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Building

Services - III

AIR CONDITIONING

Process of altering the properties of air

Dhruvin Paresh Soni


Fourth Year Professor
B.Arch Asmita College of
Architecture
Definition : It is the conditioning of the air in which the air is treated for cooling,
heating, scenting, filtering or moving is termed as air conditioning.
(If any of the above treatments or all are carried out it an be termed as air
conditioning)

*NOTE: In tropical climate heat is a dominant factor and thus removal of heat is
understood as air conditioning

Air Conditioning MECHANICAL CLIMATE CONTROL FOR INTERIOR SPACE

Air conditioning for people is the control of temperature, humidity, air


movement and air cleanliness, normally with mechanical means, to

achieve human thermal comfort or to achieve comfortable


interior habitat conditions

Dhruvin Paresh Soni


Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
Functions of Air-conditioning:
Air-conditioning is a climate control. It involves
control of:

i) Temperature
ii) Humidity
iii) Ventilation
iv) Dust
v) Noise

Dhruvin Paresh Soni


Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
i ) Temperature

By air-conditioning control, i.e. temperature control, desired cooling as well as


heating can be controlled.

Heat and Temperature:


During noon the sun radiations are perpendicular to the building
foot print. The chhajjas provided are cutting down the entry of heat. But at
afternoon or before noon, the inclined sun rays are entering into the building
interior spaces through various openings. These radiations are putting load over
air-conditioning systems.

Dhruvin Paresh Soni


Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
Heat Reduction through Window

The reduction in heat radiation through window can be achieved, thus the
electricity consumption for cooling can be reduced.

Features Heat Reduction


Heat absorbing glass 25%
Stain glass 30% to 50%
Double glazing 10% to 20%
Venation blinds (inside) 35%
Reflecting film (inside) 40% to 60%
Projection of chhajja 70%

Dhruvin Paresh Soni


Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
The solar heat penetrates through walls and roofs also. The wall and ceiling penetration
can be minimized by providing fibre glass and Spintex Thermocole on the inside wall
or ceiling. The roof penetration can be minimized by providing brick bat coba on the terrace
with proper water-proofing treatment and by providing a 15 cm thick layer of soil.

The heat reduction gained by insulation is as follows:

Thickness of Insulation Element Reduction


2.5 cm wall 45%
5.0 cm wall 62%
7.5 cm wall 70%
2.5 cm ceiling 55%
5.0 cm ceiling 68%
7.5 cm ceiling 74%
10.0 cm ceiling 76%

Dhruvin Paresh Soni


Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
Comfortable Interior Temperature:
Everybody has his own idea of comfortable temperature, but considering
a normal healthy person and density of crowd, following data gives the idea of
comfortable temperatures.

Interior Spaces Temperature


Office/ Club/ Lounge/ Reception 24.5 C
Residence/ Hotel Room/ Guest House 24.0 C
Shops/ super Markets/ Cinema Halls/ public Places 23.5 C
Major Operation Theatres 21.0 C
Computer Rooms/ Laboratories 22.0 C
Special buildings labs, health care, etc 16.0 C to 20.0 C
It can be safely said that the accepted comfortable temperature under normal
working conditions is between 21.0 C to 25.0 C

Dhruvin Paresh Soni


Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
ii) Humidity Control:

For body comfort a certain level of humidity is essential. Humidity control is also
essential for smooth running machinery, which is specified in the catalogues of
machines.
Humidity is the amount of moisture in air and it varies from place to place; and
time to time. Monsoon is more humid than winter. Wet humidity is found near the sea
and during rainy season. Dry humidity is found away from the sea, and near thick
vegetation.

Dehumidification:
Excess of humidity leads to body discomfort. So removing the moisture from
the interior space is called dehumidification. This is accomplished by refrigeration or
by chemical process, achieving 25% to 45% success. By increasing number of rows of
cooling coils, the humidity decreases. Air-conditioning provides 45% to 60% relative
humidity.

Dhruvin Paresh Soni


Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
Relative Humidity:
Humidity is expressed in percentage as a ratio of the amount of moisture in
air to the amount that would saturate it at the same temperature. This is called
relative humidity.

The desirable levels of Relative Humidity are as follows:

Factors/ Interior Spaces Desired Relative Humidity

Human comfort 55 +/- 5%


Pharmaceutical (coating/ processing) 45 +/- 5%
Computer and allied equipment's 50 +/- 5%
Spinning and weaving 65 +/- 5%

It can be safely said that the accepted relative humidity under normal working
conditions is between 45% to 65 %

Dhruvin Paresh Soni


Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
iii) Ventilation

Ventilation Air Movement & Air Change

Certain interior spaces can be locked air tight with no provision for natural ventilation. All humans
require fresh air continuous supply of oxygen to feel fresh and comfortable
In the window unit AC, the inside air is circulated, so it is recommended to open the windows for the entry
of fresh air when AC is not in use.

Air-change:

Changing the entire volume of air with outside fresh air in a cycle of one hour is
termed as one air-change.

Dhruvin Paresh Soni


Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
Recommended air-changes for various premises are as follows:

Interior Spaces Air-change


Office, Residence, Mini-computer, Hotel, Restaurants, 1
Clubs, Shops, Saloons
Parlour, Lobby, Computer Suite, Class Room, etc 2
Board Room, Cinema, Bar, Intensive Care Ward 3
Major Operation Theatre 13 to 15

Rate of air change for different areas are as follows

Storeroom 1 or 2
Living room 3 to 4
Kitchens 5 to 6
Bedroom 2 to 3

Dhruvin Paresh Soni


Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
iv) Dust Control
Comfortable Air Quality:
Air Cleanliness
Suspended particles in air, out of which some are even invisible to human eye, are
called dust.

Since most air conditioned spaces are air-tight, the entry of dust through windows is
minimum. But dust can also enter through door openings and human bodies.

In industrial premises various type of dust is produced. A times there is a possibility of


smoke and fumes depending upon the activities taking place in the interior space.

All dust particles, smoke, etc are unwanted and need to be controlled . The air locks
also help to reduce the entry of dust

Ventilation involves supply of fresh air, cleaning of the air entering the premises, its
circulation, distribution and exhaust

Dhruvin Paresh Soni


Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
iv) Noise Control

The noise level of more than 50 dB is considered as noise. Most AC interiors are air-
tight, hence noise is protected. In such premises noise can penetrate through ducting
and other features.

Dhruvin Paresh Soni


Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
Cooling

Heating
Dhruvin Paresh Soni
Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
Heat Shock

Dhruvin Paresh Soni


Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
Details to be furnished by an a/c consultant

1. Volume
2. Use of the area
3. Number of people expected
4. Type of activity
5. Number of light fitting and equipment (computer, fax machine, TV sets)
6. Orientation of the room
7. Size of the opening and details
8. Heat gain through walls
9. Temperature difference between outside and inside.
10. Thermal conductivity of the wall.
11. Paneling
12. Floor of the room.
13. The type of use in the neighboring room.
14. Location of that site. (In terms latitude and climatic region)

Dhruvin Paresh Soni


Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
Dhruvin Paresh Soni
Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
Dhruvin Paresh Soni
Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
Fundamental Working of Air Conditioning Systems

1. The vapours at low temperature and pressure enter the compressor, where they are
compressed which raises their temperature as well as pressure.

2. The vapours after leaving the compressor enter condenser, where they are condensed
into high pressure liquid.

3. This high pressure liquid now passes through expansion valve, where it is throttled
down to low pressure and low temperature.

4. Finally it passes on the evaporator, where it absorbs heat from the surrounding and is
again vapourized to start the next cycle.
Dhruvin Paresh Soni
Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
Dhruvin Paresh Soni
Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
LEGEND

Window Air conditioner Supply Air Fan

Air Filter

R E
o x
o t Cooling Coil

m e
r
i Compressor
o
r Condenser Fan

Condenser coil

Return Air (around 24deg C or room temp)

Building Cold Air (SupplyDhruvin


Air aroundParesh Soni
15 deg C)
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING
Ambient Air (varies depending on Location)
Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
Hot Air discharged into the atmosphere
Split Air conditioner
Package Air conditioner

Liquid Refrigerant

Hot Gas (Refrigerant)


E
R x Low pressure Gas
o (Refrigerant)
t
o e
m r Indoor Unit
i
o
r Outdoor Unit

Dhruvin Paresh Soni


Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
Variable Refrigerant Volume (VRV) System or Variable Speed Compressor
Variable Refrigerant Flow (VRF)System
Constant Speed Compressor

One Outdoor unit


connected
To multiple indoor units

Example
Calculated Load = 10TR
Compressor capacity = 5TR
Compressor capacity = 5TR
Actual
Load
10TR 5TR 5TR
7.5TR 5TR 2.5TR
6TR 5TR 1TR
5TR 0TR 5TR
4TR 0TR 4TR

Dhruvin Paresh Soni


Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
VRV System (is also a split AC system)

Split AC system VRV system


One outdoor unit to one indoor unit One outdoor unit for multiple indoor
units
Total load of 10 units will be the sum Total load of 10 units will be 70 to 80%.
total. Electric power required is as per So electric power is 20 30 % less
10 units

Not very efficient Lower running costs for the same


tonnage
Initial costs are very low Initial costs are high

Dhruvin Paresh Soni


Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
Dhruvin Paresh Soni
Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture
Dhruvin Paresh Soni
Building
Professor
Services III AIR CONDITIONING Asmita College of
Fourth Year B.Arch Architecture