A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption - Part 1 (March 2006


Page 1 of 12

Industrial Membership Logout


Professional Members


A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption - Part 1
D J Abson
(a) (b) (c) (a)

, Y Tkach


, I Hadley


V S Wright


and F M Burdekin


TWI, Granta Park, Great Abington, Cambridge, CB1 6AL, U.K. Consultant, recently retired; formerly General Manager IRD, Rolls-Royce Formerly Professor at University of Manchester Institute of Technology

Published in Welding Journal, vol.85, no.3, March 2006, pp.63-69. In Part 1, the similarities and differences between the exemptions from PWHT in several current codes are reviewed, and some rationalisations are considered. Part 2 of this article will consider a fracture mechanics assessment of steel toughness requirements.

Post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) is applied to steel assemblies primarily to reduce the likelihood of brittle fracture by reducing the level of tensile welding residual stresses and by tempering hard, potentially brittle, microstructural regions. For large steel assemblies in particular, PWHT can be an expensive operation, and there is thus an economic incentive to avoid PWHT, wherever possible. Whether PWHT is necessary depends on the fracture toughness at the minimum service temperature, the stress levels and the size of any flaws which may be present. According to current fabrication codes, some structures (for example, where thickness is low) are exempt from PWHT. However, the exemptions differ between codes, and it would be desirable to effect some unification of these differing requirements. The present article reviews exemptions from PWHT in several current codes, and considers the similarities and the differences between them, including maximum permitted thickness for as-welded conditions, the associated toughness requirements (in terms of the Charpy test) and what may be done to effect some rationalisation. The views of representatives of user groups have been obtained in compiling this article.

Conventional welding processes, which rely upon the local melting and fusion of material, generate significant residual stress distributions in the weldment. The magnitude of these stresses can, under conditions of high restraint, approach the yield strength of either the parent or weld materials. Post-weld heat treatment is applied to welded steel assemblies, primarily to reduce the likelihood of brittle fracture. The benefits of PWHT include a significant reduction of tensile residual stresses in the weld joint and, to a lesser extent, tempering of the heat-affected zone and the weld metal microstructures. PWHT is required where there is a risk of environmentally-assisted cracking. PWHT of C-Mn steels is typically carried out at approximately 600°C, for one hour per 25mm of thickness. The PWHT of large steel assemblies is an expensive process, owing to the long hold times and slow heating and cooling rates involved, and also due to the high cost of down-time, particularly where PWHT follows the repair of an existing fabrication. It is therefore greatly desired that exemption from PWHT be achieved, where possible. Current design codes in the pressure vessel and piping industries, such as the BSI and ASME codes, specify that PWHT is required if the thickness of the parts being welded exceeds a specified value, that limit usually depending on the Charpy test properties of the material and the minimum service temperature required. This approach provides a simple and direct method for determining whether PWHT is required and, since the limiting thickness criterion has been in use for many years, it can be considered to have been validated by custom and practice. However, the degree of conservatism of the codes is difficult to assess, and anomalies in limiting thickness values between different codes are known to exist. In the general structural industry for bridges, buildings and offshore structures, there is considerably more scope for using thick steel in the as-welded condition, but with increasing toughness requirements in terms of either higher Charpy energy absorption or lower temperatures for a reference level of energy absorption. There is, therefore, significant scope for extending the boundaries of exemption from PWHT. There have been many years of research, principally carried out by or on behalf of the electric utility and petrochemical processing industries, examining the consequences for welded steel structures, vessels and pipework of carrying out repairs without PWHT. Of principal interest have been thick section C-Mn and low alloy steels, for which controlled deposition repair procedures have been devised. Some codes now include provision



S.7] .co. [1-3] From time to time there have also been investigations aimed at providing recommendations for acceptable limits for the as-welded condition for general structural conditions. steel specifications commonly allow steels with a maximum carbon content in excess of 0. and limits for S and P of 0. and often with no toughness requirement.25% 13mm. This investigation relates only to C-.A. including bridges. 149°C preheat. 93°C preheat.1 [15] 19mm 16mm. 120°C 13mm. piping and offshore structures A survey was carried out in 1971 [10] . & BS EN Group 1 32mm increase to 38mm with 93°C preheat Comments 27J at 20° C for 32mm and R e 448MPa( 20J at 20° C for 34mm and Re 345MPa) Toughness requirement increases as strength increases. to compare and contrast the limiting thickness requirements above which PWHT is required and the associated Charpy test requirements for the as-welded condition in standards relevant to the fabrication industry.S. Table 1 Limiting thickness for which postweld heat treatment is not required for C-Mn steels according to various standards. The objectives of the study were to identify the types of materials where industry considers that there are grounds for seeking wider exemption from PWHT. the Table has been extended to include requirements for Charpy test properties. & BS EN Group 1. who reviewed the differences in thickness limits. 150°C No explicit Charpy test requirement in the http://www.twi. The results are included in Table 1. This present article compares and contrasts the current rules and guidelines present in various fabrication standards (mainly U. More recent work by Mohr [12] and also by Salkin [13] .) regarding the PWHT requirements of welds and the limits for as-welded construction made in pipes. These studies showed there was still some variation between codes. ASME B31.5] It is recognised that steel making technology has changed over the last thirty years or so. C 0.K. and testing required to move towards elimination of the apparent anomalies is considered.15% Code ASME VIII [14] ASME P1 Group 1/C-Mn. Some of the similarities and differences are considered. allowable thickness increases as toughness increases and as strength decreases. C 0. calculated by a fracture mechanics approach. normalised steels with higher carbon contents [6.25% ASME P4 Groups 1 & 2. For example. steel specifications do not always reflect these changes. varied considerably.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1. in terms of the material thickness above which PWHT was required. as discussed below. and to identify whether a future programme of toughness testing and residual stress measurements on specific steels is needed to demonstrate a case for exemption from PWHT. Later work in 1980 [11] showed that. & BS EN Group 5. namely the use of specially designed repair procedures and the specification of a minimum Charpy energy. 121°C preheat. 95°C preheat. C-Mn and low alloy steels. has highlighted the limits and provisions for exemption from PWHT. to investigate the methods available for gaining exemption from PWHT. & BS EN Group 5.15% ASME P5 Group 1. In addition this article examines a number of methods available for gaining exemption from PWHT. where the requirements of the U. and to cover a range of other codes and standards. buildings and offshore structures. and U. [4. As a consequence. U. codes relate to ASME P1 to P5 steels.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption . Review of current practice and code requirements Fabrication standards for c-mn steel pressure vessels. The fabrication codes were generally devised for older. particularly when steels are produced in parts of the world where steel making technology lags behind best practice. including specially designed weld repair procedures and a case-specific fracture mechanics approach (in Part 2). while considerable harmonisation had taken place. and sometimes more.html 7/10/2010 .4 16mm.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 2 of 12 for repair without PWHT. significant divergence remained. C 0.S. which showed that the requirements of various codes. In compiling this article. C 0.035%. wide variations in weldability and in toughness can occur among steels that meet the same specification. the views of representatives of fabricators and end users have been sought.2%.A. However. ASME P3 Groups 1 & 2.2 16mm.1 16mm. in temperature ranges and in hold times covering a range of steel types. pressure vessels and structures.

8 [17] 32mm No explicit Charpy test requirement in the standard. C v 20J R e 656MPa.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption . Gp IV-VI C V API 650 [18] 32mm increase to 38mm with 90°C preheat 41J. Gp I-III & IIIA (defined in the standard) C V 20J.twi. C 27J v ASME B31. R Room temperature Charpy toughness requirements for carbonand low alloy steels: 19mm 19mm 13mm 149°C preheat 448MPa. C 0. C v 48J if Q & T or TMCP API 620 [19] 32mm. For design metal temperature > -40°C. C 0.8243 [20] <490MPa. 120°C Tubing 16mm.15.95°C preheat Tubing 16mm. C 0.html 7/10/2010 . 34J in longitudinal direction) AWS D1/1 [29] Limits set by contract drawings or specifications. increase to 38mm with 93° C preheat PWHT required for nozzles and attachments when wall thickness exceeded. Acceptable for design metal temperatures -40°C.15% ASME B31. Gp VIA. Cr 3. 120°C R m JIS B. increase to 38mm with 95° C preheat 16mm. Test temperature of -196°C for liquefied hydrocarbon gases. C v 18J R e e 517MPa. C 0. if tested at or below this temperature.15% 13mm. http://www.co. 177°C preheat.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 3 of 12 preheat.25%. C 20J V At T minimum operating temperature. 32mm.0.15% standard.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1.15.3 [16] preheat. C v 34J ( 40J for Q&T grades) C C C v v v 34J 40J 27J ( Test temperature (design metal temperature -17°C). C 0. C 0.

15% <13mm No Charpy test requirement.5mm thick and 127mm diameter.html 7/10/2010 .25% 12.co.15% <13mm 13mm thick and 127mm diameter.5mm. increase to 35mm 100°C preheat. C 0.25% <35mm 13mm.5mm thick and 127mm diameter 12.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption . 150°C preheat. may increase to 40mm BS 2971 BS 1113 [22] 35mm 30mm.55 and R e 450MPa and t 32mm and as long as there is no accumulation of weldments or extensive local stiffening. PWHT all thicknesses of vessel Stoomwezen [21] preheat. 13mm thick and 127mm diameter. and a hydrotest is carried out. Fine-grained steel: C 0. BS 2633 [25] 30mm.twi. C 0. C 27J) V R e (MDMT -10)° C(PD 5500 Annex D) http://www.23 and CE 0. C 0. C v [23] >40J BS EN 12952 [24] C v 27J for T CV lowest transverse specimens (preferred) or C v 35J for longitudinal. C 0.5mm thick and 127mm diameter. increase to 40mm if C v 27J at -20°C 12. PWHT all thicknesses of vessel R m 490MPa. C 0. and as long as there is no accumulation of weldments or extensive local stiffening.25%. scheduled operating temperature (T CV 20°C).94 <450MPa. increase to 19mm with 100° C preheat PD 5500 [26] (Service temperature <0°C) 40mm.15% PWHT required for all thicknesses No Charpy test requirement. 32mm. PD 5500 [26] 35mm.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1. C 0. increase to 35mm with 100°C preheat. C 27J V Fine-grained steel: C 0.55 and R e 370MPa and KV (perpendicular) 31J at 0°C and also KV (parallel) 27J at -50°C and 32mm < t 40mm and weld metal KV (perpendicular) 31J at 0° C.23%. but see comments R e T CV =2. there is no toughness requirement. increase to 35mm with 100°C preheat. 120°C preheat PWHT required for all thicknesses 12.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 4 of 12 preheat. C 0.23 and CE 0.

PWHT is required for steels with higher carbon contents. there is greater uniformity among the standards. or 13 mm thick and 120 mm diameter and design temperature <480°C C C 27J or 40J Test temperature depends on strength. In BS 2633 [24] . and may well have different inherent Charpy test properties.25%C.5%Cr and [22] 0.5%Mo.1 [15] and B31. including those in http://www. above which PWHT is required. C 27J R e 355 MPa. These specifications are much less prescriptive regarding requirements for exemption from PWHT.twi. for example in H 2S service. if it is specified by the The general trends revealed by the tabulation are for the permitted thickness without PWHT to decrease with increasing alloy content of steels and/or for increased preheat to be required. and has not been discovered in the contacts made with representatives of the fabrication industry.3 [16] .K. generally the imposition of a preheat of the order of 93°C (200°F). It may reflect an anticipated increase in toughness or avoidance of hard local brittle zones from a slight reduction in as-welded HAZ hardness. Provision is made in several codes [14. as well as a reduced likelihood of hydrogen-assisted fabrication cracking.25] to extend this limit to 38 or 40mm if certain conditions. there is a marginal increase in the thickness limit if a preheat at a minimum temperature of ~93°C (200°F) is used. with a limit of 50mm applying to other regions. Fabrication standards for buildings and bridges The material thickness requirements for bridges and buildings. are met.html 7/10/2010 . PWHT is not required for steels 35mm thick if the service temperature is above 0°C. BS 1113 [22] and BS 2633 [24] . however. are generally different in chemical composition (an issue which is considered in more detail in the Discussion). toughness level and design reference temperature. The apparent harmony is. it will be noted that in ASME VIII [14] .24. and there are some strong similarities between the BS 2633 requirements and those of ASME VIII and ASME B31. PWHT is only necessary in special cases. at ~32mm. have been examined. relate to steels with 0.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption .1 and B31. It should be noted that the basic requirements of BS 1113 [22] and BS 2633 [24] .co. In Pr EN 13445 [26] . Several of the codes have a similar thickness limit. The reason for this is not known. 36J R e 450 MPa.25] . PWHT is required. which are shown in Table 1. [21. or 13 mm thick and 120 mm diameter 15mm thick. because the steels employed in the U.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 5 of 12 V 450MPa. C 45J BS 5950 [30] & BS 5400 [31] V C v required at MDMT. together with reductions in maximum carbon level permitted.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1.A. as specified in BS 5950:2000 [30] and BS 5400:2000 Part 3 [31] . in these standards. with a thickness limit of 19mm. C v EEMUA 158 [28] Minimum design throat thickness: 40mm nodes 50mm plain regions R e 275 V at -40°C.18-20. and EEMUA 158 [27] that specifies a limit of 40mm for nodes. C 40J) v v PrEN 13445 [27] 35mm 15mm thick. in part illusory. even up the limiting thickness shown. MPa. In Table 1. For low alloy steels containing [22] 1.S. The notable exceptions are ASME B31.3. most welded connections in bridges and buildings. In some of the British Standards purchaser. k = 2 for as-welded joints but reduces with stress concentrations present. and the U. while PD 5500 [25] has the same requirement for steels up to 40mm thick. API 650 [18] . C V for assumed MDMT = 10°C.23%C. and those of Stoomwezen [20] to steels with 0.25%Cr-1%Mo steels (including ASME P5 group 1 steels). (including ASME P4 groups 1 and 2 steels) and also for 2.

co. T 27J The k-factor is the product of four sub-factors relating to susceptibility to brittle fracture. subjected to Charpy testing at the material design minimum temperature (MDMT).g. is the design minimum temperature of the part in °C. T T . For example in BS EN 10025 [32] . would be 50mm for the condition k = 1. However. However. k k s takes account of stress levels. e. as follows: k=k d. high strain rate or the presence of stress concentrations.g.20: [5] . the background to which is explained in more detail in Ref. k g accounts for the presence of gross stress concentrations and takes values up to 1. bridge http://www.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1. the maximum permitted thickness of a grade 355 steel in the as-welded condition. the form of these equations is the same for both specifications. with values ranging from 1 to 2 takes account of high strain rates. is the nominal yield strength of the part. and the emphasis is on the use of materials with sufficient fracture toughness not to require PWHT. with some requirements being 40J at -20°C (which is approximately equivalent to 27J at -30°C).html 7/10/2010 . are left in the as-welded condition. with simple weld details. All the new European structural steel grades are supplied to a minimum Charpy impact level. and takes values between 0. [5] . A summary of strength and impact values for current European structural steel products is given in Ref. The equations. yield strength and Charpy impact properties. quasi-static strain rates and no gross stress concentrations.twi. as follows: k accounts for the weld detail. high applied stress. Indeed. with values of 0. If high-strain-rate loading also applies. there may be a limiting thickness up to which the impact toughness is guaranteed.25 to 4. This is broadly comparable with the upper range of allowable thicknesses of Table 1. is the maximum permitted thickness of the part under stress in mm.k s and takes values ranging from <0.k . e. is the temperature in degrees Celsius for which a minimum Charpy energy of 27J is specified by the product standard for impact tests on longitudinal V-notch test pieces. is the k-factor (see below). Unlike some of the pressure vessel and piping codes examined previously.5 (for areas likely to be loaded under impact) and 1 (for all other areas). although differences exist in calculating the so-called kfactor. this limiting thickness for non-alloyed grades is 250mm for plates and 100mm for sections.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 6 of 12 thick sections.5 and 2. BS 5950 does not consider PWHT at all. The limiting thickness values in BS 5950 [30] and BS 5400 [31] are presented as general equations. the minimum Charpy toughness requirements are 27J at -50°C for most grades. The sub-factors each account for a different aspect of susceptibility to brittle fracture. Low values of k denote higher susceptibility to brittle fracture. the limiting thickness requirements are dependent upon service temperature.e. However.k g. these codes do provide material thickness limits. min 27J BS 5950 & BS 5400: Tmin < T27J . the limiting thickness for the same as-welded joint could be as low as 14mm under the same applied stresses and strain rates. As an example. are shown below.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption .20: BS 5950: BS 5400: where: t k y T min not permitted. i. which can be increased by 50% if d PWHT is applied. if gross stress concentrations and poor weld details are present.

The fracture avoidance rules given in BS5400 Part 3 [31] are based on fracture mechanics calculations broadly similar to those described in Part 2 of this article. Note that the document examined is a draft for development (DD ENV). Eurocode 3 . Loading speed.3 [16] differ from the other codes. (See Table 2 for the compositions of relevant ASME P numbers. as different recommendations apply to specific weldments. The provisions of the draft Eurocode [33] are fairly similar to those of BS5400 [31] (and therefore similar to the upper range of Table 1) for the case k = 1. The additional requirement to gain exemption from PWHT for tubes less than or equal to 13mm thick and less than or equal to 120mm diameter in P5 type steels in Pr EN 13445 [27] is that the design temperature should exceed 480°C. BS 2633 [25] stipulates a similar preheat to the U. depending on factors such as: Steel strength grade. it would remain 50mm throughout under the draft Eurocode. has also been reviewed. the limiting thickness could be as high as 100mm.K.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1. whereas under BS5400 the maximum permitted thickness for the same as-welded joint under similar applied stress and at a similar strain rate could range from 14 to 50mm (as illustrated in the previous section). Lowest service temperature.design of steel structures The requirements of Eurocode 3 [33] have also been examined.25%Cr-0. However. It should be recognised that the situation is appreciably more complex than these numbers in Table 1 suggest. See. the footnote to ASME VIII Division 1 Table UCS-56 [14] .5%Mo.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption . where there are no gross stress concentrating features or fatigue-sensitive weld details.S. the requirements of ASME B31. Details of these calculation methods are described in reference 5. Consequences of failure. and the welding of pressure parts to non-pressure parts. the procedure determines the required fracture toughness for a steel component. and even 150mm if the fabrication is subjected to PWHT. Table 2 Summary of information on relevant ASME P numbers ASME P number P1 group 1 P3 groups 1 and 2 P4 groups 1 and 2 P5 group 1 Steel types C-Mn C-0. in that PWHT is not required for ASME P3 grade 1 and 2 steels up to 19mm thick.5%Cr-0. and a comparison is made with the work carried out in the present investigation in Part 2 of this article. and case histories of bridge failure. Review of documentation for low alloy steels [5] .5%Mo 0.A..25%Cr-1%Mo. while this code requires a higher preheat for P4 grades 1 and 2 and P5 grade 1 steels. The draft Eurocode [33] and BS5400-3 [31] requirements are compared and contrasted in detail in Ref.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 7 of 12 parapets.5%Cr-1. The information is also summarised in Table 1.twi. Application of PWHT. codes. and so is subject to change before final issue as a Eurocode.25%Mn-Si. which includes clauses relating to nozzle connections.) For such steels.S. 1%Cr-0. The information relating to low alloy steels in piping and pressure vessel codes. for example. there are some strong similarities in the requirements relating to exemptions from PWHT between the U. calibrated against other considerations such as the results of full-scale tests on simulated bridge details.e. codes. 1. CEN and British Standard codes http://www.A.K. in Table 1. 3%Cr-1%Mo Discussion Differences between material grouping systems in the ASME. it could be even lower at 7mm. Section thickness. Basically. i. and U. for simple welded joints under low applied stress. However. Applied stress.5%Mo. The document contains a procedure based on fracture mechanics principles and the Master Curve correlation between fracture toughness and Charpy energy. Conversely. primarily from the U. where concern is expressed at some of the potentially unsafe provisions of the former.html 7/10/2010 .5%Mo-Si 2. and U. 0.S.co. Type of structural element.

uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1.twi. 2. and that defect rates and defect sizes may be greater than for shop welds. For C-Mn steels. it is noted that http://www. The data covered in this review suggest that reconciliation of the requirements of these two user groups may not be possible. For C-Mn and Cr-Mo steels.S. This limitation appears questionable. in the absence of such a condition in the other codes. steels have been allocated a P number or S number. the power generation industry (through EGWP . A submission was made to the committee compiling CR TR 15608. but since 1998 materials used for welder qualification may conform to other national or international standards or specifications. a broadly similar conclusion to that implied by the calculated toughness in Part 2 of the current work. if a fixed (rather than a proportional) flaw size is assumed in the calculations.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 8 of 12 The grouping of materials used for welding has been carried out under the auspices of the different code standards committees in both Europe. but should be considered in relation to the Charpy properties of the steels concerned. or even multiple. has suggested an even more widely spread divergence. Of the 196. different inherent Charpy test requirements and (through the inspection codes) different allowable defect sizes. may reflect the likelihood that the welding will be carried out in the field. Differences between these may include different design stress criteria. Therefore differences arose and inconsistent requirements ensued. It would clearly be of considerable benefit in moving towards more uniform PWHT requirements if steel producers were to extend the practice of dual. the draft guidelines for a metallic material grouping system [38] by Sperko [39] . Girth welds in steel pipes have been subjected to a fracture mechanics assessment by Mohr [40] . materials have been given group numbers in BS 4870 [34] (for welding procedures) and BS 4871 [35] (for welder qualifications). so that greater uniformity is achieved in the compositions of steels. including the results of full-scale tests on simulated bridge details.S.html 7/10/2010 . only 91 C-Mn steels could be given a CR TR 15608 group number. and PWHT is only considered for local sub-assemblies under exceptional circumstances. and found the following: 1. Code requirements Although the fundamental details of the differences in the separate codes for pressure vessels and piping.A. Fracture mechanics calculations broadly similar to those described in Part 2 of this article were used in defining the fracture avoidance rules given in BS5400 Part 3 [31] .co. Both of these standards have been superseded by European standards BS EN 288 [36] and BS EN 287 [37] . including those in thick sections. He examined 985 relevant U. The detailed history of the piping codes is not known. in terms of preheat and other requirements. Also. In the UK.K.A. the lower thickness threshold embodied in ASME B31.1 [15] and B31. The position of the general structural industry is that the scale and size of structures is so large that PWHT of the overall structure is impracticable.. in terms of maximum wall thickness where PWHT is not required and maximum carbon equivalent of material permitted. In the U. In his proposed Annex to CR TR 15608. and the emphasis is on the use of materials with sufficient fracture toughness not to require PWHT.3 [16] .1 for thinner walled pipes. a comparison of codes. Mohr questioned the need for PWHT of thicker walled pipe.the Electricity Generators Welding Panel) and the general structural industry. are left in the as-welded condition..S. 196 steel compositions could be classified within an ASME P1 Group. he attempted to unify the ASME and CRTR 15608 grouping.A.25%. However. compared with the other standards. and case histories of bridge failure. and who concluded that the fracture resistance of pipes thicker than 19mm was at least equal to that of thinner walled pipes. and the U. This study has indicated that. in terms of an ASME or CEN grouping system. based on extensive experience and engineering practice. The codes were drawn up by different professional bodies. but it is likely that custom and practice made a greater contribution. The practice would also facilitate the eventual unification of standards. As PWHT is not required by ASME B31. Table 1 indicates that rationalisation of the PWHT exemption of all the codes would not be easy to achieve. Examination of the data also raises questions about the need to give a PWHT to weldments covered by BS 1113 [23] and BS 2633 [25] when the carbon content exceeds 0. who assumed the presence of root defects. material grouping does not provide a basis for exemption from PWHT. for example to the 40mm embodied in EEMUA 158 [28] for C-Mn steels. It would clearly be of benefit to the power generation industry to increase the thickness threshold for PWHT. The codes are for different engineering applications. provided that the requirements for mechanical properties and specified analysis limits of the P or S number are met. no doubt with some experience of failures incorporated. certification of steels. steel specifications. Three of the main groups of steel users with an interest in obtaining exemption from PWHT are the petrochemical industry (through EEMUA [The Engineering Equipment and Materials Users Association] Material Technology Committee). The gross differences that have arisen are likely to preclude the issue of a unified code requirement giving exemption from PWHT. including the U. and this is not explicitly treated in some of the codes involved. all of these considerations need to be seen in the context of the inherent Charpy properties of the materials concerned. presumably because the fracture resistance has been found to be sufficient. Virtually all welded connections in bridges and buildings. have not been included.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption . and these were calibrated against other information.

and C v 31J at 0°C for the weld metal. for the omission of PWHT following welding.K.twi.and C-Mn steels. it appears that this philosophy has been adopted only in this pressure vessel code. U.3. as was shown to be acceptable for the steel vessels subjected to an ECA by Leggatt et al. One possible approach would be to define a modest limiting thickness. In view of the differences which exist in the chemical compositions of broadly comparable U. and U.K. approach might be more widely acceptable. steel toughness levels have generally improved substantially.1 and B31.S. rather than code-based. buildings and offshore structures permit significantly greater thicknesses to be used in the as-welded condition.3 (limiting thickness 19mm). It may then be possible for codes to include HAZ toughness requirement for weldments. steel toughness levels have generally improved substantially. for which there are few additional requirements and a minimum level of absorbed Charpy energy could be assumed for the steels concerned. and the approach may not gain wide acceptance in codes for other applications. at ~32mm. Since the development of the earliest codes.8 [17] provide for non-impact tested steels to be used.co.html 7/10/2010 . These are C 0. the following conclusions have been drawn: 1. It will be noted that the codes do not mention explicitly as-welded HAZ toughness.and C-Mn steels (including ASME P1 steels) beyond which PWHT is required for pressure vessels. It is therefore likely that limiting thicknesses could be increased. code requirements are generally similar in the limiting thickness of C. general structural codes. PD 5500:2000 [26] provides an Appendix which can be used to justify exemption from PWHT. permit significantly higher thicknesses in the as-welded condition. R e 370 N/mm 2 . where the additional requirement is a minimum Charpy impact toughness (of 27J at -20°C) for the higher level of limiting thickness of 40mm.5%Mo. 4. alignment by material grouping for C-Mn steels is not universally possible as a basis for exemption from PWHT. The general trends are for the permitted thickness without PWHT to decrease with increasing alloy content of steels and/or for increased preheat to be required. steel-making technology has changed significantly. For low alloy steels containing 1. piping and storage tanks. U. BS 5950 for buildings and EEMUA 158 for offshore structures. some rationalisation could be effected by building on the similarities which do exist.1 and B31. such as BS 5400 for bridges. It is therefore likely that limiting thicknesses could be increased. However. However. even though this factor would probably be limiting if HAZ fracture toughness were to be measured and a detailed engineering critical assessment were to be carried out. Conclusions Code requirements for permitting as-welded construction without PWHT have been reviewed for C. and thus PWHT omitted. However. From this study. since the code development took place. General discussion In spite of the disparities between the PWHT requirements of the pressure vessel and piping standards depicted in Table 1.S. More extensive requirements for the same limiting thickness are imposed in Stoomwezen [21] . perhaps ~32mm. there are differences in the chemical compositions of U.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption .K. IIW CE 0. 3. 2.A and U. and (at least within Europe) steel specifications commonly incorporate impact toughness requirements.45. both C v 27J at -50°C and C v 31J at 0°C for the parent steel.23%. steel-making technology has changed significantly. steels which influence PWHT requirements.25%Cr-1%Mo steels (including ASME P5 group 1 steels). The justification is based on a design reference temperature calculation. This is the approach adopted in PD5500 [26] . and the requirements of different codes have been compared. there are some strong similarities between the BS 2633 requirements and those of ASME VIII and ASME B31. code requirements for general structures such as bridges.A. However.5%Cr and 0. 5.A. (including ASME P4 groups 1 and 2 steels) and also for 2. based on fracture mechanics analyses. A greater limiting thickness could then be accommodated if additional requirements were met. together with reductions in maximum carbon level permitted. The requirements can be expressed in terms of MDMT . What appears to be required is a knowledge base of weldment impact value/fracture toughness properties for welds deposited with known welding parameters. steels and the lack of consistent requirements for Charpy test properties (as far as ASME and CEN are concerned). and U.K.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 9 of 12 ASME B31. [41] .1 [15] and ASME B31.and C-Mn and some low alloy steels. This present study has demonstrated that code classifications and material groupings do not provide avenues for a uniform approach across all the codes.T27J (the temperature difference between the material design minimum http://www. The major exceptions in this area are ASME B31. A material properties.S. and (at least within Europe) steel specifications commonly incorporate impact toughness requirements. and thus PWHT omitted. linked to Charpy toughness requirements for different grades of steel. at least for C. linked to increasing Charpy energy requirements.

thereby facilitating the eventual unification of standards. 8. International Institute of Welding. Evans. BS 7448: Part 2: 1997: 'Fracture mechanics toughness tests . Burdekin F M and Hadley I: 'Material selection requirements for civil structures'. critical CTOD and critical J values of welds in metallic material'. and R Carroll of Foster Wheeler Energy Limited are gratefully acknowledged.9 Temper bead weld repair.and C-Mn steels which would potentially allow an increase in the ASME B31. 2003. Chubb J P and Spurrier J: 'A new perspective on the influence of thickness and post-weld heat treatment for large scale welded joints'. and where Charpy energy requirements are not unduly onerous. 7.R. July 2001. on Welded Construction for Urban Infrastructure. incorporating Amendment 1.117. D Dehelean. References 1. Consideration should be given to the generation of toughness data for thicknesses >12. American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Welding Research Council Bulletin. Following completion of the review. ASME Boiler and pressure vessel code. Rockey and H. Typical Charpy test data should be reviewed and collated in terms of thickness and material type and IIW CE for steels supplied against the various standards summarised in Table 1. so that greater uniformity is achieved in the compositions of steels. 2: ASME post-weld heat treating practices: an interpretive report'. New York July 2001. Bucharest. Conf. National Board of pressure Vessel Inspectors. 2. Burdekin F M: Materials aspects of BS5400:Part 6.Shielded metal arc welding. consideration should be given to the following cases: i.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption . to establish if the BS 1113 and BS 2633 requirements are justified.html 7/10/2010 . 2. B Parry-Mills and M Coleman. ASME Boiler and pressure vessel code. American Society of Mechanical Engineers.5mm. paper 4 in The Design of Steel Bridges' Ed.C. 10 July 2003. with the agreement of all interested parties. 209-214. 4. New York. 9. which was funded by Industrial Members of TWI. Ed. Recommendations 1. Ohio. Columbus.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 10 of 12 temperature and the temperature for 27 Joules energy absorption in the Charpy test) and the yield strength of the steel. Doty W D: 'Report No.25%C. C.1 Temper bead welding of similar materials . Acknowledgements Helpful discussions with C S Wiesner and other colleagues at TWI. 201-229. of Powergen. to see where the avoidance of PWHT can be justified.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1. 1981. consideration should be given to carrying out a fracture mechanics assessment. 6.1 and B31.co. J Engineering Materials and Technology 1995. 3. paragraph NB-4622. C. Where the relevant fabrication codes require that a PWHT be carried out.A manual for boiler and pressure vessel inspectors. Section III 'Rules for construction of nuclear facility components'. paragraph IWA-4623. Romania. Ogle M H. 1. Hancock P. 4. for given assumptions about flaw size and stress level. or even multiple. in order to extend the thickness beyond which PWHT is required. IIW Int. and input from D J Allen. BS 7910: 1999: 'Guide on methods for assessing the acceptability of flaws in metallic structures'. Section XI 'Rules for service inspection of nuclear power plant components'. 56th Annual Assembly of the IIW.Method for determination of KIc. The work was carried out within the Core Research programme of TWI.3 threshold thickness level for PWHT. Spaeder C E. Consideration should be given to introducing HAZ toughness requirements into fabrication codes. http://www. K. 5. 5.twi. 407 December 1995. National Board Inspection Code . USA. 3.and C-Mn steels with <0. certification of steels. Granada ISBN 0 24611339 1. of British Energy. and ii. Steel producers should be encouraged to extend the practice of dual. Proc. pp.

1980. British Standards Institution.co. BS 2633: 1987. gas transmission and distribution piping systems'. 11.1/D1.. 1988 5-13. London. Inspection. low-pressure storage tanks'. FWP Journal.1: 1998: 'ASME code for pressure piping. Ohio.1988 27-34. BS 5400-3:2000 (incorporating Corrigendum 1): 'Steel. Developments in Pressure Vessel Technology-3. Joint Committee Iron and Steel Inst.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 11 of 12 10. Vol. ASME VIII Div 1: July 2001: 'Rules for construction of pressure vessels'. 'Heat treatment of unalloyed and low alloy steel' and Section W 0702 'Heat treatment of unalloyed and low alloy steel pipes'. BS 1113: 1992: 'Design and manufacture of water-tube steam generating plant (including superheaters. Mohr W: 'Post-weld heat treatment: A review.3: 1999: 'ASME code for pressure piping. December 1971. 33. 1991.. ASME B31. Part 4: Manufacture'. 13. 'Class 1 arc welding of ferritic steel pipework for carrying fluids'.8: 1999: 'ASME code for pressure piping. Nicholson S and Brook J C: 'Review of codes'.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1. BS EN 10025: 1993:'Hot rolled products of non-alloy structural steels -Technical delivery conditions'.2 Section W 0701.Rolled and welded sections'. 16. AWS D1. ASME B31. ASME B31. Dienst voor het Stoomwezen. DD ENV 1993-1-1:1992 'Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures. 31.Part 1: Fusion welding of steel'.1981: 'Construction of pressure vessels'. Salkin R V: 'The desirability of unifying ideas and codes on stress relief thermal heat treatments'. 15. BS 5950-1:2000: 'Structural use of steelwork in building. 1991. assessment and repair of welded structures and components'. Biennial Conf. Code of practice for design . 1994. 23.html 7/10/2010 . JIS B 8243 . 18. 22.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption . 24. Part 1 Nov. BS 2971 'Specification for Class II arc welding of carbon steel pipework for carrying fluids'. 26. 34. 30. welded. 20.Part 3: Code of practice for design of steel bridges' 32. British Standards Institution Published Document PD 5500. Part 1. On Heat Treatment'. Part 2 Dec. 12. The Hague. 19. February 1996. concrete and composite bridges . 10th Annual North American Welding Research Conference.twi.' 25. 27. Saunders G G: 'Residual stresses and their reduction'. BS EN 12952: 2001: 'Water tube boilers and auxiliary installations -Part 2 Materials for pressure parts of boilers and accessories'.1 General rules and rules for buildings'. power piping'. and Part 5 'Workmanship and construction of pressure parts of the boiler. EEMUA 158: 1994: 'Construction specification for fixed offshore structures in the North Sea'. (Superseded by BS EN 288-1: 1992 and BS EN 288-3: 1992. 14. 'Rules for pressure vessels'. Applied Science Publishers Ltd.1M: 2002: 'Structural welding code steel'. BS 4870: 1981 'Approval testing of welding procedures . Proc. American Petroleum Institute. API 650: November 1998: 'Welded steel tanks for oil storage'. API 620 'Design and construction of large. 2000: 'Unfired fusion welded pressure vessels'. 28. process piping'.) http://www. BS EN 13445 2002: 'Unfired pressure vessels. reheaters and steel tube economisers)'. 21. 17. 29.

41. (Superseded by BS EN 287-1: 1992. TWI Report for Research Members 679/1999.Welding procedure tests for the arc welding of steels'. CEN/TC 121/SC 1 N 407.Part 1: 1992 'Approval testing of welders for fusion welding -: Steels'.Part 1: Fusion welding of steel'. 37. Published Document PD CR ISO 15608:2000 'Welding-guidelines for a metallic material grouping system'.J: 'Assignation of ASME Materials to the new grouping system CR TR 15608'. British Standards Institution.twi.A review of postweld heat treatment code exemption . 39. June 2000. 40. Mohr W C: 'Fracture mechanics to justify the minimum thickness for PWHT: Girth butt-welded steel pipe'. Muhammed A. Smith A T and Cheaitani M J: 'Using fracture mechanics to claim exemption from PWHT . and BS EN 288: Part 3: 1992 'Specification and approval of welding procedures for metallic materials . Leggatt R H. Sperko W. 38.Four case studies'. BS EN 287.co. Last Reviewed 2007 / Copyright © 2007 TWI Ltd http://www. 1998.uk/content/spdjamar2006pt1.) 36. December 1997.html 7/10/2010 .General rules for fusion welding'.Part 1 (March 2006) Page 12 of 12 35. May 1999. June. BS 4871: 1992 'Approval testing of welders working to approved welding procedures . Edison Welding Institute Report for Research Members MR9708. BS EN 288: Part 1: 1992 'Specification and approval of welding procedures for metallic materials .

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful