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Diatomaceous earth

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A sample of diatomaceous earthDiatomaceous earth (pronounced /ˌdaɪ.ətɵˌmeɪʃəs ˈɜrθ/) also known as


diatomite or kieselgur, is a naturally occurring, soft, siliceous sedimentary rock that is easily crumbled
into a fine white to off-white powder. It has a particle size ranging from less than 1 micron to more than
1 millimeter, but typically 10 to 200 microns.[1] This powder has an abrasive feel, similar to pumice
powder, and is very light, due to its high porosity. The typical chemical composition of oven dried
diatomaceous earth is 80 to 90% silica, with 2 to 4% alumina (attributed mostly to clay minerals) and
0.5 to 2% iron oxide.[1]

Diatomaceous earth consists of fossilized remains of diatoms, a type of hard-shelled algae. It is used as
a filtration aid, as a mild abrasive, as a mechanical insecticide, as an absorbent for liquids, as cat litter,
as an activator in blood clotting studies, and as a component of dynamite. As it is also heat-resistant, it
can be used as a thermal insulator.

Contents [hide]
1 Geology and occurrence
1.1 Formation
1.2 Discovery
1.3 Extraction and storage sites in the Lüneburg Heath
1.4 Other deposits
2 Applications
2.1 Industrial
2.2 Filtration
2.3 Abrasive
2.4 Pest control
2.5 Absorbent
2.6 Thermal
2.7 DNA purification
2.8 Use in agriculture
2.8.1 Hydroponics
2.8.2 Marker in livestock nutrition experiments
3 Specific varieties
4 Climatologic importance
5 Safety considerations
6 See also
7 References
8 External links

[edit] Geology and occurrence


[edit] Formation
Diatomite forms by the accumulation of the amorphous silica (opal, SiO2·nH2O) remains of dead
diatoms (microscopic single-celled algae) in lacustrine or marine sediments. The fossil remains consist
of a pair of symmetrical shells or frustules.[1]

[edit] Discovery
In 1836 or 1837, the peasant and goods waggoner, Peter Kasten,[2] discovered kieselgur when sinking
a well on the northern slopes of the Haußelberg hill, in the Lüneburg Heath in north Germany. Initially,
it was thought that limestone had been found, which could be used as fertiliser. They even tried baking
pancakes with it, because it resembled cornmeal. Alfred Nobel used the properties of kieselgur in the
manufacture of dynamite. The Celle engineer, Wilhelm Berkefeld, recognised its ability to filter, and
developed 'filter candles' fired from kieselgur.[3] During the cholera epidemic in Hamburg in 1892,
these Berkefeld filters were used successfully.

[edit] Extraction and storage sites in the Lüneburg Heath


Neuohe - Abbau from 1863 to 1994
Wiechel from 1871 to 1978
Hützel from 1876 to 1969
Hösseringen from ca. 1880 to 1894
Hammerstorf from ca. 1880 to 1920
Oberohe from 1884 to 1970
Schmarbeck from 1896 to ca. 1925
Steinbeck from 1897 to 1928
Breloh from 1907 to 1975
Schwindebeck from 1913 to 1975
Hetendorf from 1970 to 1994
The deposits are up to 28 metres thick and are all of freshwater kieselgur.

ca. 1900–1910 Kieselgur pit at Neuohe


ca.1900–1910 a drying area: one firing pile is being prepared; another is under way
1913 Staff at the Neuohe factory, with workers and a female cook in front of a drying shed

Until the First World War almost the entire worldwide production of kieselgur was from this region.

[edit] Other deposits


In Germany kieselgur was also extracted at Altenschlirf [4] on the Vogelsberg (Upper Hesse) and at
Klieken [5] (Saxony-Anhalt).

There is a layer of kieselgur up to 4 metres thick in the nature reserve of Soos in the Czech Republic.

In Colorado and in Clark, Nevada (USA), there are deposits that are up to several hundred metres thick
in places.

Sometimes kieselgur is found on the surface in deserts. Research has shown that the erosion of
kieselgur in such areas (such as the Bodélé Depression in the Sahara) is one of the most important
sources of climate-affecting dust in the atmosphere.

The commercial deposits of diatomite are restricted to Tertiary or Quaternary periods. Older deposits
from as early as the Cretaceous Period are known, but are of low quality.[6] Marine deposits have been
worked in the Lompoc area of Santa Barbara County, California and along the southern California
coast. Additional marine deposits have been worked in Maryland, Virginia, Algeria and the MoClay of
Denmark. Fresh water lake deposits occur in Nevada, Oregon, Washington and California. Lake
deposits also occur in interglacial lakes in the eastern US and Canada and in Europe in Germany,
France, Denmark and the Czech Republic. The worldwide association of diatomite deposits and
volcanic deposits suggests that the availability of silica from volcanic ash may be needed for thick
diatomite deposits.[6]
[edit] Applications
[edit] Industrial
In 1866, Alfred Nobel discovered that nitroglycerin could be made much more stable if absorbed in
diatomite. This allows much safer transport and handling than nitroglycerin in its raw form. He
patented this mixture as dynamite in 1867, and the mixture is also referred to as guhr dynamite.

[edit] Filtration

Individual diatom cell walls often maintain their shape even in commercially processed filter media,
such as this one for swimming poolsThe most common use (68%)[citation needed] of diatomaceous
earth is as a filter medium, especially for swimming pools. It has a high porosity, because it is
composed of microscopically-small, coffin-like, hollow particles. It is used in chemistry under the
brand name Celatom or Celite as a filtration aid, to filter very fine particles that would otherwise pass
through or clog filter paper. It is also used to filter water, particularly in the drinking water treatment
process and in fish tanks, and other liquids, such as beer and wine. It can also filter syrups and sugar.
Other industries such as paper, paints, ceramics, soap and detergents use it as a fulling material.

[edit] Abrasive

Live marine diatoms from Antarctica (magnified)The oldest use of diatomite is as a very mild abrasive
and, for this purpose, it has been used both in toothpaste and in metal polishes, as well as in some facial
scrubs.

[edit] Pest control


Diatomite is also used as an insecticide, due to its physico-sorptive properties. The fine powder absorbs
lipids from the waxy outer layer of insects' exoskeletons, causing them to dehydrate[7]. Arthropods die
as a result of the water pressure deficiency, based on Fick's law of diffusion. This also works against
gastropods and is commonly employed in gardening to defeat slugs. However, since slugs inhabit
humid environments, efficacy is very low. It is sometimes mixed with an attractant or other additives to
increase its effectiveness. Medical-grade diatomite is sometimes used to de-worm both animals and
humans. It is most commonly used in lieu of boric acid, and can be used to help control and eventually
eliminate a cockroach infestation. This material has wide application for insect control in grain storage.
[8]

[edit] Absorbent
Its absorbent qualities make it useful for spill clean-up and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control
recommends it to clean up toxic liquid spills. These qualities also lend themselves to use in facial
masks to absorb excess oils.

It has been employed as a primary ingredient in a type of cat litter. The type of silica used in cat litter
comes from freshwater sources and does not pose a significant health risk to pets or humans.

[edit] Thermal
Its thermal properties enable it to be used as the barrier material in some fire resistant safes. It is also
used in evacuated powder insulation for use with cryogenics.[9] Diatomaceous earth powder is inserted
into the vacuum space to aid in the effectiveness of vacuum insulation.

[edit] DNA purification


Diatomite (Celite) can be used for the removal of DNA in the presence of a highly concentrated
chaotropic agent such as sodium iodide, guanidinium hydrochloride and guanidinium thiocyanate. As
with other silicates, the diatomites will remove double stranded DNA but not RNA or proteins. The
DNA can be extracted from the diatomites using low ionic strength buffers, including water, at neutral
to slightly alkaline pH. Crude diatomites of a uniform size must first be washed in a heated acid such as
5M HCl[10]. Calcination can further improve consistency of the material, while mild caustic treatment
may improve adsorption with lower levels of chaotrophs.

[edit] Use in agriculture


Natural freshwater diatomaceous earth is used in agriculture for grain storage as an anticaking agent, as
well as an insecticide.[11] It is approved by the US Department of Agriculture as a feed supplement.

It is also used as a neutral anthelmintic (dewormer). Some farmers add it to their livestock and poultry
feed to improve the health of animals.[12] "Food Grade Diatomaceous Earth" is widely available in
agricultural feed supply stores. It is acceptable as organic feed additive for livestock.

[edit] Hydroponics
Freshwater diatomite can be used as a growing medium in hydroponic gardens.

It is also used as a growing medium in potted plants, particularly as bonsai soil. Bonsai enthusiasts use
it as a soil additive, or pot a bonsai tree in 100% diatomaceous earth. Like perlite, vermiculite, and
expanded clay, it retains water and nutrients, while draining fast and freely, allowing high oxygen
circulation within the growing medium.

[edit] Marker in livestock nutrition experiments


Natural diatomaceous earth (dried, not calcined) is regularly used in livestock nutrition research as a
source of acid insoluble ash (AIA), which is used as an indigestible marker. By measuring the content
of AIA relative to nutrients in test diets and feces or digesta sampled from the terminal ileum (last third
of the small intestine) the percentage of that nutrient digested can be calculated using the following
equation:

% Nutrient Digestibility = (1 - (% Nutrientfeces/digesta / % Nutrientfeed) X (% AIAfeed / %


AIAfeces/digesta)) X 100

Natural diatomaceous earth (freshwater) is preferred by many researchers over chromic oxide, which
has been widely used for the same purpose, but which is also a known carcinogen and therefore a
potential hazard to research personnel.

[edit] Specific varieties


Tripolite is the variety found in Tripoli, Libya.
Bann clay is the variety found in the Lower Bann valley in Northern Ireland.
Moler (Mo-clay) is the variety found in northwestern Denmark, especially on the islands of Fur and
Mors.
Perma-Guard is the type most often used in US agriculture for grain storage, and as feed supplement.
[edit] Climatologic importance
The Earth's climate is affected by dust in the atmosphere, so locating major sources of atmospheric dust
is important for climatology. Recent research indicates that surface deposits of diatomaceous earth play
an important role. For instance, the largest single atmospheric dust source is the Bodélé depression in
Chad, where storms push diatomite gravel over dunes, generating dust by abrasion.[13]
[edit] Safety considerations
The absorbent qualities of diatomite can result in a significant drying of the hands if handled without
gloves. The flux-calcined form contains a highly crystalline form of silica, resulting in sharp edges. The
sharpness of this version of the material makes it dangerous to breathe and a dust mask is
recommended when working with it.

The type of hazard posed by inhalation depends on the form of the silica. Crystalline silica poses a
serious inhalation hazard because it can cause silicosis. Amorphous silica can cause dusty lungs, but
does not carry the same degree of risk as crystalline silica. Natural or dried diatomite generally contains
very low percentages of crystalline silica. Diatomite produced for pool filters is treated with high heat
(calcining) and a fluxing agent (soda ash), causing the formerly amorphous silicon dioxide to assume
its crystalline form.

The crystalline silica content of the dusts particulate is regulated in the United States by the
Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), and there are guidelines for the maximum
amounts allowable in the product and in the air near the breathing zone of workers.[14]

[edit] See also


Biomineralization
Diatom
Fuller's earth
Perlite
[edit] References
1.^ a b c Antonides1, Lloyd E., Diatomite, 1997, U.S.G.S.
http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/diatomite/250497.pdf
2.^ http://www.humboldt-foundation.de/kosmos/kultur/2001_002.htm + Heinrich Küsel „Der Speicher

DIATOMACEOUS EARTH: A Non Toxic Pesticide


MACDONALD J. 47( 2): 14, 42 (May, 1986)
by Professor Stuart B. Hill
Department of Entomology and
Ecological Agriculture Projects
For centuries stored grain has been protected from insect attack in much of the less developed world by
adding some form of powder or dust to it. Common materials include plant ash. lime. dolomite. certain
types of soil, and diatomaceous earth (DE) or Kieselguhr.

With me introduction of synthetic pesticides in the 1940s, and modern fumigants some time later, it
was felt that a scientific solution to pest problems had been found. Although tnese materials provided
enormous local benefits. a number of problems are beginning to be recognized. These include the
development of resistance by insects. pollution of the environment. contamination of foodstuffs with
residues, and exposure of users to toxic chemicals. This has led a small group of researchers and
developers .to look again at the different powders to see which are most effective and how they can be
improved.

Probably the most effective naturally occurring protective powder is diatomaceous earth. This is a
geological deposit made up of the fossilized skeletons and tests of siliceous marine and fresh water
organisms, particularly diatoms and other algae. These skeletons are made of hydrated amorphous
silica or opal. When crushed, they break up into tiny pieces of glass'' (so tiny that the material feels like
talcum powder). This is easily picked up by the hairy bodies of most Insects. whereupon it scratches
through their protective wax layers; and they also absorb some of this material. the result being that the
insects lose water rapidly . dry up and die Further protection is provided by the powder's property of
repelling many insects. A similar principle probably accounts for the fact that birds frequently take dust
baths, presumably to rid themselves of parasites.

Although patents for diatomaceous earth formulations were issued in the United States in the late 1800s
it was not until the 1950s that the first commercial formulations of it became widely available, and
between 1963 and 1970 a series of studies on DE were conducted by the U.S. Department of
Agriculture.

In several tests, DE gave better protection of grain than malathion, particularly over the long term,
without exposing anyone to the dangers of toxic chemicals. At that time relatively large amounts of DE
were added to grain to provide protection, e.g., 3-1/2 kg/tonne. The main problem with using this
amount was that it tended to make the grain very dusty and it reduced its flow rate and test weight.

Today this problem has been greatly reduced through the use of improved DE formulations that contain
baits and attractants. Such formulations have been developed and tested in Quebec through the
collaborative work of Mr. Arthur Carle (P.l.P. Products Inc., 2721 Plamondon, Longueuil, Que., J4L
lSl) and myself. Using NCr, one of these formulations, as little as 0.5 kg/tonne may provide full
protection. Despite this, very little grain in Canada is treated with these DE formulations. One of the
main reasons for this is that present regulations prevent the adding of any powder to grain destined for
export. Until such rules are changed the full potential of DE will not be realized. This is especially
frustrating in the case of grain going to developing countries as aid. While this grain may be pest-free
when it leaves Canada, it is often rapidly invaded by insects when it reaches its Third World
destination. It is not uncommon for 20 per cent of this grain to be subsequently lost to pests. If DE had
been added prior to export, however, it would have been protected indefinitely. Fortunately, DE can be
added to domestic grain as long as it doesn't pass through licensed elevators. It can also be used in
grain and food handling and storage areas such as flour mills, empty grain bins, box cars, ships' holds,
warehouses, food processing plants, etc.

In houses it can be used effectively to prevent the entry of certain insects such as earwigs, ants, and
cockroaches, and to control these and others that are present in cupboards containing food, carpets,
basements, attics, window ledges, pet areas (for fleas), etc. In all of these examples it is important to
place a small amount of the powder in corners, cracks, crevices. and other areas where insects might
hide.

Whereas with a contact pesticide the insect dies quite quickly, with DE control may take several days.
The more important difference is that the effect of the protection provided by the chemical is short-
lived. whereas DE will control the pests as long as the powder remains. In this respect DE is an ideal
pesticide; it is residual but nontoxic. The only health precautions that need to be taken are that if large
areas are being treated with a power duster, the applicator should wear a mask to prevent inhalation.
Because DE is made of silica, people sometimes mistakenly think that DE causes silicosis. As indicated
above, however, pesticide quality DE is usually over 97 per cent amorphous silica, which does not
cause silicosis, which is associated only with crystalline silica. Indeed, inhalation of road dust and grain
dust IS likely to be more harmful than DE.

In the field DE has potential in certain restricted uses such as treating the bark of fruit trees in spring
using an electrostatic duster, or the roots of plants when transplanting: but because it is non-selective
and also kills beneficial insects, its use here should be carefully controlled.

Another use is in animal production units for the control of external parasites and flies. This is achieved
by dusting the animals and the litter or bedding area. It has also been included in the diet (two per cent
in the grain ration) to control certain internal parasites, and this practice is said to result in lower fly
populations in the resulting manure.

In the future, improvements in the formulation of DE to reduce dustiness and more effectively lure
insects to it to ensure their rapid exposure will no doubt extend its use. In the meantime, it is perhaps
the safest effective pesticide for use in the home and has a valuable place in the protection of stored
food and control of insects in animal production units.

DE may be purchased in Quebec from Chemfree Environment. Inc. (514-630-4400), and from garden
centres.

Copyright © 1986 Ecological Agriculture Projects

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WHAT IS DIATOMACEOUS EARTH?

Diatomaceous earth (DE) is the remains of microscopic one-celled plants (phytoplankton) called
diatoms that lived in the oceans and lakes that once covered the western part of the US and other parts
of the world. Diatoms (algae) are the grass of the oceans and lakes. Just as grass is the staple food of
earth animals, diatoms are the food of the ocean or fresh water grazers. Magnified 7000 times,
diatomaceous earth looks like spiny honeycombs. Diatomaceous earth is mined from underwater beds
or from ancient dried lake bottoms thousands of years old. This means, diatomaceous earth has an
unlimited shelf life provided you keep it dry.

Diatomaceous earth is mined, milled, and processed into a myriad of types for a large variety of uses.
Filtering and filler are two main uses but diatomaceous earth also ends up in paints, cosmetics, drugs,
chemical insecticides, etc. Because the milling produces different sized and shaped particles, it is
important not to use the filtering type for agricultural purposes.
Pool filter grade diatomaceous earth has been heat and chemically treated and will poison an animal or
human who ingests it, so it is always of utmost importance to only obtain food grade diatomaceous
earth to use in and around your household. Our diatomaceous earth is organic OMRI listed Food
Chemical Codex Grade. It is a non-treated, non-calcined fresh water Diatomaceous Earth. It comes
from fresh water lake beds and is mined, crushed, sifted, bagged, pure white in color and contains less
than .5% crystalline silica. There are food grade diatomaceous earth products that are yellow or tan in
color which indicates higher iron content. Those which are gray in color contain more clay.

DE is EPA approved:

- To be mixed with grains to control meal worms as well as other pests and has been exempted from
tolerance requirements as an inert, inactive ingredient in chemical pesticides

- For treatment of indoor and outdoor crawling insects

DE is USDA approved:

- As an anti-caking agent for animal feed

DE is FDA approved:

- For internal and external use and has a rating of food chemical codex grade

DAILY RECOMMENDED FOOD GRADE DIATOMACEOUS EARTH FEEDING RATES:

Kittens - 1/2 teaspoon


Cats - 1 teaspoon
Puppies - 1/2 to 1 tsp.
Dogs under 35 lbs. - 1 teaspoon
Dogs over 35 lbs. - 1 tablespoon
Dogs over 100 lbs. - 2 tablespoons
Cattle, Dairy Cows, & Hogs - 2% of dry feed ration
Chickens - 5% in feed
Goats & Sheep - 2% in grain
Horses - 1/2 to 1 cup in daily ration
*Humans - 1 to 2 heaping tablespoons daily

Internal feeding of food grade diatomaceous earth helps eliminate most intestinal worms, though
possibly not all. It's also excellent when fed daily to keep down fly loads, since food grade
diatomaceous earth is eliminated from the body, exactly the way it went in, it helps reduce the manure
odor and kills flies that come in contact with it.

Mix in animal feed or grain and/or feed free choice. Our goats, fowl, and dogs eat it free choice.

*Some recommend to dose humans by mixing food grade diatomaceous earth in a glass of water before
bed or first thing in the morning, well before breakfast, to allow diatomaceous earth time to move
through and absorb toxins from one’s digestive tract without interfering or absorbing nutrients from
foods or liquids. Some report great results consuming 1 tsp. in a glass of water prior to each meal,
3x/day. Others prefer to take it at bedtime so DE can work while they are sleeping.

I take my DE in ½ cup of water, stir well and quickly drink. Our employees take their daily dose
mixed in orange juice, coffee, smoothies, or protein drinks.

DE has a pH of 8.0 so alkalizes the body and soil.

EXTERNAL APPLICATIONS FOR LIVESTOCK, BARNS, COOPS, KENNELS, & LITTER


BOXES: We use DE throughout the barn, fowl coops, and pastures. When mucking the barn and
coops, I lightly, but thoroughly sprinkle diatomaceous earth absolutely everywhere! It keeps the
kidding barn cleansed and dry. In between barn mucking, I sprinkle diatomaceous earth on wet spots to
help dry them out and keep flies from laying eggs.

Food grade diatomaceous earth is excellent in the fowl coops – on the ground, in nesting/dusting boxes
to prevent lice and mites. Sprinkle directly on fowl feathers to eliminate mites and lice. One thorough
application of diatomaceous earth has their feathers growing back immediately.

Food grade diatomaceous earth applied to manure piles keeps fly loads down/eliminated.

Dairy cow owners put food grade diatomaceous earth in burlap bags, so cows can rub against it and
sprinkle themselves with DE, which helps to eliminate flies that land on them, as well as lice, mites,
and ticks.

Apply to moist kennel areas to reduce odors, dry the area, and prevent pest breeding.

Deodorizing and absorption are natural functions of diatomaceous earth, so add to kitty litter to absorb
odors and keep the litter box drier.

A small amount of food grade DE applied to livestock waterers keeps algae from growing on hot
summer days. Dosage rates vary depending on your climate, humidity, and temperature.

Food grade diatomaceous earth is great for compost piles, to prevent breeding pests and control odors.

We use food grade diatomaceous earth on the barn floors at kidding time, instead of using lime which
can be toxic. This helps prevent flies and other pests from breeding and keeps the newborn kids
healthy, happy, strong, and free of dis-ease.

HOME APPLICATIONS: If you are building a new home, barn, or other structure that is the perfect
time to use DE and apply it on the inside of the walls, in the attic, etc. to prevent pesky bugs now and in
the future.

Food grade DE can be applied along baseboards, under appliances, inside cabinets and drawers, inside
wall outlets, lightly in carpeting, and anywhere you are having an insect problem. Test lightly in an area
of your home that you want to apply it to make sure you and your family don’t have a reaction to it,
then apply or reapply as needed.

Bugs lay larvae or eggs, so DE must be left out long enough for the hatchlings to come in contact with
it. You can vacuum the treated areas once/week (make sure some DE is in the vacuum bag to
dehydrate any live insects you vacuum up), then reapply if needed. Since most insects have a laying
cycle of 7 to 21 days, we recommend treating inside the home for at least 30 days for best
effectiveness.

If the insect problem is coming from outside the home, but the insects are now residing in your home,
treat both outside the home and inside at the same time for maximum effectiveness.

YARD, GARDEN, & LANDSCAPE APPLICATIONS: DE’s minerals are great for the yard and
gardens. DE has a pH of 8.0 so alkalizes the soil.

Apply DE to ant hills. Small ants may require a few applications to completely eliminate them, as they
burrow new hills elsewhere, after we cover their initial hill with DE, but if we keep at it, eventually
they disappear. Big ants are eliminated within two applications of a reasonable amount of DE applied
to their ant hill. Ants in trash cans can be controlled by either painting DE around the bottom of the
trash can or sprinkling it dry around it. They’ll go elsewhere, as they do not like walking over DE. Of
course, you will need to find their home to completely eliminate them, but it will keep them away from
areas you put DE. Sprinkled around the house foundation keeps new crawling insects from coming
inside.

We mix food grade diatomaceous earth with water to paint our fruit tree trunks with it, like a white
wash. The DE keeps ants OFF our fruit trees. 1 cup applied to ½ gallon of water works well. Be sure
to stir frequently as the DE settles to the bottom. Good as a white wash for wood fencing too.

1 to 2 cups per gallon of water can be used to apply diatomaceous earth in a backpack or hose end
sprayer for problem infestations of mites, aphids, fungus problems, etc. Food grade diatomaceous
earth will turn whatever you paint or spray with it - white – so it may look like a “white” winter at your
place.

Food grade diatomaceous earth will not destroy earthworms, if applied to the top of the soil in worm
farms and the worms are allowed to work it into the soil on their own. It is actually beneficial to the
worms and compost just make sure to allow the worms to do the work and do not bury/smother them in
the DE.

OUTDOOR BUGS AFFECTED BY DIATOMACEOUS EARTH: Ants, fire ants, caterpillars, cut
worms, army worms, fleas, ticks, bed bugs, cockroaches, snails, spiders, termites, scorpions, silver fish,
lice, mites, flies, centipedes, earwigs, slugs, aphids, Japanese beetles (grub stage), bed bugs, fruit flies,
corn earworm, cucumber beetles, corn borer, sting bugs, squash vine borers, thrips, loopers, etc.

Pests that lay eggs may require a second application to catch the hatching eggs.

MINERALIZATION: Natural food grade diatomaceous earth contains 15 trace minerals: calcium,
magnesium, sodium, potassium, copper, zinc iron, phosphorous, selenium, etc. People note shinier
coats, better overall health, better production, etc. in their animals who are fed food grade
diatomaceous earth regularly.

FLY CONTROL: Used daily, DE helps eliminate our fly population. Sprinkle DE on livestock when
flies are present. Dust barns, coops, after mucking, and dust top of manure/compost piles. We feed it
daily to all dogs, cats, fowl, and livestock, so it comes out in the manure of each animal and prevents
flies from growing in the manures.
Farmers hang burlap bags full of diatomaceous earth for the cattle to rub against and keep themselves
dusted, which eliminates flies, mites, and other pests that land on them.

Diatomaceous earth can be put in a backpack sprayer mixed with water to spray your barn or coop
buildings. Reapply DE when rain or water washes or wind blows it away.

GRAIN STORAGE & PROTECTION: Codex food grade diatomaceous earth is a healthy non-toxic
alternative to chemical contamination of stored grain. When the grain is to be used, food grade
diatomaceous earth can be easily removed, but need not be. Since it is “food grade”, makes no
difference in taste or cooking quality, and adds 15 trace minerals. Suggested grain storage use: 1 cup of
DE will protect 50 #’s of grain -- 5 cups of food grade diatomaceous earth will protect 300 #’s of grain
-- 7 lbs. of DE will protect 1500 #’s of grain or seeds. One source advises only 1 to 2 #’s of DE per ton
of grain.

A study done by ACRES, USA, Inc. advised that after 12 months of storage, the food grade
diatomaceous earth treated material had 15 insects, compared to 4884 for malathion and 16,994 for
untreated grain.

DIATOMACEOUS EARTH DETOX & CLEANSING BENEFITS: Food grade diatomaceous earth
has been reported in scientific literature to absorb methyl mercury, e-coli, endotoxins, viruses
(including poliovirus), organophosphate pesticide residues, drug resides, and protein, perhaps even the
proteinaceous toxins produced by some intestinal infections. Food grade diatomaceous earth detoxes
the body.

There are some features about food grade diatomaceous earth that correspond with its ability as both a
digestive aid and a colon cleanser. The honeycomb skeletal form of diatomaceous earth is found, under
microscopic evaluation to reveal a tendency to become filled and clogged with hard debris such as
intestinal scale. Food grade diatomaceous earth has not been found to cause any insult to the mucosa
or barrier wall.

Diatomaceous earth has a negative charge and bacteria has a positive charge, wherein it is believed by
some that food grade diatomaceous earth sweeps bacteria out of the body by trapping it in its
honeycomb shaped skeletal form.

We use diatomaceous earth to clean sinks, water troughs, etc., as it cleans like borax making clean up
around the house, barns, kennels, and pastures quicker and easier.

OTHER NATURAL DE HEALTH BENEFITS:

· Dehydrates internal & external worms and parasites

· Controls bugs: fleas, flies, ants, bed bugs, ticks, mites, lice, aphids, silver fish, cabbage worms,
spring tails, etc.

· 15 trace minerals – excellent for animals, humans, plants, and soil

· No feed withdrawal for milk or feed animals


· Decreased mastitis

· Reduced scouts

· Decreased mortality

· Better feed conversion

· Helps detox heavy metals, e-coli, bacteria, viruses, etc.

· Promotes shinier coats, skin, nails, hair

· Digestive aid

· Colon cleanser

· Helps stop feces, dirt, and rock eating

· Digestive aid

· Better production

· Eliminates pests in stored grains

· Reduces manure odor

· Drying agent

· Reduces moisture and pests in barns, coops, kennels, litter boxes, compost piles, and other moist
areas

· Anti-fungal properties – good for garden fungal growth, ponds

· Reduces overall animal stress

· Cost effective

· DE health benefits mean reduction in vet bills, feed bills, and disease

Food grade diatomaceous earth works in a purely physical/mechanical manner, not ‘chemical’ and thus
has no chemical toxicity. Best yet, parasites don’t build up a tolerance/immunity to it, so rotation of
wormers is unnecessary.

People often ask if it is safe, since it is labeled "Codex Food Chemical Grade Diatomaceous Earth".
This Codex rating was obtained because DE is safe for internal consumption and thus is labeled "Food"
grade, BUT since DE "acts" like a chemical by dehydrating insects, it is exceptionally useful in organic
farming, gardening, and home pest control. The "Chemical" Grade rating tells us it can be used like a
chemical (since it simply dehydrates insects), but is safe for internal consumption as well. Without the
"Chemical" rating, those wanting to use it for flea, tick, fly, ant, or other insect control would think it's
only useful as a feed supplement in food, so it was labeled "Chemical" grade since it acts like a
chemical, but it is NOT a true chemical like a pesticide or insecticide. It is perfectly safe for oral
consumption.

CAUTIONS:

· DE manufacturers who work in diatomaceous earth mines 5 days/week advise inhaling it is not a
problem (tho of course, don't be snuffing it) and we have not had problems when inhaling DE in small
amounts. IF you have asthma or some other lung ailment, either wear a mask or be very careful when
using food grade diatomaceous earth.
· Do NOT get diatomaceous earth in the eyes. DE is drying to the eyes, so do NOT put it out when you
or your pets are downwind of it. DE is drying to your skin, hands, and feet, just as it can be to your
pets.
· Do NOT use heavily in carpet. Some advise too much DE causes vacuum problems.
· NEVER use pool filter grade or any diatomaceous earth other than those labeled "Food Grade" for
yourself or your animals. It can poison or kill them.
· Some people experience a healing crisis (detox reaction) when beginning DE consumption. If this
occurs, reduce the dose, till your body is cleansed, and then increase to the RDA.
· Remember, DE will kill beneficial insects as well, so don't put it on your flowers where the honey
bees go and use wisely.

DISCLAIMER: Any food grade diatomaceous earth uses other than those approved by the EPA, FDA,
or USDA are strictly reports of what farmers, others, and we ourselves have done with diatomaceous
earth. Additionally, the following material is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a physician
or vet. This information is not intended as a substitute for the reader's independent judgment and
personal responsibility. Health issues are far too important to delegate to anyone else. It is highly
recommended you seek information and counsel from as wide a variety of sources as possible, as in the
end YOU make the decisions.

*These statements have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. This product is not
intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.

For more detailed info about using food grade DE internally and externally for mites, morgellons, fleas,
ticks, worming, etc. please visit our diatomaceous earth web pages at:

http://wolfcreekranch1.tripod.com/defaq.html

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