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The analytic geometry is the royal road to the geometry that Euclic thought did not exist!

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T

HE LOGICAL FOUNDATION OF ANALYTIC GEOMETRY

From my book

Selected stories in mathematics and physics

https://www.amazon.com/Selected-stories-mathematics-physics-

Giorgos/dp/3330342765

in the original Greek, the next three only from a 9th-

century Arabic translation, and an eighth book is now

lost. Books IIV contain a systematic account of the

essential principles of conics and introduce the terms

ellipse, parabola, and hyperbola, by which they became

known. Apollonius conics is almost as famous as the

Elements of Euclid. Kepler was able to establish his

three laws of planetary motion only because

Apollonius had supplied so much information about

the conic

The idea

1 When asked by king Ptolemy for a short but to geometric knowledge, Euclid is said to to have

replied, there is no royal road ih geometry.

2

The story of the connection of arithmetic with geometry is dew to the great

deal of progress had been made in algebra during the later half of the sixteen

century and the early part of the seventeenth. Cardan, Tartalia, Vite, and

Descartes and Fermat themselves, had extended the theory of the solution of

equations, had introduced symbolism, and had established a number of algebraic

theorems and methods. And both Descartes and Fermat, working independently

of each other, saw clearly the potentialities in algebra for the representation and

study of curves. Their basic thought was that algebra should be used to

characterize any curve and as the means of deducing facts about the curve.

Hence in some way, numbers had to be brought into the picture.

The idea of locating points with numbers was old. For example ipparchus

had introduced latitude and longitude to locate points on the surface of the

earth..

How this idea was born again? Fermat and Descartes decide that

mathematics needed new methods of working with curves. What is relevant here

with Descard, is his general concept of method and his success in introduction

method in geometry by means of algebra. As an appendix to his Discourse on the

method he published his geometry. Descartes complained that the geometry of

the Greeks was so much tied to figures that it can exercise the understanding

only on condition of greatly fatiguing the imagination. He also apprediated that

the methods of Euclidean geometry speaking as the king Ptolemy- are

exceedingly varied and specialized, particularly in the study of the conic sections

and the few other curves explored in Greek geometry.

Also since Fermat had also participated in the advancement of algebra, he,

too, became aware of the potentialities in algebra for the investigation of

geometry. Moreover the practical applications (projectiles) and such information

is provided by algebra.

introduced two perpendicular lines or axis and agreed to represent any point in

the plane by its distances from the two axes.

3

some property that characterizes all the points of

the curve. The circle can be defined as the set of

al points that at the same distance from the

center. According to the Pythagorean theorem of

Euclidean geometry we the equation

x2+y2=r2

an equation, an algebraic statement that holds for each point on the circle and for

no other points.

The parabola as was defined by Apollonius can be defined as the set of all

points that are equidistant from a given point (focus) and a given line(directrix)

so in the figure here we have PS=PM so

Finally y2=4ax

ourselves whether the analytical geometry

method is sufficient to study and prove

every problem and theorem that arises from the development of the Euclid's plane basis.

This question is a difficult problem, and it is transferred to Hilbert's modern formal

axiomatic and metamathematics, which is not mentioned in the analytical geometry

textbooks. But there is a logical gap here-how to predict that all the theorems of

geometry have an algebraic solution - can we look at them one by one? - it reminds us of

the series in the era before Taylor, where the convergence of each series was neglected

and its study was downgraded.

seen the concepts of interpretation of an axial basis - interpreting the original terms of

the system in some way transforming them in terms of some understanding - the

concept of its model - that is, an interpretation of the system for which the axioms of the

4

system are valid,- and the concept of the isomorphism of the axiomatic bases- when

the axioms of one are logical consequences (theorems) of the axioms of the other.

Now we will look at the interpretation and a model of Euclidean axioms in algebra

and the isomorphism that binds the two models, geometric and algebraic.

Our task is to assign algebraic meanings to the primitive terms point, line on,

and congruent (as applied to segments and to angles) that will convert each of

Euclids postulates into a theorem of algebra.

point)

By a line we mean any equation in the two variables x and y of the form

ax+by+c=0 a,b,c real numbers and a,b not both 0. A point is on the line if the

coordinates of the point satisfy the equation of the line.

We say a point is on a line if and only if the coordinates of the point satisfy an

equation of the line.

denoted by (x3,y3) (x4,y4) if and only if

(x2-x1)2+(y2-y1)2=(x4-x3)2+(y4-y3)2

We say finally that the measure of an angle A denoted by (x2,y2 ),(x1,y1), (x3,y3)

is given by

( )

cosA=

So two angles A and A are congruent if and only if cosA = cosA when is the

angle denoted by the point (x2,y2 ),(x1,y1), (x3,y3)

5

Euclidean postulate set we may now convert each postulate of the set into an

algebraic statement. this can be shown, by the methods of algebra alone, so each

postulate becomes a theorem of algebra.

Axiom 1 there is one and only one line passing any two given distinct points

(a,b not both zero, all reals) which is satisfied by two distinct points x1,y1

),(x2,y2) of the variables x,y.

(y2-y1)x-(x2-x1)y+(x2y1-x1y2)=0 .. (1)

Substitution of x1,y1 ) , (x2,y2) in the equation (1) shows that this equation is

satisfied by the pairs (x1,y1 ) and (x2,y2), but this equation is of the desired for.

B. But we must show that, to within a constant nonzero constant factor, this

is the only equation of the desired form satisfied by the distinct pairs of

values (x1,y1 ) and (x2,y2). To this end, suppose (x1,y1 ) and (x2,y2) satisfy

the equation

ax+by+c=0 ..(2)

6

since a0 we cannot have y2-y1=0 for otherwise (4) would reduce to a(x2-x1) or

(x2-x1)=0, a situation which is impossible. Solving equations (5) simultaneously

for B and C we have

and, except for a possible constant nonzero factor equation (2) becomes our

equation (1). A similar argument can be carried out if instead of supposing a0,

we suppose b0. Thus postulate 1 becomes in our interpretation, a theorem of

algebra.

Axioms 2,3,4 5 are long and are in Eves page 96. For example in parallel axiom

we can prove that if A(x1,y1 ) is a point and m is the line ax+by+c=0, then the

unique line through A that does not intersect m is given by ax+by-(ax1+by1)=0

Thus, finally, the algebraic model of the Euclidean base is valid, it is another

model of the Euclidean base. But in my same book we saw:

models of the set are isomorphic.

Therefore, the geometric (our known geometry) and the algebraic model of

the Euclidean system are isomorphic, i.e they are identical, we can replace one

geometry with the other by replacing the original terms and the relations from

the archetype to the images, one becomes the translation of the other. This

enables us to translate every geometric theorem into a corresponding algebraic

7

statement and step by step to translate the geometric proof of the geometric

theorem into an algebraic proof of the corresponding algebraic statement. Here

we have to make clear that this isomorphism is the meaning of analytic geometry

and not the algebraic model of the geometry we constructed. It is the translation

that the isomorphism installs from geometry to algebra and from algebra to

geometry that produces the final geometric result. That is why we say that

analytical geometry is a method rather than a branch of mathematics.

thoughts, than in geometry meditation, prefers analytical geometry, is for him

the royal road to the geometry that Euclid thought did not exist, and which today,

after the discovery of computers, became a royal avenue for geometry.

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