because sensitive biometric data should not be stored (and
potentially misused) in a central database.

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7.1 Input
‰ Using appropriate input device it will collect the data of the person’s
biological features. These features are known as the master key for
the computer.

‰ Let us put in a simple manner.

For recording and converting biometric traits to usable computer data, one needs
an appropriate sensor (see table). Of course, costs can greatly vary for different
sensors. However, we can't forget that many technical devices already have
sensors built in, and therefore, offer possibilities to measure biometric features
nearly free of cost.

Biometric Trait Sensor

Fingerprint (Minutia) capacitive, optic, thermal, acoustic, pressure

Signature (dynamic) Tablet
Facial Structure Camera
Iris pattern Camera
Retina Camera
Hand geometry Camera
Finger geometry Camera
Vein structure of the back of the Camera
Ear form Camera
Voice (Timbre) Microphone
DNA Chemical Lab
Odor Chemical sensors
Keyboard Strokes Keyboard
Comparison: Password Keyboard

7.2 Process
‰ Processes the input data. Here, computer takes the measurement of
inputted Biological features.

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‰ No two persons have same finger print. So, computer joins the points of that
finger print features and make the pattern of it and it will store that pattern into
its memory. Then computer compares this pattern against the master keys.

• e.g.: - Putting the tracing paper on Indian map, if we join

Banglor, Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Mumbai, Nagpur,
Ahmedabad, Jaipur and Lukhnow drawing a line then by
chance the original map is lost. Now if we want to know the
distance between Ahmedabad and Bhavnagar for that we
require the original one, which is drawn with the same
measurement. But In this case, actual map is lost so we are
helpless. Similarly, the finger print used by the computer to
make its pattern is deliberately hidden. Thus, the security
system does not allow any unauthorized person.

7.3 Output
‰ Testing of processed data and give the access rights to the person. Here,
When any person scanned his/her finger print , computer will
Store a Bio-logical featured pattern and compares it against the stored master-
Key in its memory. And if it is matched, then permission granted else not.





‰ In this world of bio-metrics the first invention is of voice print.

‰ Voice recognition is very different to speech recognition.

Speech recognition detect words and sentences from an

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incoming audio signal whereas voice recognition tries to detect
the speaker given a voice sample.

‰ Here voice is recorded by microphones.

‰ But as each & every person has got different voice pattern
that’s why no two voice prints are matched.

‰ Voice print is determined by many different factors: size of the

vocal cavities (throat, oral, nasal) as well as the characteristics
of the vocal chords themselves.

‰ Your voice is further modified by the way you speak - the way
your mouth, lips, tongue, jaw and teeth move (these are called
articulators). Therefore, the chances of two people have the
same vocal characteristics are minute.

‰ But this technique is not 100% authentic because of the

following reasons.

• Each and every person’s voice changes as per the

• All microphones, which are used to fetch the voice,
may not work properly.
• During the recording of voice if there is any
background sound or noise then it will not be able to
give perfect result.

‰ The computer converts the voice pattern into 0 & 1.After

taking the input that input is also converted into 0 & 1.If the
both code matches the person is authorized.


‰ In this technique, no two persons have the same

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Finger print, Francis Galton proves this after a long observation in

‰ No ID card is as best as finger print because the possibility of

matching two person’s finger print is 0%.

‰ Finger print is also called finger scanning.

‰ To scan the finger print, a special kind of scanner that can work
with optical rays is used.

‰ When a person put his/her finger on the transparent glass of

scanner, CCD chip scans the biological features of finger.

‰ It fetches the diagram of finger print & delivers it to the

computer where a special programme measures the distance
between the special features & that print.

‰ Here, those special features are core, split, island, end & delta.

‰ The new sophisticated software of bio metrics scans the finger

as well as palm.

‰ In this case, it takes the 90 types of measurement of palm &

matches that new digit against the stored digits in the
computer’s memory as well as finger print is matched & then it
gives the access rights.

‰ Hand technology is similar but surprisingly uses smaller

amount information. Hand technology is also susceptible to
injuries to hand and can be fairly expensive to install.

‰ Most fingerprint data takes up around 250Kb.

‰ Fingerprinting is a widely used and accepted technology with

very good accuracy rates.

‰ Thus this technique is more authentic than the voice print.

‰ The computer converts the finger pattern into 0 & 1.After

taking the input that input is also converted into 0 & 1.If the
both code matches the person is authorized.

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‰ an iris has a mesh-like texture to it, with numerous overlays
and patterns. The iris is located behind the cornea of the eye,
but in front of the lens. Its only physiological purpose is to
control the amount of light that enters the eye through the
pupil, but its construction from elastic connective tissue gives
it a complex, fibrillous pattern.

‰ Iris recognition is the epitome of biometric identification - the

‰ Entire planet could be enrolled into an iris database and there

would still be a minute chance of false identification or
rejection. In finger print technique there are only 90 special
features, but in iris pattern there are 266 special features.

‰ In 1998, Dr. John Daugman. -inventor of Cambridge

University of Britain has compared the approx 3, 00, 00,000
the iris but he couldn’t find at least one similarity.

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‰ In this technique CCD camera, which looks like small
camcorders, scans the eye’s iris pattern.

‰ The iris pattern of a person’s left and right eyes are different.

‰ Here, CCD scan either left or right eye’s iris pattern.

‰ After scanning that pattern is delivered to the computer’s

processing unit.

‰ Computer only considers the data of iris and removes other

data and analyzes the total 266 features and assigns a particular
value to each feature.

‰ The pattern of iris is converted into the total 4,096 bits of 0 &

‰ Then computer compares the new data of 0 & 1 to the iris print
stored as master key and if it is matches then gives the access
‰ Iris has stable and distinctive features for personal
identification. That is because every iris has fine and unique
patterns and does not change over time since two or three years
after the birth, so it might be called as a kind of optical finger
‰ The Iris Code is so specialized that the chances of two irises
having the same code are 1 in 1052 !



‰ Secure accesses to bank cash machine accounts:

The banks of United, Diebold and Sensor have applied it.
After enrolling once (a “30”second process), the customers
need only approach the ATM, follow the instruction to look at
the camera, and be recognized within 2-4 seconds. The
ultimate aim is to provide safe and secure transactions.

‰ Ticket less, document-free air travel:

Passengers and airline employees will store digital
images of their irises on a database. After the image of your iris
is on the file, a video camera will be able to instantly verify
your identity and clear you to board the aircraft.

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‰ Computer login: the iris an living password.

‰ National border controls: the iris as a living passport.

‰ Premises access control (homes, office, and laboratory).

‰ Credit card authentication.

‰ Secure financial transactions.

‰ Internet security.


‰ Facial biometrics use various features of the face to recognize or
verify a user.

‰ Fourth type of biometrics identification is of face print.

‰ To capture face print of any person special kind of camera is used.

‰ This vide camera delivers the capture image to compute

‰ Computer makes a pattern of that image using software.

‰ To make this pattern it will use approx 50 features of face like the
distance between two eyes, breath of nose, cheeks, area of
forehead, jaws etc.

‰ These features are converted into digital form.

‰ Though it is not necessary that a high –tech and sophisticated

software identify proper person.

‰ The computer converts the face pattern into 0 & 1.After taking the
input that input is also converted into 0 & 1.If the both code
matches the person is authorized.

‰ Here are some possibilities.

• To create a pattern of a person’s face, the face of the person

must be within the range of 35 degrees.
• A camera cannot recognize a person wearing goggles.
• e.g.: During a testing at Palm Beach, America, the camera
has recognized simultaneously two persons as culprit. The
face of one of them is really stored into the computer

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software as culprit. For that person Bio-metrics technology
has been proved 100% true. While according to plan other
person is eating a Jellybeans candy and he acts as if he is
blowing. By doing this face was looking quite similar to the
first one. So, camera recognizes him as a culprit by ringing
an alarm.

• Because of continuous movement of head camera cannot

recognize the face.
• In short, in compare to finger print and iris pattern -face
print is less authentic. In some circumstances this is very
useful like when we caught the culprit and make him/her to
stand against the camera.
• A software FaceIt can compare 6, 00, 00,000 photos
against the face/minute.
• In this process there is no chance of any error. But we
cannot relay on it completely. Because of Bio-metrics the
human body is serving s mobile lock and key.

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8.5 Hand Geometry: -
Hand geometry is by far the most widely used
biometric system. The ID3D Hand key system from
Recognition Systems, Inc. is the most popular.
Various methods are used to measure the hand; these
methods generally fall into one of two categories:
1. Mechanical
2. Image-edge detection
Either method produces estimates of certain person.
Key measurements of the hand (length of fingers and thumb,
widths, etc.); this data are used to "categorize" a person.

It works as follows:
The user first enters a PIN number on a keypad, and then
positions their hand on a plate using a set of guidance pins which
ensures that the hand will be in generally the same position for every
measurement. Then a digital camera mounted above the plate, with
the aid of a mirror, takes a picture of the top and side views of the
hand. The dimensions of the hand, such as finger length, width and
area, are extrapolated from the image and the magnification of the
camera. This system, however, is subject to an attack using a fake
hand modeled after that of an authorized user.

8.6 Retinal Scan: -

Retinal Scan technology is based on the blood vessel pattern in the retina
of the eye. A retinal scan can produce almost the same volume of data as a
fingerprint image analysis.
It works as follows:
The user positions their head against a support, and a low power infrared
light is directed against the back of the retina. The image of the pattern of veins is
reflected back to a camera.

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8.7 Keystroke Dynamics: -
This method analyzes the way in which a user types at a computer
keyboard. The input is monitored thousands of times a second, and the durations
of keystrokes and the latencies between them are recorded.
The goal for keyboard dynamics is continual authentication of the user
while at a computer; so that if an intruder user had access to the users session
while they were away, the machine would eventually be able to recognize the
discrepancy. Even though typing patterns are behavioral characteristics, they are
very hard to mimic.

8.8 Facial Recognition: -

Facial recognition technology has recently developed into two areas of

1. Facial metrics
2. Eigenfaces.

Facial metrics technology relies on the measurement of specific facial

features (e.g., the distance between the inside corners of the eyes, the distance
between the outside corners of the eyes and the outside corners of the mouth, etc.)
and the relationship between these measurements. Within the past two years, an
investigation has been made into categorizing faces according to the degree of fit
with a set of "eigenfaces". It has been postulated that every face can be assigned a
"degree of fit" to each of 150 eigenfaces; further, only the template eigenfaces
with the 40 highest "degree of fit" scores are necessary to reconstruct a face with
over 99% accuracy. The difference between the eigenface method of facial
categorization and the police artist method of building a face from template parts
is that the eigenface method is based upon an actual photo of the individual and
the "eigenface" information is derived from a computer-based analysis of the
digital image of the photo. Eigenfaces are (reportedly) highly repeatable and are
not affected by human subjectivity. Eigenface technology has some promise, but
it is a technique that is just in the infancy stage of development. Very little data
regarding eigenface error rates (false negative, false positive) exists at this point.

8.9 Signature Recognition: -

Signature recognition is based on the dynamics of making the signature,
i.e., acceleration rates, directions, pressure, stroke length, etc., rather than a direct
comparison of the signature after it has been written. The problems with
signature recognition lie in the means of obtaining the measurements used in the
recognition process and the repeatability of the signature. The instrumentation

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cannot consistently measure the dynamics of the signature. Also, a person does
not make a signature in a fixed manner; therefore, the data obtained from any one
signature from an individual has to allow for a range of possibilities.
Signature recognition has the same problem with match discrimination
(i.e., finding a match in a large database) as does hand geometry.

*Biometrics Captured Using Web Cam and Microphone*

Figure 1 is made up of images of 320×240 pixels. Figure 1(a) is the typical
upright front image that we captured before processing it. At 50mm, the shortest
depth-of-field, we can capture eye at a resolution of 320×240, as shown in Figure
1(b). By visual judgement, this is quite promising for the authentication purpose,
when lighting and reflection can be controlled. Since all eyes are round, colour
analysis becomes an important property for extraction.

(a) (b)

(c) (d)


Figure 1: Biometrics captured by the Webcam in this project

Figure 1(c) shows an ear. An ear has more structure thus creates different
shading. Segmenting ear can be very challenging. However, if ear can be
segmented reliably and represented in a canonical image space, it is possible to
extract ear shape information. The same goes to fist as shown in Figure 1(d). We
tried to capture thumb too in the hope that fingerprints might be observed.
However, at such resolution, fingerprints are partially captured and are not clear.

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By visual judgement, we have decided to use face biometrics, over eye
biometrics, ear and fist in decreasing order of priority.


10.1 Uniqueness of biometric features

Table shows the cross accuracy of different biometrics.

Table: Comparison of Biometrics Techniques [Ruggles, 1998]

Biometrics Crossover Accuracy

Retinal Scan 1:10,000,000+

Iris Scan 1:131,000
Fingerprints 1:500
Hand Geometry 1:500
Signature 1:50
Voice Dynamiques 1:50

Crossover accuracy is the ratio of the crossover frequency as compared to

the whole population of test data. The smaller the crossover accuracy, the more
unique the biometrics is. It should be noted that comparison across biometrics is
by no means measurable. Even the quality of same biometrics is difficult to judge
unless the results are tested on the same data set. [O’Gorman, 1999]. Therefore,
sufficient bias is expected from the readers as well.
From Table 2, Retinal scan, after [Daugman, 1995], appears to have the highest crossover accuracy. Even
though Iris scan has high cross over accuracy, its user acceptability is low. Fingerprints and hand geometries are equally

Signature dynamics and voice dynamics have the lowest accuracy rates
according to [Ruggles, 1998]. In addition, these two techniques rely on
behavioural measurements as opposed to physical measurements. In general,
behavioural biometrics is less reliable than physical biometrics.

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Retinal scan has high accuracy but also has a high data collection error
rate and low user acceptability. For this reason, retinal scan exists only in science
fiction movies but not in real life applications!

The fingerprint biometric has a low data collection error rate and high user
acceptability. Further, fingerprint technology has had the most research and
development money applied to both identification and authentication problem.
Finally, fingerprint biometrics has the highest acceptance in the identification
community and virtually every large biometrics system in operation today uses
fingerprint biometrics. Notwithstanding its association with "criminal"
applications, fingerprint biometrics is generally accepted by clients.

The chosen biometrics in this project, i.e., face and voice, are based on
user acceptability and another important factor, the availability of resources in the
laboratory. Once the system is established, moving into other biometrics would be

Table 3: Comparison of biometrics technologies based on perception of three

biometrics experts according to [Jain, 1999]

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Biometric devices can be adjusted to favor security or user convenience. How

well do Biometrics work? Is depending on four points.

11.1 False Accept Rates

‰ The probability that a biometric device will allow an
unauthorized person is called the "False Accept Rate”.

‰ False Accept Rates claimed for today's biometric access

systems range from 0.0001% to 0.1%.

‰ It's important to remember that the only way an unauthorized

person can get access is if a unauthorized person tries. Thus, the
False Accept Rate must be multiplied by the number of

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attempts by unauthorized person to determine the number of
possible occurrences.

11.2 False Reject Rates

‰ The probability that a biometric device won't recognize an

authorized person is called the "False Reject Rate”.

‰ The False Reject Rates quoted for current biometric systems

range from 0.00066% to 1.0%.

‰ A low False Reject Rate is very important for most

applications, since users will become extremely frustrated if
they're denied access by a device that has previously
recognized them.

11.3 Equal Error Rates

‰ The point where false accept and false reject curves cross is
called the "Equal Error Rate”.

‰ Error curves give a patternical representation of a biometric

device's "personality."

‰ The Equal Error Rate provides a good indicator of the unit's

performance. The smaller the Equal Error Rate, the better.

11.4 Validity of Test Data

‰ Here, it checks for validity of the processed data and decides
whether the person is authorized or not.

‰ Testing biometrics is difficult, because of the extremely low

error rates involved. To attain any confidence in the statistical
results, thousands of transactions must be examined.

‰ It's important to remember that error rates are statistical: they

are derived from a series of transactions by a population of

‰ In general, the larger the population and the greater the number
of transactions, the greater the confidence level in the accuracy
of the results.

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‰ If the reported error rate is 1:10, then a sample of 100
transactions may provide a sufficient confidence level.
Conversely, a 100-transaction sample would be too small if the
error rate was reported as 1:100,000.

Biometric devices are extremely secure, thanks to the combination of low False
Accept Rates at moderate sensitivity settings, combined with a short user keypad

At the same time, biometrics is extremely convenient and error-

free, thanks to low False Reject Rates.


DNA differs from standard biometrics in several ways:
DNA requires a tangible physical.
DNA matching is not done in real-time, and currently not all stages of
comparison are automated.
DNA matching does not employ templates or feature extraction, but
rather represents the comparison of actual samples.
Regardless of these basic differences, DNA is a type of biometric
inasmuch as it is the use of a physiological characteristic to verify or
determine identity.




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13.1 Will Biometric Solve All Security Concerns?

• No System Can be 100% Safe

• Biometric Measures Can be Very Successful in Fighting Today's Security


• Major Drawback in Adopting Biometric Systems is that Concerned person

Need to be Physically Present

13.2 Which is the best technique among above?

Accordingly, the pattern of iris is the best one to recognize a person.

Because the possibility of two persons having the same iris pattern is 1 per 1000
million, the population of earth is 6 million so eyes are 12 million and that is why
probability is not at least 1%.

13.3 Is Bio-metrics more "secure" than passwords?

This question at least poses two problems: biometrics is not

equal to biometrics, and the term "secure" is in fact commonly used, but it is not
exactly defined. However, we can try to collect pros and cons in order to find at
least an intuitive answer.

It is a matter of fact that the security of password protected

values in particular depends on the user. If the user has to memorize too many
passwords, he will to use the same passwords for as many applications as
possible. If this is not possible, he will go to construct very simple passwords. If
this will also fail (e.g., if the construction rules are too complex), the next fall-
back stage is to notify the password on paper. This would transform "secret
knowledge" into "personal possession". Of course, not every user will react this
way. Rather the personal motivation plays an important role: is he aware of the
potential loss caused by careless handling of the password? It is easy if the user is
the owner. But often foreign possession (e.g., that of the employer) has to be
guarded, whose value one often can hardly estimate. If motivation is missing, any
password primarily tends to be felt bothersome. In this case, and that seems to be
the normal case, it is assumed that biometrics has considerable advantages.

Contrariwise, passwords feature unbeatable theoretic

protection ability: an eight-digit password which is allowed to contain any symbol
from an 8-bit alphabet offers 1020 possible combinations! This is a real challenge
for any biometric feature. The requirements are obvious: such a password is
maximally difficult to learn, it must not be written down, it must not be passed to

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anyone, the input must take place absolutely secret, it must not be extorted, and
the technical implementations must be perfect. This leads us to the practical
aspects: the implementation must be protected against replay attacks, keyboard
dummies (e.g., false ATMs), wiretapping etc. Even biometric features have to
cope with such problems. However, it can be assumed that the protection of
biometric feature acquisition is not easier than the acquisition of the password,
provided the implementation expense is comparable!

13.4 Where BIO-METRICS is used?

¾ For Security

• Protect Sensitive Data

• High degree of identity certainty in transactions
• Create databases with singular identities

¾ For Accountability

• Improve auditing / reporting / record keeping

• Time keeping

¾ For Efficiency

• Reduce password-related problems

It is also used in following areas.

• Enterprise-wide network security infrastructures

• Secure electronic banking, investing and other financial
• Retail sales
• Law enforcement
• Health & Social services

13.5 The New Opportunities for Biometrics

• The unfortunate events of September 11, 2001 have placed the recent
focus on creating new systems and installations employing biometrics.

• Examples include facial recognition at airports and fingerprint and iris

scanning solutions at new government facilities.

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¾ Combination of Biometrics with smart cards

• Smart cards, when combined with biometrics, offer a number of benefits.

o Smart cards provide a portable storage mechanism for the

biometric template. This means template management is
eliminated across the biometric reader network. Enrolled users
present their smart card to the biometric reader at any location
where the card is valid. The biometric template stored on the card
(which is usually encrypted) is compared to the live biometric. If
the two match, the system grants the user access.

o Another benefit of combining biometrics with smart cards pertains

to dual-technology cards that are embedded with a smart chip.
These combination cards function as both smart cards and
proximity cards. This grouping permits organizations currently
using proximity-based access control to incorporate biometric
security and limit card issuance to users who are permitted access
to the biometrically secured area.

Lastly, since the biometric templates are stored on individual cards, the number of
users for any particular biometric reader is unlimited. This scenario differs from
biometric readers that store
o the template, thereby limiting the template capacity to the reader's
storage capacity.

13.6 Near Future Technologies

• In near future every person having a Bio-chip in the body.

• This Bio-chip concept is recently used in an African Safaris to trap the

activities and diseases of animals. For this every animal has a Bio-chip in
its body.

• For Bio-chip in human we will store identification information.

• So, in future it may not require to ask “What is your name?” just make a
shake hand and allow the Bio-chips to interact and will know the person’s

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• We don’t know, But Bio-metrics identification may include brain
Chemistry because every one has got different brain chemistries.

• Nowadays, a ‘Bio-Processor-chip’ is available which can recognize the

bacteria that can cause diseases- spread through blood, saliva
And urine in few minutes instead of hours.

13.7 Benefits of Adopting Biometrics

• No Need to Remember Passwords:

As it uses our biometry we are not supposed to give any
password. Because where ever we go our finger print, iris pattern, our
face, voice definitely with us!

• Unauthorized Access to Personal Data Can be Prevented:

It is a one type of security system that no one can hack it
because they do not have our fingerprint, iris, voice, face etc. So, it
prevents the data from an unauthorized person.

• Fraudulent Use of ATMs, Credit Cards Can be Prevented:

None can use our ATM just by knowing our PIN. Because no
number or password is there.

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