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The Leading Magazine for Pump Users Worldwide

Internet of Things Prepare for the DOE Refinery Revamps


Transforms the Industry Electric Motor Rule 1947 Vintage Pumps
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Circle 100 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.


2

From the Editor


EDITORIAL
EDITOR: Michelle Segrest
msegrest@pump-zone.com 205-314-8279
MANAGING EDITOR: Savanna Gray
sgray@cahabamedia.com 205-278-2839

T he pump world is buzzing about the Internet of Things (IoT). In fact, the entire world
is talking about it. If you Google IoT youll get more than 25 million results.
The IoT has its own Twitter handle (@TheIoT) that has more than 17,000
MANAGING EDITOR: Amelia Messamore
amessamore@cahabamedia.com
205-314-8264
followers. There are several websites dedicated to the phenomenon including ASSOCIATE EDITOR: Amy Cash
acash@cahabamedia.com 205-278-2826
alltheinternetofthings.com, which features True Stories from IoT Trailblazers and
SR. EDITOR, PRODUCTION & CONTENT MARKETING:
claims to have literally everything that can be found on the Internet about the IoT. Alecia Archibald
Microsoft recently published the top 10 reasons to develop an IoT strategy and how to aarchibald@cahabamedia.com 205-314-3878
capitalize on it. This applies to all industries: CONTRIBUTING EDITORS: Laurel Donoho,
Lev Nelik, Ray Hardee, Jim Elsey
1. Start with your things. Focus on the right ideas of your business for quick return.
CREATIVE SERVICES
2. Get more from your existing assets. Start with existing IT assets and build upon them. SENIOR ART DIRECTOR: Greg Ragsdale
3. Make small changes, see a big impact. Identify one process, product line or location ART DIRECTORS: Jaime DeArman, Melanie Magee
that matters to you and start there. WEB DEVELOPER: Greg Caudle
4. Improve efficiency. Track condition and performance over time. PRINT ADVERTISING TRAFFIC: Lisa Freeman
lfreeman@cahabamedia.com 205-212-9402
5. Connect any asset. Pull in data from multiple devices.
6. Enable innovation. Businesses that learn and adapt will continue to thrive. CIRCULATION
AUDIENCE DEVELOPMENT MANAGER: Lori Masaoay
7. Increase agility. Collect and analyze data for quick insight into developing trends. lmasaoay@cahabamedia.com 205-278-2840
8. Build the ability to scale. Scale from the smallest data point to global deployments. ADVERTISING
9. Transform your business. Data is only ones and zeros until you turn it into insights NATIONAL SALES MANAGER: Derrell Moody
dmoody@pump-zone.com 205-345-0784
and business impact.
ACCOUNT EXECUTIVES:
10. Choose an enterprise-proven IoT partner. Stop running your business and start Mary-Kathryn Baker
making it thrive. mkbaker@pump-zone.com 205-345-6036
Mark Goins
This month, Pumps & Systems brings you detailed insight into The Untapped Potential mgoins@pump-zone.com 205-345-6414
of the Internet of Things, with a special report beginning on page 38. The article Addison Perkins
aperkins@pump-zone.com 205-561-2603
explains how this concept can transform the pump industry. Vince Marino
In the 1950s, the pump industry had no connectivity or remote intelligence. By 2020, vince@pump-zone.com 205-561-2601
it is predicted that pumps will be virtually controlled, monitored, analyzed, operated MARKETING ASSOCIATES:
and maintained via the Cloud. Many companies have already made progress with Ashley Morris
amorris@cahabamedia.com 205-561-2600
intelligent pump technology. In addition, please read about how a cybersecurity plan can
Sonya Crocker
protect plants from dangerous and costly cyberattacks (page 44). scrocker@cahabamedia.com 205-314-8276
Meanwhile, dont miss our cover series this month on The Aftermarket (page 62)
which covers leak detection technology, technological solutions for emergency spare
parts, reverse engineering and how to optimize operation with the latest aftermarket
solutions.
PUBLISHER: Walter B. Evans Jr.
VP OF SALES: Greg Meineke
VP OF EDITORIAL: Michelle Segrest
CREATIVE DIRECTOR: Terri J. Gray
Editor, Michelle Segrest
msegrest@pump-zone.com P.O. Box 530067
Birmingham, AL 35253
EDITORIAL & PRODUCTION
1900 28th Avenue South, Suite 200
Pumps & Systems Birmingham, AL 35209
is a member of the following organizations: 205-212-9402
ADVERTISING SALES
PUMPS & SYSTEMS (ISSN# 1065-108X) is published monthly by Cahaba Media Group, 1900 28th Avenue So., Suite 200, Birmingham, AL 35209. Periodicals
postage paid at Birmingham, AL, and additional mailing ofces. Subscriptions: Free of charge to qualied industrial pump users. Publisher reserves the 2126 McFarland Blvd. East, Suite A
right to determine qualications. Annual subscriptions: US and possessions $48, all other countries $125 US funds (via air mail). Single copies: US and Tuscaloosa, AL 35404
possessions $5, all other countries $15 US funds (via air mail). Call 630-739-0900 inside or outside the U.S. POSTMASTER: Send changes of address and
form 3579 to Pumps & Systems, Subscription Dept., 440 Quadrangle Drive, Suite E, Bolingbrook, IL 60440. 2015 Cahaba Media Group, Inc. No part of 205-345-0784
this publication may be reproduced without the written consent of the publisher. The publisher does not warrant, either expressly or by implication, the
factual accuracy of any advertisements, articles or descriptions herein, nor does the publisher warrant the validity of any views or opinions offered by the
authors of said articles or descriptions. The opinions expressed are those of the individual authors, and do not necessarily represent the opinions of Cahaba
Media Group. Cahaba Media Group makes no representation or warranties regarding the accuracy or appropriateness of the advice or any advertisements
Tell us your story
contained in this magazine. SUBMISSIONS: We welcome submissions. Unless otherwise negotiated in writing by the editors, by sending us your submis-
sion, you grant Cahaba Media Group, Inc., permission by an irrevocable license to edit, reproduce, distribute, publish and adapt your submission in any How do you benefit
medium on multiple occasions. You are free to publish your submission yourself or to allow others to republish your submission. Submissions will not be
returned. Volume 23, Issue 3. from the IoT?

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


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4
This issue MARCH
Volume 23 Number 3

COVER
SERIES

AFTERMARKET
62 NEW 3-D CASTING METHODS PRODUCE
SPARE PARTS FASTER
By Jesse Stinson, Hydro Parts Solutions
& Werner Barnard, Hydro Inc.
Additive manufacturing also improves geometric
tolerances.

66 NEW DETECTION TECHNOLOGY REDUCES


LEAK RISK
By Yvette Schmiz
INTEGRA Technologies
Block and bleed isolation capabilities improve
safety and profits.

68 4 ENGINEERING STRATEGIES THAT CAN


SAVE MILLIONS
By Steven Hunsche
SKF USA INC.
Advanced test analysis tools, remanufacturing and training help end users COLUMNS
solve problems.
PUMPING PRESCRIPTIONS
72 REFINERY REVAMPS 1947 VINTAGE PUMPS
By Basil S. Elkurd 24 By Lev Nelik, Ph.D., P.E.
BP Oil Whiting Renery Pumping Machinery, LLC
An Indiana refinery used reverse engineering to solve multiple challenges Can Deaerators Create Pump Trips?
with one custom pump.
PUMP SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT
30 By Ray Hardee
Engineered Software, Inc.
How an Oversized Pump Can Harm the
Motor & Increase Operational Costs
SPECIAL SECTION
38 By Mike W. Otten
Discover the Untapped Potential
of the Internet of Things

44 By Gary Williams, MSc, IT SEC


How to Protect Plants from Invisible
Threats

2 FROM THE EDITOR


8 FROM THE READERS
14 NEWS
76 TRADE SHOW PREVIEW
STATE OF THE INDUSTRY 96 PRODUCTS
12 Industry Leaders Provide Expert Insight on Key Topics & Trends 100 PUMP USERS MARKETPLACE
Second in a Series
104 PUMP MARKET ANALYSIS

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


Increased efficiencies and UNMATCHED RELIABILITY allow the Vaughan Chopper Pump
to handle tough stringy solids often with the same motor size as a non-clog pump. Also
included is a back-pullout casing design, allowing external adjustments of clearances and
ease of maintenance.

- Advanced engineering, efficiency, maintainability and performance


- Handles tough stringy solids with the same motor size as a non-clog pump
- New larger sizes, configurations, and cutting-edge flushless seal design

See videos, drawings, and details at ChopperPumps.com or call 888.249.CHOP

Circle 114 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.


6
This issue MARCH
DEPARTMENTS
SSPECIAL
PECIAL HARSH
SECTION
CONDITIONS 78 EFFICIENCY MATTERS
5 Maintenance Factors that
Help Achieve Optimum
48 SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS HANDLE Efficiency
CORROSIVE SOLIDS AT ETHANOL
By Mike Winkler
TESTING PLANT
Motion Industries
By Mike Bjorkman, BJM Corp.
A caustic, high-temperature cleaning solution 82 MAINTENANCE MINDERS
puts excessive demand on equipment. Turbine Error Identification
Prevents Costly Outages for
Power Plants
50 MECHANICAL SEAL DESIGN PROTECTS By Brandon Perkins
SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS FROM GE Intelligent Platforms
ABRASIVE WASTEWATER
By Spencer Reynolds, Vulcan Seals Inc. 84 MOTORS & DRIVES
Prepare for the New DOE
Customized seals made from superior Electric Motor Efficiency Rule
materials can help prevent premature failure
By John Malinowski
in heavy-duty applications.
Baldor Electric Company

52 HARSH LIQUIDS REQUIRE CAREFUL MATERIAL SELECTION 88 SEALING SENSE


By Ken Comerford, Vanton Pump and Equipment Corp. Updates to Industry
Standards Offer New Options
Metallics and plastics offer advantages for different applications. for Fugitive Emissions Testing
By Philip Mahoney
58 CUSTOMIZED COMPOUNDING BOOSTS RESILIENCE IN HARSH CONDITIONS FSA Member
By Dr. Joel Bell & Will Taber, RTP Company
Reinforcing additives combined with a carefully selected base resin can create a high- 90 HI PUMP FAQS
performance compound for any application. Recommendations for
Rotary Pumps, Diaphragm
Pumps and VFDs
By Hydraulic Institute
PRACTICE & 92 TIPS FOR USING PULSATION DAMPENERS IN

DOSING OR VOLUMETRIC PUMP SYSTEMS The Leading Magazine for Pump Users Worldwide

OPERATIONS By Manuel Carcar-Gimeno


HIDRACAR, S.A.
Understanding the equipments operation capabilities and
how to calculate the required size is critical. Image courtesy
of Hydro, Inc. Internet of Things
Transforms the Industry
Prepare for the DOE
Electric Motor Rule
Refinery Revamps
1947 Vintage Pumps

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD WILLIAM E. NEIS, P.E., President, Northeast


Industrial Sales
LEV NELIK, Ph.D., P.E., APICS, President,
THOMAS L. ANGLE, P.E., MSC, Vice President BOB DOMKOWSKI, Business Development PumpingMachinery, LLC
Engineering, Hidrostal AG Manager Transport Pumping and Amusement
Markets/Engineering Consultant, Xylem, Inc., HENRY PECK, President, Geiger Pump &
ROBERT K. ASDAL, Executive Director, Water Solutions USA Flygt Equipment Company
Hydraulic Institute
DAVID A. DOTY, North American Sales Manager, MIKE PEMBERTON, Manager, ITT Performance
BRYAN S. BARRINGTON, Machinery Engineer, Moyno Industrial Pumps Services
Lyondell Chemical Co.
WALT ERNDT, VP/GM, CRANE Pumps & Systems SCOTT SORENSEN, Oil & Gas Automation
KERRY BASKINS, VP/GM, Milton Roy Americas Consultant & Market Developer, Siemens Industry
JOE EVANS, Ph.D., Customer & Employee Sector
WALTER BONNETT, Vice President Global Education, PumpTech, Inc.
Marketing, Pump Solutions Group ADAM STOLBERG, Executive Director,
RALPH P. GABRIEL, Chief Engineer Global, John Submersible Wastewater Pump Association
R. THOMAS BROWN III, President, Crane
Advanced Sealing International (ASI) (SWPA)
LARRY LEWIS, President, Vanton Pump and JERRY TURNER, Founder/Senior Advisor,
CHRIS CALDWELL, Director of Advanced Equipment Corp.
Collection Technology, Business Area Wastewater Pioneer Pump
Solutions, Sulzer Pumps, ABS USA TODD LOUDIN, President/CEO North American KIRK WILSON, President, Services & Solutions,
Operations, Flowrox Inc. Flowserve Corporation
JACK CREAMER, Market Segment Manager
Pumping Equipment, Square D by Schneider JOHN MALINOWSKI, Sr. Product Manager, AC JAMES WONG, Associate Product Manager
Electric Motors, Baldor Electric Company, A Member of Bearing Isolator, Garlock Sealing Technologies
the ABB Group

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


Single-source supplier: your partner
for pumps, valves and service
Count on KSB to help you maximize your process efficiencies and
optimize your existing products. We can handle the diagnostics,
repair or casting and machining of aftermarket parts regardless of the
manufacturer. KSB provides reliable service to our customers with
skilled technicians to service or repair your pump around the world.
Contact KSB, your one source partner for your next service or repair
job. www.ksbusa.com

KSB, Inc. . Mid-Atlantic . Phone: (804) 565-8203 . repair@ksbusa.com . www.ksbusa.com

Standard Alloys Inc. . Gulf Coast . Phone: (800) 231-8240 . sales@standardalloys.com . www.standardalloys.com

Precision Pump & Machine . West Coast . Phone: (661) 633-5520 . info@precisionpump.com . www.precisionpump.com

Our technology. Your success. Circle 110 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.


Pumps Valves Service
p p
8

From the Readers


The November issue of Pumps & Systems outlined the integral design features of peristaltic pumpssuch as the heavy-duty hose
that reduce maintenance costs and improve efficiency in dosing applications. Heres what members of the Pumps & Systems LinkedIn
group had to say about this article.

Peristaltic Pumps Handle Paul, can you explain the dampeners you mention? What are
Abrasive Chemicals in Water & they, and how would they provide a more level ow?
Gerald Potapa, Jr. CPD
Wastewater Treatment Sales Engineer
NOVEMBER 2014 R.L. Deppmann

Gerald, the most common dampener housings are either


Peristaltic pumps are a marvelous type of pump. They are made of metal or composite with an internal elastomeric
much better if you use a dry type of peristaltic pump that bladder compatible with the pumped product. The housing
can run dry without a liquid for lubrication or refrigeration or chamber is sized based on ow and pressurized according
of the shoes and the hose. to discharge head. The bladder will then absorb the peak
Marzio Vallo pulsations and distributeor level outthe ow. Hydraulic
Director, Oil & Gs Business chocs are also considerably reduced, which lengthens the life
Omel Bombas e Compressores Ltda. of the installation.
Paul Pilisi
These are interesting pumps, but they dont appear to be able Sales Manager North America
to provide a constant ow. It looks like they provide a ow PCM

that is, for lack of a better description, pulsed. That may be


a disadvantage in certain lab applications that may require
a steady ow. However, I can think of a number of places
where these would be ideal.
Gerald Potapa, Jr. CPD JOIN THE DISCUSSION
Sales Engineer
R.L. Deppmann

Become a member of our LinkedIn


The main advantages of peristaltic technology are its group, Pumps & Systems, to participate
high-suction lift, dry running capability, sealless nature, in pump-related discussions with more
low shear, and ability to handle solids (typically 1/3 of tube than 18,000 industry professionals.
outer diameter) as well as abrasive and viscous products. Of
course, as with all technologies, there are drawbacks such as Follow us on Twitter
pulsating ow (can be leveled out with dampeners), higher @PumpsSystemsMag
cost and more frequent maintenance. However, they have
few wearing partsvirtually hose and lubricant only. Its a
simple and ecient technology for the right applications. Like us on Facebook
Paul Pilisi Pumps & Systems
Sales Manager North America
PCM

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


9

Chemical Metering Pumps and Flowmeters


for Successful Water & Waste Water Treatment.
Many readers use the Pumps & BHAT*LNK
Laneop]hpe_Iapanejc

Systems LinkedIn group to post


questions, share best practices and
Ejfa_pknLqil
Three Models
discuss pump-related challenges and Available with Feed
solutions. One senior site manager Rates Ranging from
inquired about the best way to turn 0.1 GPH/.03 LPH to
158 GPH/600 LPH.
twin-head pumps.
Brushless Variable
Speed Motor.
Twin-Head Pumps Terminal Blocks in
Junction Box for
How do you decide which way to Remote Connections.
turn twin-head pumps? That might Patented Tube Failure
seem like an odd question, but I am Detection, Patented
replacing three twin-head pumps Safety Switch,
Patented Method for
with new equipment, like-for-like. Extended Tube Life.
The existing pump motors contra-
IP
P66
rotate (one clockwise and the other
counterclockwise), but I have no idea NE
EMA
A 4X
]GY
GY
YN"J
N JU]T
N"JU
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how to determine how the pump
manufacturer has congured the
new pumps.
EXCLUSIVE! NEW

Mark Bean
Senior Site Manager
Vear Mechanical & Electrical Services Ltd. Flex-A-Prene is a multi-channel pump
tube assembly designed by Blue-White
exclusively for Proseries-M and Flex-Pro
Peristaltic Metering Pumps.
There will be an arrow on the Flex-A-Prene is engineered for
casing. Make sure the impeller is optimum performance and
pressure capability.
aligned for the same direction of
rotation. Running the pump alternately
in both directions is not recommended.
You may nd it to be too expensive in
labor time/cost to open and reassemble
OKJE?*LNK
Qhpn]okje_Bhksiapano)

the pump if the impeller is not correctly @alaj`kjpda


placed. You also need to check for __qn]_u
shaft seals. If seals are designed for Works with clean or dirty fluids.
unidirectional operation, you will Non-invasive Clamp-on ransducers.
Circle 117 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

need to relocate the seals as well. I had Full Spectrum of Pipe Size Capacities.
designed and built a similar renery Smart External Communications.
IP
P66
pump with a 400-horsepower drive Selectable Doppler or Transit Time.
in 1978. I took care to ensure that the T-Track Mounting System for Fast andd NE
EMA 4X
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Easy Sensor Installation, with Nema
seals were bidirectional. Loss of large 4X Quick Disconnects.
seals on such pumps can result in
signicant equipment downtime.

Ratnakar Mankad
Director 5300 Business Drive, Huntington Beach, CA 92649 USA
Akaar Founders Pvt. Ltd. 714-893-8529 fax: 714-894-9492 sales@blue-white.com
www.blue-white.com

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


10 FROM THE READERS

See what Pumps & Systems


readers are saying on Twitter...

One reader responds to the January article, Washdown


Pump Motors Provide Reliable Sanitary Operation by
David Steen of Baldor Electric Company.
Circle 118 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

To have a letter considered for publication, please send it to


Amelia Messamore, amessamore@cahabamedia.com.

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


11

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


Circle 109 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.
12
STATE of the
INDUSTRY
2 0 1 5

Industry Leaders Provide Expert Insight


on Key Topics & Trends
Second in a Series
Patrick Taylor that about 7 percent of the total cost of the energy
President space is tied to water management, which is an exciting
(since May 2013) opportunity for us.
Viking Pump We see a return to growth in North America as we see
some of the stalled municipal spend beginning to vault.
Viking Pump delivered one of its strongest years on record There is a lot of pent up infrastructure rebuild in the U.S.
in 2014. The momentum will carry the organization well that needs to be dealt with, and we are beginning to see
into 2015 and is driven by strategic and tactical actions put growth in our backlog pretty signicantly in that part
in place during the past few years. This, coupled with the of the world. Europe continues to be amongst challenges
vertical market performance in the chemical and oil and both in terms of political and macro-economic issues,
gas sectors, delivered outstanding organic growth. but we see continuing growth in our pump business there
While there is momentum going into this year for as well. We look at regions such as the Middle East and
Viking Pump and many other industrial companies in China, South America and India not so much as low-cost
North America, several unstable economies around the manufacturing bases anymore. It is really a matter of how
world will continue to impact industrial companies we support growth in these markets by being global.
much like they did in 2014. It is my opinion that the As many people know by the launch of Pumps &
companies that excel over the next few cycles will focus Systems MENA, there is a tremendous appetite for
on a few key initiatives. technical knowledge and expertise in this region. I am
First, to take advantage of high-growth regions as well so excited about what we are doing there because it is
as capturing market share in slower growing regions, not just localization of manufacturing capabilities; it
companies will need to invest in their commercial is also localization of research and development (R&D)
teams and processes. Making an investment in channel and engineering resources. Most of the water solutions
management and key accounts teams makes a positive around the world today are being developed in regions
dierence in providing value to our customers. In that are facing scarcity and other issues.
addition, interrelated go-to-market processes that align We are continuing to do more things as a company to
an organizations capabilities to the needs of the end user become more lean in our processes and be more ecient
will provide valuable solutions. as a company. There are opportunities to be faster,
Also, superior talent will make the dierence in any smarter, more agile and, therefore, more cost ecient.
companys ability to achieve their goals. For Viking, Th is will continue to be a cornerstone of our story as a
building great global teams is job No. 1. Th is focus company. But at the end of the day, we are here to grow
starts directly within global organization and extends this company.
to its go-to-market partners. I believe you will see One of the things that drew me to Xylem is the ability
manufacturers continue to focus on talent acquisition and to marry social value creation with economic value
accelerating the development of their associates in 2015. creation. People hear me talk about this a lot. I believe
companies need to be here for a higher purpose than just
making money. There is no greater place to do that than
Patrick Decker in the water space.
CEO Growth is a big deal for us. We have struggled with
(since March 2014) growth, in general, as an industry in the past three to
Xylem, Inc. four years. Now we are beginning to see opportunities to
accelerate that. First and foremost, we want to accelerate
The single biggest trend going on in the pump industry protable growth. There are four dierent areas we are
right now is a focus on energy eciency. It is being focusing on. One is growth in emerging markets and
driven by regulations in the industry as well as the needs the investments there. Second, we want to expand our
and demands of our clients. Most people do not realize presence in the industrial use of water. We are building

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


13

what we are calling an industry-vertical market. We


are mapping the needs of our customers to understand
the gaps in what we oer today and how that aects
R&D priorities and acquisitions.
We are also focusing on increasing our innovation,
and we have increased our investment in that area.
Those are the priorities. Many Pumps & Systems readers
know we have some of the best pump brands in the
world. We are proud of them and will continue to
invest in them. We are equally excited about expanding
our testing and treatment capabilities. We have the
broadest oering in the water industry, and we are
not done yet. We are nding that our customers
around the world, especially in these emerging
markets, really gravitate toward an integrated oering.
We combine the power of data and information along
with the pumps.

Scott Aiello
General Manager
(Since January 2013)
Warren Rupp, Inc.

Growth in 2015 will come while we continue to navigate


dynamic global markets. We have seen solid growth over
the last two years by driving strategies and focusing on
key markets and geographies. Companies will need to
continue to be nimble to execute in changing markets.
We will continue to develop our talent and teams to
identify and execute in the markets that best align our
products, channel and end markets.
The unknowns that we are experiencing in markets
such as oil and gas require us to leverage the experience
we have developed to execute in changing markets. For
these reasons, it is essential that we align our eorts to
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improve commercial productivity for our company, our


channel and our end markets.
We are excited about the opportunities and challenges
ahead in 2015. Additionally, we are proud at Warren
Rupp, Inc., to celebrate our 50th anniversary. We have
the responsibility to further the legacy that Mr. Warren
Rupp began in 1965. Our product innovation, customer
solutions and growth will be based around the need to
solve problems for our end users in key markets.

Visit pumpsandsystems.com
to read analyses and forecasts from other
industry leaders.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


14 NEWS

NEW HIRES,
PROMOTIONS & RECOGNITIONS
JOHN MALINOWSKI,
BALDOR ELECTRIC COMPANY
FORT SMITH, Ark. (Feb. 9, 2015) Baldor Electric
SPOTLIGHT
Company has named John Malinowski Senior Terry Henshaw, Pumps & Systems columnist,
Industry Affairs Manager. In this role, John recently completed a book on net positive
will represent Baldor and its parent company suction head (NPSH), arguably one of the most
ABB in various U.S. associations promoting the important yet complex aspects of pumps. The
companies positions on industrial electric motor John content of the book, titled NPSH: The Achilles
policies, regulations and standards. Malinowski, Malinowski Heel of Pumps, is largely based on the series of
currently the general product manager for articles Henshaw wrote for Pumps & Systems in
general purpose and severe duty motors, has been with Baldor since 2009 and 2010. I believe that NPSH is the most
1982. baldor.com important, and yet, most misunderstood of all pump characteristics,
Henshaw says in the books preface. Ive read numerous articles,
RICHARD THOMPSON, technical papers and letters on NPSH. Many have been enlightening,
EBARA FLUID HANDLING some have been shallow, and some have contained significant
ROCK HILL, S.C. (Jan. 7, 2015) Richard misinformation. The purpose of this book is to draw together that
Thompson was appointed vice president, Ebara available knowledge which is reasonable, logical and hopefully useful
Fluid Handling Division (FHD), and will assume to those who select, apply, operate and/or troubleshoot pumps; and
full management and overall operations of also, hopefully, to dispel some of the numerous misconceptions about
the division. Thompsons appointment is part NPSH. The 168-page book is available on Amazon.com. Read more
of an executive management transition as he Richard about NPSH at pumpsandsystems.com/understanding-npsh.
succeeds Martin Perlmutter, who has served as Thompson
Ebara FHDs president for more than 16 years.
As part of the transition, Perlmutter will continue to support and be MARK DAGOSTINO, POWER-FLO PUMPS & SYSTEMS
involved with FHD and Ebara in an advisory role until March 31. GARDEN CITY PARK, N.Y. (Jan. 22, 2015) Power-Flo Pumps &
pumpsebara.com Systems appointed Mark DAgostino as vice president of sales. Jerry
Dicunzolo, president and CEO of Power-Flo Technologies stated, I
DANIEL S. ANDERSON, ASAHI/AMERICA have known and respected Mark for many years and am looking
ST. LAWRENCE, Mass. (Jan. 22, 2015) Asahi/ forward to working with him to accomplish our goals.
America, Inc., announced the promotion of powerflopumps.com
Daniel S. Anderson to the office of president and
CEO. The announcement was made to Asahi/ JAY ORELLANA, TOUCHSENSOR
America employees Dec. 11, 2014, by former TECHNOLOGIES
president and CEO Hidetoshi Hashimoto, who will WHEATON, Ill. (Jan. 19, 2015) TouchSensor
remain with the Massachusetts-based company Daniel S. Technologies announced the promotion of Jay
as chairman of the board of directors. Anderson Anderson Orellana to business development manager
has been with Asahi/America since November LevelGuard. Orellana joined TouchSensor in 1999
1988 as senior vice president of sales and marketing. He assumed his serving as new product launch manager as well
new position Jan. 1. asahi-america.com as in other business development roles. Prior to Jay Orellana
joining TouchSensor, he served as senior product
ANTHONY MILANDO, XYLEM INC. engineer for Underwriter Laboratories for 10 years. Orellana has a BS
RYE BROOK, N.Y. (Jan. 22, 2015) Xylem Inc. appointed Anthony in electrical engineering. touchsensor.com
Milando as senior vice president for continuous
improvement and business transformation. In this
newly created position, Milando will be responsible MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS
for driving operational excellence and process
Motion Industries to acquire L.B. Foster Company to acquire
simplification across the organization, reporting
Miller Bearings, Inc. Chemtec Energy Services, LLC
directly to President and CEO Patrick Decker. He will
Jan. 14, 2015 Jan. 5, 2015
also serve as a member of the companys senior
leadership team and will be based at the companys Bentley Systems, Incorporated, 3D Systems acquired botObjects
global headquarters in Rye Brook, New York. acquired C3global Jan. 5, 2015
xyleminc.com Jan. 13, 2015

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15

CRAIG PAULSON, PSG SEAN KURTZ, DANFOSS


OAKBROOK TERRACE, Ill. (Jan. 12, 2015) PSG, a Dover Company, BALTIMORE (Jan. 6, 2015) Danfoss named Sean
appointed Craig Paulson as vice president of human resources. In this Kurtz general manager and director of operations
position, Paulson will be responsible for aligning the human resources for its compressor manufacturing facility in
strategies with PSG business strategies as the company continues Arkadelphia, Arkansas. In this role, Kurtz will
to grow organically and through acquisition. He will report directly provide leadership to the facilitys management
to Karl Buscher, president of PSG. While at Waukesha Bearings, he team and daily production processes, as well as
led the human resources functions for all of the U.S.-based and execute the companys global business strategy Sean Kurtz
some international manufacturing facilities. Paulson has a Bachelor at the local level. Kurtz joins Danfoss with
of Science degree in industrial sociology and a Master of Science more than 24 years of experience in plant, project and engineering
degree in human resources and labor relations from the University management related to high-speed/high-volume manufacturing in
of Wisconsin, Milwaukee. He will be based out of the PSG corporate automotive, aerospace, business equipment and heavy equipment
offices in Oakbrook Terrace, Illinois. psgdover.com industries. Most recently, he was director, U.S. manufacturing,
at Klein Tools, a manufacturer of non-powered hand tools and
JEFF LEEPER, EBARA measuring devices. Kurtz holds a masters degree in operations
ROCK HILL, S.C. (Jan. 8, 2015) EBARA Fluid Handling has appointed management from Northern Illinois University and a bachelors
Jeff Leeper as senior application specialist. Leeper will be responsible degree in mechanical engineering from Lawrence Technological
for internal and external customer product applications support, University. danfoss.us
including preparing quotations and submittals, order preparation
and after-sales support. Leeper brings a wealth of experience and ANDREW M. CRAWFORD, PENTAIR
valuable technical knowledge to EBARA. He started his career with NORTH AURORA, Ill. (Jan. 5, 2015) Engineering
Goulds Pumps and held several positions in applications, sales and firms, end users, contractors and purchasers
support for the ITT Goulds Industrial Products Group. For the past 10 have a single point-of-contact to readily source
years, he has held positions with Sulzer Pumps in sales of new pumps all of their industrial and marine fire protection
and repairs for the chemical, paper and power industries. Leeper systems and equipment. Andrew M. Crawford,
holds a B.S. in mechanical engineering from Grove City College in known as an expert in industrial pumping
Pennsylvania. pumpsebara.com systems and equipment, is leading this initiative Andrew M.
Crawford

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16 NEWS

for Pentair. With Crawfords appointment, Pentair Engineered Flow W. Briggs Memorial Technical & Operating Medal for her career
is forming a national distribution network in the U.S. and Canada. contributions in metallurgy. The Technical and Operating Medal
Pentair Engineered Flow has full sourcing responsibility and control recognizes outstanding scientific or engineering contributions to the
over all necessary components and replacement parts. Pentair plans technical or operating advancement of the steel foundry industry.
to increase its distribution network with the addition of dedicated In 1969 the medal was renamed the Charles W. Briggs Memorial
industrial fire distributors focused on oil and gas, marine, power/ Technical and Operating Medal in recognition of the activities of C.W.
utilities, chemical and manufacturing industries as full service Briggs from 1938 to 1968.
providers. pentair.com Elaine Thomas began her career at Bradken-Energys Tacoma
facility (formerly known as Atlas Foundry) in 1977 where she has
MIKAL HAYES, SEPCO spent almost 40 years working and managing operations in the melt
ALABASTER, Ala. (Nov. 24, 2014) SEPCO, Inc., shop, weld engineering, heat treating, chemistry and mechanical
announced Mikal Hayes as the new applications testing labs. Thomas currently serves on multiple committees,
engineer aiding in the design and development including the SFSA Specifications Committee (current chairman),
of SEPCOs mechanical seals and redesign of SFSA High Alloy and
existing systems. Hayes helps support new Heavy Section Research
product development, product improvement, Committee, and ASTM
testing and costing. He also uses both A01.18 Subcommittee for
Mikal Hayes
mathematical and hands-on approaches to solve Cast Steel.
problems, modify designs, develop new methods and maintain data Thomas also received a
in engineering systems. sepco.com scholarship in her name
which is presented to
ELAINE THOMAS RECEIVES the school of her choice.
TECHNICAL & OPERATING MEDAL Thomas chose to award
TACOMA, Wash. (Jan. 8, 2015) On Dec. 11, 2014, Elaine Thomas, the the scholarship to her
director of metallurgy at Bradken-Energy, became the first woman alma mater, Washington
to ever receive the Steel Founders Society of Americas (SFSA) Charles State University.
bradken.com

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


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18 NEWS

AROUND THE INDUSTRY


MWV & RockTenn Agree
to Combination Creating a
SPOTLIGHT
Global Packaging Provider ABB & Solar Impulse Get Ready for Historic
RICHMOND, Va. and NORCROSS, Ga. Round-the-World Flight
(Jan. 26, 2015) RockTenn Company ZURICH (Jan. 20,
and MeadWestvaco Corporation have 2015) ABB will
announced that they have entered into accompany Solar
a definitive combination agreement to Impulse and its
create a global provider of consumer crew on the planes
and corrugated packaging, NewCo, in flight around the
a transaction with a combined equity world powered only
value of $16 billion. The combined by energy from the
company, to be named prior to closing, sun. Solar Impulse,
will have combined net sales of $15.7 based in Switzerland,
billion and adjusted EBITDA of $2.9 announced that it
billion, including the impact of $300 will begin its historic
million in estimated annual synergies flight between late
to be achieved over three years. February and early
Steven C. Voorhees, CEO of RockTenn, March in Abu Dhabi.
will serve as CEO and president of In 2014, ABB
the combined company, and John A. and Solar Impulse
Luke Jr., chairman and CEO of MWV, formed an
will become non-executive chairman innovation and technology alliance to advance a shared vision of reducing
of the board of directors. The board resource consumption and increasing the use of renewable energy. Three
will be comprised of eight directors ABB engineers have joined the Solar Impulse team to help improve control
from RockTenn and six directors from systems for ground operations, enhance the charging electronics for the
MWV. The combined company will planes battery systems and resolve obstacles that emerge along the route.
maintain its principal executive offices On the planes 40,000-kilometer route, pilots Bertrand Piccard and Andre
in Richmond, Virginia, and will have Borschberg will share duties as the aircraft stops in cities including Muscat,
operating offices in Norcross, Georgia. Oman; Varanasi and Ahmedabad in India; Chongqing and Nanjing in China;
rocktenn.com mwv.com and Phoenix, Arizona. It will also stop in Europe or North Africa.
Among challenges before the mission concludes in Abu Dhabi in mid-2015
Atlas Copco Ranks 23rd will be a non-stop flight of five days and nights from China to Hawaii. The
Among Worlds Most plane, powered by 17,248 solar cells, will soar higher than Mount Everest each
Sustainable Corporations day, while fully charging its batteries to stay aloft during the night. abb.com
COMMERCE CITY, Colo. (Jan. 23, 2015)
Atlas Copco ranks 23rd among the
2015 Global 100 Most Sustainable upgrades, and establishing programs to the world. The new system will give
Corporations in the World index, a increase recycling rates. CAPS the ability to test electrical
list presented Jan. 22 at the World The Global 100 Most Sustainable equipment in real-world conditions,
Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland. Corporations in the World index and companies looking to build next-
The company was also listed first evaluated 4,609 publicly listed global generation power equipment will be
overall in the machinery industry. This companies, which are measured able to test those in the Tallahassee-
is the ninth time that Atlas Copco has against key sustainability indicators based facility. The new test facility
appeared in the Global 100 rankings. such as safety, performance and has a 24,000-volt direct current with a
Atlas Copco sustainability initiatives, revenues in relation to consumption of capacity of 5 megawatts.
both globally and in the U.S., include energy and water. atlascopco.us To create the new system, the center
boosting customer energy-efficiency put together four individual 6-kilovolt,
by at least 20 percent between 2010 1.25-megawatt converters that can be
FSU Unveils Powerful
and 2020, decreasing CO2 emissions, arranged in any combination, in series
working actively to eliminate
Electrical Testing System
TALLAHASSEE, Fla. (Jan. 15, 2015) or parallel connection, to form a flexible
corruption and promoting access test bed for medium voltage direct
Florida State Universitys Center for
to clean drinking water in countries current (MVDC) system investigations.
Advanced Power Systems (CAPS) has
in need. In the U.S., sustainability The MVDC system was built based on
unveiled a new 24,000-volt direct
initiatives include purchasing CAPS specifications by ABB Inc., as
current power test system, the most
renewable energy certificates to offset a technology demonstrator geared
powerful of its kind available at a
carbon emissions, reducing energy toward research activities. fsu.edu
university research center throughout
consumption through investments and

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


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20 NEWS

AROUND THE INDUSTRY


Pump Market to Exploit centrifugal and positive displacement for accreditation of electric motor
E&P Activities in Global (PD) pumps. The need for water and repair service providers. The EASA
Oil & Gas Industry wastewater management during the Accreditation Program provides
LONDON (Jan. 14, 2014) Escalating extraction of gas and oil from shale assurance to electric motor end users
investments in the exploration and has added to the demand for pumps. that repairs performed at accredited
production of conventional oil and However, as environmental concerns facilities conform to industry standards
gas is propelling the adoption of threaten market growth, efficient and maintain the reliability and
pumps around the world. The Western pumps are gaining importance. In efficiency of the repaired motor.
hemisphere will lead the way in uptake North America and Europe, refinery These standards are contained in
as production surges owing to the closures affect pump sales, yet the American National Standards
shale oil and gas boom in North opportunities have opened up for pump Institute approved ANSI/EASA AR100:
America, oil sands in Canada, and manufacturers in the Middle East Recommended Practice for the Repair
conventional reserves in Brazil, and Asia-Pacific. Rising midstream of Rotating Electrical Equipment.
Venezuela and Mexico. New deep-water investments in pipelines, railcars and The EASA Accreditation Program
and ultra-deep-water reserves in trucks in these regions add to market includes more than 70 separate
Asia-Pacific will contribute further to potential. frost.com criteria relating to electric motor
oil and gas production, and in turn, the repair that address the initial condition
sale of pumps. EASA Announces Industrys assessment of the failed motor and
New analysis from Frost & Sullivan, First Electric Motor Repair the repair of the motors mechanical
Global Pumps Market in the Oil and Gas Accreditation Program components. Further, the program
Industry, finds that the market earned ST. LOUIS, Mo. (Jan. 8, 2015) addresses repair of the motors
revenues of about $10 billion in 2013 The Electrical Apparatus Service electrical elements including winding
and estimates this to reach more than Association (EASA) announced and insulation.
$14 billion in 2020. The study covers the global industrys first program easa.com/accreditation

To have a news item considered, please send the information to Amelia Messamore, amessamore@cahabamedia.com.

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


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22 NEWS

EVENTS
Latin America and Caribbean Oil & Gas INTERPHEX
Security Forum April 21-23, 2015
March 17-18, 2015 Javits Center
Bogota, Colombia New York, N.Y.
latamoilgassecurity.com 888-334-8704 or 203-840-5648 / interphex.com
Pump School Training: Centrifugal & Positive Offshore Technology Conference (OTC)
Displacement Pumps May 4-7, 2015
March 24-25, 2015 NRG Park
One Midtown Plaza Houston, Texas
Atlanta, Ga. 972-952-9494 / 2015.otcnet.org
770-310-0866
pumpingmachinery.com/pump_school/pump_school.htm American Wind Energy Association (AWEA)
How Gear Motor Technology Increases Vertical Pump Windpower Conference & Exhibition
Drive Efficiency May 18-21, 2015
April 16, 2015 Orange County Convention Center
Pumps & Systems Live Webinar Series Orlando, Fla.
Presented by Baldor 508-743-8502 / windpowerexpo.org
pumpsandsystems.com/webinars
American Water Works Association Annual
WQA Aquatech USA Conference & Exposition (AWWA-ACE)
April 21-24, 2015 June 7-10, 2015
Las Vegas Convention Center Anaheim Convention Center
Las Vegas, Nevada Anaheim, Calif.
wqa.org/aquatech 800-926-7337 / awwa.org

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24 PUMPING PRESCRIPTIONS
Troubleshooting & repair challenges
By Lev Nelik, Ph.D., P.E.
Pumping Machinery, LLC, P&S Editorial Advisory Board

Can Deaerators Create Pump Trips?


First of Two Parts

I
n this two-part series, how The Steam Generation Process and electric current is delivered
transient events in process Fuel heats the boiler to convert to a net. Exhausted steam is
equipment affect other system liquid to steam. High temperature dumped into a condenser where it
components will be discussed. Part and pressure feed the hot steam is further cooled to complete its
1 covers how deaerators (DAs) may from the boiler to a turbine, which transformation back to cold water,
be affected by generator trips and typically has several stages (high, which a condensate pump sends
how these deaerator transients may intermediate and low pressures). to a DA.
also affect system pumps. The system includes additional The DAs size depends on
A power plant includes a complex components for better efficiency, the design and the plants
array of machinery, pipes, tanks, control and reliability, but these are requirements, but a 20,000-gallon
fuel, controls and auxiliary omitted to simplify the article. tank with roughly half its capacity
equipment. Figure 1 illustrates a Steam turbine shaft rotation is fi lled is typical for a relatively
simplified sketch of this system. transmitted to a generator shaft, small power plant.

Figure 1. Simplified diagram of a power plant cycle (Graphics courtesy of the author)

Steam
Bypass
Valve
Heat HP LP Generator
Boiler
Pegging
Steam Condenser CP
Air Out Condensate
Vapor

Air Liquid Deaerator


Bubbles (DA)
20,000 gallons
100 (half filled)

BFP Big Bubble


Pump in an upset condition following a transient event.

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


25

The DAs Function volume, enthalpy (energy), entropy and quality of


The main purpose of a DA is to remove entrained the water in its different statesliquid, vapor and
air, which is accomplished by extracting auxiliary mixed. Figure 2 (see page 26) depicts a temperature-
(pegging) steam from the low-pressure steam turbine. specific volume (T-v) diagram, with tabulated data
This steam heats the water and strips it of most of and examples.
the air and keeps the fluid in the
DA at saturation temperature.
The deaerated water flows to the
boiler feedwater pumps (BFP)
inlet, which moves it to the boiler,
and the cycle repeats.

Process Transients
Problems that may interrupt
this process include a sudden
reduction or a complete loss
of generator load (a load
rejection condition).
When the generator trips,
steam is bypassed through
the diverting valve around the
steam turbine and is typically
directed into the condenser. A less
common method is to release
the steam directly into a DA or to
the atmosphere.
During roughly the same
time, fuel is diverted from the
boiler, and the boiler begins
to cool. Condensate pumps
continue to operate to keep up
with the cooling steam arriving
at the condenser. Because
the pegging steam has been
diverted to the condenser, it
no longer pressurizes the DA.
The continuous arrival of the
condensate into the DA cools
the liquid. As a result, the
temperature and pressure in
the DA drop. The temperature
falls as the condensate cools
it, and the pressure decreases
because of the loss of pressurizing
pegging steam.
A basic understanding of
thermodynamics provides the
foundation for what happens
next. Steam tables and graphs
contain information about
pressure, temperature, specific
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26 PUMPING PRESCRIPTIONS

For example, tabulated data need to change. Reduction in Point B is in the mixed phase
within Figure 2 show that at 302 temperature is shown as a vertical region. Figure 2 shows the
degrees F, 69.07 psia of pressure movement downward on the pressure at 39.20 psia, with fluid
is required to keep water at diagram from Point A to Point B, in a two-phase statesome liquid
saturation point A. If the water at which the liquid reaches the and some vapor.
were heated further at a constant assumed fi nal temperature of 266 The specific volume at that
pressure of 69.07 psia (shown degrees F. temperature/pressure is 0.1714
as a horizontal line moving to The combined specific volume ft3/lb for liquid, shown at the left
the right), it would eventually (v) is a ratio of the tank volume intersection with the saturation
boil out into vapor, which would (liquid and vapor) to a total curve. The volume at that
significantly increase its volume. mass of the fluid in the tank. temperature/pressure for steam
The volume would be much greater A half full 20,000-gallon tank is 10.70 ft3/lb, shown at the right
than the DA tank could hold. (approximately 2,600 cubic feet) intersection. The water quality
Conversely, if it were to be cooled contains 10,000 gallons of water, (x) is a proportion of gass mass
at a constant pressure, 69.07 or 1,300 cubic feet. Liquid water (Mg ), in this example the vapors
psia in this case, it would become weighs 57.27 pounds per cubic mass, to the total mass (M) of
subcooled, meaning it would be foot (lb/ft3) at 302 F. The inverse is the mixture, which is shown in
pure liquid with no vapor. Point A 0.01746 cubic feet per pound (ft3/ Equation 1.
is a border line at which the vapor lb), which is the specific volume. Mg
is saturated. The liquid in the tank weighs: x= Equation 1
The DA is, however, a fi xed- M
volume tank. For any vapor to 1,300 x 57.27 = 74,450 pounds Equation 2 shows the formula for
form within it, the pressure would the average total specific volume.

Figure 2. The T-v diagram shows the thermodynamics of the transient inside the DA.
(Source: Cameron Hydraulic Data Book, 19th Edition, 2002)

T def. F Pressure ft3/lbm ft3/lbm


deg. F psi vf vg
248.00 28.81 0.01698 14.27565
T, F 266.00 39.20 0.01714 10.70033
284.00 52.44 0.0173 8.144588
302.00 69.07 0.01746 6.286446
uid ia
Liq ps 320.00 89.66 0.01762 4.914144
.07
A Saturated 69 or)
302 ap
s (V
Ga
Two phases p sia
39 .20
B
266
Some vapor

= 0.01746
= 0.01714 10.70 = g 3
g ft /lb

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27

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


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28 PUMPING PRESCRIPTIONS

At 10.70 ft3/lb, the volume is: Once this vapor reaches the
x = (v - vf) Equation 2
(vg - vf) BFPs suction, the effects can
126 x 10.70 = 1,354 ft3 damage the pump. If a pump is
equipped with a suction pressure
In this example, v remains
This is nearly the same volume transmitter, it will trip. If not,
constant because the tank has a
of vapor as the liquid in the tank, severe cavitation and vibration
constant volume at:
which is 1,300 ft3. Th is vapors will result, possibly destroying
volume is too large to be contained the BFP or its mechanical seals,
2,600 / 74,450 = 0.035 ft3/lb
in the DA. bearings, etc. Many sophisticated
The vapor is drawn into the pump designs can sustain brief
Therefore, the average total
suction pipe because the water violent action, but not for long,
specific volume by mass is:
is flowing to the pump. At the perhaps 10 to 20 seconds. If the
same time, a long vapor bubble, overall plant control does not
x = (0.035 - 0.01714) or a cluster of them, stretches correct the issue shortly after
(10.70033 - 0.01714)
the entire length of the 100-foot the generator trips, the problem
= 0.00167 = 0.17% suction header and makes the will continue, potentially causing
suction pressure at the pump the failure of the BFP and other
Th is does not seem like a lot essentially the same as at the DA. plant equipment.
by mass, but it is too much by Th is is a sudden loss of 100 feet of
volume. The mass of the vapor is: suction head. At this point, mostly Conlusion
vapor is entering the pipe from This article simplified these power
0.17% x 74,450 lbs = 126 lbs the DA. plant processes, so additional

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M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


29

factors affecting these types References


of transients and possible 1. Cameron Hydraulic Data Book, 19th Edition, 2002
2. Rovnak, J., Wotring, T., Marshall, J., Evaluation of NPSH During Hot Restarts of
remediation actions must be Fossil Plants with Deaerators, International Power Generating Conference, ASME,
considered. One important aspect 91-JPGC-Pwr, 23, October 6-10, 1991
not addressed in this article is
the DA tank being only partially
fi lled. The void above the liquid has
significant effects. The specifics of Dr. Nelik (aka Dr. Pump) is president of Pumping Machinery, LLC, an
DA design and operation, however, Atlanta-based firm specializing in pump consulting, training, equipment
are not addressed here. For readers troubleshooting and pump repairs. Dr. Nelik has 30 years of experience in
with a sharp eye who find this pumps and pumping equipment. He may be reached at pump-magazine.
(and perhaps other) omission(s) com. For more information, visit pumpingmachinery.com/pump_school/
significant, please feel free to share pump_school.htm.
your thoughts and analysis.
How do you handle transients?
The best response will win a free
admission to the next Pump
School sessions.
Part 2, in the April 2015 issue,
For a video accompaniment
will examine how a system that to this article, visit
uses multiple pumps could be pumpsandsystems.com/
affected by a transient event. pumptrips

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2015 Cat Pumps All Rights Reserved. 15036 1/15

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


30 PUMP SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT
A better understanding of complete system operation
By Ray Hardee
Engineered Software, Inc.

How an Oversized Pump Can Harm the


Motor & Increase Operational Costs

L
ast months column (Pumps Drive Operations energy is converted to uid energy
& Systems, February 2014) Induction motors used to drive using motors to drive a pump,
reviewed the pump selection pumps are ecient in converting consider the components and
process and described how many electrical energy into mechanical operation of a motor.
users oversize pumps by adding energy. A motor is 92 to 96 An electric motor consists of a
design margins to account for percent ecient depending on its stator and a rotor. The AC power
unknown conditions present classication and frame size. The supplied to the stator generates a
during the pump specication eciency is relatively constant rotating magnetic eld within the
process. Design margins are similar from 50 to 100 percent of full load, motors stator windings. When
to insurance, providing protection with only a slight drop o when the rotors windings are exposed
for unknown conditions expected operating down to 25 percent of to the stators rotating magnetic
in the life of the plant. This column full load. Figure 1 shows a typical eld, an electric current is
will explore how oversizing a pump eciency graph for a totally generated in the rotors windings.
aects the motor driving the pump. enclosed fan-cooled (TEFC) motor Th is results in a magnetic eld
It will also examine the adverse at a range of sizes operating at within the rotor. The interaction
eects that occur when a pump varying loads. between the stators rotating
is no longer operating at its best The problem associated with magnetic eld and the rotors
eciency point (BEP) for extended lightly loaded alternating magnetic eld causes the motor
periods of time and situations in current (AC) induction motors shaft to rotate. The motor shaft
which a design margin increases is their eect on power factor. is connected to the pump shaft,
cost of ownership. To understand the way electrical resulting in rotation of the

Figure 1. The motor efficiency for a variety of motor sizes and


percent of full load power (Graphics courtesy of the author)

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


31

pumps impeller. Increasing the stator, resulting in a rise in the measuring the voltage across the
ow rate through the pump motors electrical load. stator and the electrical current
requires more power from the The amount of electrical power through the stator winding. The
motor. A rise in power requires used in the motor to rotate the amount of power supplied to the
increased current to the motor pump can be determined by motor is referred to as real power

Figure 2. The relationship between real, reactive and


apparent power along with the power factor

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


32 PUMP SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT

An industrial customer with many lightly


loaded motors will either have a power factor surcharge
added to their utility bill or will need to purchase and install
hardware to correct the plants low power factor.

(P) and is measured in watts. The power factor of the motor power simply ows between the
Because the source of electrical is de ned as the ratio of the real motor and the generator supply
power is alternating current and power over the apparent power electricity from the utility. The
the motors stator consists of a and is expressed as the cosine of resulting apparent power ows
conductor wound around a stator, the angle between the real power through the power grid.
an induced load in the motor and apparent power. Power factor The electric utility must design
develops. The result of the induced ranges between 1, all real power, the transmission lines depending
load is referred to as reactive and 0, all reactive power. The value on the apparent power, but the
power (Q) and is measured in is unitless. The power factor of a generator only measures the
volt-amperes reactive (VAR). fully loaded motor is indicated on real power. Figure 3 shows how
The reactive power caused by the the motors nameplate. a motors power factor varies
stator coil lags in relation to the The real power varies with depending on the motor frame
real power by 90 degrees. Th is the load on the motor, but the size and percent of full-load
reactive power produces no reactive power is based on the horsepower.
useful work. construction of the motor. Figure Figure 3 shows that a lightly
The reactive current simply 2 (page 31) shows that a reduction loaded motor has a very low value
moves between the generator and in real power causes an increase of power factor. An industrial
the motor across the electrical in the angle . As a result, a lightly customer with many lightly
grid. The product of the real loaded induction motor has a loaded motors will either have a
power and the reactive power is reduced power factor. power factor surcharge added to
called apparent power (S) and is The real power is used to their utility bill or will need to
measured in volt-amperes. drive the motor. The reactive purchase and install hardware to

Figure 3. Motor power factor as a function of motor


loading for a range of motor sizes

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


Full Service

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


34 PUMP SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT

Figure 4. The pump curve shows the relationship between the flow rate, head
and pump efficiency. The pump is designed to operate around its BEP.
correct the plants low power
factor. An increased power
expense is one example of
the added costs of excessive
design margin.

Pump Operations
A pump is designed for a
specic range of ow rates and
head values to meet the needs
of the market. The pumps peak
performance and maximum
service life for ow rates will
occurr around the BEP. A
pump operating at maximum
eciency results in a uniform
ow of uid through the pump.
Figure 4 shows the pump curve
used in last months column.
The pumps BEP of 79 percent
occurs at 1,070 gallons per

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M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


35

This non-uniform flow creates uneven


pressure distribution in the pump, causing
minute (gpm). In addition, the
efficiency value quickly drops off
an increase in vibration and hydraulic load
from the BEP to the minimum as well as a reduction in efficiency.
and maximum recommended flow
values. Unlike a motor, the pump
operates away from its BEP. The the second year and 800 gpm by region (POR) as a range of flows
flow through the pump is no longer the fi fth year. The design flow rate either side of the BEP in which
uniform, resulting in recirculation of 800 gpm is only 75 percent of the hydraulic efficiency is not
within the impeller. This non- the pumps BEP flow. degraded. The standard defi nes the
uniform flow creates uneven A standard developed by the allowable operating region (AOR)
pressure distribution in the pump, Hydraulic Institute, the ANSI/ as 70 to 120 percent of the BEP
causing an increase in vibration HI 9.6. Rotodynamic (Centrifugal flow rate for pumps with specific
and hydraulic load as well as a and Vertical) Pumps Guideline speeds less than 4,500 and from
reduction in efficiency. The price for Allowable Operating Region, 80 to 120 percent of the BEP for
here results from a combination of provides recommendations on pumps with specific speeds greater
energy costs, mechanical wear and pump operation. The standard than 4,500. The pump displayed in
operational inefficiencies. can identify a variety of potential Figure 3 has a pump specific speed
In Figure 4, the process flow rate problems when a pump is not of 870, resulting in a POR between
through this pump for the fi rst working at its BEP. 750 and 1,285 gpm.
year is only 200 gpm, with the The ANSI/HI 9.6. standard The AOR represents a wide
flow rate increasing to 400 gpm in defi nes the preferred operating range of flow rates outside the

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


36 PUMP SYSTEM IMPROVEMENT

POR acceptable to the service life of process. The pump manufacturer The standard outlines concerns that
the pump. The pump manufacturer should be consulted before the pump is the pump manufacturer considers
de nes the AOR on requirements other operated outside the AOR. In Figure 4, when specifying the AOR. Operating
than energy eciency. The AOR is the manufacturer specied the pumps outside the AOR could result in reduced
used extensively in the pump selection AOR to be between 350 and 1,650 gpm. bearing life, reduced shaft seal life,
internal mechanical contact, shaft
fatigue, thrust reversal, excessive
temperature rise through the pump,
increased vibration and noise,
insucient net positive suction
head and suction recirculation. The
pump should operate within the AOR
specied by the manufacturer to avoid
potential long-term mechanical damage
to the pump. These issues lead to
maintenance and energy costs as well as
unscheduled shutdowns.

Evaluating the Pump


In Figure 4, the 200 gpm of ow rate for
the rst year of operation is well below
the minimum AOR ow rate of 350 gpm
recommended by the manufacturer. If
the pump were to operate at this ow
rate for an extended period, extensive
mechanical degradation would occur. To
achieve the manufacturers minimum
ow of 350 gpm, a recirculation line will
need to be installed to recirculate 150
gpm back to the supply tank.
When the preliminary sizing was
performed, design margins for pump
head were added. Unknown conditions
were factored into the preliminary
design including the elevation of the
tanks, tank levels and pressures, pipe
length, and number of valves and
ttings. Now that the system is built,
the conditions are known.
In Figure 4, the pump head at the
design ow rate of 800 gpm was
calculated at 211 feet, but the system
as built only requires 190 feet of head.
The additional 21 feet of head required
by the design margin is excess head.
Because the full value of design margin
is not needed and the pumps are already
in place, the additional head (the 21
feet) is absorbed across the control
valves to eliminate excess energy.

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37

Assessing the Cost of the system is performing. The system Ray Hardee is a principal founder
Piping System is reviewed, and margins are of Engineered Software, creators of
As demonstrated, assigning design adjusted for optimization. The PIPE-FLO and PUMP-FLO software.
margins of head and ow are initial design phase can only At Engineered Software, he helped
an integral part of every pump supply a best-case scenario. develop two training courses
selection. They provide designers Determining costs associated and teaches these courses in the
and engineers with the required with each component in a piping U.S. and internationally. He is a
exibility to select long lead items system helps calculate actual member of the ASME ES-2 Energy
early in the design process. operating costs, and performing a Assessment for Pumping Systems
Just like any expense, the post assessment allows engineers standards committee and the ISO
amount of insurance and resulting and operators to evaluate what Technical Committee 115/Working
costs should be evaluated and can be done to improve system Group 07 Pumping System
re-evaluated. Oversizing pumps performance further in full Energy Assessment. Hardee was
increases the systems operational, operation. a contributing member of the HI/
maintenance and capital cost. Europump Pump Life Cycle Cost
Without knowing the true cost of References
and HI/PSM Optimizing Piping
Welcome to the Hydraulic Institute. (2014,
owning and operating a pump, the System publications. Reach him at
January 1). Retrieved January 7, 2015, from
process cannot be improved. http://www.pumps.org/content_detail. ray.hardee@eng-software.com.
The purpose of the pump aspx?id=4330
system assessment is to review
how the installed and operating

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


38
SPECIAL SECTION

Discover the Untapped


Potential of the
Internet of Things
The value-added services that IoT technology provides
could transform the pump industry.

BY MIKE W. OTTEN
4 ESSENTIAL STEPS TO SUCCESSFUL IoT IMPLEMENTATION

F
or the last few centuries, pumping 1. Define your focus.
systems and the pump industry When you Google IoT, you will get more than 25 million results. IoT
have been relatively uncomplicated. technology will garner about 15 million hits. These search results alone
reveal the hype about the newest available technologies and services. The
Beginning in the 1950s, however,
best approach to building an IoT strategy is to begin by spending time
pump manufacturers arose from machining
and resources to clearly define your customer problem, determine an IoT-
shops, and a stream of acquisitions across the based solution and develop a business case for the value-added services
globe created a new and rigorous demand for these technologies would provide.
pumps. Newly engineered pumps designed
for an ever-increasing landscape of
applications, material variations, sizes and
2. Choose a platform that fits your needs.
Because most plant management teams are not software developers,
customized solutions created a competitive consider selecting an IoT platform that provides standard widgets and
market focused on creating the most energy templates that allow users to drag and drop and copy and paste pre-
ecient pump. coded materials that will reduce your time to market by 10 times. Several
Today, the Internet has transformed the of these platforms are already available on the market.
realm of energy eciency, oering remote
access and sensing devicesincluding 3. Keep development simple.
alarms and video capabilities that visually Engineers are used to developing, breaking down and rebuilding again.
The development of wireless sensors, however, is different. Selecting
display and analyze rooms, pump status and
the wrong standard is the No. 1 pitfall that wastes time and resources.
other real-time datato provide critical
To avoid these challenges, develop sensors and apps using a basic IoT
information at the swipe of a nger. Internet- solution development kit.
enabled apps accessed from smartphones,
tablets or other handheld devices allow
even the pump industry to control diverse
4. Build a strong IoT ecosystem.
Entering this new IoT space requires time and teamwork. Building an
devices more eciently than ever. These Internet of Pumps solution is impossible without key partners that have
apps, if streamlined, could create new value strong ecosystems of solutions to serve your plants particular needs
by closing the loop of the entire pump especially as your IoT network grows.
life cycle from research and development
(R&D), to application design, to startup and

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


39

The Internet has transformed the realm of energy efficiency,


offering remote access and sensing devices to provide
critical information at the swipe of a finger.

commissioning, to upgrade and retrot processes. Web-based extranet interfaces to monitor and control
These Internet-enabled apps and devices integrated pump systems.
into value-added services is known as the Internet of Today, high-tech tools including variable speed drives
Things (IoT). The use of consumer technology is driving (VSDs), SCADA systems, condition monitoring equipment
the growth of the IoT sphere. In fact, some predictions and other automation devices, are widely accepted by the
estimate that by 2020, 26 billion installed IoT units will pump industry. However, these systems can be costly,
exist, and IoT suppliers will generate $263 billion in complex, dicult to install and focused only on the
incremental revenues, resulting in a $1.9 trillion global individual asset.
economic value. To solve the challenges of modern pumping technology,
many companies and niche industriesutilities, mining
The Internet of Pumps
More than a decade ago, pump engineers and operators
experimented with wireless application protocol (WAP)-
enabled phones to communicate with pumps. Around
$263 billion
The estimated amount of incremental revenue
that time, the industry used machine-to-machine (M2M)
generated by IoT product and service suppliers
technology based on general packet radio service modems
by 2020. (Source: Gartner, November 2014)
to package equipment data and send it to supervisory
control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems and

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


40 SPECIAL SECTION IoT

Internet of Pumps
AUTONOMOUS
Internet of things by
2020*
26 billion installed
units, $263 billion
new revenue and $1.9
trillion value-added
Added Value

services
Additional sensors
SMART
Real time
(Connected pump) diagnostics
Active condition Embedded
monitoring execution
SOFTWARE Self optimization New business
DEFINED Interact with models
(BMS/SCADA) ecosystem Performance
Some local Enhanced guarantee
intelligence intelligence Customer loyalty
INSTRUMENTED (controller) to tune
(On-site audit) pump Connect
everything
CONVENTIONAL Connected data Enhanced data feeds
(Consultancy) loggers
No intelligence or Provide external data
connectivity (paper report)

Level of Maturity
*Source Gartner, Forecast The Internet of Things worldwide
Figure 1. The Internet of Pumps (Graphics courtesy of the author)

and manufacturing in particularare implementing Instrumented


IoT solutions to reduce operational expenditure, In the instrumented level, actual data loggers could
increase their return on investment and improve be installed on-site to measure and log critical pump
customer satisfaction. dataincluding energy consumption, ow, and inlet
Several levels of IoT sophistication exist within the and outlet pressureover a period of time. Plotting that
pump industry. The higher the level, the more plants data using Excel into the original design curve would
and facilities are able to tap into this unprecedented give a more accurate view of pump performance over
opportunity to transform their commodity-driven the period the data is logged. The same benchmark used
business into a value-adding, service-based organization in the conventional approach could be used to estimate
(see Figure 1). potential savings.

Conventional Software Defined


The rst level of sophistication (see Figure 1), the If the pump is equipped with a controller, the pump
conventional method of selecting or reviewing pump will operate against dened set points making use of
performance, starts at the basics. the best possible predened working conditions. These
Using some basic application data, a consultant or automated systems could generate some data reports
engineer takes the information from the nameplate and with historical trend lines and even generate set alarms
chooses equipment using a pump selection program. With when data thresholds are reached. However, this level
that information, he or she can benchmark the existing of IoT sophistication does not provide any further
pump eciency against that of a newly designed pump information about the performance of the pump system.
and calculated running times. The consultant or engineer The system only noties the user when it works outside
can then provide educated estimates about the energy the programmed conditions.
consumption and potential cost savings of installing a These building management systems (BMS), SCADA
new pump. or M2M applications have evolved in a context in which

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015
41

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42 SPECIAL SECTION IoT

applications such as remote monitoring and support industrial manufacturing. In such high-value and
for equipment have been tied closely to equipment critical businesses, major electric utility customers
services contracts. To date, remote services and M2M have good reason to hate equipment failures. At the
systems have largely been focused on simple remote least, any downtime creates huge opportunity costs for
diagnostics and simple tracking services, in large part these customers. It often means they have to pay hefty
because of technical complexities and business model regulatory compliance nes.
challenges. Existing technology has proven cumbersome To reduce risk, monitoring and diagnostics of critical
and costly to apply with many con icting protocols and assets such as large pump systems enable suppliers to
incomplete component-based solutions. The challenges send a technician or engineer before a failure occurs
and costs of developing applications and integrating (preemptively) as opposed to doing so according to a
diverse devices onto networks in an interoperable manner schedule based upon assumptions (proactively) or, even
have been signicant adoption hurdles. For this reason, worse, after the power has gone o (reactively).
many organizations settle at this level. Most pumps suppliers cannot charge more than
$75 to $120 per hour for their technical support because
Smart & Autonomous of price and benet pressures from local competitors.
Moving to smart and autonomous applications (the last With ecient network-enabled services, however,
levels) involves multiple collaborating systems with leading players could charge $250 to $350 per hour for
signicant interactions between assets such as pumps, the same technician who has become a skilled subject
heat exchangers, control systems and people. The focus matter expert.
is no longer solely on the product suppliers ability to
eciently deliver support for its product. Instead, value The Future of IoT
is brought to the customer through business process These instances, however, are still examples of
automation and optimization. simple applications largely focused on the product
Consider any of the larger pump systems in more manufacturers own value chain. They are simple hub
complex industries such as power generation or and spoke remote support. While these models have

Figure 2. IoT solution cycle

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


43

Internet-enabled apps accessed from smartphones, tablets


or other handheld devices allow even the pump industry to
control diverse devices more efficiently than ever.

value, signicant untapped


opportunities are available to
provide new value for users and
customers.
Plant managers have many Ugcnkpi"Gswkrogpv"Rtqfwevu"Eq0."Kpe0
Rtqfw
wevu"Eq0."Kp
pe0
e0
options. Based on their IoT
expertise and resources, they can " " " "
either develop their own smart
devices and code their Internet of
" " " "
Pumps platform or use plug and ." "
play hardware kits and pre-coded " " "
IoT software platforms to retrot " " "
existing sensors.
For companies and plants
" " ""
wanting to revamp their business " " "
models and provide better value- 0" " "
added services, implementing " " " "
an IoT strategy that connects
" "" ." " "
everything from a pump in the
eld to the corporate network 0
can transform not only those
companies but the entire
pump industry.
A World Class Provider of
Sources
1. Blog Analyst, Andy Mulholland
2. Gartner forecast Internet of Th ings
Fluid Sealing Solutions
worldwide
3. Mike W. Otten was employed by " " " " " " " " 0
Grundfos from 1997 2012

Read more
pumpsandsystems.com/
iot-info

Mike W. Otten works with leading-


edge technology and manufacturing
industries. He has a
reputation for delivering
successful startups.
For more information,
visit Ottens site,
sense4things.com. :22/855/6992""//"" 0 0
" "" " " "" 0" 0" " " 0
Circle 138 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


44 SPECIAL SECTION IoT

How to Protect Plants from


Invisible Threats
A solid cyber defense strategy can protect plant assetseven eld
devices and pumpsfrom dangerous and costly security breaches.

BY GARY WILLIAMS, MSC, IT SEC


SCHNEIDER ELECTRIC

A
plants industrial control system (ICS) is no
longer an island, and a eld deviceonce
ranked low in the risk and threat analysis
10 STEPS TO A FORTIFIED CYBER
tableis no longer safe simply because it is DEFENSE SYSTEM
protected by its own control conguration. Today, a
cyberattack can be initiated at any point in a plants 1. Assess vulnerabilities of inventory-critical
interconnected industrial system. For this reason, assets.
plant managers must consider cybersecurity at every
2. Implement plans and systems to eliminate
level of the plantfrom the business network to each vulnerabilities.
critical eld device and pump. Failure to do so could
have catastrophic eects on both human safety and 3. Manage electronic access to controls using
physical or logical network segmentation.
production.
4. Manage user access to controls through user
System Complexity privilege and password management.
Industrial systems consist of an array of devices, systems 5. Keep operating system and software patches
and software that are used to control, monitor and report up-to-date.
vital data, making them a prime target for malicious 6. Enable advanced antivirus software, and keep it
activity. Reports of rogue databases, such as Shodan, current.
show that these programs can openly report devices and
7. Back up software regularly, and create an
systems connected to the Internet. They reveal critical incident-response plan.
system informationincluding location, purpose and
protocolthat a hacker can use to compromise a system, 8. Establish and enforce rigid policies for using
flash drives, CD-ROMs and the Internet.
cause damage and interrupt production.
The advent of wireless connectivity and the Internet 9. Seek vendor assurance that servers,
of Things presents a totally new threat vector that puts workstations and other systems are hardened
even eld devices at risk. While much of the modern and standards-compliant.
wireless technology available today (including tools 10. Stay current on industry standards such as
that are compliant with WirelessHART and ISA100) is ISA99, IEC62443, ISA Secure, WIB and IEC62443,
fairly secure, wireless devices and programs can suer and review operations accordingly.
interference from any Wi-Fi, Bluetooth or other wireless
device operating in the same frequency band. Even

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


45

wireless printers and scanners pose a threat, because


most wireless printers come with the wireless facility
switched on by default, which alone could compromise
an ICS.
1.5 million
Industrial specic protocols are no longer a defense monitored cyberattacks occurred in the U.S.
either. A new trend among hackers is to gain notoriety by in 2013 (Source: IBM Security Services 2014
advertising vulnerabilities in legacy protocols, software Cyber Security Intelligence Index, April 2014,
and systems. These range from supervisory control and accessed on ibm.com)
data acquisition (SCADA) to ICS control software.

The Standards Concentrating more on a companys ICS, ISA99,


Despite the countless variables at play, plants can IEC62443, ISA Secure, WIB and ANSSI address security
employ an eective approach: Adopt an information and protection of industrial systems. IEC62443 could
security management system, as dened by the eventually encompass all of these standards, providing
International Standards Organization (ISO27001), and one standard that covers best practices, policies and
comply with standards put forth by the International procedures (see Figure 1). It gives direction on network
Society of Automation (ISA99) and the International design, protection, maintenance of the industrial
Electrotechnical Commission (IEC62443). network, patching of operating systems and anti-virus
ISO27001 was designed as a methodology to address software. It will retain the ve ICS levelsfrom eld
security. It lists a number of controls companies can use instrumentation and safety instrumented systems (SIS)
to employ policies and procedures that address system to enterprise nancial systemsput forth originally in
condentiality, integrity and availability. ISA99 (see Figure 2, page 46).

Figure 1. This diagram shows a comprehensive cybersecurity standard set. One of the most important things a company can do
to prevent cyberattack is to follow best practices recommended by established standards bodies. ISA-62443 is one of the most
comprehensive standards and eventually could encompass all of the others. Diagram shows planned and published standards.
(Graphics courtesy of Schneider Electric. Source ISA-99 Standards Committee)

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


46 SPECIAL SECTION IoT

Level 5 - Enterprise
Level 5

- Enterprise financial systems

Level 4 - Site Business Planning


- Site production scheduling
Level 4

- Site accounting

Level 3 - Site Manufacturing Operations


- Production control
- Optimizing control
Level 3

- Process history
- Windows domains
Level 2 - Area Supervisory Control
- Supervisory controllers
Level 2

- Primary operators interface

Level 1 - Basic Process Control


- Batch controllers
- Continuous controllers
Level 1

- Discrete controllers
- Process monitoring
Level 0 - Field Instrumentation
- Sensors, transmitters, control valves
Level 0

- Field networks (e.g. Foundation Fieldbus,


Profibus)

Safety-Critical
Level 5

- Protective systems
- Safety instrumented systems

Figure 2. This chart depicts enterprise cyber protection layers. A cybersecurity assessment begins with an identification of the areas that
need to be protected. The ISA-99 standard recommends six levels. (Source: ISA-99 Standards committee)

For the ICS, Levels 3 through 0 should be protected. Layers are dened by the security gaps within an
Most companies also have Level 3.5, which serves as a organization. Finding these holes requires a site-specic
demilitarized zone (DMZ) to provide a rewall against gap analysis that identies a companys current situation
outside threats that can compromise the system. and the factors that are preventing it from achieving
maximum security.
The Strategy To identify existing security gaps, analyze each level
The rst step is to assess the risks and threats that might and the communications to the
be associated with each layer. To do this, managers must next level. The standards ISA99 and IEC62443 refer to
consider their plants target levels and evaluate the this process as identication of zones and conduits.
consequences of a cyberattack for each level. What are the For example, if a plant started at Level 0 designating
chances of this level being exploited and by whom? What all of their pumps in a zone, the conduit would be the
skillset and knowledge would be required to compromise communication between the pump and the next device in
this element? Would a compromise at this level result in line (see Figure 3).
loss of life or production? The results of this assessment This step results in a list of current assets, protocols
reveal what type of access or knowledge is needed to and connectivity that would allow a plant manager
compromise each level and indicate the most critical areas to determine strategies to protect them by applying
that need protection. technologies such as rewalls, switch management
Addressing ICS security by implementing safeguards and virtual LANs.
in this way is known as creating layers of defense. No one This process is continued until Layer 3, although any
exercise or handbook can dictate what security is needed threat that cannot be mitigated at a low level can be
for each layer in a particular company. addressed at a higher level. If a eld device only accepts

field device field bus module field control processor software suite operator console

Figure 3. Example of communication between devices

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


47

Modbus signals, for example, but does Gary Williams, MSc, IT SEC, is senior director of cybersecurity
not have the necessary resources to and communications technology at Schneider Electric. He brings
discriminate intelligently, a rewall more than 30 years of experience in communications, design and
could protect it at the next level. implementation for industrial, military and law enforcement,
Modern rewalls are capable of deep and applications.
packet inspection. They can be
congured to ignore all but specic
protocols and can even discriminate
by packet length and content.
Once at Level 3, the number of
threats increases because higher
levels can include multiple protocols
and connectivity to a number of
smaller systems. Level 3 is also the
top layer before connectivity to the
corporate network or outside world,
which is why it needs a DMZ.
Many system engineers do not
possess the necessary skillset to
execute the actions required for
maximum cybersecurity. As the
demand for security increases,
however, plant managers, operators
and other personnel must have a
greater understanding of modern-day
threats and security. In fact, most
of the security exploits experienced
in the last few years have actually
been introduced by ICS engineers,
often via a USB key or a compromised
CD-ROM. For this reason, facility
management should provide up-to-
date operator awareness training
and push vendors to provide
secure products, services and
consultancy at every level of security
implementation.
Cyber threats are real, and the
consequences of a breach could be
dire. Plant managers should begin
assessments early, ensure that the
entire company is on board and
remember that cybersecurity is
continually evolving as new
threats develop.

Read more
pumpsandsystems.com/
blog/5-reasons-you-should-
invest-internet-things

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


48
SPECIAL SECTION

HARSH CONDITIONS

Submersible Pumps
Handle Corrosive Solids
at Ethanol Testing Plant
A caustic, high-temperature cleaning solution
puts excessive demand on equipment.

BY MIKE BJORKMAN
BJM CORP.

C
orn-based ethanol is a vital part of the total begins with the whole corn kernel ground into meal. The
global energy requirement. During the past meal is then slurried with water to form a mash. Enzymes
decade, the U.S. has become the largest are added to convert the starch to dextrose, a simple
producer of ethanol in the world, with a 56.8 sugar. Ammonia is added for pH control and as a nutrient
percent share totaling more than 13.7 billion gallons (52 to the yeast.
billion liters) produced in 2013. Production has doubled The mash is processed in a high-temperature cooker
since 2007, and improvements in equipment, systems and to reduce bacteria levels before fermentation. It is then
processes have contributed to this increase. cooled and transferred to fermenters where yeast is
One Midwest-based research center is working to added, and the conversion of sugar to ethanol and carbon
improve the ethanol process. Located outside of St. Louis, dioxide begins. The fermentation process generally takes
Missouri, this research center focuses on validation and about 40 to 50 hours. During this part of the process, the
commercial testing of products, technologies and new mash is agitated and kept cool to facilitate the activity of
concepts. The center is fully equipped to meet all research the yeast.
or technology validation needs, providing laboratory, After fermentation, the resulting beer is transferred
fermentation and pilot plant production process services to distillation columns where the ethanol is separated
in an integrated setting. from the remaining stillage. The ethanol is concentrated
to 190 proof using conventional distillation and then
Pilot Plant dehydrated to approximately 200 proof. The ethanol is
Costs associated with the design and development blended with about 5 percent denaturant (such as natural
of products for the renewable fuel market represent gasoline) to render it undrinkable and exempt from
a tremendous investment. Knowing precisely how beverage alcohol tax. It is then ready for shipment to
these products will perform in a real plant before that gasoline terminals or retailers.
investment is made can make a significant difference in a The pilot plant is staffed with an experienced team of
companys success or failure. engineers and operators. The ethanol plant operating
The 24,000-square-foot pilot plant, equivalent to a coordinator is a veteran of the industry. It is his job to
50th scale ethanol production facility, operates at a 100 keep the pilot plant operating at optimum efficiency.
to 400 bushel per day capacity and offers continuous Finding the right equipment is critical to his mission.
or batch-run operation. The pilot plant ethanol process

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


Image 1. The U.S. has become the largest producer of ethanol in the world, with a
56.8 percent share totaling more than 13.7 billion gallons produced in 2013.
(Images courtesy of BJM Corp.) 49

Image 2. High-temperature, stainless-steel submersible pumps in the sump application


proved effective for a Midwest-based research center working to improve the ethanol
process.

Room for Improvement three-seal motor protection. The submersible motor is


One of the maintenance requirements of the protected by double mechanical seals. The lower seal is
fermentation process is flushing the tank periodically made of silicon carbide/silicon carbide, and the upper
with a caustic hot water (160 to 180 degrees F) cleaning seal is made of carbon/ceramic. An additional lip seal
solution. The blend of corn fines and corrosive water is is installed above the impeller to prevent abrasives
then flushed into a sump where the wastewater is held such as corn fines from entering into the seal chamber.
before treatment. The cast-iron pumps responsible for Additional winding protection, National Electrical
clearing the sump, however, experienced excessive wear Manufacturers Association Class R motor insulation and
and short service life. a thermal cut-out switch that will allow the stator to
The operating coordinator consulted with a Midwest reach a winding temperature of up to 300 F are standard.
industrial distributor with experience in ethanol
production. The distributor recommended high- Conclusion
temperature, stainless-steel submersible pumps for the After more than two years of operation, the stainless-
sump application. steel submersible pumps have worked exceptionally
The selected pumps are designed to handle high- well, with no maintenance issues. Upgrading equipment
temperature corrosives and provide solids handling for to improve mean time between failures is imperative
the bottom-settling corn fines. Non-clog, single vane to ensure the best testing results for clients and lowest
impellers deliver the high volume and lift performance operational costs for the research center.
that is required for the sump service. All of the wear and
wetted parts, such as the impellers and wear-plates, are
Mike Bjorkman is vice president of BJM Corp. and has
made of cast 316 stainless material. The elastomers
more than 30 years of experience in the pump industry.
such as O-rings, lip seals and gasketsare made of
He serves as director of marketing and information
chemically resistant, high heat resistant flouroelastomers.
technology for BJM Pumps, LLC, and All Test Pro, LLC.
An additional life cycle enhancing feature provides
Both companies are subsidiaries of BJM Corp. He may be
reached at 860-399-5937.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


50 SPECIAL SECTION HARSH CONDITIONS

Mechanical Seal Design


Protects Submersible Pumps
from Abrasive Wastewater
Customized seals made from superior materials can help prevent
premature failure in heavy-duty applications.

BY SPENCER REYNOLDS
VULCAN SEALS INC.

P
ump manufacturing companies have made These pumps handle a typically contaminated aqueous
strides in improving design, efficiency and energy fluid that has a high solids content with a wide range
usage in recent years through developments in of particle sizes, from microns to large pieces of
impeller profi le and the use of optimized motors masonry, all of which are potentially damaging to
and variable frequency drives. All of these changes mechanical seals.
enhance end users bottom lines by reducing energy costs. The pumps are often neglected, either because they
But operators have more options to improve efficiency are underwater and out of sight or are being operated
and reliability while reducing costs of fluid management. by contractors with little knowledge about or training
They can, for example, extend the period between on the requirements of correct pump operation. The
necessary maintenance activities and minimize the cost pumps frequently run dry once the fluid level has
of spare parts required during maintenance. been reduced to the minimum and the impeller is no
One particular pump application that consistently longer submerged.
accrues a high maintenance bill is wastewater movement,
especially on a site that lacks pump operation experience. Submersible pumps are often regularly repaired. In the
The most convenient and commonly adopted design for case of rental companies, the pumps are repaired after
this demanding application is a waterproof pump each user and are often recalled for repair during service
complete with an upper and lower set of mechanical because of seal failure. Since these pumps have several
seals designed to protect the bearings and motorwith O-rings that ensure adequate water proofing as well as
a vertical shaft that is submerged in the pumped liquid. upper and lower sets of mechanical seals, the inventory of
Such submersible pumps can be lowered into sumps, spares required each time one of these pumps is repaired
storage tanks, storm drains, cesspits, bilge and ballast has a relatively high value.
tanks, rivers, flooded foundations or workings of all kinds The typical design of a submersible pump requires a
to draw the fluid out and move it to an area where it can shorter than standard mechanical seal. This is because
be processed or disposed of as needed. this design of submersible pump has two sets of seals
Two contributory factors have a negative influence on mounted in close proximity on the vertical shaft. Because
the life of mechanical seals inside submersible pumps. no common design standard exists, each manufacturer
designs the sealing chambers according to its own

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


51

Because no common design standard exists, each manufacturer


designs the sealing chambers according to its own policies.

policies. As a result, each pump design has a unique For example, an OEMs seals may come in two basic
seal chamber that requires a custom mechanical seal types with upper and lower seal faces in one seal that is
designed specifically to fit the space available. easier to install. However, some of these wearing parts
This design methodology means that industry may be composed of low-cost materials and will need
standard mechanical seal designs cannot be fitted to frequent replacement. A seal company, on the other
the vast majority of submersible pumps. This situation hand, could create several seal ranges that fit into the
has caused frustration for many pump users in the past. seal chambers without modification to the equipment
Without the option of a standard, off-the-shelf seal from and with parts made from higher-end materials chosen
a third-party manufacturer, repairers had to use the for a specific application. These customized seals
standard original equipment manufacturer (OEM) part characteristics could help prevent premature seal
instead of specifying an alternative replacement part. failures, especially in an arduous application requiring
A mechanical seal company can provide repair shops submersible pump service.
with the seals that are needed, rather than producing a
range of industry standards and leaving the repair shop
to find what is required on its own. Many seal companies Spencer Reynolds is the business development manager
offer parts that have a close visual similarity to the at Vulcan Seals Inc. He may be reached at spencer.
original parts, as well as necessary O-rings and any reynolds@vulcan-eng.com. For more information, visit
fitting tools. vulcanseals.com.

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


52 SPECIAL SECTION HARSH CONDITIONS

Harsh Liquids Require


Careful Material Selection
Metallics and plastics oer advantages for dierent applications.

BY KEN COMERFORD
VANTON PUMP AND EQUIPMENT CORP.

C
hoosing the right pump material to handle When dealing with metals, users must be aware of the
aggressive fluids is critical to the success of any four types of metallic corrosion.
processing operation. Aggressive fluids are those
that either corrode or abrade the pumps used 1. General Corrosion - The formation of a passive fi lm on a
to handle them, including acids, caustics, reagent grade metals surface is what prevents it from degrading.
chemicals and unknown wastewater effluents. Selecting
the appropriate material for handling these aggressive 2. Galvanic Corrosion - This phenomenon occurs when
liquids requires careful analysis to avoid incurring the two or more disparate metals come in contact with one
cost of premature pump replacement and downtime. another or when metals with the same analysis have
Metal and plastic are the two major types of materials different surface conditions and an electrolyte is present,
used for pumping harsh liquids. Pump users must which forms an electrolytic cell.
consider multiple factors to select the optimal material
for their specific requirements.
Table 1. A comparison of the performance of different materials of construction

Metallics MATERIALS OF CONSTRUCTION PROPERTIES


Historically, exotic metal alloy Maximum Specific Abrasion Tensil
pumps were the tried and true temperature gravity resistance strength
solution for the proper handling of (mg) Taber,
harsh fluids. These materials were F / C 1,000 cycles PSI
so ubiquitous among processing PP polypropylene 185 85 0.94 15 20 4000-5000
professionals that corrosion-related
PVC polyvinyl chloride 140 60 1.3 12 20 6,000-7,500
pump failure was considered both
predictable and anticipated by chlorinated polyvinyl
CPVC 210 99 1.49 20 7,500-11,000
independent sources. Examples chloride
of such sources are Compass and PE polyethylene 200 93 0.92 0.94 5 3,500-5,600
Schweitzer, compendia that detail PVDF polyvinylidene fluoride 275 135 1.75 5 10 5,500-8,250
the expected service life of materials ethylene
in a given corrosive fluid. The ECTFE 300 149 1.75 5 10 6,500-7,500
chlorotrifluorethylene
shortcoming of these measurements, PTFE polytetrafluorethylene 500 250 2.14 2.20 500 1000 2,000-5,000
however, is that they are taken
fiberglass reinforced
in a static condition. When these FRP 300 121 3.40 5.00 388 520 10,000-13,000
plastic
materials must perform at high
speeds, their life expectancy is stainless steel type
SS NA NA 7.9 50 65,000-77,000
304/316
curtailed even further.

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


53

Image 1. Assorted thermoplastic pump


components made of PVC, CPVC, PP, PVDF
and ECTFE ((Images and graphics courtesy
of Vanton Pump and Equipment Corp.)

3. Stress Corrosion Cracking - Since all Circle 150 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.
metals have residual or applied stress,
they are prone to stress corrosion
cracking, which is affected by extreme
thermal changes, excessive vibrations,
and expansion or contraction.

4. Intergranular Corrosion - This type


occurs only at the grain boundaries of
carbon-containing austenitic stainless
steels. If the steel is heated above 1,000
F, the carbon is released at the grain
boundaries, causing the area to become
more susceptible to corrosive attack.

While the shortened service life of


a metallic pump caused by corrosion
is problematic, corrosion may also
contaminate the pumped liquid and
compromise the fluids composition.
A properly selected plastic material,
however, would be inert to the most
harsh or caustic fluids because plastics
are compatible with such liquids and
would not react on contact. The correct
plastic for a particular application will
solve most fluid transfer, dosing and
collection problems.

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


54 SPECIAL SECTION HARSH CONDITIONS

Plastics tensile strength, for example) more closely match those


How does a user select the right plastic for handling a of metallics than thermoplastics. Their resistance to
specific harsh liquid? The first step is to recognize that corrosives increases as vinyl is added to their formulation,
choosing the ideal plastic pump is not a cure-all for every while their resistance to solvents is enhanced by their
pumping application. In high-temperature or high- epoxy content.
pressure applications, metallic pumps perform better Thermosets can be custom-formulated to meet specific
(see Table 1, page 52). In applications in which chemical service conditions, because different formulations of
compatibility is a primary consideration, however, their components (glass fiber/epoxy) can impart different
plastics are considered the material of choice. values to the composite material. For this reason,
The two major non-metallic groupings are thermosets standard corrosion charts are not always helpful. Instead,
and thermoplastics. performance characteristics should be determined by the
manufacturers and the users prior experience. Because
Thermosets of the specificity of this type of material, users should
Thermosetting plastics are composites, not homogeneous employ careful consideration when selecting thermoset
materials. Commonly referred to as fiber reinforced pumps for applications in which the fluid is unknown.
plastics (FRP) or glass reinforced plastics (GRP) materials, Thermoset pumps will resist most chemicals and can
thermosets are constructed of vinyl ester or epoxy resin reliably be used in applications in which the fluid reaches
reinforced by glass fibers. 300 F or higher.
The strength of FRP and GRP materials is influenced Users should be cautious, however, when using
by variations in its composition.For this reason FRP/GRP thermoset pumps to handle solids-containing liquids.
pumps are commonly referred to by their trade names, In these applications, the pumps resin surface may be
which provide specific analyses of the materials made abraded, exposing the reinforcing fibers. This may expose
by their manufacturer. FRP/GRPs rigid properties (their glass fibers beneath the surface, which could result in

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M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


55

Advantages of Thermoplastic Advantages of Thermoplastic


Pumps over Fiberglass Reinforced Pumps over Metal Pumps
Plastic (FRP) Pumps
severe damage and even pump
failure. Since FRP/GRP pumps No interbatch product No galvanic corrosion or rusting
are formulated to handle a contamination Superior resistance to abrasion
narrow and specific type of Solid homogeneous Greater chemical resistance over
caustic liquid, they are limited thermoplastics do not wick or the full pH range compared with
in the range of harsh liquids absorb by capillary action metals
they can handle effectively. Superior resistance to abrasion No ionization/metallic
compared with thermoset contamination of the uid
Thermoplastics composites No galling problems
Thermosets and thermoplastics Greater chemical resistance Signicantly lighter in weight,
are much lighter than metallics, coverage over the full pH range facilitating installation and
providing ease of installation maintenance
and maintenance. Unlike
thermosets, thermoplastics are engineered materials, Polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF)
giving them unique properties including a broad range Ethylene chlorotrifluoroethylene (ECTFE)
of chemical compatibility and resistance to impact, Polytetrrafluoroetheylene (PTFE)
abrasion and heat.
Typical thermoplastic materials used in pumps for Homogeneous in structure, these plastics are inert
handling harsh liquids include: to most chemicals throughout the entire pH range.
Polypropylene (PP) Even when the material is nicked or abraded, the harsh
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) liquid that is being pumped remains in contact with the
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) same material, so the pumps corrosion and abrasion
Polyethylene (PE) resistance is not affected. According to Taber abrasion

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


56 SPECIAL SECTION HARSH CONDITIONS

testing, thermoplastics show one-tenth of the weight When planning a new system or replacing an existing
loss of stainless steel, affirming that, unlike metallic and pump, thorough analysis is necessary for selecting
thermosets, they provide superior resistance to wear and the most favorable material and ensuring long-term,
abrasion without degradation of the pump material. dependable performance. When selecting the basic
While published corrosion-resistance charts for construction material for a pump that will handle
thermoplastics can be used as guides, users should aggressive fluids, users should first take into account the
provide their pump manufacturers with conditions of fluid being pumped, the operating temperature of the
service to arrive at the ideal performance parameters. fluid and the pressure of the application.
Temperatures can play a significant role in pump material If the temperature is 300 F or higher, a metallic pump
selection. As an example, according to published data, a is probably the ideal solution. When the fluid being
pump handling fluids with a temperature of 275 F should pumped is 250-300 F, materials such as fluoropolymers
use fluoropolymer material, while equipment that will (PVDF, ECTFE or PTFE) will prove most effective. If
pump fluids reaching 140 F should use PVC to ensure the temperature of the pumped liquid is below 250
ideal performance. F, however, an FRP and a thermoplastic should be
considered. If product purity is paramount, natural,
Conclusion unpigmented PP or PVDF will perform best.
Selecting the ideal material for pumping harsh liquids is
a matter of weighing performance and cost. The pumps
purchase price should not be the sole determining factor. Ken Comerford is the vice president of
Users should also consider the cost of replacement parts Vanton Pump and Equipment Corp. He
and downtime. has been with the company for 32 years.

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times are 16 weeks or less, and PWM Multistage pipeline pumps are 28 weeks or
less. In addition, all of our pumps are manufactured in the USA.
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M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


How Gear Motor
Technology Increases
Vertical Pump
Drive Efficiency
A P R I L 16 , 2 015
1 P.M. E A S TERN

In today s high-volume pumping applications, energy ef ciency and cost control


are more important than ever.
A new solution using low-pole-count induction motors and proven gear motor
technology offers effective results to these important challenges. Learn more by
attending this webinar which discusses this alternative to large, high-pole count,
synchronous motors. This new technology provides lower capital costs and a
smaller drive envelope for high-power, low-speed pumping applications.

About the Presenter


Michael Thomas Myers, PE, MBA, is a Global Business Manager for CST,
Large & Specialty Gearing for Baldor Electric Company, a member of the ABB
Group. He is responsible for ABBs global large gearing and specialty gearing
business. Myers holds a B.S. in mineral engineering from the University of
Alabama and an MBA from the University of Alabama at Birmingham. During
his more than 30-year career, he also has worked for Rockwell Automation SPONSORED BY
and Drummand Company, Inc.

pumpsandsystems.com/2015/gear-motor-tech FRE E
p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015
FOR MORE INFORMATION AND TO REGISTER
58 SPECIAL SECTION HARSH CONDITIONS

Customized Compounding
Boosts Resilience in
Harsh Conditions
Reinforcing additives combined with a carefully selected base resin
can create a high-performance compound for any application.

BY DR. JOEL BELL & WILL TABER


RTP COMPANY

P
ump manufacturers have a long, successful Developing the Right Formulation
history of working with metals and are familiar The job of the compounder is to first understand the
with the beneficial properties they deliver in a pump application and its challenges and then consider
variety of pumping applications. Similarly, the the wide variety of base resins, reinforcing fibers, fi llers
pump industry has been using thermoplastics in pump and additives in its portfolio to develop the optimum
designs for several decades because of their low cost, light formulation. Experienced compounders can begin with
weight, superior chemical resistance, manufacturability lower cost base resins such as polypropylene for less
and other valuableand profitableadvantages. demanding applications, higher-temperature resins such
While unmodified thermoplastic resins have many as polyphenylene sulfide (PPS) and polyetheretherketone
inherent benefits, they also pose many limitations for (PEEK) for more demanding thermal and wear
pump applications if used in an unmodified form. Chief requirements, or fluoropolymers such as polyvinylidene
among these limitations are strength, impact, wear fluoride (PVDF) and ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE)
resistance and fl ame-retardant properties that can often for extreme chemical resistance.
fall short of those same properties in metals. From this base resin, the compounder works to
Despite these setbacks, manufacturers have a broad create the composite using a combination of reinforcing
range of options for enhancing the properties of fibers, fi llers and additives such as long glass fiber to
unmodified resins. Compounders can add combinations increase mechanical properties or the internal lubricant
of reinforcing fibers, fi llers and additives to a carefully polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) for reduced wear and
selected base resin to create a high-performance friction. Other options include aramid fibers, graphite
compound with a host of distinct properties instilled or ceramic powders for improved wear resistance,
into a single material. Many manufacturers are halogenated or non-halogenated fl ame-retardant
frequently surprised at the diversity of properties additives, conductive carbon fiber, and pigments and
that can be readily built into a compoundincluding dyes for custom color options.
fl ame retardancy, impact resistance, strength, wear Depending on the challenges presented by the
and friction resistance, conductivity, temperature application, some of these formulations may be created
resistance, chemical resistance, corrosion resistance and from scratch with no base resin in mind, while others
colorabilityto deliver the exact performance criteria may begin with previously developed resin/additive
that they have specified. combinations.

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


59

During the development stage, manufacturers often izod impact strength that met all structural and impact
continually request additional properties. For example, requirements of the application. The long glass fiber
they may begin by requesting that strength be added to reinforcement, with its unique balance of strength and
the compound. Later, they may ask for a flame retardant impact properties, allowed the manufacturer to benefit
and finish off by requesting that the compound be from the use of a thermoplastic compound, a scenario
made the companys corporate color. An experienced that otherwise would have been impossible because of
compounder is often able to accommodate these the inherent strength deficit of the polypropylene alone.
requests, but compounding technology
requires balance and compromise of
ingredients and properties. Sometimes,
when one performance criteria is
added, issues may arise with others.
For example, imparting conductive
properties may result in reduction of
overall strength or impact resistance for
which the formulation must compensate.
A skilled compounder understands how
different constituents of the formulation
interact, as well as their advantages and
limitations.

Maximizing Compound Strength


Compounders use a variety of reinforcing
fibers, including short glass fiber, carbon
fiber and very long glass fiber, to achieve
maximum strength and other specific
properties. The manner in which these
fibers are introduced into the melt
stream and the sizing chemistry used
on the fiber are key considerations when
striving to maximize material strength.
As an example, a manufacturer was
looking to convert components of a
fluid-handling pump that moves waste
products at up to 155 gallons per minute
(gpm) from metal to a thermoplastic.
Polypropylene was considered because
its weight savings were projected at 20
to 50 percent and the manufacturing
process was relatively quick and easy.
Because of the inherent properties
of polypropylene, the manufacturer
achieved excellent chemical resistance
but was unable to obtain the required
level of tensile strength.
After carefully analyzing the
application, the compounder selected
a 40 percent long glass fiber reinforced
polypropylene, with a 17,500 pounds
per square inch (121 megapascal)
tensile strength and 5.0 foot-pounds
per inch (267 joule/meter) notched
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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


60 SPECIAL SECTION HARSH CONDITIONS

Incorporating Superior Wear Resistance


Another property of enormous consequence to pump
manufacturers is wear and abrasion resistance. Despite
the large number of moving parts, pumps must provide
a long useful life with minimal downtime while
maintaining effective operation in corrosive, high-
temperature and other inhospitable environments.
To incorporate wear resistance, the compounder
can select an additive technology, such as PTFE,
perfluoropolyether (PFPE), silicone, carbon and
aramid fibers, graphite and molybdenum disulfide. As Figure 1. Wear resistance of unmodified vs. modified materials
illustrated in Figure 1, wear resistance (per American (Graphics courtesy of RTP Company).
Society for Testing and Materials D3702) can be
improved in inherently wear-resistant materials such as
nylon 6/6 and acetal (POM) by incorporating PTFE alone
or in combination with PFPE.
Another common scenario for pumps used in corrosive
environments is selecting PPSa highly chemically
resistant thermoplastic with excellent thermal
stabilityand building in required wear resistance with
the addition of carbon fibers used in conjunction with
PTFE. Th is particular type of compound has been highly
successful in pump vane applications.
All fiber reinforcement, fi llers and additives have some
considerations, and the compounder must understand
them. For example, mating surfaces, applied loads and
speeds, and operating temperatures influence wear and
friction along with the wear package used. Figure 2. Centrifugal pump impeller utilizing PPS with carbon
fiber and PTFE for maximum strength and wear resistance
Compounding: A Key to ATEX Success
ATEX is a legal guideline based on two European compounder also needs to understand that ATEX
Union directives that describe what equipment and compliance might require a combination of several other
protective systems are allowed in an environment with properties, such as fl ame retardancy, impact resistance
a potentially explosive atmosphere. Derived from the and thermal resistancemost of which are well within
French title of the 94/9/EC directive Appareils destins reach of compounded thermoplastics.
tre utiliss en ATmosphres Explosives, ATEX is a
concern for thousands of manufacturers worldwide.
Often, it is a race to meet stringent conductivity Dr. Joel Bell is the international technology
standards so that products can continue to be used in manager for RTP Company in Winona,
mines and other potentially explosive environments. Minnesota. He holds a Doctor of Philosophy
Ironically, these are many of the same environments in materials science engineering from the
where the light weighting, strength and corrosion University of Minnesota-Twin Cities. He
resistance provided by thermoplastic compounds have may be reached at jbell@rtpcompany.com
become so valuable (see Figure 2). or 507-454-6900.
To maintain the use of thermoplastics in these
applications, manufacturers can work with compounders Will Taber is industrial market manager for RTP
to fi nd the appropriate conductive technology from Company in Winona, Minnesota. He holds a
possibilities such as carbon fibers, carbon nanotubes, bachelors in plastics engineering technology
inherently conductive polymers and carbon black. Some from Pittsburg State University and an
of these impact the strength of thermoplastics, so the MBA in finance from the University of
compounder must create the right formula to maintain Kansas. He may be reached at wtaber@
all the properties required by the application. The rtpcompany.com or 507-454-6900.

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


61
Another Vanton AdVantage

The Vanton Pump Technical Library


If youre pumping corrosives, handling aggressive or ultrapure fluids,
need to eliminate product contamination, or ensure compliance with
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provides solutions to answer virtually every concern.

Most questions are addressed in our


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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015
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62

AFTERMARKET

New 3-D Casting Methods


Produce Spare Parts Faster
Additive manufacturing also improves geometric tolerances.

BY JESSE STINSON HYDRO PARTS SOLUTIONS


& WERNER BARNARD HYDRO INC.

A
n increasing number of industrial plants are demands of the industry. Many of these advanced
reducing the spare parts inventories stored tools, including coordinate measure machine (CMM)
at their facilities. At the same time, they are technology, allow for quicker emergency repairs, faster
replacing fewer pumps because of capital deliveries and higher quality pump parts.
constraints and have determined that remanufacturing Emergency equipment repairs are common throughout
existing equipment is the best path forward. Many of the industry. Having fewer spare parts makes this
the pumps within these facilities have exceeded 50 classification of repair more challenging. Standard
years of service. This drives the need for replacement equipment repairs typically take six to eight weeks, while
parts and, in some cases, emergency replacement parts. emergency repairs must be completed within one day to
Considering the age of these pumps, the replacement three weeks, depending on the severity of the situation.
parts from the manufacturer are likely obsolete and may This type of repair often drives the need for rapidly
not be easily available. Further complicating the situation supplied cast parts, which traditionally require long lead
is the location of manufacture. Many cast parts are times because of the use of wooden tooling to create the
manufactured outside the U.S and have long lead times. mold to manufacture the casting.
To address these challenges, many companies are Recent advancements in 3-D technology, known
developing technologies to meet the specific and growing as additive manufacturing, allow the cast parts

Image 1. New bronze impeller casting (Images


and graphics courtesy of Hydro Inc.) Figure 1. Reverse engineering raw scan data

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


63

Figure 2. Temperature change during the pouring of casting

Image 2. An engineer verifies casting


geometry to hydraulic design specifications.

manufacturer to meet customer demands by


eliminating the need to create traditional tooling.
While most users are familiar with subtractive
manufacturing (the process of starting with a
piece of metal and removing chips to produce the
desired shape), additive manufacturing starts with a
parametric model and ends with the desired shape.
Many materials are used during this process, In the past, performing such analysis on every
but the most interesting and appropriate for rapid cast part was not common. Foundries typically had
casting manufacturing is sand. With sand, casting several experienced individuals who developed their
tooling (molds and cores) can be created virtually casting pouring methods based on past experience.
overnight. This allows users to eliminate the delay With advancements in both software and
involved in making wooden tooling for castings. equipment technology, engineers are now able to
Using additive manufacturing, a computer- analyze the casting method design in more detail
controlled process, companies can create cast parts than ever before. Engineers can consider each
faster and with improved geometric tolerances than casting with minimal delay in manufacturing.
they can with the traditional casting processes. This is critical for pump parts, because most vane
Once the geometry is defined, performing passage and volute areas have variable section
material solidification simulation of the casting thicknesses that can result in variable shrinkage.
is critical. The solidification software is designed Variable shrinkage has been a problem in the
around computational fluid dynamics, which allows foundry industry for many years. Institutes have
engineers to simulate the velocities and temperature developed casting tolerances to manage such
gradients of the metal throughout the pour cycle. variance. Technology is now allowing the industry to

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


64 COVER SERIES AFTERMARKET

minimize the variance, which helps deliver


castings within the design parameters set by 3 BENEFITS OF NEW SPARE PARTS
hydraulic engineers. MANUFACTURING PROCESSES
When reverse engineering is required, new
CMM technology, coupled with advanced software, 1. New technologies are now available
captures geometrical data that allows companies that can significantly benefit the
to provide faster deliveries and high standards procurement process. They can
of quality demanded by the market. While CMM drastically cut spare parts lead times,
is used to capture the geometrical data to create making it possible to return critical
the 3-D model, it can also provide continual pumps to service more rapidly.
improvement with dimensional accuracy. Hydraulic 2. Studying how metal solidifies during
performance depends on how accurately the vane the cooling process means that
passages are produced during casting manufacture. castings consistently meet the vane
In a centrifugal pump, the impellers and diff users geometry specified by hydraulic
are the pump parts that have complex three- engineers. This, in return, will
save the end user money by
dimensional vane passages. For manufacturers, the
operating the pumps within the
challenge is to meet the dimensional accuracy. In
optimum parameters.
doing so, they can ensure the hydraulic performance
required by design engineers. 3. Scientific developments in additive
manufacturing are allowing foundry
To meet vane dimensional accuracy, the
engineers to make significant
challenge is to predict and control shrinkage
process changes in the way tooling is
inside the mold. During the manufacturing of developed and castings are created.
a casting, three types of shrinkage can occur: Since most major pump parts come
shrinkage of the liquid, solidification shrinkage from castings, pump users will
and patternmakers shrinkage. The problem of the continue to see improvements in
shrinkage of the liquid can be ignored, since liquid critical areas such as price, delivery
metal is continuously supplied into the mold. The and quality of their spare parts.
solidification shrinkage, which occurs because
metals are less dense as a liquid than a solid, can be
addressed with directional solidification design.

Figure 3. Vane hydraulic analysis

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


65

Figure 4. An image
of drag mold with
casting

One pump repair company has been studying


these shrinkage factors to improve the vane
hydraulic accuracy. The companys approach has
been to measure and analyze each casting. The part
dimensions are collected with a CMM, and the results
are then analyzed and compared with a database of
previous measurements. Because the company has
designed and manufactured impellers of many sizes
and material construction, this database is extensive.
The results are then calibrated against the developed
model and the industry standard shrinkages,
taking into consideration material, geometry and
manufacturing methods.
This approach has enabled the company to correct
and predict the effect of variable shrinkage in
impellers while improving hydraulic accuracy of the
impeller and obtaining better-than-standard casting
tolerances on the vane passages. As a bonus to better
hydraulic accuracy, this approach achieves a reduction
in dynamic balancing costs as well as an improvement
in the consistency of pump performance tests.

Jesse Stinson joined Hydros service


network in 2012. He is the vice president
of operations for Hydro Parts Solutions
Inc., a Hydro Inc. company created to
support the pump aftermarket with
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high-quality parts. Stinson has spent his


entire career specializing in castings,
specifically for pumps.

Werner Barnard joined Hydros service


network in 2010. With a Bachelor of
Science with honors in metallurgical
engineering, Barnard plays a
major role in supporting Hydros
reverse engineering processes and
pump parts program.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


66 COVER SERIES AFTERMARKET

New Detection Technology


Reduces Leak Risk
Block and bleed isolation capabilities improve safety and prots.
BY YVETTE SCHMIZ
INTEGRA TECHNOLOGIES

C
ompanies across the globe encounter been successfully performed up to 2,250 pounds per
an increasing number of regulatory and square inch (psi) and can accommodate testing slip on,
environmental pressures that call for new socket weld and weld neck anges in a full range of sizes
and specialized services. Technological from 0.75 to 30 inches. Using these test plugs reduces test
advancements are constantly evolving to meet the high time and requires less than one gallon of liquid.
expectations of the industry and the individuals who In addition to testing, incorporating leak-detection
power it. To ensure safety and maintain high levels of technology is the most eective method of nding and
productivity, qualied and sustainable resources are controlling joint-connection leaks. One leak detection
necessary. Safety is always the primary goal followed product can identify leaks during normal operations,
closely by schedule and, of course, cost. startups and at low pressure, which makes it ideal for
A leak-free start-up promotes a zero-incident work preventive maintenance procedures. With ultrasonic
environment. Planning for zero leaks is a completely technology, early warning signs and defects can be
attainable goal that improves safety and reduces cost and detected to prevent costly repairs, safety-related injuries
unforeseen downtime. One company oers products that and unscheduled downtime. Operations are always costly
drastically reduce the risk of leaks and provide immediate to execute, but expenses increase during prolonged
results for critical complications. periods of production suspension.
This quick and accurate method for determining
New Technology equipment conditional analysis and leak detection can be
A specialized method of double block and bleed isolation used regardless of the type of gas being processed or low-
allows for welds to be hydrostatically tested rather than pressure variables. Leak detection services are eective
testing an entire line. This procedure reduces time and in compressed air or gas systems pressurized to less than
costly restraints while increasing accuracy and eciency 6 psi. High sensitivity, selectivity and a high signal-
in overall asset performance. A modern hydrostatic, to-noise ratio distinguish leaks in even the harshest
high-pressure system safely and completely isolates the environments and enable a leak-detection service to
environment from residual product to provide a setting to provide maintenance diagnostics, ensure safety and
identify leaks and structural aws in eld welds. protect quality control.
This technology and tooling provide the ability An ultrasonic leak detection service was chosen by
to monitor any backpressure that may have been NASA for use on the International Space Station and all
accidentally introduced after the line was isolated. Users of the space shuttles. The U.S. military also used this
can also monitor upstream vapors to ensure the isolation technology for predictive and preventive maintenance
will not fail and consequently become a potentially opportunities. This service can detect leaks in a diverse
hazardous projectile. Hydrostatic testing services have range of applications including equipment condition

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


67

monitoring and analysis, non-pressurized vessel integrity Yvette Schmiz is the Gulf Coast sales and marketing
testing, and pressure and vacuum leak detection. coordinator for INTEGRA Technologies
Obstacles such as residual inuences and physical and can be reached at yschmiz@
distance or obstructions that have previously impeded integratechnologies.com. She works closely
the quality of alternative detection services have been with the senior engineer of BlackHawk
overcome in this leak detection service. Media include Engineered Products, a division of INTEGRA
compressed air, hydrogen, oxygen, helium, Freon, Technologies. Visit integratechnologies.com.
ethylene oxide, nitrogen and argon.
Proximity requirements, precision
and armation are all improved
features. This is also an acceptable
method of leading detection during
tightness testing and eliminates the
need for pressure test taping.

Case Study
Leak detection technology can
be used as a routine maintenance
procedure to check for leaks on
any piping, including pumps. This
process does not involve vibration
or barring tests but rather includes
all the pipelines, pumps, valves,
exchangers and reactors. One user
employed this technology as a
routine maintenance check on 10
heaters with 100 valves per heater.
These valves are made of 1-inch
pipe and operate at 80 psi. The
technology revealed that 35 of the
1,000 valves were leaking nitrogen
on the gas lines feeding into the
heaters. After completing a full walk
and agging the units that were
leaking at 80 psi, the leak detection
service provider compiled and
generated a full report noting each
problem area. These valves were
replaced completely to eliminate
the potential hazard and save
underlying costs.
All of the leak-detection service
providers test tools are non-
destructive so they do not damage
the interior walls of the pipes
or pressure vessels. These
technologies are non-invasive and
provide instantaneous results
so end users can access all the
necessary information to maintain
regulatory compliance and up-to-
date operations.

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


68 COVER SERIES AFTERMARKET

4 Engineering
Strategies That Can
Save Millions
Advanced test analysis tools, remanufacturing
and training help end users solve problems.
BY STEVEN HUNSCHE
SKF USA INC.

O
nce a machine or system is up and running, and cost-eective ways to minimize downtime.
monitoring the assets operation and Expert on-site or online training programs are available
performance and deploying proper solutions to educate and equip sta in the context of best practices.
when problems develop can pay big dividends. For example, one North American coal-red plant
With the increasingly demanding needs in the marketplace wanted to verify if a submerged circulating water pump was
to more eectively manage and support assets, various about to fail. An asset reliability company used advanced
aftermarket tools, technologies and services have emerged analysis tools to test the electric motors on site. The results
to help operations successfully do the job. lead to a timely x for the pump that saved $3.5 million
Specialized tools collect data regarding machinery in possible downtime and lost production. This was the
health and detect system abnormalities. Similarly, case when a shaft unexpectedly broke on a second pump
remanufacturing (rather than replacing) components to without warning, requiring ve weeks of repairs and
full working specications, as well as maintaining spare associated costs.
parts inventory and management services, can be quick Strategic and tactical asset management tools and
services, like those that aided the power plant, can
help maintain, monitor, repair and optimize assets
throughout their operating life.

Evaluating Machinery Health


Owning and operating equipment is one of the biggest
costs for a plant. Global competitive pressures have
increased demands to keep operations running better,
longer and more cost-eectively by reducing unscheduled
downtime and increasing uptime for machinery assets.
The maintenance sta carries the responsibility of
achieving optimized asset eciency, but equipment
maintenance is now more complicated. Environmental
and safety laws have grown increasingly strict. Despite
Portable data collectors enable all tasks needed to perform
on-the-spot analysis of the condition of rotating machinery. these challenges, machine uptime must be maximized.
(Images courtesy of SKF USA Inc.) These scenarios have prompted sustained interest in

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


69

A worker files a bearing as part of


a remanufacturing process as an
alternative to bearing replacement.

conditions and detect early stages of component degradation so that remedial


action can be taken to prevent failures and reduce unanticipated downtime.
The following are among the categories of aftermarket tools and
technologies that deliver or analyze performance data on operating
machinery:

Provided to Our Customers For Over 125 Years


proactive maintenance programs to
help achieve equipment reliability Condition Monitoring Systems
objectives. Among them, condition
monitoring oers a practical Vibration Analysis Equipment
approach by determining the Spin Test Systems
condition of machinery through
non-invasive methods during Moment Weighing Scales
normal operation. High Speed Facilities
Condition monitoring is a
strategy that measures physical Dynamic Balancing Machines
parameters (such as vibration,
Its a relationship that begins when the negotiations end.
noise, lubrication properties and
temperature) regularly to help Its balancing equipment that goes beyond specications and
ascertain machinery health. Th is exceeds expectations.
process allows personnel to detect Its a higher level of service that is responsive and maximizes
machine and component problems performance.
before they result in unexpected Its comprehensive support to guide you through the
downtime and the high costs challenges, elevate your capabilities and train your experts of
associated with interruptions in the future.
production.
Condition monitoring can serve The Difference is Quality.
as a platform for implementing
a condition-based maintenance The Difference is
program, through which
maintenance, inspection and
overhaul of plant machinery are
scheduled on the basis of machine
condition instead of the calendar. 1-800-873-2352
The goal is to trend and analyze www.schenck-usa.com sales@schenck-usa.com
data to identify troublesome
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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


70 COVER SERIES AFTERMARKET

Basic handheld condition monitoring tools place


the benets of condition-based maintenance within
reach for experts and novices alike. Examples include
thermal cameras, vibration measurement tools,
stroboscopes, tachometers, sound pressure
meters, ultrasonic instruments and electrical
discharge detectors.
Portable data collectors and analyzers supported
by enabling software can handle all tasks needed to
perform on-the-spot analysis of rotating machinery.
Online surveillance and protection systems
integrate permanently installed sensors for machine
monitoring to alert plant personnel of deteriorating
machine condition changes. Data are transmitted
to a host computer running applicable software. The
technology is especially suited for unsafe or hard-to-
reach locations where accessibility is limited.
Electric motor test equipment encompasses a wide
range of product solutions oering capabilities for
static testing and dynamic motor monitoring to help
plants avoid unexpected electric motor failures.

Remanufacturing vs. Replacing An instructor conducts a course as part of an extensive training program.
When good components go bad, replacing them can be
expensive, both in terms of cost and delayed availability. larger-size bearings are typically prime candidates),
Remanufacturing can be an alternative way to save time bearings can be restored or upgraded in a fraction
and money without compromising performance of the time required for new bearings and often at a
or productivity. reduced cost. When remanufactured components can
In one case, a 1,000-megawatt coal- red power station be produced and delivered in a timely manner with
identied six pulverizer roll wheel bearings requiring minimal disruption to operations, increased eciency,
overhaul before the pulverizer could return to service. uptime and productivity can follow.
The stations pulverizer was critical to maintaining peak
power and, in the absence of a backup, the pulverizer Managing Spare Parts Inventory
had to be restored to its original specications for the While reducing the costs of purchasing, supply and
station to keep running without interruption until inventory is an integral part of increasing protability,
its next scheduled outage. A seven-month lead-time maintaining the proper spare parts inventory is essential
for new bearings meant that the scheduled timeline for optimal production. Managing inventories translates
requirements could not be met. to balancing supply and demand to achieve minimum
A bearing company completed an inspection and failure asset ownership and minimum risk, which reduces the
analysis and determined that the bearings, although overall cost of inventory. Consultation and structured
damaged, could be restored. The bearing company was programs from inventory control specialists can help
able to remanufacture the bearings in only six weeks. The deliver consistent analysis, appropriate inventory levels
plant saved almost $10,000 in new bearing purchases and and an auditable reference trail.
avoided ve months of reduced power production that As examples, a spare parts alignment, rationalization
would have resulted in an estimated $1.2 million in lost and optimization program can identify and evaluate
revenue while awaiting new bearing sets. inventory by using a comprehensive assessment. The
Before any work begins, remanufacturing experts optimal level of spare parts can be determined with a
should inspect the bearings, ascertain whether spare parts optimization tool. Spares analysis software
remanufacturing is possible and issue a comprehensive can be applied using a risk-based approach to document
bearing analysis report. If remanufacture is viable (and economic justication for stocking levels.

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


71

IQV"UNWTT[A
These types of initiatives allow
operations to realize reduced inventory
costs and reduce the probability of
running out of stock.

Online & On-Site Training


A growing portfolio of courses from
qualied service providers can equip
upper management, engineering
sta and maintenance personnel
with the knowledge to help eliminate
machinery problems and achieve
maximum reliability and productivity.
Training venues can be located at
plants and regional sites or conducted
at an experts facilities, and course
Ftknnkpi"Owf"
categories can range from introductory dlorworu0eqo Ecug"Uvwf{<
to advanced levels of training. In
addition, e-learning courses use self-
learning modules to enable individual Pgy"Hqt"4237"/"ZR/MP"Ugtkgu"
instruction at an individuals own pace Gzrnqukqp/rtqqh.""HO."E1WU"crrtqxgf"
*Encuu"K."Fkxkukqp"3."Itqwr"E"("F+
and timetable.
Aftermarket solutions have Circle 148 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.
broadened to encompass evolving
issues and concerns, such as energy
consumption and operational
sustainability. Th is type of training m " "n " #cn"n "m# #cn "# #n#cn
equips sta to make routine
measurements with the objective to
monitor pump energy eciency and
pave the way for improvements.
The success of any initiative for
optimizing operations can make
signicant headway by turning to
an established and experienced
provider of relevant technologies
and services. The resulting working
partnership can open a wider window
into the possibilities for achieving
positive outcomes.

" n" nn"}# #


Steven Hunsche is director of services " o " $do "o " "n$ $do
for SKF USA Inc. and has been with the "o$ " " ~" "o " "d $
company for four years. He has more " $oo "d " $" $~ $o"$ "~$ $" $o """
than 30 years of experience assisting " $a " "o " $n "$~" $ " "$ $n

customers with operation and "n "d " o " $ "$ " "
"n "o " n $n " $"$ "~$ $ "
maintenance of their assets. Contact
him at steven.hunsche@skf.com or
513-702-6871. For more information, m $n "$" " $o " o " n$o " ~$ " $o n
visit skfusa.com.
Circle 151 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


72 COVER SERIES AFTERMARKET

Renery Revamps
1947 Vintage Pumps
An Indiana renery used reverse engineering to
solve multiple challenges with one custom pump.
BY BASIL S. ELKURD
BP OIL WHITING REFINERY

A
renery in Northwest Indiana is home to an on repairs to an
internal power plant, which includes three obsolete pump or seek
high-pressure service water pumps. These alternatives.
pumps provide cooling water to the bearings Since this work would
for the forced-draft fans on top of the boiler house. They be conducted under the
also cool two other pieces of equipment throughout the routine maintenance
power plant. The pumps are 1947 vintage Ingersoll-Rand, budget, the scope had
3BEV, two-stage horizontally split pumps (see Image 1). to be limited. It would not have the resources of a capital
Packing is used for sealing instead of mechanical seals. project, restricting what improvements could be made.
In addition, the pumps use greased bearings and are
designed to provide a ow of 500 gallons per minute Option One
(gpm) at 250 feet of total dynamic head (TDH). The The rst option to consider was the purchase of a new
pumps have been reliable with low vibrations. The main pump. How much would a new, in-kind pump cost?
maintenance tasks are monitoring and replacing the The thinking was, if the price of a new pump were
packing and changing the bearings in the eld.
After many years in service, the pumps began to
degrade internally and stopped meeting the designed
service requirements. Considering the critical nature
of these pumps, the power plant unit determined that
returning them to the designed performance levels was
imperative. The units maintenance and engineering team
developed a set of options and scheduled maintenance at
the next available opportunity.
Considering the high cost of repairs (because of the
pumps size) and the fact that the existing pumps had a
cast-iron body, opportunities for upgrades were scarce.
Knowing that the pumps had not been repaired in more
than 20 years, the team anticipated an extensive scope
with signicant costly internal and external weld repair
(see Images 2 and 3). The team had a choice: They
Image 1. The 3BEV, two-stage horizontally split
could either spend a signicant amount of money pumps (Courtesy of BP Whiting Refinery)

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


73

Image 2 and 3. The pumps had not been repaired in more than 20 years, so the team anticipated an extensive scope with
significant internal and external weld repair. (Courtesy of BP Whiting Refinery)

comparable to the repair, a business argument could be piping modication which would add to the overall cost.
made for the purchase. Unfortunately, the cost of a new Th is third option was considered acceptable in spite
pump was more than twice the predicted cost of a repair. of its expanded scope and higher cost because of the
advantages these upgrades provide.
Option Two
The second option was to reverse engineer the pump case Option Four
at a third-party facility. However, the pump would still While these options were being considered, another
have the obsolete design with packing unless additional project was in the works at one of the renerys cooling
engineering was carried out. The additional engineering towers, which became the fourth option for this project.
would add cost and lead time. The drawback of this This option was discovered by chance.
option was the high cost of reverse engineering and the A fellow pump engineer was working with a
need to pull the pump for the duration of the project company that reverse engineers impellers. For that
(reverse engineering, casting, manufacturing, assembly specic application the renery needed several
and testing). Th is choice was not ideal but seemed more impellers in a short period of time, and all the
feasible than the rst option or the repair option. traditional avenues (OEM or reverse engineering)
could not meet the deadline. Based on the positive
Option Three experience of another engineer dealing with a similar
The third option considered was to evaluate several challenge, he recommended contacting Sims Pump
original equipment manufacturers (OEM) product Company (Sims). This company reverse engineers
lines for a modern design pump that meets the impellers like other companies. However, it uses its own
hydraulic requirements and motor horsepower. Many material, which is Simsite. The material is a graphite-
were available in dierent designs that met these combination-ber, continuously interwoven, reinforced
requirements and that provided metallurgy and design composite with phenolic/epoxy thermoset resin. The
upgrades that were in line with the cost of the repair company was able to reverse engineer these impellers
option. However, this change required foundation and faster than any of the other options. The material oered

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


74 COVER SERIES AFTERMARKET

its own advantages that included


corrosion resistance and
light weight.
During the discussions about
the impellers, the units team
wanted to learn more about the
capabilities of reverse engineering
and manufacturing pump casings
using this material. The sales
person provided the engineering
team with information including
the curve, outline drawing and Figure 1. The 3-D model of the new pump prior to manufacturing
service conditions for review. (Courtesy of Sims Pump Company)
During these discussions
and with full understanding of The reverse engineers analyzed the current pump
this new approach, the unit team had to agree on a list design, an axial-split, two-stage, double-suction impeller
of requirements, goals and potential drawbacks. Based pump. Knowing that centrifugal impellers with higher
on these discussions, the renerys power plant team specic speed will have a higher hydraulic eciency, the
developed the following list: engineering companys team created a suction specic
speed window to work within.
Meet the same hydraulic specications. That was the rst design change implemented, moving
Maintain the same motor specications (speed and from a two-stage, double-suction impeller design (with
power) to avoid motor replacement. a specic speed of 1,680) to a two-stage, single-suction
Maintain the same footprint to avoid foundation work impeller (with a specic speed of 2,376) to increase
and changes. eciency based on the net positive suction head
Maintain the same piping size. available. Once the impeller design was nalized, Sims
Maintain the same outline and ange-to-ange began the next stage of mechanical design and modeling
spacing and orientation to avoid piping alterations. (see Figure 1).
The new pump should include mechanical seals instead
of packing.
Maintain the same coupling location to avoid motor
relocation. This was not a major issue, but the team
preferred this as part of the solution.
The cost of the pump (engineering/manufacturing)
must be comparable to the repair option, which
was the lowest cost option of the other three under
consideration.

Even though the list of requirements could not be


achieved by the previous options without the drawbacks,
the items became a requirement to be able to sell the idea
of an unconventional pump. The reverse engineering
company performed an in-depth analysis of the existing
equipment and a compilation of the list of requirements.
The engineering company responded that it was able to
and would like the opportunity to complete this project
according to the goals.
Upon agreement, the team sent the reverse engineers
the pump curve, the rst- and second-stage impellers
from the warehouse and the information provided earlier.
At the nal stages of the project, the team was able to Image 4. The new high-pressure service water pump
send the pump to verify the dimensions. (Courtesy of BP Whiting Refinery)

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


75

The end result was a new high-pressure service water


Basil Elkurd is a rotating equipment pump engineer for BP Oil
pump (see Image 4) that oered:
Whiting Refinery. Elkurd has been at BP for 12 years. He has
bachelors and masters degrees in mechanical engineering
Near identical hydraulic capabilities
and is responsible for rotating equipment reliability in the
The same motor specications (rpm and speed)
Hydroprocessing & Utilities sections of the refinery. He may be
The same footprint with no change in the foundation
reached at 219-398-1823 or basil.elkurd@bp.com.
or baseplate
The same suction and discharge
piping
The same ange-to-ange spacing
Mechanical seals
No motor relocation requirement
Comparable cost to repair option

In addition to the specied INQDCN


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goals, the pump delivered some FKURNCEGOGPV"RWORKPI"UQNWVKQPPU
additional advantages because of the
engineering work. These include:

Pump case, impeller and bushings


made from a material that does
not corrode
RTQVGEV"[[QWT"R
RWORU"( ("U
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A bearing housing made of 304 YKVJ"Q
QWT"XGTUCVKNG"UVTCKPGTU
WT"X
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UVTCKPGTU
stainless steel, which protects
from corrosion if the seal leaks
A 360 degree bearing housing
designed for additional stability
and ease of maintenance. The back
covers can be removed to remove
the bearings and the seals without
pulling the bearing bracket.
410 stainless steel shaft for
corrosion resistance
More eciency because of its
single suction design

During the pumps installation, as


with every scope, additions required
further attention that would have
been required regardless of the pump
options considered. Because of the
water damage from the leaking Lid-Ease Strainers
packing, the baseplate and pump
foot pads were badly corroded and
required repair and eld machining.
The motor foot pedestals were not Duplex Strainers
level and also required repair. After
UVTCKPGT
UVTCKP GT
these improvements, the pump was XKFGQ
commissioned successfully with low
Y Strainers
vibration and bearing temperature.
It delivered the performance that the
X K M K P I R W O R0 E Q O
renerys power plant unit needed.

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


76 TRADE SHOW PREVIEW

WQA Aquatech USA


April 21 24, 2015 Exhibition Hours
Wednesday, April 22 11:30 a.m. 5 p.m.
Las Vegas Convention Center Thursday, April 23 10 a.m. 5 p.m.
Las Vegas, Nev.

A
quatech USA, the Water Quality Associations annual been released within the past year. his years exhibitors feature
convention and exposition, is an event for water water quality testing, iltration and water softener products.
professionals from a variety of industries, including the Participants will be able to network with other industry
process and drinking water markets. Attendees beneit from a professionals and hear from water industry experts. Topics
broad range of education, training, networking and business covered during the event include commercial applications, water
opportunities. he New Product Showcase provides attendees treatment basics and business management.
with the opportunity to see products and services that have For more information or to register, visit wqa.org.

INTERPHEX
March 21 23, 2015 Exhibition Hours
Tuesday, April 21 9 a.m. 5 p.m.
Javits Center Wednesday, April 22 9 a.m. 5 p.m.
New York, N.Y. Thursday, April 23 9 a.m. 2 p.m.

T
he International Pharmaceutical
Expo (INTERPHEX) is an event
for professionals from the
pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical
manufacturing industries. Attendees
will have the opportunity to learn about
manufacturing solutions for processing
all dosage forms of life-enhancing drugs
through educational sessions, workshops,
exhibitions and networking. More than
12,000 industry professionals are expected
to attend.
INTERPHEX 2015 will be 30 percent
larger than last years event to accommodate
more technology, products and value-added
services. On the exhibition loor, more
than 600 vendors will feature the latest
pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical
manufacturing technologies. New to the
2015 show, the PDA Learning Center will
feature industry experts providing technical
education focused on manufacturing for
aging facilities.
For more information or to register,
visit interphex.com.

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


77

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78 EFFICIENCY MATTERS

5 Maintenance Factors that Help


Achieve Optimum Efficiency
Correct equipment selection and application
saved an aluminum producer $36,000.

By Mike Winkler
Motion Industries

T 1
he major focus of any The equipment must
industrial distributor be correct for the
should be maintenance. The application. In the middle of
distributors personnel work daily the night during the stress of a
with maintenance mechanics, breakdown, the maintenance
plant engineers, maintenance employee will do what he must to
managers and all those working get the equipment operational
to keep plants running. The work including using something other
of these key people aects the than the original part. Changes
overall eciency, reliability and of this nature are surprisingly parts and related labor, time and
longevity of their liquid transfer common. Even though changes are costs and may result in downtime.
process equipment and systems. made daily, they are not always To avoid this pitfall, users
These employees have often recorded, and best paperwork should nd out if the requirements
inherited the equipment, and their practices are not always followed. have changed since the initial
responsibility is to keep it working Distributors must rely on a users installation. They can check
day in and day out. While this may information to supply the correct items such as viscosity, pH
seem simple, maintenance must be product. If accurate records are not factor, temperature, product
approached from the perspective kept, the possibility of receiving being conveyed, available net
of the plant oornot just from the wrong product increases. For positive suction head (NPSH),
the chair of the design engineer. these reasons, keeping accurate type of supply, discharge pressure
The best designs are a combination records is critical. requirements and piping changes.
of thoughts from the technician to Many pumps are on their
the senior engineer.

Getting Started
second or third application. They
may be from a closed plant or a
discontinued process, and they
2 The efficiency of the
pumping system is
impacted by the piping design
The rst step to achieving optimum nd their way to the boneyard to layout. Answers to the following
eciency is to dene it. Is it simply be used at a later time for another questions and subsequent
energy savings? Or is it reliability, application. Repurposed pumps corrective action will help ensure
uptime, product longevity, reduced are used primarily because of their maximum eciency from the unit.
maintenance time and costs, and convenience; they are paid for and
product standardization? Eciency readily available. Before reusing Does the piping schematic allow
consists of all of these elements a pump in this manner, however, for the best eciency?
and more. users should question if it is, in Are the velocities within the
To realize optimal performance fact, the correct product for that recommended standards?
from the plant oor, all personnel specic application. Misapplied Has the number of Ls (elbows),
must understand ve key factors pumps typically require a Ts, Ys and miscellaneous
aecting eciency. signicant amount of replacement ttings been minimized?

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


79

Image 1. An example of an inlet eccentric reducer with


the taper to the bottom and a discharge concentric
reducer (Images courtesy of Motion Industries)

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


80 EFFICIENCY MATTERS

Are the valves correctly applied Are the ttings, valves, etc., ow instead of sizing the pump
and kept to a minimum? mounted no closer than the for the duty points?
Are the correct ttings being minimum distance from the
used (e.g., eccentric versus pump as required? For example, for the last
concentric reducers)? Is the pump located in the best question, machining the diameter
Is the piping in good condition? location to minimize the runs of the impeller or controlling the
Buildup of corrosion and wear can and all twists and turns? motor speed is the best solution in
result in higher resistance to ow. Are valves being used to control most cases.

HOW ONE PLANT SAVED THOUSANDS IN REPAIRS & REPLACEMENT

Correct equipment selection and application can provide an efficient and reliable pump and
system. In the following case, a distributors pump specialist assisted a user, a major producer of
extruded aluminum, with a solution that led to $36,000 in savings.

The Root of the Problem


The aluminum producer needed to solve the problem of shortened life of their 6x6 vertical pumps.
The pumps, used for an acid wash on their paint line, were lasting only six to eight months.
After that, volute and impeller failure would occur. A quick observation showed the problem. The
pump was not mounted deep enough in the tank to keep the liquid from vortexing and causing
cavitation to the pump.
Because of this, the 1 percent sulfuric acid the user was pumping was at a velocity far too high
for the depth of the bell housing of the pump. The fluid should have been moving at about 3.25
feet per second but was moving more than four times as fast at 14.76 feet per second. The lower
velocity would prevent the pump from vortexing at the pumps immersion depth. Immersing the
pump lower would have stopped the vortex and prevented inevitable failure immediately.
Lowering the pump, however, posed a problem. At the current velocity, the pump would need to be
immersed to 13.5 feet. The tank was only 44 inches deep.
Luckily, immersion depth was not the only way to correct the problem and prevent constant
maintenance issues. The pump was also incorrectly mounted, which was quickly corrected.
The distributors pump specialist determined a simple fix by placing a stainless steel plate
above the bell housing of the pump to act as a vortex breaker. This plate would correct both the
vortexing and the entire system. The specialist calculated the required size of the plate, the user
made it to his specifications, and the plate was immediately attached.

A Long-Lasting Solution
At one time, this plants $10,000 pumps needed repairs costing at least $2,000 every 30 to 45
days, with a complete replacement of the pump every six to eight months costing $10,000 to
$12,000. Since the problem was corrected with the distributors help, the pump has operated for
two years without further maintenance or repairsresulting in approximately $36,000 in savings
since implementation.

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


81

3 The pump must be in top


condition for maximum
efficiency. Many factors aect
Mike Winkler is the director of Mi Process Pumps for Motion Industries. His extensive
experience includes 20 years with Motion Industries and more than 30
years in industrial distribution, which included many years promoting
the eciency of the pump, such liquid transfer products and troubleshooting applications. Motion
as imbalance of the impeller, Industries is a wholly owned subsidiary of Genuine Parts Company.
incorrect size of impeller, coupling For more information, visit motionindustries.com.
misalignment, incorrect parts or
lubrication, and worn parts, which
could include bearings, casings,
wear rings, impellers and rotors.
One of the best ways to avoid
problems is to catch them early with
scheduled, preventive maintenance.

4 A properly sized motor in


new condition is essential.
Could the motor have been replaced
with a dierent one during a
breakdown? Has the motor lost
eciency? This is another example
of the importance of using the
correct equipment. Too much Tgukfgpvkcn Eqoogtekcn Owpkekrcn Kpfwuvtkcn
horsepower or too little horsepower
will result in ineciency.

"Eqpvtqn"Uqnwvkqp"Urgekcnkuvu
5 Monitoring the pump and
system is vital for long-
term success. Inlet and discharge ULG/Tjqodwu"urgekcnk|gu"kp"rwor"eqpvtqn"rcpgnu."
pressure gauges are inexpensive and ugrvke"vcpm"cnctou."cpf"hnqcv"uykvejgu"hqt"
can give a good indication of how
the system is performing. Users tgukfgpvkcn"cpf"nkijv"eqoogtekcn"crrnkecvkqpu0
should set the pointer on the inlet
gauge for the required NPSH and
on the outlet gauge for required
discharge pressure. Vibration
analysis is another great tool to yyy0ulgtjqodwu0eqo
track pump operation and eciency.
A good distributors specialist
looks beyond the symptom to dene
the problems root cause instead of
oering a quick x. When looking RTKOGZ"urgekcnk|gu"kp"ewuvqo"fgukipgf"eqpvtqn"
out for the users welfare, the u{uvgou"dwknv"vq"kpfkxkfwcn"urgekhkecvkqpu"hqt"
specialists focus should not be on owpkekrcn"cpf"kpfwuvtkcn"crrnkecvkqpu0"
selling but on troubleshooting and
providing corrective measures. This
approach will bring value to the
plant oor by reducing their overall
cost of ownership, suggesting
methods or designs to improve yyy0rtkogzeqpvtqnu0eqo
eciency and helping to ensure
productivity.

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


82 MAINTENANCE MINDERS

Turbine Error Identification Prevents Costly


Outages for Power Plants
An advanced software solution saved one user $350,000 in lost power production revenue.

By Brandon Perkins

T
urbine failure can result in thermocouples 3, 4 and 6.
in unwanted downtime The exhaust thermocouples
and costly repairs. Early were expected to have values
detection is key to keeping between 1,100 and 1,200 F. Actual
the plant running at optimum temperature measurements varied
eciency. Software monitoring as much as 100 degrees below
solutions provide the opportunity expected values.
to schedule repairs during Since this hardware was
planned plant outages. This type recently replaced, the end user was
of technology allows end users interested in further evaluating
to monitor turbine and overall this combustion issue with the
plant performance and proactively original equipment manufacturer
handle required maintenance. (OEM). The OEM investigated
and eventually replaced
Combustion Problem Solved at combustion nozzles 12 and 13
a Combined Cycle Power Plant during a subsequent planned
On March 6, a software monitoring maintenance outage.
solution detected an issue Finding this issue early helped
with three combustion turbine to ensure the end user did not
exhaust thermocouples during take a forced outage during its
a steady state run that was the summer run season. Th is end
turbines rst run after a hot user is under a long-term service Figure 1. Increases in actual (blue) versus expected (green)
gas path inspection. As this agreement so it was not liable power for combustion turbine power (top), actual exhaust
combustion turbine varied load for the replacement costs of the temperatures (second from top) and actual (blue) and
expected (green) values for exhaust temperatures (bottom
between 100 and 155 megawatts, combustion nozzles. The end three) (Graphics courtesy of GE Intelligent Platforms)
intermittent deviations appeared user estimated that, by detecting

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


83

The notification of this issue from the provider allowed the site to
take preventive action to clean the system before further increases
in the backpressure of the condenser occurred.

this issue early and preventing Sediment Identified on a notication of this issue from the
a problem in the summer peak Steam Turbine Condenser provider allowed the site to take
season, it was able to avoid more In the end of December, a software preventive action to clean the
than $350,000 in lost power detected an increase in steam system before further increases in
production revenue. turbine condenser backpressure, the backpressure of the condenser
from a normal operational pressure occurred. The backpressure
of approximately 3 inches returned to model predictions
of mercury (inHg) (or 10.1 after maintenance was performed.
kilopascals (kPa)) to values If this preventive measure had
as high as 6 inHg (or 20.3 not been taken, backpressure
kPa). The software provider could have continued to increase,
notied the end user and resulting in a need to shut down
began tracking the issue on the unit. Th is could cause a loss
regularly scheduled calls. of production and increased
The plant discovered maintenance costs.
that the cooling tower had
a chemistry upset. The Brandon Perkins is the product
upset deposited a light marketing manager for Industrial
lm of sediment on the Data Intelligence at GE Intelligent
condenser tubes. After Platforms. He believes that data
a cleaning solution was is the fuel of the 21st century and
introduced into the cooling that the Industrial Internet will
system in mid-January, the transform industries and economies
condenser back pressure by improving productivity,
returned to normal. environmental
Figure 2. These charts include the condenser vacuum measurements, Increases in the stewardship and
which changed from about 22.7 inHg (or 76.9 kPa) to as low as condenser backpressure worker safety around
about 6 inHg (or 66.8 kPa). The bottom chart shows the condenser the globe. He may be
backpressure averages. Unusual readings started in late December and reduced eciency in
returned to normal after cleaning in January. the condenser, leading reached at
to a loss in revenue. The brandon.perkins@ge.com.

pCircle
u mpsa 124 on card
ndsyst or visit
ems.c om psfreeinfo.com.
| Ma rc h 2015
84 MOTORS & DRIVES

Prepare for the New DOE Electric Motor Efficiency Rule


The Integral Horsepower Motor Rule will take effect June 1, 2016.

By John Malinowski
Baldor Electric Company

T
he U.S. Department of adopted as a direct and nal rule. Extended Industry Standard
Energy (DOE) is empowered The Motor Coalition proposed at Architecture (EISA) rules were
by congress to review the rst DOE meeting that the also closed.
eciency regulations for covered eciency levels be maintained at To accept the expanded scope,
products every ve years. Electric premium eciency level (NEMA the DOE was required to issue a
motor manufacturers are currently Standard MG 1-2011, Table nal rule on how all these motor
operating under the Energy 12-12, 20A and 20B) for 1- to congurations could be tested.
Independence and Security Act 500-horsepower (HP) motors Th is rule was released in late
of 2007, which went into eect rather than raising the level 2013. The nal rule for integral
in December 2010. Around this above premium eciency. Th is HP motors was published in the
time, the DOE started to review 12-12 level is equivalent to IE3 Federal Register on May 29, 2014,
the regulation to see if raising the (premium eciency) as de ned and will take eect June 1, 2016.
levels above premium eciency in International Electrotechnical
was warranted. Commission (IEC) Standard Rule Comparison
Motor manufacturers that are 60034-30. Furthermore, the The voltage range now includes all
members of the National Electrical proposal recommended that three-phase, 60-hertz (Hz) designs,
Manufacturers Association most de nite-purpose and 600 volts and less. Additionally,
(NEMA) discussed the potential special-purpose motors would be motors with special shafts and
rulemaking and decided to included along with options that mountings along with 56-frame
collaborate with energy eciency previously exempted motors from enclosed motors will now be covered
advocacy groups and form a coverage. During this process, at premium eciency levels. Partial
coalition to make a proposal to some loopholes from the previous motors built without a drive endplate
the DOE that might be easily Energy Policy Act of 2005 and are also covered. Both NEMA and

Table 1. Differences between EISA and the new Integral Horsepower Motor Rule (Courtesy of the author)
Motor Type EISA Integral Horsepower Motor Rule
1 to 200 HP Subtype I Premium Efficient Premium Efficient
NEMA MG 1, Table 12-12 NEMA MG 1, Table 12-12

1 to 200 HP Subtype II Energy Efficient Premium Efficient


NEMA MG 1, Table 12-11 NEMA MG 1, Table 12-12

201 to 500 HP Energy Efficient Premium Efficient


NEMA MG 1, Table 12-11 NEMA MG 1, Table 12-12,
20-A & 20-B
56-Frame Enclosed Exempt Premium Efficient
NEMA MG 1, Table 12-12
Custom Configurations Exempt Premium Efficient
NEMA MG 1, Table 12-12
1 to 200 HP Fire Pump Motors Energy Efficient Energy Efficient
NEMA MG 1, Table 12-11 NEMA MG 1, Table 12-11

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


85

IEC motor designs are included, as are motors mounted Is rated for continuous duty (MG 1) operation or
to equipment imported to the U.S. for use here. for duty-type S1 (IEC)
For the pump industry, close-coupled pump Contains a squirrel-cage (MG 1) or cage (IEC) rotor
motors are categorized in the 1 to 200 HP Subpart Operates on polyphase alternating current (AC)
II category. In the new rule, they change from an 60-Hz sinusoidal line power
energy ecient level (NEMA MG 1-2011, Table Has two-, four-, six- or eight-pole conguration
12-11) to premium eciency (Table 12-12). Hollow- Is rated 600 volts or less
shaft pump motors and medium- and high-thrust Has a three- or four-digit NEMA frame size (or
vertical pump motors are now included at the IEC metric equivalent), including those designs
premium eciency level as well. between two consecutive NEMA frame sizes (or
More ecient premium motors use additional IEC metric equivalent) or an enclosed 56 NEMA
active material (copper and electrical steel) and frame size (or IEC metric equivalent)
higher grade electrical steel. These materials may Has no more than 500 HP but greater than or
mean a price increase over energy-ecient motors. equal to 1 HP (or kilowatt equivalent)
Table 1 shows the dierences between the EISA Meets all the performance requirements of a
and the new Integral Horsepower Motor Rule. NEMA design A, B or C electric motor or an IEC
design N or H electric motor
Motor Specifications
The DOE dened a motor covered under the new rule With the new Integral Horsepower Rule, many motor
by nine attributes: congurations were upgraded to premium eciency.
Is a single speed motor These include:

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


86 MOTORS & DRIVES

NEMA Design A motors from 201 to 500 HP capacitor-start/induction-run and capacitor-start/


Electric motors with moisture-resistant windings, capacitor-run along with three-phase induction
sealed or encapsulated windings motors are included at specic DOE average eciency
Partial electric motors levels. However, the following congurations are not
Totally-enclosed non-ventilated (TENV) electric included:
motors Single-phase ODP motors (may be covered by Small
Immersible electric motors Motor Rule)
Integral or non-integral brake electric Single-phase enclosed motors
U-frame motors Direct current motors
Design C motors Two digit frames (42 48) (may be covered by
IEC 100 frame, NEMA 66 frame Small Motor Rule)
Electric motors with non-standard endplates or 56 frame ODP (may be covered by Small Motor
anges Rule)
Electric motors with non-standard base or Multi-speed motors
mounting feet Medium voltage motors
Footless motors (C-face or D-ange less base) Totally enclosed, air over or open air-over motors
Electric motors with special shafts Submersible motors
Close-coupled pump motors Water-cooled motors
56J Jet pump motors (enclosed) Intermittent duty motors (S2-S8)
Vertical, hollow-shaft electric motors Stator-rotor sets
Vertical, medium- and high-thrust, solid-shaft Design-D motors
electric motors Motors designed for inverter power (MG 1, Part
Electric motors with sleeve bearings 31) with no line start
Electric motors with thrust bearings Synchronous AC motors
Pre-NEMA frame motors Permanent-magnet rotor AC motors
Arbor saw motors Servo motors

Even with these added motor congurations, many These DOE integral HP motor regulations apply to
motors are not covered under this rule. Some that motors manufactured for use in the U.S. Motors built
include only general purpose NEMA frames 42, 48 before June 1, 2016, may still be used. No restrictions
and 56 with open drip-proof (ODP) enclosures are were set limiting the repair or rewind of older motors
covered by the 2010 Small Motor Rule. Single-phase below these eciency levels.

SMALL MOTOR RULE EFFECTIVE MARCH 2015


In 2010, the U.S. DOE published a final rule covering small electric motors. By definition,
these are motors in the - to 3-HP range in NEMA frames 42, 48 and 56. Single-phase capaci-
tor-start/induction-run and capacitor-start/capacitor-run designs and three-phase AC induc-
tion motors are covered, but only in ODP enclosures. Only general purpose designs are covered.
Equivalent frame IEC motors are also included, but ODP IEC motor designs in these sizes are not
commonly available.
For the pump industry, this means only ODP base-mounted motors, with and without C-face or
flange or footless C-face or flange motors, are covered. Motors designed for specific applications
as defined in NEMA MG 1, Part 18 covering definite-purpose and special-purpose motors are not
covered by the rule. This means 56J style pump motors are exempt.
Efficiencies are defined by the DOE as average efficiency, not the usual NEMA nominal levels.
The rule mandates that motor manufacturers may not produce non-compliant motors after March
9, 2015. This also applies to motors installed on equipment being imported to the U.S.

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


87

OEMs and end users should contact their motor References


suppliers and prepare a plan to convert their motors 1. 10 CFR Part 431 Energy Conservation Program: Energy
Conservation Standards for Commercial and Industrial Electric
to premium ecient designs if they are not already Motors; Final Rule, Federal Register, Vol. 79, No. 103, Thursday,
being used. Note that the performance of more May 29, 2014
ecient motors may be slightly dierent because 2. NEMA Standards Publication MG1-2014, Motors and
they have less slip and operate at a higher speed. Generators, National Electrical Manufacturers Association, 1300
Impeller designs may need trimming to prevent N 17th Street, Suite
1752, Roslyn, VA, For more information on motor
overloading the motor from increased ow. December 2014 and pump efficiency, visit
pumpsandsystems.com

John Malinowski is the senior manager of industry affairs at Baldor Electric Company, a member of the ABB Group, in
Fort Smith, Arkansas. He is past chairman of NEMA 1MG Motor & Generator Section and familiar with collaborating with
CEMEP and ABB IEC colleagues on global motor standards. Malinowski is a senior member of the Institute of Electrical
and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) and a member at large on the IEEE Industry Application Society Executive Board.
He serves on the IEEE Pulp & Paper Industry Committee and is active with IEEE Petroleum and Chemical Industry
Committee having recently rotated out of the chair of the Chemical Subcommittee. He has served on several IEEE
standards working groups, including several revisions of IEEE 841 and IEEE 303. He also served on the
American Petroleum Institute (API) 541 and API 547 working groups. Malinowski has published several
IEEE papers on efficiency standards, motor and drive efficiency, maintenance, and other applications. He
acts as company advocate with government agencies, professional associations and industry standards
committees. He also serves as a member of the Pumps & Systems Editorial Advisory Board.
Malinowski may be reached at john.malinowski@baldor.abb.com.

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


88 SEALING SENSE

Updates to Industry Standards Offer New


Options for Fugitive Emissions Testing
End users should be aware of the latest standards revisions to employ the most up-to-date
valve sealing practices.

By Philip Mahoney
FSA member

S
tandards groups in the qualification procedures for type are taken, and the bag has a
U.S. and abroad have been testing of valves). The second edition dened/conrmed volume.
actively advocating for has reportedly been approved and The suck-through method

compression packing used in valve is expected to be released in the essentially bags the valve with
stem sealing. Some of the more rst quarter of 2015. a vent of a prescribed length
relevant provisions and changes to allow outside air into the
are outlined in this article. Industrial Valve Standard bag to prevent collapse. Flow
The working group (WG 10) The standard has undergone rates of the probe are known,
for International Organization notable changes and updates, and the external air helium
for Standardizations (ISO) including: levels can be determined prior
ISO/TC 153/SC 1, which covers to the test.
industrial valvesincluding The ushing method has been Units for leakage rates at the
design, materials, manufacturing, removed from the standard and packing dened in Table 1 of
testing and inspectionhas been replaced with two new methods the standard have been revised
working on the second edition of for use with helium test gas. to include a mass ow or
ISO 15848-1 (Industrial valves Accumulation (based volumetric ow per millimeter
Measurement, test and qualification on EN13185) is a bagging of stem diameter, making it
procedures for fugitive emissions method with two specic more convenient to match the
Part 1: Classification system and times at which measurements typical units displayed by the
helium mass spectrometers
used for this test.
Class AH (A for the highest
sealing level and H for helium
testing gas) leakage has
been revised to be 1 x 10 -5
rather than 1 x 10 -6 (using
the informational rate of
milligrams per second per
meter of stem perimeter). At
least one test laboratory has
indicated that the 1 x 10 -6
leakage class has never been
achieved with compression
packing in rising stem valves,
though some could meet the
new revised Class A criteria.
Image 1. Helium mass spectrometer
Class AH is typically achieved
(Images and graphics courtesy of FSA) with bellows seals or equivalent

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


89

Figure 1. API 622 Emission capturing set-up

stem packing sealing systems


for quarter-turn valves.
Methane is now included as
a test gas, and the leakage
limits are specied in parts per
million (ppm): Class AM 50
ppm, Class BM 100 ppm and
Class CM 500 ppm (A, B and C
are for the sealing level, and M
is for methane test gas).
It was clearly noted that no

correlation exists between API 622 API RP-621


ppm/methane leakage classes API 622, Type Testing Of Process API RP-621- Reconditioning of
and mass leak rates of helium Valve Packing For Fugitive Emissions, Metallic Gate, Globe and Check
leakage classes. For this Second Edition, expires in October Valves, Third Edition, is actively
reason, a packing meeting 2016, but the working group has being revised. This standard
class BH is not necessarily the convened to get a head start on this denes guidelines for the
same as a packing meeting revision. First, the addition of a reconditioning of valve types that
class BM. The requestor test xture for inch cross section are being serviced for continued
species using this test packing to simulate packing sizes use in an end users facility. The
method prior to the test. typical for forged valves is under new revision will have a complete
In the on-o valve test, the review. The current edition of the addendum that denes the
CO1 cycles have been reduced standard denes a test xture for requirements for low emissions
from 500 stem cycles and three inch packing, which is typical service, noting that valves in these
thermal cycles to 205 stem of cast valves. This change would services are more dicult to seal
cycles and two thermal cycles. ensure that functionality of the and, therefore, have more stringent
packing being tested extends to requirements than those for other
The two new methods give test multiple valve and packing sizes. services (i.e. steam).
facilities and end users other Also, the corrosion test portion of In addition to these updates, API
options to better suit their needs. the standard is being reviewed for 589 Fire Test for Evaluation of Valve
These methods also may be easier potential changes that would make Stem Packing, Second Edition was
to set up and run with dierent the test xture less complicated last updated on July 1, 1998. The
valve types. With the addition of and reduce the cycle time. standard is no longer active in API,
methane and sning detection Currently, the test can take six to so no active committee regularly
methods, some end users will eight weeks. reviews it. Though the standard can
likely consider the ISO standard still be found for sale online, it is
as an acceptable test method per API 641 considered withdrawn.
the Environmental Protection API 641, Type Testing of Quarter-
Agencys denition of good turn Valves for Fugitive Emissions, Next Month: What are the
engineering practice for fugitive is a new standard currently in important considerations relating
emissions testing of valves. This isdevelopment. This standard to installation tolerances when
particularly the case with control will dene a valve type test using rubber expansion joints?
valves for which there is no currentsimilar to API 624, Type Testing
American Petroleum Institute of Rising Stem Valves Equipped We invite your suggestions for article topics as
(API) test method. with Graphite Packing for Fugitive well as questions on sealing issues so we can
better respond to the needs of the industry.
Emissions, First Edition. The 641 Please direct suggestions and questions to
Updates to Other Standards standard will likely include both sealingsensequestions@fluidsealing.com.
In the U.S., API standards polytetrauoroethylene and
committees are actively working on graphite-based packing materials.
standards (new or existing) related Exact details of the test conditions
to fugitive emissions in valves. are still being developed.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


90 HI PUMP FAQS

Recommendations for Rotary Pumps,


Diaphragm Pumps and VFDs
By Hydraulic Institute

Can rotary type pumps controlled. The size must be related several materials is often useful
be used to pump slurries? to porting, rotor cavity size, to compare solids and select pump
If so, should users be conguration and interaction, and materials (see Figure 3.3.16.1.4).
aware of any special operating clearance. Critical factors governing a
precautions? The hardness of solids greatly system handling a watery slurry,
inuences the wear rate of the in which the solids have a much
Rotary pumps may be used rotary pump because of close higher specic gravity than the
to transfer slurries when the relative motion of surfaces at the carrier liquid, are the settling
application dictates. Hard-particle rotor tip or ank. The range of rate and characteristics. The
slurries can cause abrasive wear hardness is from soft solids, such settling rate measures how quickly
to eciency-critical components as polymer chains of lubricating solids will fall out of suspension in
in rotary pumps, which reduces quality, to brous products that a slurry.
volumetric and mechanical are usually soft but may carry Coarse solids with high settling
eciency. Users must carefully hard particles, to very hard, rates that are carried in a rotary
select and apply rotary-type pumps irregular particles such as sand and pump require precautions
in slurry service. carbon. Carbon is primarily soft, to prevent bridging, draining
The concentration of solids but the aggregate carries lumps and squeeze-out.
usually has the greatest eect on with hardness approaching that Because speed directly aects
uid characteristics of the mixture. of silicon carbide. A qualitative product shear and the relative
A uid containing only a trace to scale listing the hardness of velocity of solids to the housing
3 percent by weight of ne sand
content in crude oil, for example, Figure 3.3.16.1.4. Materials hardness (Courtesy of Hydraulic Institute)
would not be considered a slurry. A
range of 5 to 15 percent by weight
slurry of paper stock, however, goes
through three stages of uidity or
shear characteristics, while high
concentrations of ner solids can
change watery carrier liquid to
viscouseven thixotropicuid.
The size and shape of the solids
in a slurry normally determine
whether a particular rotary pump
conguration and/or cavity, or
chamber size, can be used for
the slurry in question. Typically,
the cavity must be greater than
particle size.
In some pumps, the rotor
conguration will accept larger
particles as long as the size,
distribution and shape are

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


91

and rotor, pump speeds should delayed check valve seating and the torque decreases with the
always be reduced well below those reverse liquid ow. square of the speed, and the power
for nonabrasive uid applications, End users should carefully decreases by the cube of the speed.
regardless of the type of rotary determine the nature of the liquid When selecting a VFD for a
pump used for abrasive slurries. being pumped. Non-Newtonian rotodynamic pump application,
For more information on this or shear-sensitive liquids may many manufacturers recommend
subject, see the Hydraulic Institute have pumping characteristics a variable torque or standard-
Standard ANSI/HI 3.1-3.5 Rotary unrelated to those of Newtonian duty-rated VFD. This labeling
Pumps for Nomenclature, Definitions, liquids with similar quiescent is commonly referenced for the
Application and Operation. viscosity. Apparent viscosity overload capacity of the drive. As
for an application using a non- always, discuss the application,
Newtonian liquid can be adjusted installation and its nuances with
How is the performance of based on ow rate conditions for the drive representative, as the
air-operated diaphragm the application by consulting the installation or application may
pumps affected by the material manufacturers shear raterequire a drive outside the
viscosity and specific versus shear stress diagram for the
typical one utilized in variable
gravity of the liquid? specic material. torque service.
For more information on air- With a constant torque
A pump manufacturers operated pumps, see the Hydraulic application, the torque is not
published data is normally based Institute Standard ANSI/HI dependent on speed. Constant
on testing with water. The supplied 10.1-10.5 Air-Operated Pumps torque applications include positive
air pressure, pump ow rate, net for Nomenclature, Definitions, displacement pumps, conveyors,
positive inlet pressure (NPIP)/ Application and Operation. belt presses, screws and augers.
net positive suction head (NPSH) Although the torque remains
and the pumping system determine constant as the speed increases, the
the discharge pressure for a given Can I use the same type of power changes linearly with speed.
air-operated diaphragm/ variable frequency drive When selecting a VFD for a
bellows pump. (VFD) for a rotodynamic constant torque application, VFD
Liquids with viscosity below 500 pump and a positive manufacturers will recommend a
centipoise do not usually aect displacement pump? drive specic to that application.
manufacturers published pump Contact your drive representative
performance data. As viscosity Rotodynamic pumps and with the specics of your constant
increases above this value, the positive displacement pumps have torque application.
possibility of liquid cavitation dierent torque characteristics as For more information on
increases, and drops in pressure speed is varied. The VFD selected variable frequency drives, see the
across pump components must supply sucient current to Hydraulic Institute Guidebook
particularly the suction check the motor so the motor can produce Variable Frequency Drives: Guidelines
valvesraise the required NPIP/ the required torque throughout its for Application, Installation and
NPSH signicantly. operating range. Troubleshooting.
Specic gravity can also aect With a variable torque load,
pump suction performance. A the torque loading is a function
liquid with a high specic gravity of speed. This type of load HI Pump FAQs is produced by the
will reduce the manufacturers requires less torque at lower Hydraulic Institute as a service to
published data on suction-lift speeds than constant torque pump users, contractors, distributors,
capabilities. loads. Rotodynamic pumps, fans reps and OEMs. For more information,
Viscous liquids tend to impede and certain blowers (consult the visit pumps.org.
ecient check valve operation, blower manufacturer) are common
which can result in a reduced ow applications that have a variable
rate. This condition is caused by torque load. As the speed decreases,

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


92 PRACTICE & OPERATIONS

Tips for Using Pulsation Dampeners


in Dosing or Volumetric Pump Systems
Understanding the equipments operation capabilities and how to calculate the
required size is critical.

Second of Three Parts

By Manuel Carcar-Gimeno
HIDRACAR, S.A.

P
umps with one, two or three the maximum instantaneous ow of the circuits pressure, which
pistons and crankshaft of the pump is 2.8 times more than provides a variety of associated
movement are the most its medium ow. In some cases, improvements. Pressure in a
common types of pumps. These the reduction of the pipe diameter hydraulic circuit is basically a
are also the pump types that most alone compensates for the cost of function of the ow. As the ow
need pulsation dampeners. Figure the dampener. The main advantage varies, the pressure varies.
1 shows the instantaneous ow of a dampener is the stabilization The rst curve in Figure 1 also
during a complete crankshaft
revolution for each type of piston Figure 1. Pulsation dampeners store excess volume over the mean flow line of the total piston head
pump. Each type of pump has the during the piston impulse stroke. (Graphics courtesy of Hidracar, S.A.)
same piston dimension (diameter
x stroke).
Figure 1 shows how a pulsation
dampener works. The rst curve
represents a single-piston pump.
The use of a dampener is important
for this type of pump, otherwise
no liquid ow is delivered during
half of the revolution of the pump
crankshaft. If the pump does not
include a dampener, the diameter
of the pipe must be calculated for
the maximum instantaneous ow,
which occurs in the middle of the
piston stroke when the piston
speed is also at its maximum. The
ow curve is a sinusoid.
From the point where a
dampener is mounted, the
maximum ow supplied to the
circuit is close to the mean ow of
the pump. This makes it possible
to reduce the pipe diameter by
approximately 40 percent, because

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


93

demonstrates that the Figure 2. The flow and pressure fluctiuation of a circuit with a dampener installed
dampener stores excess
volume over the mean ow
line of the total piston head
during the piston impulse
stroke. The dampener then
returns this volume (1) back
into the circuit during the
piston suction stroke. In this
type of pump, the volume
stored by the dampener is
half of the pump head or
capacity per revolution.
Analyzing all three curves
shows that as the number
of pistons increases, the
mean ow gets closer to
the maximum ow, and the
liquid volume 1 stored by
When a gas is compressed, its y-axis (time) represents a volume
the dampener is correspondingly
pressure increases; when its volume that, in the case of a single-piston
reduced. As a result, the required
expands, its pressure decreases. pump, is equal to the pump
size of the dampener also
When a dampener is installed by capacity per stroke or revolution.
decreases. This is easy to see when
the outlet of a piston pump, the
all the pistons in the three pumps
pressure of the liquid in the circuit Flow x Time = Volume
have the same diameter, stroke and
will uctuate according to the
number of revolutions per minute.
volume of gas inside the dampener. In all hydraulic circuits, the
The more pistons a pump has,
This pressure variability, a +/- pressure at the pump outlet port
the lower the dampener size
percentage of pressure, will be is a function of the ow, pipe
required and the smaller both
dened by the technical designer length and diameter, viscosity
the pipe section and the port
of the circuit or by nal end user of the pumped liquid, internal
connection between the dampener
requirements. pipe surface roughness and
and the circuit can be, assuming
The lower curve in Figure 2 geometric height. If the ow
the pumps provide the same ow
shows the pressure uctuation of a remains constant, the pressure
independently of the number of
circuit with a dampener installed. needed to pump the liquid will
cylinders. Equations 1, 2 and 3
This curve relates to the pump also be constant as long as no
show the relationship between v
ow variation curve. A dampener change occurs in ow resistance.
and the capacity per head (C) for a
stores the volume of liquid above This type of change can be caused
one-, two- and three-piston pump,
the pump mean ow. For this by sedimentation on lters, for
respectively. These are practical
reason, the minimum value of the example. This constant working
values for the calculation of
pressure curve (P1) must coincide pressure is known as Pt. When
dampener size.
with the rst crossing point of the designing a circuit, the mean ow
C instantaneous ow curve with and the opposing resistances are
v = Equation 1 the line of the mean ow. The needed to calculate Pt.
2
maximum value of the pressure On one side, the dampener
C curve (P2) must coincide with the appears to stabilize the ow and
v = Equation 2 second crossing point, the moment pressure, but the pressure actually
6
when all v has been introduced moves from P1 to P2. To stabilize
C inside the dampener. the ow, the dampener needs to
v = Equation 3 The area between the compress and expand a volume of
15
instantaneous ow curve and the gas. These pressure variations in

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


94 PRACTICE & OPERATIONS

+/- percentage of Pt regulate the the pump and the dampener the dynamic pressure reading.
values accepted in the circuit. connection must be calculated Derivation mounting corresponds
This pressure uctuation can for the pump maximum to the static pressure. This assumes
be reduced to very small values instantaneous ow. that the uid circulates in a
by increasing the volume of the The remaining pipe section of laminar regime.
dampener. P1 and P2 are the the circuit must be calculated If the dampener is mounted
percentage values of Pt, which for the mean ow. in derivation and far from the
are pressure variations that pump outlet, its eciency will
the end user must determine. Figure 4 illustrates many of the be signicantly reduced. If it is
Manufacturers recommend that principles discussed in this article. also installed in a pipe section
these variations are at least +/- 2 : Pipe section for the mean ow with a smaller diameter than the
percent, because the environmental : Small length of pipe section for main circuit pipe, the eect of the
temperature conditions will likely the maximum instantaneous dampener will be negligible.
modify the theoretical calculation. ow The pulsation dampener
Q: Maximum instantaneous ow admission duct must be wider than
Mounting Suggestions q: Mean ow its connection port. Any reduction
for Maximum Dampener L: Distance between pump and in the diameter when attached to
Efficiency dampener, as short as possible low pressure circuits will greatly
The single-piston pump has the reduce the performance and
highest maximum instantaneous Fluid mechanics principles eciency of the dampener.
ow/mean ow ratio and the can show the dierence between
highest value for v, which is the in-line and derivation mounting to Figure 4. A visual of the recommended system
liquid entering and exiting the a circuit and the higher eciency
dampener each cycle. The following of in-line mounting. The ow
examples and recommendations of a liquid inside a pipe follows
will focus on single-piston pumps. dierent speed lines. The velocity
Figure 3 shows the proper is higher in the center of the pump,
mounting of a pulsation dampener. while it is nearly zero close to the
The following recommendations pipe inner wall (see Figure 5). If the
should be observed: mean liquid velocity increases, the
The dampener must be mounted dierence between the dynamic
with its axis aligned with the pressure (measured in the liquid
axis of the pump outlet. movement direction) and the static
The distance between the pump pressure (measured perpendicular
outlet port and the dampener to the liquid movement direction)
port connection must be as also increases.
short as possible. Figure 5 reects this concept.
The pipe section between In-line mounting corresponds to

Figure 3. Proper mounting of a pulsation dampener

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


95

Figure 5. The velocity is higher in the center of the pump but nearly zero near the pipes inner wall.
Manuel Carcar-Gimeno graduated
in mechanical technical engineering
at the Tarrasa Industrial School and
the Anderlecht Technical School
(Brussels). In 1974, after working as a
technical salesperson for the Mercier-
Greer Group, he founded HIDRACAR,
S.A., initially as an importer of oleo-
pneumatic accumulators. Years later,
the company began the design and
manufacturing of oleo-pneumatic
accumulators and other derived
products, such as oleo-hydraulic
starters, oleo-pneumatic shock
absorbers and suspension cylinders,
and various pulsation
dampeners. For more
information, visit
pulsation-dampers-
hidracar.com.

REGISTER TODAY!

APRIL 21-23, 2015 | JAVITS CENTER, NYC


MORE Technology On Display- MORE Leading Companies Exhibiting Cutting Edge Technologies, Products,
and Value-Added Services
MORE FREE Technical Education via PDA and our Six Innovation Stages...at No Additional Cost to Badge Attendees
MORE Direct Access to the Largest, Most Innovative Biologics and Pharmaceutical Manufacturing Technologies
NEW for 2015: INTERPHEX LIVE! Our Live Studio Featuring Industry SMEs Sharing State-of-the-Art Technical Expertise
NEW for 2015! Stop by and see INTERPHEX Exhibitor Awards Winners

Images courtesy of INTERPHEX, SKAN, LB Bohle and NJM Packaging

INTERPHEX.COM/RegisterToday

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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


96 PRODUCTS

Solids
PumpMeasurement
Control & Alarm Panel Couplings

See Water Inc.s SIM-A pump Kurt Hydraulics announces its


control and alarm panels will new Push-On Hose and Push-Loc
warn of high liquid levels Hose Couplings for low pressure
and control a 120/208/240V applications. The hose operates
single phase pump or a in temperature ranges from -20 F
208/240/2\480V three phase to +180 F. Designed to integrate
pump in dewatering, sewage with Kurt Hydraulic hose, the Push-Loc couplings are
and wastewater pumping precision machined of corrosion resistant brass. Kurt
applications. The simplex Hydraulics Push-Loc hose couplings are available in
panels include integrated 22 different types and sizes. Applications for Kurt
electronic pump control and Hydraulics new Push-On hose and Push-Loc couplings
alarm circuitry, an IEC motor contactor and three include paint spraying systems and similar industrial
floats: pump on, pump off and high liquid alarm. equipment and maintenance systems requiring fast,
Circle 205 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com push-on hose assembly.
Circle 202 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Grinder Pump Corrosion-Resistant Butterfly Valves


Zoeller offers the Shark Model As a complement to its
840, a 2-horsepower grinder pump complete line of fiberglass
for residential and commercial centrifugal pumps, Fybroc
wastewater applications. The units offers a new line of non-
stainless steel cutter works with metallic, corrosion-resistant
a rotational shearing action that butterfly valves. Ideal
changes direction each time the for handling corrosives,
pump activates. The pump is cast- seawater, solvents and other
iron and includes a powder-coated difficult liquids, the standard
epoxy finish. The Shark Model 840 model valve (1.5 inches to 12
contains an oil-fi lled, hermetically inches/40 millimeters to 300 millimeters) has a black
sealed motor with Class F polypropylene body, a polyvinylidene fluoride disc
insulation. Preassembled systems are available. and a fluorocarbon (Viton) seat for superior chemical
Circle 201 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com. resistance and temperature capability.
Circle 204 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Intelligent Pump Drive Submersible Explosion-Proof Pumps


Yaskawa America, Inc., BJM Pumps now offers the new XP-
released the iQpump Micro KZN heavy-duty submersible explosion
intelligent pump drive, which proof pumps. The XP-KZN pumps
serves as an extension of the are specifically designed for tough
iQpump1000 drive technology. conditions where explosion-proof,
The iQpump Micro drive provides factory mutual, (Class I, Division 1,
microdrive control for variable- Group C & D) materials are needed.
torque pump loads through 25 The XP-KZN features a top discharge,
horsepower. iQpump Micro is available in National slim-line design with agitator to
Electrical Manufacturers Association (NEMA) 1 and suspend heavy slurries containing
NEMA-4X rated models. NEMA 3R Configured Packages coal, ash, sand, gravel or other abrasive materials. The
are also available. Yaskawas integrated pump-specific XP-KZN is protected by Class H motor insulation and built
software allows for a wide range of pumping applications. in amperage and temperature overload protection. It has
Circle 203 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com. flows up to 665 gpm and head up to 61 feet.
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M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


THE GIFT OF
C L E A N WAT E R

COMING IN MAY TO

This year, Pumps & Systems proudly continues to tell the


stories of companies that help bring clean water to those
who need it around the world.
Pumps & Systems will be on the ground reporting from
Malawi, Africa, with exclusive coverage of innovative
deep-well pumping technology.
Follow the story on Twitter @PumpsSystemsMag and
@AmeliaMessamore and on Facebook (/pumpssystems).

LEARN HOW YOU CAN HELP


pumpsandsystems.com/giftofcleanwater
HAVE A STORY TO TELL
about providing clean water to those who need it?
Email Amelia at amessamore@cahabamedia.com
p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015
98 PRODUCTS

Shaft Alignment Medium-Voltage Drives


Ludeca now ofers the Rotalign Eaton now ofers the new
Ultra, an intelligent system Eaton SC9000TM EP medium-
for machinery alignment. voltage drives. hese drives
It features Sensalign, an are engineered for global
intelligent sensor for precision oil and gas, mining, utility
and accuracy. Rotalign Ultra and water, and wastewater
provides a wireless laser shaft applications. he power
alignment in three steps: enter pole inverter with heat pipe
machine dimensions, sweep technology provides a high
shafts less than a quarter turn power density in a compact
from any starting position, footprint, while enabling the
and view results for coupling and feet graphically. SC9000 EP drive to withstand
he Rotalign Ultra ofers machine train aligment harsh environmental conditions. he SC9000 EP
of up to 14 machines in the advanced system and 6 drives meet the Institute of Electrical and Electronics
machines in the lite system. he Rotalign Ultra Move Engineers (IEEE) 519 guideline for harmonic control
Simulator allows the user to simulate and experiment and reactive compensation of static power converters,
with diferent corrective solutions when the suggested Underwriters Laboratories (UL) 347 for medium-
corrections are impractical or impossible. A display voltage power conversion equipment and Canadian
software for training large groups is included. Underwriters Laboratories (cUL) standards.
Circle 207 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com. Circle 208 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

To have a product considered for our Products section, please send the information to Amy Cash, acash@cahabamedia.com.

NEW: Rotodynamic Pumps


- Guidelines for Dynamics of
Comprehensive Pumping Machinery
Industry Coverage
Available now in the new
Positive Displacement Pumps
Centrifugal Pumps Hydraulic Institute eStore
Specialty & Other Pumps
Industrial Valves
Pneumatic & Hydraulic Valves This new standard:
Industrial Automation & Process Control Describes (3) types and levels of dynamic analysis for
Electric Motors & Drives pumps and pump trains.
Actuators
Compressors
Describes mathematical means to calculate the first
Custom Research
rotor lateral, rotor torsional, and structural read critical
White Papers
frequencies within Level 1 analysis.

Frost & Sullivan evaluates and implements Helps the end user avoid costly reliability problems
effective growth strategies. We employ 50 related to resonance of the rotor system and structure.
years of experience in partnering with Global
1000 companies, emerging businesses and
the investment community from more than PURCHASE NOW:
40 offices on six continents.
eStore.Pumps.org
Visit us at www.frost.com
For more information, contact Liz Clark
at 210.477.8483 or liz.clark@ frost.com

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M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


99
TAKE THE SURVEY

THE EFFECT
OF GLOBAL Expenditure
(CAPEX)
FORCES ON plans for 2015

PUMP USERS
ATTITUDES Emerging technology
and equipment
upgrades

S
F
of global trends

Frost & Sullivan and Pumps & Systems magazine are partnering to discover how pump users
I
will be published as a series in Pumps & Systems, authored by the research analysts at global
F S A

bit.ly/pumpsurvey
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Connect with Frost & Sullivan and Pumps & Systems


J

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


100 PUMP USERS MARKETPLACE

Advertisers
Advertiser Name Page RS# Advertiser Name Page RS#
FREE PRODUCT INFORMATION
Visit www.psfreeinfo.com to request more
information from these advertisers.

Advanced Engineered Pump, Inc. .100 158 Meltric Corporation . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 163
All-Flo Pump Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 118 NETZCH Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 164
Almatec, Part of Pinnacle-Flo, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 149
Pump Solutions Group . . . . . . . . . .15 119 PPC Mechanical Seals. . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 132
Automationdirect.com . . . . . . . . . . . . .19 101 Ruthman Companies . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 150
Badger Meter, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 102
Bal Seal Engineering, Inc. . . . . . . . . .103 159
Scenic Precise Element, Inc. . . . . . . .102
Schenck Trebel Corp . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 134
165
Solve
Baldor Electric Company . . . . . . . . . . .33 103 SEEPEX. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .31 137
dry start
Best Pumpworks/Pumpworks 610 . .56 133 SEPCO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .43 138 problems with
BJM Pumps. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71
BLACOH Fluid Control, Inc. . . . . . . . BC
148
104
Sero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 178 Vesconite Hilube
Blue-White Industries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 117
Sims Pump Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77
Sims Pump Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .47
111
135
bushings
Cat Pumps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .29 120  Increase MTBR
Sims Pump Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 166
Conhagen. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67 121  No swell
Sims Pump Co. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 167
Dan Bolen & Associates, LLC . . . . . .103 160  Low friction = reduced
Singer Valve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 151
Denmar Pump Services . . . . . . . . . . . .41 105
electricity costs
SJE Rhombus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79 136
Dickow Pump Company. . . . . . . . . . . .59 122  Quick supply.
Skinner Power Systems . . . . . . . . . . . .36 140
DP Pumps-USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .35 125
No quantity too small
Smith & Loveless . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 112
Electrical Apparatus Service Tollfree 1-866-635-7596
St. Marys Foundry, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . .102 168
Asssociation (EASA) . . . . . . . . . . . .54 123 vesconite@vesconite.com
Frost & Sullivan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 152
Streamlight, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 139 www.vesconite.com
Summit Pump, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 169
GE Intelligent Platforms . . . . . . . 82/83 124 Circle 176 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.
Submersible Wastewater Pump
Gorman-Rupp Company . . . . . . . . . . .21 107 Association (SWPA) . . . . . . . . . . . . .81 147
Graphite Metallizing Corp. . . . . . . . . .65 126 Titan Flow Control, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . .85 157
Hayward Flow Control . . . . . . . . . . . . .37 127 Titan Manufacturing, Inc.. . . . . . . . .101 170
Heinrichs USA LLC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .87 153 Topog-E Gasket Co . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .102 171
HIDRACAR S.A.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .27 108 Trachte, USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 172
Hydraulic Institute . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 154 Tuf-Lok International. . . . . . . . . . . . .101 173
Hydro, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IFC/1 100 Vanton Pump & Equipment Corp . . .61 113
Hyundai Heavy Industries . . . . . . . . .11 109 Varisco USA, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .101 174
IDEX Viking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .75 146 Vaughan Company . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 114
IDEX Sandpiper . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .55 145 Vertiflo Pump Company. . . . . . . . . . .101 175
International Products Corporation 34 128 Vesco Plastics Sales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 176
INTERPHEX, Reed Exhibitions . . . . .95 129 Watson-Marlow Pumps Group. . . . . .22 141
JDA Global . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .25 130 WEG Electric Corp. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .23 115
Jordan, Knauff & Company . . . . . . . .87 155 Wilden . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .51 144
KSB, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 110 WorldWide Electric Corp . . . . . . . . . . .16 142
Load Controls, Inc . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .20 131 Water Quality Association (WQA)
LobePro . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 161 Aqautech . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .39 143
Magnatex Pumps, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . .85 156 Xylem, Inc.. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .IBC 116
Circle 158 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.
Master Bond, Inc. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 162
he Index of Advertisers is furnished as a courtesy, and no
responsibility is assumed for incorrect information.

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


101

REPS WANTED Your Best Value in


Self Priming Pumps
Sims Pump, a fast growing structural
composite pump, pump parts, and
mechanical seals manufacturer is
seeking ambitious, aggressive, and
self-motivated representatives for
both the marine and industrial
markets around the world. Sims
focuses on sales to customers with
corrosive environments, such as
marine, cruise, power generation,
public utility, wastewater facilities, oil
and gas, as well as chemical and
industrial markets. A background in
pumps, mechanical seals, or any
rotating equipment is required.
Model SN
Please fax your resume to
1-201-792-4803, or email to
Simsite1@aol.com.

Green Bay, WI
www.SUMMITPUMP.com

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*i\ n{n U www.tuflok.com

Circle 172 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com. Circle 173 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


102 PUMP USERS MARKETPLACE

PUMP
PLUGS
QUICKLY CONNECT
& DISCONNECT POWER
OFF
Button
Circle 165 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Safety Shutter
(on receptacle)

Rated up to 200A, 75hp


 Connector + Switch in 1 device
 Maximizes Arc Flash Protection
 Minimizes PPE Requirements
meltric.com
800.433.7642
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Circle 167 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.

Circle 168 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com.


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M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


103

Knowledge is
Precise insertion/removal control
Power Reduced system complexity
Request a free catalog
More uptime
adhesives for the The Bal Seal Canted Coil Spring
oil & chemical for critical oilfield connecting and conducting applications.
processing industry
800-366-1006 sales@balseal.com
w w w. b a l s e a l . c o m

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Download now

154 Hobart St., Hackensack, NJ 07601 USA


+1.201.343.8983
main@masterbond.com

www.masterbond.com
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GO WITH THE PROS!! LOBEPRO ROTARY PUMPS


EXECUTIVE SEARCH/RECRUITING

Important Properties of
LobePro Rotary Lobe Pumps
Low shear Capacities 0- 2, 656
Measured Flow GPM (0-604 m/hr)
Self priming to 25 wet Low pulsation Serving the Pump &
Discharge pressure to Space-saving, Rotating Equipment, Valve,
175 psi (12 bar) compact design
To learn more or get a custom quote, email PumpSales@lobepro.com and Industrial Equipment
912-466-0304 www.LOBEPRO.com Made in USA Industry since 1969
Circle 161 on card or visit psfreeinfo.com. Domestic & International
Specializing in placing:
NEMO Progressing Cavity Pumps ask about
General Management Engineering
For your toughest pumping problems! Sales & Marketing Manufacturing
Smooth operation, DAN BOLEN JASON SWANSON
low pulsation,
steady ow in CHRIS OSBORN DEBORAH SHAW
direct proportion to speed
Low to high solids content, abrasive material, shear sensitive 9741 North 90th Place, Suite 200
Pressures: To 1080 psi; special designs to 3400 psi Scottsdale, Arizona 85258-5065
Capacities: A few gph up to 2,200 gpm (480) 767-9000 Fax (480) 767-0100
NETZSCH Pumps North America, LLC Email: dan@danbolenassoc.com
Viscosity: 1 mPas up to 3 million mPas
1-610-363-8010
Temperatures: 5 F to 570 F www.danbolenassoc.com
PUMPS@netzsch.com
Maintenance friendly, low life-cycle cost www.netzsch.com
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p u mpsa ndsyst ems.c om | Ma rc h 2015


104 PUMP MARKET ANALYSIS

Wall Street Pump & Valve Industry Watch


By Jordan, Knauff & Company
Figure 1. Stock Indices from February 1, 2014, to January 31, 2015

T he Jordan, Knauf &


Company (JKC) Valve Stock
Index was down 15.2 percent
over the last 12 months, while the
broader S&P 500 Index was up 14.5
and electronic
equipment.
Manufactured
goods orders
averaged $498.8
percent. he JKC Pump Stock Index billion per month
decreased 12.1 percent for the in 2014, 2.8 percent
same time period.1 higher than the
he Institute for Supply monthly average
Managements Purchasing in 2013.
Managers Index (PMI) decreased U.S. gross
domestic product Source: Capital IQ and JKC research. Local currency converted to USD using historical spot rates.
1.6 percentage points in January he JKC Pump and Valve Stock Indices include a select list of publicly traded companies involved in
to 53.5 percent, even as comments (GDP) grew at the pump and valve industries weighted by market capitalization.
from the survey indicated that an annual rate
most industries are experiencing of 2.6 percent in than at the same time last year and
Reference
strong demand. he New Orders the fourth quarter of last year is the highest level for this time of
1. he S&P Return
Index registered 52.9 percent, according to the irst estimate by year in the last 80 years. Driven
igures are provided
down 4.9 percentage points the Commerce Department. Lower by supply from non-Organization by Capital IQ.
compared with December, gasoline and energy prices have of Petroleum Exporting Countries
while growth was reported in increased household purchasing sources, the EIA estimates that
10 industries. he Export Index power as consumer spending global oil inventories increased Jordan, Knauff
fell below 50 percent, indicating increased 4.3 percent during the by almost 0.8 million barrels per & Company is an
quarter. Spending on durable goods day last year and will continue to investment bank
contraction and highlighting
based in Chicago,
concerns about global growth. increased 7.4 percent because of grow by 0.9 million barrels per Illinois, that
Declining for the ifth straight healthy motor vehicle sales, and day during the irst half of 2015, provides merger and
month, the Census Bureau reported nondurable goods spending rose keeping downward pressure on acquisition advisory
that new factory orders fell 3.4 4.4 percent. In 2014, GDP increased oil prices. Inventory growth is services to the
expected to taper of by the end pump, valve and
percent in December. Both durable 2.4 percent, the strongest annual
filtration industries.
and nondurable goods were down. rate in four years and up from 2.2 of the year as lower oil prices Please visit
he transportation equipment percent in 2013. cause supply growth to weaken, jordanknauff.com for
sector fell 9.1 percent because According to the Energy especially in the U.S. further information.
Information Administration On Wall Street, the Dow Jones Jordan Knauff &
of a decline in aircraft spending.
Company is a member
Other declining sectors included (EIA), U.S. commercial crude Industrial Average fell 3.7 percent, of FINRA.
machinery, primary metals, oil inventories (excluding the the S&P 500 Index dropped
and computers and electronics. Strategic Petroleum Reserve) were 3.1 percent, and the NASDAQ
Sectors showing growth included 413.1 million barrels at the end of Composite lost 2.1 percent for the These materials were
furniture, fabricated metal January. his is 15 percent higher month of January. prepared for informational
purposes from sources that
are believed to be reliable
but which could change
Figure 2. U.S. energy consumption and rig counts Figure 3. U.S. PMI and manufacturing shipments without notice. Jordan,
Knauff & Company and
Pumps & Systems shall not
in any way be liable for
claims relating to these
materials and makes no
warranties, express or
implied, or representations
as to their accuracy or com-
pleteness or for errors or
omissions contained herein.
This information is not
intended to be construed
as tax, legal or investment
advice. These materials do
not constitute an offer to
buy or sell any financial
security or participate in
any investment offering or
Source: U.S. Energy Information Administration and Baker Hughes Inc. Source: Institute for Supply Management Manufacturing deployment of capital.
Report on Business and U.S. Census Bureau

M a rc h 2 015 | Pum ps & S ys t e m s


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TotalCare services
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For secure, optimal operations
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Xylem TotalCare is a comprehensive, integrated portfolio of
services that ensures your business keeps running at its best.
Our portfolio comes backed by deep systems knowledge
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and expertise eqpvcev"wu"cv"935/756/389;"qt"xkukv"wu"cv"j{ftqkpe0eqo
in water and wastewater applications. Which
gives you the operational security and more time to focus
on your core business.

What can Xylem do for you?


Call 1 704 4099700 or visit
www.xylemtotalcare.com

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