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BBA 5th Semester

Subject: Indian Social System (I.S.S 5.2)

Unity in Diversity

Q1. Describe the bonds of unity in the Indian Society?

Describe the bases of Indian Society?

Our Country India is an ancient civilized country. Beginning of its culture goes back to
3000 B.C. Ever-since the Harappan culture, our country has passed through different
historical and cultural stages. Our society and culture are of multitier composition. It
hapluri-societal structure and multi-cultural configuration.

Historically several ethno cultural elements have been merge with Indian society of
India. Similarly with the influx of outsiders into Indian mainland from time to time have
brought in different cultural element and they have integrated with great Indian culture.
So, India possess varieties of social, economic, geographical condition. In spite of these
diversities, we have a sense of oneness or sense of weness, So, Unity in Diversity has
been our motto overall these years.

Bonds of National Unity

A. Geographical Unity India is the seventh largest country in the world fortunately,
we are having natural boundaries. The very name of our country Bharat Varsa implies a
mythological and historical significance. This great sub-continent has been surrounded
by the great Himalayan mountain ranges in the north and by Bay of Bengal in the east
and Arabian Sea in the world and Indian Ocean in the extreme. These natural barriers
have helped our country and our people to preserve their unity over these 5000 years.

B. Religious & Mythological Unity In the great Vishnu Puran, it has been mentioned
that the land between the great Himalayas and the ocean in the south (Kanyakumari) is
named as Bharat Varsa after a great Chakrabarti King Bharat the son of Dushyant and
Shakuntala. Similarly, the great religious centres like Badrinath in the north,
Rameshwaram in the south, Dwarika in the west and Shrikhetra Puri in the east creates
a sense of religious unity among the people of India wherever they live.
C. Role of our Glorious History In the past India was the richest country in the
world. Here civilization and culture was also great. Many great rulers like Chandra
Gupta Maurya, Ashoka the great, Samudragupta, Harshavardhan, Akbar etc. have
brought tremendous glory in the past. These historical figures faster a national pride
among us.

D. Impact of Western Education During long British rule the Britishers introduced
English education in our country. Indian students got chance to study western history,
politics and economy. The great events like French revolution, American war of
independence, unification of Italy and Germany, Russian revolution crated high impact
upon the Indian. Similarly western liberal political thoughts, like democracy, individual
liberty prompted the Indians to hold their national unity and integration. They wanted to
unite themselves against the foreign rule.

E. Political and Administrative Unity under the British Rule In fact the Britishers
by conquering the whole landmass stretching from the great Himalayas to the cape
Comorian. They introduced uniformal administrative system, law and order, police
system, better transport and communication system or judicial system, railways, post
and telegraph etc. indirectly created national unity among the Indian.

All these factors contributed to the national unity of our country for which we have been
able to maintain our unity and integration over these years.

Forms of Diversities found in India

Diversity means collective differences, which marked off one groups of people from
another. This may be either religious or linguistic or racial. He termed diversity is the
opposite of uniformity or unity. In the India context, we find a variety of diversity in a
socio-cultural domain.

A. Vastness of India India is the seventh largest country in the world from territorial
point of view, due to its vastness. We find varieties of climate here while in north most of
the Himalayan mountain peaks remains covered with snow, the south India is hot and
humid. Similarly, in the north east cherapunji in the north east is the largest rainfall area
in the world. While in the west, the Thar desert in Rajasthan is having very scanty
rainfall. All the geographical and climatic differences makes very difficult for the peple of
India to think that they belong to or single nation.
B. Race and Caste A race is a group of people with a set of distinctive physical
features such as skin colour, type of nose, form of hair, height etc. in fact India is the
home of global population. People of different faces are found here while the northern
side like Jammu Kashmir, Punjab, Haryana etc. we find tall and handsome Aryan
people, in the South, we find Dravidians for negritoes. Similarly, the population of north-
eastern states or 7 sisters belongs to yellowish looking mongowid race. The
Brachisephah, Proto-Arstroloids and the Mediterraneans are found in almost all over
the country.

The Muslims population belongs to Turko-Iranian race. All these races crate a lot of
difference among the Indian population.

India is a country of caste, very rigid caste system is found here. Though Brahmins,
Khatriyas, Vaishyes and Sudhras are the major caste in India, yet they are all together
around 300 sub-castes in our country which is a danger itself for our social equality.

C. Linguistic Diversity Over 500 language are spoken in our country but according
to our constitution by 1992 only 18 language have been accepted as scheduled
language. India has been accepted as our national language. But very often, we have
found linguistic differences or controversy over language. Among the north Indians and
south Indians, regarding Hindi, this is not a good sign on the way of our national unity.

D. Religious Diversity or Communalism India is a country of multiple religions,

originally, it was a Hindu country, but in course of time Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism
emerge in this land. Later on Islam and Christianity enter into our land by the Muslims
and Britishers respectively. Throughout our modern history, we have seen religious riots
between the Hindus and Muslims. The British Policy of divide and rule destroyed the
unity of Hindus and Muslims in our country. Its worst result was seen in the time of
Independence and partition. Unfortunately India was divided into two countries such as
India and Pakistan on the basis of religion. Ever since independence our country has
witnessed many more riots. The Godhra Incident is a gloring example of the same.
Unless, we stop this kind of religious Antagonism or Animosity. Our country may further
divided in future. So, communism should be stopped at any cost. Government should
come forward with stringent laws to check all categories of communal provocations.

E. Regionalism Another great danger or threat to our national unity is regionalism.

Due to rastness of our country very often we have seen people of some border
provinces have demanded to be separated from our country. We have seen the people
of Punjab have demanded for a separate state. That is Khalistan. Even they cause a lot
of destruction and bloodshed. Even our late Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi was shot
dead by two Punjabi terrorists. Similarly in Assam the Ulfa (United Liberalization front of
Assam) terrorists demanded for a separate state of Bodoland and cause a lot of
terrorists activities. Above all in Kashmir the separatistic group have been creating a lot
of problem every now and then since Independent till now. Against all this regional
tension, we find the provocation of our neighbouring enemy countries like Pakistan and
China. If we do not unite ourselves against all these dangers our national unity may not
be preserved.

Our government or our mass media and above all our people should be conscious
regarding all this dangers or threats to our national unity. All of them together should
come forward fight out them so that we can prosper and find out an important place for
ourselves in the whole world.



Caste System in India:-

Introduction Caste system is an ingenious method to preserve hierarchy and
discrimination in the India social structure. It is a peculiar and fundamental system
associated with Indian social system. We cannot think Indian social order without the
caste system. Nowhere in the World, we find such a rigid social system like that of
Indian Caste System.

Mc. Iver says when status is wholly predetermined, so that men are born to their lot
(fate) without any hope of change in it we call it a caste.

C.H. Cally, When a class is somewhat strictly hereditary we call it a caste.

English word caste is derived from a Portuguese word casta which means breed or
race or kind.

Origin In India caste system developed during later vedic age around 800 B.C, the
rules of caste system or the varnas are written in the Rig Veda. In the Brahmanas, and
Smrities. At the first stage the caste system emerged as a result of the division of
labours. Initially it was flexible but in course of time it become rigid. Therefore,
membership and occupation become hereditary. Even it is said that the caste system is
backed by religious sanction and also by the concept of karma and Dharma.

(i) The four varnas and their occupation The Rig Veda has four varnas in the vedic
society, they are:
Brahmins They remain at the top of the social order. They were man of knowledge.
They performed religious rites and rituals, understood the mysteries of the universe.
They dealt with all religious and educational affairs. They had a life of purity and

Kshetriyas - They were man of strength and physical power. They dealt with warfare,
military activities and administration of the state. They were mostly the ruling classes
and the soldiers.

Vaishyas - They were the business class people or merchants. They remain in charge
of productions of wealth through different business or occupation like agriculture, cattle
bearing, cottage industries etc.

Sudras They remain at the bottom of the system. They were the so called low caste
people, who did all the manual works to all the above three class people.

Features of the Caste System

1. Segmental division of the Society Our Indian society is divided into various
small social groups called castes. Each of this caste is a well-developed social
group. Its membership is determine by birth which is unalterable. You can change
your status, occupation, education, wealth but you cannot change your caste till your

2. Hierarchy - Castes from a hierarchy, being arranged in an order of superiority and

inferiority. While at the top of the hierarchy there are Brahmins at the bottom are they
untouchables. Social ranks are determined according to hierarchy in a caste society.

3. Endogamy The most fundamental characteristics of the caste system is

Endogamy manage under the same caste. In traditional societies, any valuation
of rule of endogamy would mean social ostracism or vanishment from community.

4. Hereditary Occupation The traditional caste system is characterized by

hereditary occupation. For example A Brahmin takes priestly occupation. Kshatriyas
takes military service. Similarly, a Barber, a Washerman take their traditional

5. Restriction on food, drink and other social intercourse The concept of purity
and pollution is another fundamental characteristic of the caste system. Generally
the high caste people hesitate to take food or drink at the doors of so called low
caste people. They also hesitate to keep any social relationship or interaction with
them. The principles of untouchabiilty has been created due to this purity and
pollution rules.
6. Jati Panchayat The status of each caste is carefully protected by different caste
rules or laws and which are executed by Jati panchayat. The most of the Jadis of
communication have their own panchayat. In case of any valuation of caste rules or
insult of Brahmins, killing of sacred animals are considered as sin, punishments like
out casting, fines etc. are given to the operators.

This are the basic characteristics or features of the Indians caste system. These are
numerous rules and regulation which govern all this characteristics.

Functions of the Caste System:

Caste System is an establishing and interacting course in Indian Society. Ever since its
origin, it has served the development and preservation of Hindu community. It has
certain merits and demerits.

1. Its hereditary status by birth In Indian Society, particularly in Hindu society, the
social status of a person is fixed by his/her birth. Suppose you are born in Brahmin
family, you will enjoy high social status, even if you are a poor man. So the system
provides social security mostly of the higher class people.
2. Caste system has a constitution of a Hindu Society The caste system has been
working as a constitution in Hindu society for 1000 of years. It has given order and
solitarily to the Indian society. There are many sanctions and prohibitions which are
working as spiritual engines to run the vehicle of society.
3. A source of cultural stability This system teaches us various social ceremonies and
behavior and they are the future of our culture from generation to generation.
4. Non un-employment problem due to clear-cut division of labour and specification
of job, there is no unemployment problem in a caste society. One can get his
hereditary job and maintain his family, for example,- A washerman or a barber or a
Brahmin can take their hereditary job and earn his living. This is the most important
element of the system.

In fact caste system has very less merits and more demerits. The conservatism of the
system prevents the progress of our society in many ways. It is very rigid and does not
allow change.

1. Social division It destroys the unity of the society. It creates inequality between the
individuals even though we are born equal. We are treated unequally by the system.

2. Un-touchability The practice of untouchability is the worst product of the caste

system. This in human practice keep many Hindus as slaves in their own society. It
creates huge gap and difference among the low caste and high caste people. Sudras
are still treated as inferior or sub humans. They were deprive of all social privilege in the
caste like, forbidden public places like temples, ghats wells and schools but now the
situation has been changed. Social inequality creates insecurity and inferiority among
the course of the low caste people. So, the main stream of indian social and economic
progress has been binded.

3. Caste System is Rigid It does not allow change and progress. Economic growth
gets slow due to occupational immobility and lack of freedom of choice in occupation.
So, talents get frustrated.

4. Social Inequality creates in security and inferiority among many low caste and
sub-caste people This system divides the whole society into numerals subdivision
and somewhat destroys our socio political unity.

5. Religious Conversion Disgusted by the oppression of the upper caste people,

great masses of lower caste people have been converted into Christianity and Islam in
the past. The process of conversion is still going on many parts of our country. Riots are
taking place very often in different parts of our country due to conversion. Most recently
we have seen Kadhamal riots over this issue.

Legal Steps taken by the Govt

To establish social equality or harmony our govt. has passed a series of laws. First of all
according to our constitution, India is democratic, socialistic secular and republican
country. We are giving for importance to secularism in every sector. The other rights and
laws in this regards are

(a) Fundamental rights

(b) Caste disability removal act
(c) Special marriage amendment act
(d) Hindu Marriage act
(e) Un-touchability offence act.

Due to all these above factors, caste feelings have got weekend. The supremacy of the
Brahmins and other higher castes have declined. Untouchabiiity is no more in practice.
Inter-caste people are taking place. Govt. and other NGOs are promoting them. Money
power, status, education, service and other status have shifted the traditional system.
Modernization, industrialization and urbanization etc. are helping a lot in this regard.

Jajmani System
Jajmani system is an important feature of the Indian rural economy and social order. It is
purely based upon our age old caste system. Under this system each caste in a village
is expected to give certain standardized service to other castes. The recipient or the
receiver of the service is called as Jajman. In sanskrit the word Jajman means who
performs a Jajna (yajna) so a person who takes the service of Brahmin to perform Jajna
or other religious rites is called a Jajman. But this system not only include the Brahmins
but also manyother castes and their inter-dependence reciprocity and progression.

According to Oscar Lewis, Under this system, each caste group is a village is expected
to give certain standardized services to the other castes. The relationship between
servicing castes and served castes is long lasting even for generations. This is caste
oriented and broadly supportive.

Under Jajmani system, the primary function of different castes is to provide hereditary
profession or services to their jajmans. They receive customary payment and other gifts
both in cash and kind for their service.

Features of Jajmani System

1. Jajmani relations are permanent The relationship between the jajman and kamin is
permanent. Normally Jajmani rights neither transferred nor disrupted. So the system
ensure lifelong fixed and permanent relationship between a Kamin and Jajman.
2. Jajmani is hereditary the rights of a Jajman or the services of a kamin or client
passes from generation to generation. Father to son and so on, if someone has no
son but daughter the right pass on to the husband of the daughter.
3. Goods against service Generally the Jajmani service is not based upon cash
payment but on the barter system. Under this system, reward for the service is
generally paid in kind like rie, paddy, wheat, clothes etc. so this relationship is not
like employer or servant. It is not purely economic but also humanitarian. The jajman
takes most of the responsibility for the welfare of the kamins and the kamin serves
the jajman with devotion and dedication. In fact the system gives peace, security and
satisfaction to both the sides in rural India.

Few Examples of this System

Sl. No Caste Nature of Services Reward

1 Brahmins All types of religious rites like Cash / Kind as per the
jajnas, festival, ceremonies. satisfactions of the jajmans.
They give blessings to the Rice, paddy, vegetables,
jajmans clothes etc.
2 Carpenter Maker and repairing of tools An annual fixed quantity of
(Kamin) and agricultural implements food grains.
3 Irons with Repairing of agricultural An annual fixed quantity of
Black smith implements as well as food grains
household iron materials
4 Potter Provide earthen pot and An annual fixed quantity of
vessels food grains
5 Barber Hair cutting, beard shaving, An annual fixed quantity of
certain birth rites, marriage food grain
ceremonial rites
6 Washerman Cleaning of clothes and certain An annual fixed quantity of
within traditional rites food grains. Once in a year
during the period of harvest
7 Sweeper Clean the courtyard, streets An annual fixed quantity of
and removes dirt etc. food grains

Advantages of the System

1. Security of the occupation the profession or occupation in Germany system is

hereditary and permanent.
2. Economic Security It provides economic security as the jajman looks after almost
all the needs of Kamin.
3. Healthy relationship The system maintains very intimate and personal relationship
between the jajmans and kamins.
4. The system maintain the Indian village as self-sufficient communities based on
mutual understanding and cooperative.
5. The system exchange agricultural produce for menial and craft services as a result
division of labour of the caste system and functional interdependence are regulated
to a great extent.

Disadvantages of the System

The system had served the Indian Society for generations in the past. But in the course
of time it is found that the kamins or the lower caste are exploited by the higher caste
jajmans. The kamins find themselves helpless before the money power and political
power of the jajmans.

According to the Beidal man and Barou, the Jajmani system involves the elements of
dominance, exploitation and conflict. The system suffers from all the evils of the caste

Change in the Jajmani System

The Jajmani system has been weekend over the years due to urbanization,
industrialization, modernization and democratization of our society. Now rural mass
have more urban contact due to migration, increase in education, occupational mobility
and increase in socio-political awareness. Many old socio-religious rites and rituals are
no more in practice. Brahmins domination and the socio-religious prestige of the
Brahmins class is gradually declining in an age of secularization.
As a result of modernization, traditional hereditary occupations are no more caste
bounded. Now anyone can take any occupation at his will or choice. The rapid
expansion of means of transport and communication, development of education and all
other modern changes have brought decline to the traditional Jajmani system, but has
not yet abolished or shattered in many parts of rural India.

The caste system is a fundamental structure of the traditional Hindu society since the
Vedic Age. But the class system has been originated in the Latin period and developed
between the caste system and class system.

Distinction between the Caste System and Class System

Caste System Class System

The membership of caste is The membership of a class does not
determined by birth. A person change depend upon birth rather it is acquired
his caste in which he is born till his by education, property, professional
death. and other socio-cultural achievements.
Rule of endogamy is strictly enforced in There is no such caste restrictions
case of caste. regarding the marriage in a class
Members of a caste follow their The members of a class can take any
traditional hereditary occupation. A occupation as per their choice
person has no choice or freedom on capability and qualification.
There are certain rules of social inter On the other hand the rules of social
course like purity and pollution. intercourse are not rigid in the class
In a democratic society like India un- Class system is based on equality and
touchability has been declared as an therefore, it does not give any
offence. Still this practice of un- importance to any sorts of in-equality.
touchability is seen to some extent in
some rural caste society.
Caste system is rigid. Class system is flexible.
The relative prestige of different higher In class system, there is no rigidity or
caste is well established. fixed order of prestige.
The caste system is believed to have There is nothing sacred or the divine
been divinely given. There is also hold origin in the class stratification of the
of religious belief behind us. society class are secular in origin.
The caste system is an Indian The class system is found in all the
peculiarity modern society. It is universal

The class system emerged in India in modern period, specially during the long-period of
British rule that happened mainly due to change in old agricultural system, development
in modern trade and commerce development of communication system railways,
roads and high-ways, post and telegraph, introduction and development of modern
bureaucratic system or administrative system, growth of modern educational sorts of
scientific and technical education, emergence of new middle class bourgeoisies,
industrialization, urbanization, modernization, westernization and democratization,
secularization etc. contributing for the growth of class system in India.

All this factors together responsible for the emergence of class structure in India. It is
the result of long period of evolution during the British period as well as in the post
independent period. The present democratic government of our country has been
sincerely working to wipe out all the social inequalities among its citizens so that our
future generations can enjoy equal platform in each and every system.

Castes and Politics

The socio-political background of India is highly based upon the backbone of the caste
system. We have a strong and rigid caste system ever since Vedic Age. The system has
gone through a lot of changes or evolution over these years, specially during the the
British, the caste system in India were not given so special importance. During this rule
man civil and penal codes were introduced all over the country which took away the
power exercised by the caste Panchayats and caste councils. They also introduced new
judge and court system, wherein all Indians were treated equally before law irrespective
of their caste.

After 1935 due to the introduction of decentralized politics and democratic institution,
more particularly the panchayat raj system, politics was carried down to the grassroot
level. But in fact the three tier panchayat raj system not only make the people conscious
about their political or social rights but also caste become a prominent factor in the
electoral politics.

The Introduction of democratic decentralization and universal adult franchise protected

the interest of the backward classes which includes schedule caste, schedule tribe and
other backward classes. They got special benefits by reservation of seats in local
election of MLA and MP election as well as in the other socio-economic sector like
employment and political life. The dominance of the traditionally powerful castes like the
Brahmins and Kshatriyas or Rajputs is gradually decreasing due to reservation. Now the
land ownership, political power and other socio religious power gradually decentralizing
and the low caste people are now able to enjoy all those powers due to

The coming of the modern market economy has completely destroyed the traditoanl
caste based economy. The people of different castes educated themselves left their
hereditary and began doing different govt. and non-govt. jobs. The Brahmins, the
Thakurs, The Rajputs are no more the only landowners. The dalits and the lower caste,
have now come up in the political economy and educational gradation. Their political
status and social status has been increased due to political gains and that could happen
due to reservation policies by the caste based politics or reservation system.

All our leaders or political parties have proclaimed time and again that the caste is a
threat or danger to our national unity and integration but the caste system plays an
important role in the Indian politics. Most of the political parties and candidates
contesting for elections seek support from this castes. So after being elected they
maintain casteism and show special treatment or benefit to their own caste members.

The lower caste by organizing themselves on pursuit of collective interest were able to
emerge successfully. The involvement of this caste organization in politics have
changed their hierarchical position in the age old Hindu society that helped them to
achieve higher socio economic political success. This factor has been highlighted by
Rudolph and Rudolph.

Political leaders at all levels such as three tier panchayat raj election, MA and MP
elections playing major role by attracting to the low caste people in various ways to get
their votes. They are now working as the main vote bank for their respective leaders
and parties. In turn every caste wants privileges and favours for themselves. Even in
most of the state cabinet and central cabinet they want to have at least one minister
belong to their caste. Similarly, all the local politics all round the country is also
dominated by caste. Each caste wants to get maximum power from the Panchayat
levels to state elections.

In our constitution, reservations facilities have been provided to all the so called lower
caste and backward classes, so that they can contest election and afterwards can put
forth their grievances better in the state assembles as well as in the parliament.

Caste politics at present has a crucial role in different states like in UP, Gujurat, Bihar,
Karnataka, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and M.P. the leaders like Mayabati and Kalyan
Singh in U.P, Lalu Yadav in Bihar, Bala Thackrey in Maharashtra and Mamta Banerjee
in Bengal are playing caste politics. Thus caste has become one of the most formidable
elements of group formation within political parties in India. However all the parties
should work for the benefit of all the low castes, people instead of using them for their
narrow political interest.


Caste System is fundamental to the Indian Society. It is a peculiar system associated
with us since Vedic Age. Even though we are all born free and equal but according to
this system, there is large scale inequality and distinction among the people. It is a
system of social stratification. It rests upon the unusual distribution of social, power and
prestige between different caste groups. In fact social inequality is a product of Hindu
Caste ridden society. As a result of that, nearly one-third of Indias population are
socially, economically, educationally and politically backward.

The word Scheduled Caste was first coined by the Simon Commission and it was
used in the govt. of India Act 1935. The same word or expression was also adopted in
the constitution of Independent India. Article-341 of our constitution notifies that The
castes, races or tribes or parts of group within castes, race or tribes be dimmed to be
called as scheduled caste in relation to different states. The scheduled caste occupy the
lowest position in the Hindu society. They were called and behaved as un-touchable.
But now the situations have changed. Our government, our constitution, our leaders
even our people and various social organizations, NGOs doing a lot to eradicate this in
human practice in our society.

Problem of Schedule Caste

Traditionally, the scheduled caste as the Hari-Jana or the un-touchable were suffering
from several disabilities or problems. The problems are-

a) Social Problems This problem pertained to the concept of purity and pollution.
The un-touchable are given very low position in the society. The highest caste Hindu
keep social distances from them. They neither touch them nor take any drink or food
at their door.
b) Religious problems Many schedule caste people are not allowed to enter in to
temples or shrines. The un-touchable are neither allowed to enter the temple nor
served by the Brahmins which means they have no right to worship to God in the
c) Economic Problems The S.C suffers from many economic problems. They are
not given proper record for their service. Even most of them do not have landed
property. They are not allowed to carry on any business as per their choice. The un-
touchable mostly clean the streets and undertake heavy cultural work. Mostly they
are landless labourers.
d) Public Disabilities The harijans have to face many public disabilities. They are
not allowed to use the public well, ponds, public transports as well as educational
institutions. This educational disabilities has kept them away from the main stream
for generations. Even today most of them are illiterates.

These are the major short-coming the schedule castes face in our country. But now the
government is taking several measures for their up-liftment.

Measures taken for the up-liftment of Schedule Castes

1) Constitutional Provision After Independence, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was made the
chairman of the drafting committee of our new constitutions. He was a SC person
himself. In order to bring development of STs and SCs he had recommended so
many steps. When the new constitutions came into force our country become a
democratic, secular, republic and a welfare state. Article-15 of our constitution give
the right to equality, which means every citizen of India can have access to all the
public places like wells, tanks, bathing ghats, religious places, educational institution

Article-17 abolish un-touchability from the Indian society, that has been declared as
an act of offence, that un-touchability offence act was passed in 1856. Soon after the
protection of civil right act was passed in parliament.

2) Reservation System Our democratic govt. has been taking a series of reservation
system for the development of the schedule caste and schedule tribe. Originally, it
was meant for 10 years but gradually by amendments of constitution system the
reservation are being extended from time to time. Seats have been reserve for the
SC in Panchayat Raj System. MLAs and MP elections, All types of services from
IAS to Class-IV also in promotion field. Special recruitment drives are arranged for
them have been organized from time to time for different govt. services as well as in
Army, Naval etc. In educational institutions both general as well as technical seats
are reserved for them.
3) Welfare Schemes Besides reservation policies, our government has been taking
various welfare schemes for the development of the SC. They are mainly belongs to
four categories i.e. State Plan, Central Sector and Centrally sponsored schemes,
Special central assistances, institutional finance etc.

The Central Govt. as well as State Govt. are taking several steps for up-liftment of
socio-economic life of SC. In each 54% plan special amount has been sanctioned to
materialize these welfare programmes.
SC Development Corporation have been constituted in different states and three
union territories. The main function of this corporation have been to mobilize credit
and loan facilities atleast at 20% of subsidy for income generating programme.

The Integrated Rural Development Programme (IRDP), Rural Landless Employment

Guarantee Programme (RLEGP) are providing housing facilities or micro-habitats or
Indira Awas Yojana to the STs and SCs. NREGS and IRDP are providing
assistance to them for setting of poultry and diary units. The Govt. is doing every
effort to improve their all round development. Supply of drinking water, electricity
facilities better transportation facilities through PMGSY. Above all through BPL card
System, they are provided with rice, kerosene, sugar and other basic necessities
even loan on credit @25% subsidy is sanctioned to them for income generating

Due to all the reservation policies they are getting educational, political, economical
service facilities in most of the Govt. sector as well as income of private sectors. No
doubt there is gradual improvement in this economics, social and political status.
The commissioners for SCs and STs development is working under this regard.
First of all the political leaders and administrators should have more sympathy and
responsibility for the implementation of all the welfare program and scheme for all
the department of SC(s) so that overall development of our country achieved.


Scheduled Tribes:
The tribal communities in India comprises an important dimension of the great Indian
Society. They are the earliest inhabitants of the country. So, they are called Adivasis or
Janajatis. The tribes in India live in different geographical territories mostly in hilly
forest region due to inaccessible nature of the tribal domain and hard topographic
conditions. They have developed their own culture, language and all other living style. In
modern India, the tribes are called Schedule Tribe (ST) Article-342 of our constitution
described about their rights and privilege.

There are three main tribal zones in our country such as North-eastern zone, central
zone and southern zone. The north eastern zone inhabit by Garo, Khasi, Naga, Kuki,
Chakama etc. The central zone is the territory between Ganga to Krishna river. It is
inhabited by Santal, Munda, Oram, Ho, Kandhas, Bondas etc. Most of the tribe belong
to our state. Southern Zone is inhabited by Malayan, Badga, Chinchu, Katka etc.

Basic Criteria:
(a) They have distinctive language, religious, belief and primitive culture.
(b) They have an isolated existence, no proximity to other communities.
(c) They are extremely backward economically, educationally, politically and socially.
Tribal Problems The main tribal problems are

a) Economic Problem Tribals mainly depend upon shifting cultivation and collection
of food from the forest, so their economic standard is very poor.
b) Social Problem They have many social problems like child marriage, bride price,
alimentation from the developed communities. This can be solved by careful
c) Language Problem All the tribal peoples speak different types of language which
is very difficult to understand by the outsiders.
d) Health Problem The health problems of the tribal give special attention. Many
tribal people die every year in cholera, malaria and other health related problems.
Modern health facilities are not available to them.
e) Educational Problem Educationally they are very backward. In fact lack of
education is the main reason behind their backwardness.


During 200 years of British rule almost no step was taken for the tribal up-liftment. Only
a few Christian missionaries had taken certain steps for their educational and health
improvement. But their main intension was to spread Christianity. In 1938 one Thakkar
Commission was appointed to report on the tribal people. But its recommendation
could not be implemented due to the outbreak of the 2 nd World War.

Measures taken by the Government for their Upliftment:-

Government of free India has being giving special care and attention for the overall
development of the tribal people. Special rule and regulation have been formulated by
the constitution of India under the chairmanship of Dr. B.R.Ambedkar. Separately
allocated welfare and development measures have been introduced and execute both
by our central government as well as state govt. for our tribal communities. They are

a) Constitutional Safe-guard The constitutions of India particularly by Article 342

lays down that the president by public notification can specify the tribes of tribal
communities as Schedule Tribes Article 164, 244 & 275 describe about the grant of
special fund by the union government for the welfare of the scheduled tribes.

b) Reservation in Panchayat Raj Systems and other Electic under Article 330 and
332 of our constitutions seats has been reserved for the scheduled tribes in
Parliament, State Legislation, Assemblies, Zilla Parisad, Panchayat Samiti and Gram
Panchayat, so that they can putforth their own grievances better.
c) Reservation in Service Government has made provision for adequate
representations of the tribes in different jobs such as,
Relaxation in Age limit
Relaxation in Educational qualification
Relaxation in Qualifying examination
Special recruitment tribes and
Better promotion facilities

d) Commissioners for SC / STs:- Under Article 338 one special commissioner a

special commissioner has been appointed by the President of India. The main duty
of the commissioner are to investigate all the matters for tribal development and to
report the President on working of different central government measures.

e) Tribal Advisory Council There is a tribal advisory council on each of the States
having tribal population, like Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, M.P, Odisha, Rajasthan and
West Bengal. The council advice the government on matters concerning tribal

f) Welfare Departmental States Under Article 164 schedule tribes welfare

departments have been set up in different state of the country. Their main function is
to carry out all the developmental schemes and to look out on the proper utilization
of the tribal funds.

g) Educational Facilities All the State Govt. providing special educational facilities to
the tribal people. Emphasis is given on vocational and technical trainings. Stipends,
scholarships, books and other equipments are provided. Residential schools and
colleges have been set up.

h) Agricultural Opportunities Allocation or allotment of forest land, irrigation

facilities, loan facilities have been provided to them, cattle bearing and poultry
farming are also being encouraged among the tribes, multipurpose cooperative
societies are helping a lot in this regard.

Besides all these measures, government has established tribal development

corporation all round the country to find out their problem and to solve them. Special
programme and funds have being sanctioned in each and every 5 years plan for
different tribal development schemes. We hope in the coming years, much more can
be achieved in this regard.


In the pre-independent period Indian women had to suffer a number of disabilities

like lack of education seclusion, polygamy, child marriage etc. Education was
defined to them as it was considered the loss and dignity of a family. They had no
right to their parental property. They were neglected in all respects in comparison to
their male counterpart.

During the British period, the East India Company government had taken certain
steps in the matters of education, socio-political rights, improve the status of Indian
women in various ways. Urbanization, industrialization and development of modern
transport and communication system brought certain development among the Indian
women. The Christian missionaries took interest in the education of the girls. Girls
schools were established in Mumbai, Kolkata and other urban centers by 1882 they
were allowed for higher education.

All the revival movement like the Brahmas Samaj of Raja Ram Mohan Roy, Arya
Samaj of Dayananda Saraswati, Ram Krishna Mission of Vivekananda demanded
for all round up-liftment of Indian women. As a result, the British govt. passed a
number of laws in favour of women. For example, Abolition of Sati System (1830),
Widow remarriage act 1956, Abolition of Child Marriage and Civil marriage Act 1872.

Ishwar Chandra Vidhya Sagar, Maharshi Karve, Anne Besant, Aparna Basu, M K
Gandhi had done a lot for the improvement of Indian Women.

Status of Women After Independence:

The government of free India has been giving much more priority towards women
empowerment. As per the fundamental rights of our constitution, we are enjoying the
equality of sex. So, in every sector women are treated with men. There is no
degradation and subjugation of Indian women. They are enjoying all the rights and
liberties according Article-14, 15, 16 of our Constitutions.

A series of laws have been passed by our Govt. for women up-liftment such as the
Hindu Marriage Act of 1955, the Hindu succession Act of 1946, the Hindu women Right
to Property Act 1973, Dowry prohibition Act 1961, Equal Remuneration Act 1976 etc.

Women Empowerment:

Women empowerment refers to increase the political, social and economic strength of
women. It means developing confidence in their own capacities. Empowerment is
probably the totality of the following capabilities:-

a) Having decision making power of their own

b) Having access to information and resources for taking proper decision
c) Ability to exercise collective decision making
d) Ability to learn skills for improving ones personality or group power.
e) Involving in the growth process.
f) Increasing ones positive self-image and overcoming stigmas.

Women in India new political in all activities such as education, politics, sports, media,
art and culture, service sectors, science and technology. The constitution of India
guarantees all Indian women equality by Article 14, Equality of opportunity by Article 16,
Equal pay for equal work by Article 39, Special favour for women and children by Article
15(3), maternity relief by Article 42.

The feminist activism in India picked up momentum during 1970s and continuing to
these days, female activists united over issues such as female infanticide, gender bias,
women health, dowry system, women literacy etc. since alcoholism is often associated
with violence against women in India, many women groups launched anti-liquor
campaign in Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Odisha, Madhya Pradesh and other states.
Many Indian Muslim women have launched their campaign against orthodox shariat
laws. They have criticized the triple talaq system and burkha system.

1990 onwards many new women non-govt. organization, self-help groups and SEWA,
self-employed women association have been working all over the country. Many
women leaders like Medha Patekar of Narmada Bachao Andoloan. The Govt. of India
declared 2001 as the year of Womens empowerment (Nari Shakti Karan).

Unless women are supported and empowered the overall benefit or improvement of the
society is impossible. Fortunately the various steps and programmes are undertaken
both by the government as well as private agencies or NGOs have produced
tremendous impact. The micro-finance programmes HIV/AIDs awareness programmes,
gender inequality, workshop womens leadership workshops are working under in this
regard. At present a lot of talk is going on in all state assemblies and union parliament
regarding the introduction of womens reservation bill, when that will pass a new age will
be ushered in the sphere of women empowerment.



A Nation is a country with unified socio-cultural sector. A nation denotes a body of
people who have a feeling of oneness. The feeling of oneness is built on the basis of
common history, society and culture.
National integration is a process by which divisive people and culture as synthesized
into a unified whole or unity. Our country India is inhabited by people of different
communities, languages, religion, culture etc. But underlying all these diversities we feel
that we are Indians. In fact our nation exhibits unity in diversity, which has been our
motto over these years.

National integration is a positive aspect. It reduces socio-cultural, religious and

economic differences or inequalities and strengthens national unity and solidarity, which
is not imposed by any authority. People share ideas, values and emotional bonds. It is
feeling of unity within diversity. Cultural unity, constitutions, parliament, common
economic system at literature, glorious history, national festival, national flag, emblem,
national anthem etc. promote national integration.

Challenges to National Integration:

The National unity and integration or the feeling of oneness is hurt by religious, lingual,
regional loyalties. On many occasions, communal outlook lingual favour and regional
loyalty pose a serious threat by our national integration. So, communalism, linguisim
and religionism are the main challenge before our national integration.

(a) Communalism :
Communalism means placing ones own community or religion above others, eve above
the nation. The people of different religion live in our country. We have Hindus, Muslims,
Sikh, Christians, Buddhist and Jains in our country. They all celebrate their own
festivals. Our government and our state is a secular one. It does not give any
importance to any particular religion or community. It is for all the people in the
community. But the term communalism has always been used in a negative,
destructive and harmful sense. Religious fundamentalism and fanaticism practiced by
some people in different communities pose a serious threat to our national integration.

Unfortunately our country has witnessed ugly sense of communal riots or many
occasion. Massive communal riots are taken place. 1946 and 1947 at the time of
partition of our country, similarly, in 1984 Hindu-Sikh riot after the assercination of
Srimati Indira Gandhi. The Hindu Muslim riot of 1992 after the demolition of Babri
Mosque and again in 2002 Godhra Riot and more recently in our state Hindu Christian
Riot in Kandhamal District following the murder of Swami laxmananda Saraswati one
some of the glory examples of communal riots.

In the wake of communal riots, we forget our national identity and starts behaving as
fantastic. We breed / hatred and jealously towards the people of other religion. We
damage the life and property of other religious group which cause a lot of damage to
our national unity and integration.
(b) Linguism:-
Linguism is excessive love and bias in favour of people who speak a particular
language. You might have not met people speaking hindi, Bengali, Kannada, Telugu,
Malayalam, Marathi, Gujurati etc. So, India is a multilingual nation. According to our
constitution, we have 18 scheduled languages. Hindu is our national language, Sanskrit
is the oldest language of our country. English is the international language. Most of the
educated Indians speak and write English.

In the past, we have seen controversy over language between the North Indians and
South Indians regarding the introduction of Hindi as our national language. Of course,
gradually the situation is changing and the popularity of Hindi is increasing all over the
country. Hindi Movies and Serials are playing a major role in this regard.

Language and culture are inseparable. Language is the carrier of culture. It carries
culture from one generation to the next. But in our country, very often we find conflict
over the relative status of language. This parochial tendency destroys the feelings of
national integration. Our country has witnessed lingual riots in Tamil Nadu in 1964 and
1967. This is how linguism like communalism is a threat to national integration.

(c) Geographical & Topographic:

India is a very vast country, seventh largest in the world. While we have snowy
mountains in the north, hot and hurried in the south, cherapunji in the east is the largest
rainfall area in the world. Exactly in the opposite we have Thar Desert in Rajasthan. This
vastness of the country and different climatic condition act as a barrier to our national
unity and integration.

(d) Regionalism
Regionalism is a feeling of pride and loyalty that people belonging to a region have. It is
sometimes associated with a feeling of superiority of belonging to one region as
compared to those belonging to other region. They feel proud of their language, culture
and other socio-economic interest. But this kind of regional loyalty is a danger to
national loyalty. This is a negative feeling towards national unity and integration. It
demands regional autonomy, even sometimes for the creation of a new state.

The regional political parties demands for the creation of separate state are based on
narrow personal interest. In the post independent period, we have seen in Punjab a lot
of bloodshed and terroristic activities demanding a separate state Khalistan by most of
the Sikhs. Even our late Prime Minister Mrs. Indira Gandhi was assassinated by two of
her Sikh body-guard. Similarly in Assam the Ulfa terrorist (United Liberation Front of
Assam), demanding a separate state of Bodo Land carried on a lot of killing and
These are all provocated by our neighbouring enemy countries like Pakistan, China,
Bangladesh etc. All this factor together creating a lot of obstacle on the way of our
national unity and integration. Yet we have been able to preserve it over these years.