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unidirectional signal. Diodes are used extensively in rectifiers. A

single-phase half-wave rectifier is the simplest type and is not

normally used in industrial applications. However, it is useful in

understanding the principle of rectifier operation. The circuit

diagram with a resistive load is shown in fig. 2-12a. during the positive

half-cycle of the input voltage. Diode D1 conducts and the input

voltage appears across the load. During the negative half-cycle of

the input voltage, the diode is blocking condition and the output

voltage is zero. The waveforms for the input and output voltages are

shown in Fig. 2-12b.

discontinuous and contains harmonics. There are different types of

rectifier circuits and the performances of a rectifier are normally

evaluated in terms of the following parameters.

The output ac power,

= (2-43)

merit and permits us to compare the effectiveness, is defined as

= (2-44)

component (1) the dc value, and (2) the ac component or ripple.

voltage is

= 2 2 (2-45)

= (2-46)

as

= (2-47)

Substituting Eq. (2-45) in Eq. (2-47) the ripple factor can be expressed

as

2

= ( ) 1 = 2 1 (2-48)

= (2-49)

Where and are the rms voltage and rms current of the

transformer secondary respectively,

If is the angle between the fundamental components of the input

current and voltage, is called the displacemen angle. The

displacement factor is defined as

= cos (2-50)

1/2 1/2

2 2 1 2

= ( ) = [( ) 1] (2-51)

21 1

1 , and are expressed here in rms. The input power factor is defined

as

1 I1

= = cos (2-52)

Is

power factor, PF, equals the displacement factor, DF. An ideal

rectifier should have: = 100%, = 0, = 1, = 0, = 1, =

0, and = 1.

Example 2-6

determine the (a) efficiency; (b) form factor; (c) ripple factor; (d)

transformer utilization factor; and (e) peak inverse voltage (PIV) of

diode

1

= 0 () (2-53)

have

2

1

= sin = ( 1)

2

0

1

But the frequency of the source is = and = 2.

= = 0.318 (2-54)

0.318

= =

as

1/2

1

= [ 2 ()]

0

For a sinusoidal voltage of () = for 0 , the rms value

2

output voltage is

1 1/2

= [ 0 ( sin )2 ] = = 0,5 (2-56)

2

0,5

= =

(0,5 )2 /.

(0.318 )2

(a) From Eq. (2-44), the efficiency, = = 40.5%

(0,5 )2

0,5

(b) From Eq. (2-46), the form factor, = = 1.57 157%

0,318

121 %

1 2

= [ 0 ( sin )2 ] = = 0,707 (2-57)

2

that of the load:

0,5

=

0,5

The volt-ampere rating (VA) of transformer, VA= = 0,707

0.3182

From Eq. (2-49) = = 0.286.

(0,707 0,5)

3,496 times larger than that when it is being used to deliver power

from a pure ac voltage. This rectifier has a high ripple factor, 121%; a

low efficiency, 40,5%; and a poor TUF, 0,286. In addition, the

transformer has to carry a dc current, and this result in a dc

saturation problem of the transformer core.

in Fig. 2-13a. Due to inductive load, the conduction period of the

diode D1 will extend beyond 180 until the current becomes zero.

The waveform for the current and voltage are shown in Fig. 2-13b. it

should be noted that we average vt for the inductor is 380. The

average output voltage is

+0

= sin () = = { cos }+0

0 (2-58)

2 0 2

= [1 cos( + 0)]

2

Where 0 = 1 (/) and = 2. The average load current is

= /.

It can be noted from Eq. (2-58) that average voltage (and current)

can be increased by making 0 = 0, which is possible by adding a

free wheeling diode as shown in Fig. 2-13a with dashed lines. The

effect of this diode is to prevent energy is increased. At = 1 = /,

the current from 1 is transferred to and this process is called

comutation of diodes and the waveforms are shown in Fig. 2-13c.

Depending on the load time constant, the load current may be

discontinuous.

shown in Fig. 2-14a. each half of the transformer with its associated

diode acts as a half-wave rectifier and the output of a full-wave

rectifier is shown in Fig. 2-14b. since there is no dc current flowing

through the transformer, there is no dc saturation problem of

transformer core. The average output voltage is

2 /2 2

= 0 sin = = 0.6366 (2-59)

diodes, as shown in Fig. 2-15a. During the positive half-cycle of the

input voltage, the current flows to the load through diodes 1 and

2 . During the negative cycle, diodes 3 and 4 conduct. The

waveforms for the output voltage is shown in Fig. 2-15b and is similar

to that of Fig.2-14b. The peak-inverse voltage of a diode is only .

This circuit is known as a bridge rectifier.

Example 2-7

determine the (a) efficiency; (b) form factor; (c) ripple factor; (d)

transformer utilization factor; and (e) peak inverse voltage (PIV) of

diode 1 .

2

= = 0.6366

And the average load current is

0.6366

= = (2-60)

1

2

2 2

= [ ( sin 2 )] = = 0.707

0 2

(2-61)

0.707

= =

From Eq. (2-42), = (0.6366 )2 / and from Eq. (2-43), =

(0.707 )2 /

(0.6366 )2

(a) From Eq. (2-44), the efficiency, = (0.707 )2

= 81%

0.707

(b) From Eq. (2-46), the form factor, = = 1.11

0.6366

48.2%

(d) The rms voltage of the transformer secondary, = =

2

0.707

2 0.707 0.5 /. From Eq (2-49),

0.63662

= = 0.5732 = 57.32%

2 0.707 0.5

(e) The peak reverse blocking voltage, = 2 .

improved compared to that of a half-wave rectifier.

Exampe 2-8

fourier series obtain expressions for output voltage () and load

current (). (b) if = 170 , = 60 , and = 500, determine the

value of series inductance L to limit ripple current to 5% of .

fourier series (is reviewed in Appendix E) as

() = + ( cos + sin )

=1,2,

Where

1 2 2 2

= ()() = sin () =

2 0 2 0

1 2 2

= cos () = sin cos () = 0

0 0

1 2 2

= 0 sin () = 0 sin sin () =

4 1

=2,4,

(1)(+1)

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