You are on page 1of 23

c

STEREOSCOPY
c
c
c

c
c
c
c
c c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c Submitted To-

c
c
c Submitted By-

Saumya Tripathi
2K7/ME/304
ë TRODUCTëO
c
c cc cc
c   c
c c 
ccc

c 
 
 c
c

 cc
c c

 cc c
c c

c
 c

 cccc c 
c
c c
cc
c c
cc ccc
Oc Stereopsisc
Oc Ñ ommodation of the eyeball (eyeball fo s)c
Oc Y lsion of one obje t by anotherc
Oc Sbtended visal angle of an obje t of known sizec
Oc Dinear perspe tive ( onvergen e of parallel edges)c
Oc [erti al position (obje ts higher in the s ene generally tend to be per eived as
frther away)c
Oc uaze, desatration, and a shift to blishnessc
Oc phange in size of textred pattern detailc
c ccc
c c
 cc c
 c cc c
c 

 c 

 
 c
ccc

c c c 

 c  c
c c
   cc c

 cc c
cc c
cc c 
 
 c

c c
cc
  c
 c
c cc c c  c
c c
 c
c cc  
 ccc c
c
  c c  c  c c cc
c
c  c


c c c c

 cc c
c
 c
! c"#c
 cc 
c c c  c
c cc
 c
 c c
c$c
%   c
c&'"'c  c
cc
c   c ccc  
 c
c c
 cc c  c
cc
c

c
c
 ccc

 
 c c ccccc c
 c
 c! c
 
c c
 
 c  c cc"#c c c  c
 cc"c
 
 c

 c(c 
 
 c c

 c cc
   cc c
c
cc c c 
c c
c
c c c
 c
 c
c
c c$  cc
c c
cc$ c
)

 c
c c c
c c

 cc c
c
(

 c 
c  c 
 cc
cc"#c

 c 
ccc

cc*#c
c(c
 c c c  c c
 c
c c
c
c c

c c cc c
c
c c
 c
c
c
c
cc cc+ c
cc
c

 c  cc c c

c  c c c   c
c
c
c

 c c  
c c

 
 cc cc
ccc c c*#c
c ccc c
cc cc c
cc  c c+ c c


c
  c c c c
c
cc
c c  c c
c
c
c
 c 
 cc c
,c c

c 
cc c

c% c c
 c 
c c+ c c


c

  cccc
- cccc c
 cccc 
 c
c  c
c
Stereopsis

c
 c cstereo-c
c.
.c copsisc
c
cc
 c
c c
c
c
c
 c
c c c 
 cc cc c c
  c

 c+
 cc cc c c
cc c c c(c
 c
c c
c
c
cccá c  c c  cc
c


c(c
 c
cc c ,c
 c

 c
c cc 
c

c  cc cc c


 c(
c
c
 cc c
 c

c c cc cc  c 
c c c


c
c  c
 c 
 c c
ccc c
 c c
c


cc cc
 
c
 cconly 
ccc c
c
c
  c cc c
 
cc ccc
c c
c c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
 c
- c

 c
c c c cccc

c
c  c c
cc
c
c
c c c

 c
c c c c c
c
c c

 c
c c
 c c/
c
cc

c  c
% cc c c c c+ c c c c cc  c c+ cc c
c cc c
c
c c c0 c+ c c c
c+ cc

 c
c
 c c c
c+ c c c
ccc c
c+ c

c
c
c c cc c c
c
c c c c cc
c
 c c
c
 c
c c c ,c
c c
c
 c c c c c
c c
 c ,c
c
c

c
(cc
c
 c c c
(cc
c
 c c c
c
(c c c c c  c
c c
 c ,c

 c
c c ,c
c
c+ cc 
 c
c

c
(c
c
cc
c
c
%ccc
c$  c c$  c
cc c

cc c c ,c c cc cc

c  c cc


c
ucc c
c
cc
 c
- c

 cccc
  c
 c

c cc c

c
 c
c
c1 c c
cc  c
c c cc
c
cc c cc   c/  c
 cc


 c1 c 
c
c
c
cc

 c(
ccc 
c
ccalitative stereopsisc c2  c0cc
c c
cc c
 c cc c
c cc c
c
 c

c
cc  c  c c
c cc
c cc cc   c/  c
c
c
 c
c

Visual requirements
  
 c cc"ccc
c

 c
c c
c c
c

  c
 c
3
 c 
c,
,c

 c
 
c
(c 
 cc
c c
ccccc 
c
 c
c cc 
cc 
c   c ccc c

c
c

 cc ,c 
c 
c c

c
c


c  c c
cc cc cc
cc c
c
   c ác  c c

c
á  c
D
cc c

 c
c
c
c
c4 cc
  ccc
 cc
cc
c
c cccc
c c

c c
cc


 c
c
 c
c c
(c

c cc
 
c
c
c  c c
c c


 cc

 cc
c cc c c c
c
 c c
cc c
c(c
c
 c
c
-c+
 cc cc
 
c
cc
c
  c

 c(c
cc
  c c c c c c
c cc
c
c
c c

cc c
c(c c cc c c c
. c .cccc"#c

c
c
c
c 
c
c c
c
c
c
 cc cc
 c
c
c c
c
cc
c
c
]  c
3

c
c

cc
 
c
c
 c
cc
c
Oc (cc
c cc c
c  cc  c56c  c
 
c
c
7c 
c
c cc
  c  c c c c
(c
c/c c c
c
c/
c c

 c7c 
c cc


 c
c c

 c
c cc c
c  c  c
/c  c
c
c

c
c
c
c
Oc (c c
c cc c
 c c c
c c c

c c
c c
c c
 c c

c c c
c c

c

c
c
á cccácc
(c c
cc
c
 
c% c
c
 cc 
c

c cc
c
c cc
c c
c ccc c
cc  c c
c
cc cc c( ccc ccc
 c
c c cc
 c
c
c
c c c
cc c c
(c ccc c
4
c

c c 

 c c cc
cc c
c
c c
c
c c
  c  c"8c c98c c cc
 c
  c c


c(
cc
ccc c c cc 
  c
c cc
cc
 c  c
c
 c 
c
(cc
c
c

c
cc
c
cc
c c c

c c
c c
 
cc c c
(c
c
cc

 c  c c
c

cc 
c
 
 c c
cc
 ccc  cc c 
 c c

 c 
 c
c c
  cc c
c

 c c
c
c
c
Êc c
(c
cc

c   
c
c c
cc
c c c c cc c
c&:"&c c()c c c/ c
 
c  ccc cc c

cccu/
c c c&:98cc

c c

 
-c

 cc 
c
  cc
cc c)
! c;
cc c
cc
c c
  c
c
c
c  c c c ccccc
/c
cc
c
c
c
 
 c
ccc
cc cc c
/ccc c c
c  c
c
cc
cc c
c c cc c ccc c
cc

 c
c c)
! c
c(c
cc
c
c cc c
 
 c c
 c c c
cc c  c0 c cc 
c
 c
c
 ,c
 c c  c cc
c 
c
c
c  c c(cc cc c
 
 cc c
 c c  c cc 
c
cc
cc
c
c
 c
c
c 
 c

 c 
 cc c
 cc c c c 
 c
  c
  c c
c c c&:98cc c

 cc c c
<
 cc c
c  c4
cc
c
c 
c
 cc c
  c
c c cc cccc
c
c
c(c c
<
 c c
c c c
cc c
c  cc c c c


-c  c
D c
cc
c
c
c cc cc c
c
c
cc

cc cc cc c c 
ccc cc c
 
 c
c(cc c c c c#)#c
c c

 c cc 

 c cu c


c
c
cc 
c+ cc c

 
 c c
c 
c c c  c 
c c
 c cc c    c

c
c  cc
c
cc
c cc
 c
c
c
c

 cc cc ccccc c
c c1 c  c
c
c
c c
cc

c
c
-cc  c cc
+ c cc c
cc
c
c 
c c c
  c  cc c c

c 
c
c
=c
c
c c cc
c 
c c  cc  c c
c c
 c
c
c
c
u c c
c
(cc 
 ccc ccc
c ccD$#cc0D #c
 c
c


c c ccc c(c   c ccc cc c
c

ccc c
c cccc c ccvirtalc
 c c

 c cccc
c /
c
c
c cc c./c
 .c c
 cc c
c 
cc


c c ccc c
 c;
c 
c c
/ c c c
c

c c
c cc

cc c cc c
c
c c
c
c

 c 
c


 c c

 c
cc  cc cc c

c c


 cc c

 cc0
c c
c  c
c c
c c c

c


 
-
 cc
c c c
 c c
cc

c ccc

c cc c cc

c
 cccc ccc c
cc c
c
c
 c ccc
c
c c
cc c
c(
c
c c c

c c
c
c c
 c
c
c(ccc
c
c
 c c c
,c
cc 
 c  cc ccc

cc
 c  c c/ccc
ccc cc c
(
c cc  c
c c cc
c

 c
c c
  ccc
  cc
c c
cc 

 c c
c
 c. c

 .c c

c
 c
c 
cc
 c c
c c 

 ,c  c

 c


  c 
c c c
c
c cc
c c 
cc

 c


c c c c 
c c c/ cc c
 c 
c

 c
cc c cc

 c
c cc
c
c c

 cc

c c $(c c c!< c

 c
c c
 ,c

 cc
c
c

cc
c
(cc c 
cc"#cc   c
c c
c
cc
c 
c
c
 c
cc
 c
c
 c
c
  ccácc
c
=c 

c

c  c  c/ccc
 c c
c 
-
 c
c
c
c c c c
 c
c c  cc   c 
c
cc(



 c

c
c
 ccác ác
c
(c<c c! cc c
cc c cc cc c c c
c;** cc 
 cc
c 
 c$<(c
c(
c c

c c c cc  cc c<=uc
c
c
 c
c c c
 cc  cc c
c
cc
c
! c
c
 c cc
c
(c cc 
c
 c
 c c
cc+ c
c c
cc c c  c
-
c
 c c
c c ccc
c cc
 c
-
 c
cc(c+ c c
c 
c  ccc c

ccc
cc(c
cc c c
cc
 
cc
cc  c
-
c
 ccc
 c  cc
 c
c
c


 c
-c c/c c   c
-c
 cc c  cc c
c c
c c c c
c
cD
 c
-cc
c c
c
c/c
cccc

cc c

c
 c
cc c
cc c c
 c
 c c ccc c c
c c>c c
c c c

/ c  c c
 c 
cc c

 c
c cc /
c
c
cc
c c
c c 
c
c c cc
c
c
c
c
 c cc
c
(c cc 
c
 c
 c c
cc+ c
c c
cc c c
c
-
c
 cc
c  c(c
c
c c c
c 
cc
cc  -
c
 c 
c
-c
 c
c cc
c  cD
 c  c
c 
 c
-c
c


c c c
  c  -c
c
 
 c
-c
 c
c


c c c  c  -c(c c
c

c c  cc 
c


c
c
 c
-cc c c
c c
 c
cccc c

c

c ?
 c
 c
(c<#c$
c  cc c 
 c
 c
c
-c c
c
 cc c+ c c  
c  c c c
 c  c
c c
c
c cc
 c
c
c
 c c c 

 c
c+ c(c
 c
c
c
 c
-cc
c
" cc
c

c  cc
 c
 c   c
c
 c
 c
c cc
 c
c c+ cc c
c
cc   c cc
 c
c 
c c(c

 c

c c

cc c
c
c c cc c
c cc
 c c

c c c
 c c c
c cc
 c c<&c<*c=&c=*cu&c cu*cc
ccc 
c

 c(c<&c=&c cu&c cccc c c

c c<*c=*cu*cc c c c(c c c


c c
 

c cc

c c
 cc 
c 
c
cc c  cc"#c
c
c
  c
 cc
 c  c c c @ABc
c 
c 
c
c

ccc.  .cc
c
c c ccc 


c
c
c c c cc c 
 c  c 
c
# ccccc 
c   c
c
c# c"#c  c
c
  ccác
c
$  cc  c c ccc
cc  cc
 cc
c c(c c cc
 cccc c  c

c 

c  c c c
c 

c c c
 ccc c
 cc(cc
 c
c  cc
c c  c
 c/cc
cc
 c c c

 ccc c c
c
cc  c ccc
c
 

cc c  c
 c
ccc  c
 cc c c c
c
c
c/c  c  c
cc cc c c
 c Cc

c cc
c c cc c c
 cc c c
  c
  c
cc cc c ccc c 
 cc
c
 c c   c%c 

  c 
cc cc c/cDc
c c c


cc c
c cc c c cc
c c
c
  c c#)#c
c%
c c 
c


ccc ccc
c

c  c
 c c
cccc

c
c c
cc
"#c

c
c
c
/ c


c
cc c
 c
cc

cc
  c c 
 ccc

 
 c c c c
 
c
cc ccc!c%
c c ccc"#c#)#c  c
cc  c
ccc  
 c  c
ccc
c c

c  c
cc

ccc c c c c cc
cc
 c c cc 
c c
 c
c cc  c

c
c  c cc  c
c c c cc  cc
 
c 
c  c/  cc ccc
  cc
  c  c
 c
c c  cc
 c
c c 
c
;
c 
c c 
c  c
c cccc c 
cc
cc
c c
c
 c
 c
c

c
c
c
  c ccc c ác

c cc  cccc  c  cc c*68c   c

 c
c cc  cc c  c
 c%
c
cc cc
 c

c cc c c



ccc c cc
c
c
c c

cc
cc c  c
 c
c
c
 c c ,c
c
u c
cc
cc cc 
c

c
 cc
c
-c cc
 cc
 c
c c c  c(c
 c
cc c
 c
cc c  c
c c  c

c  c

c c
c c c

c c  c
 c
 ccc
c c
  cc( cccc c
c
 c
c
c

c

 c cc c

 c 
c

 c( cc c c
  c  c 
c c
ccc
 c ccc c
c/
c
 c
 c
c?cc/cc
c/c c
c cc
 c
 
cc c/
c
cc
c
c
c
!
c0c cu/c0c c 
c c c c
c
c
$$c"#c
ccucED c c3 c&c*88:c
c %
cc  c
$$c"#c
cc c  c c

c  c c
c c*888c  c
cc cc
 c1  c 
/c c  c  c$$c"#c
c

 c c
c
ccc

c
c

c 

 c c
c

c0 c c  cc
  c
c c cc

 c
 c c c 
 cc
  ccc c
c
 c c
c c c
 c(c c
c
c c
c  c
c
c
 c
 c
c  c c

c
 c c c
- c

c
(c/c
c*#c

c
 cc
c  c
cc
c

c  c


c c  c
cc c c  c

c
  c c c
c c ccc

c 
c c


c

c
(c
 cc c
 
c cc  c+ c c c
c c

c*#c
c
cc  c  c c
c ccc cc
(cc
 c
c c c968c c c cc
 c c
c
 c c  c
 cc688c c%
c cc
c
cc cc
 c c
c
 cc c  c
c c% c c
c<=ucc
c 

 c c

cc c c cc c c
cc
c

cc cc cc c
c c
 c
c
c c

 cFr8&6g8&6b8AGc
c
c
á ác áccc
(c$# ccc
 c;c0
c
cc c c c  c
cc

ccc c c
cc(c$# c c 
c

c
c
c
c 
 cc

 cc
c(
cc c
c
cc   cc 
c c  c c c
cc c ccc
c
c c

c c c c  c c c c c  c c c c
 c>c 
c c
c>ccccc
 c c(c
cc c
c

 c
c 
c
 c(c cc 
c   c 
 cccc c c  c
 c cc$# c
 cc
 c c c 
 
  c
c  
/c
c c   cc ccc  c

 c
 c
c  c 
c c c

 cc c
 c c c c c
cc c+ c  c
cc
  c
ccc c
c
á c  ccác ác
c
c c

 c c c  c 
c
cc. c Hc(
c
c
c c  c c
c
c  c/c
 c c
 ccc*#c

c cc.
.cc
c
c 
 c
cc-
c(c"#c
 c
c  cc cc c
cc c
cc c cc c

  c  c cc  c;
cc / c c+ ccc c c
cc
c c
c
cc c c c cc  c0  ccc
cc  

 
 c
c c cc(c ccc
cc c
c
c
c
 cc c c
 ccccc cc cc

 c
c c  c
 c%c  c cc c c 
c
cc/
c
 c c

 c
c
c
c
c
c
c
c
Yác c ác
c

c
c
!c  c  c  cc c c
c c c
c
c
 c
c
cc
cc  c c 
cc  c
c
c c


cc 
c c c
cc c

c c /c c

cc c

c c+ cc c
c
cc   ccccc 
c
c
c!
c c
cc
 cc cc c
  cc c


c  c
 cc c 
c
c
! ácc
c c
c;
c c
cc+ c
c
 cc c

c
 
c c
c
cc
 c% cc  c 
c
 c cc/ c c

/ccc
cc  c
cc
c cc c c
 c c c c
c c /c c c

c
c
ccc
c
c c c
 c c
 cc
c
c c c c
(c
 c c 
 cc c c
 c
c c
c  cc
 c
c

c


 c 
c c cc  c
cc 
c c
c
 c
 

 c

c
   c
c

c c
c+ c(
cc
c c c c c c
c cc
/ c c
 c+ c  c c

c cc

c
c
c
c c
 cc c c
c c
c c c c  c
c c
 c c
c

 cc c c c
cc c
c
  ccc cc c
 c c
(
c/c
ccc
c c c c c c
 c c
c
c
c
c
  c
c c c c(
c
 c
c

 cc
c
c
 c c c

cc
 c
c c c
 c c c
(c
 c cc 
c
c
 c c

 c
c c

 cc
 c

c c0+ c
 c cc

cc c 

 c c
c
c  c
c c

c..c c
!   c#c $ c cc
.1/ .cc

c
cc/
c  c cc c ccc
1c

cc c/c

cccc? 

c
c
 cc/cc c  c  "#c
c  c 
ccc c
c
c
c c"#c
c(c c c cc/c c
c c c cc
 c
c
 cc cc
cc cc
 c cc c

 c#cc c
c
cc
cccc
 #()c
c
 c
c cc c c$c

c
c c. c
"#.c
c
c
c
 c cc ccc c 
 c c
 c
c
c ccc c c2!Ic
c
c c? c
c(c 
c c c
 c
c

-cc cc c
 c
cc c
 c
c c  ccc +

cc
c

 c
 
cc cc
c c
c(
cc c

 cc
c
 
 c
c c
 cc c 
c cc cc c c
 c
c
 c c
D
c

c
cc 
c c
c cc c cc c
cc  c
c
/c ccc
 cc c c
 c
cc  c
 c


c c
cc
 c
c
c cc c
c c

 cc
c
 
 ccc 
c

c

c c(
c cc c c
 c  c
c
c
cc c
/ccc c c
c c
c

cc"#c c
c

c
c
c
c ác cc
(cD$#c
cc
c c cc
c  c
 c c
 cc
c 
c  /c
 c/ c c(c
 c c ccc&888cc cc

 c  c c
 cc
c
 c
  c 
cccc c cE"#c c
c
 c cc cD$#c

c c c c
 c
cc c cD$#c  c c c cc

 c
(c c cc   c
c/c 
cc 
c c c

 c
c
0 c cc
c 
c c  cc c c c c c c c
 c(
cc

c
 c
c 
c c c
,c

 c
c
% cc
c

c
(
c c
 c c
 c c

c 
c
c c
 c   c
  c c c c
 c
ccc c cccc 
c c
 cc

c
c c
 c
c
cc ccc

-c+c c
! cc c ccc cc
 
 
ccc
cc cc
$
c c c c
c ccc
 
c c

cc
 cc
+ cc c   cc 
c/c0+ c  cccc cc
c  c c c c(
c c cccc cc c
cc

cc
c
 cc
  c
cc c

cc
c 

 
 c
cc
c  c c cc 
ccc c
  c
c  c c
 cc
c
c

 c
 cc c
c

c c
c
oc 1ccc
cc
c
oc ! cc c. .c c cc
/c  c c cc


c 
c
oc c
c c  c cc 
c

-
 ccc
c

cc c


 c
c c c
#
 cc c.
.c c
oc #c  c
c c
c 
c c
 c
oc 1 c
cc
c

c c
 c  c c.
.c  c c c

c
oc #

 c c
 c 
c
c
c  cc    c.

.c
oc D/cc"#c

 c c cc c  c c

c c
 c
! c
c
cc  c c
c
c c c 
 c+/ c
cc
 c
cc/
c cc
 c
 c
cc cc
cc/c
 c c ccc c
cc

 c
c c
c
 
c
 c c c c
c
  c c c c
c cc

 c
c 
c  c
 c
cc c
c  c cccc
c
c
c ccc c
 c c
 c c.
.c c
c c c cc

c 
c
c
c
  c  cc 
cc c 
 
 c 
c c(c

 c
c c
 ccc
c
c c 
c c
c c cc c
cc
 c
c c cc
c>c 
c
c  c c
c
c.

.c c(c c. c
/c .ccc 
c c


cc c
c c c ccc c c
c c c c
c
 c(cc
c
c
cccccc c c  c

c c c
 c
c
%

c/cc cc c  cc  
 c c c /
c c
cc
c

cc c

 c c
c c
cc c
c
  c

 c
c
 cc c
ccc c
c
 cc
 c+ c c
c c! cc
cc 
cc c c
 cc 

 cc
 c c c
 c
  c
c c+
cCc cc 
cc c
cc"#c

c c
c cc
cc cc cc
c
c cc
c c
c

 c c ccc
c
c
c
c
c
c
! $ ! $c
c;
/;
/c
cc c 
cc

c"#c c cc c c
 c
 c"#c c
c
c.  c"#.c

c cc.
.cc;
/;
/c
 c  cc
 c c
cc

c"#c c c  cc c

 c c
 c c"#c
 c)
c cc c c

 c c
 c
c c;
/;
/c
cc
c


c c
c cc c

cc
cc.
.c c cc 
c

c
c  c  c c
cc"#c c cc c c
 c c cc
 c
c"#c
 c
 c
c c
Taking the pictures
c
c
c  c c /c c ccc 
c
c(
c cc c
c
cc
c ccc
/ c c c

 cc
cc c
ccc c3+

c3
;
c<c"#c%&c
% c
c cc cc c
c 

 c c /c
c c c
/
c c
 7ccc c
c
c
c cc
cc ccc c
+ c
c c c
cc c cc
cc cc
 
c c
c c
 cc
cc 
c
 c
  c cc(
c
 c
cc ccc cc
c c
 cc c
cc c
  c c c
c c c
  c  c c c
(c c

 c
  c ;# c
c5"cc  c*6c
 c c
c
cc
c c c(c c+
cc cc ;#c
c c c68>A6cc c
c cc
c c c96>'8cc(c

c ;#cc
 cc  cc
c
c
 c98cc c cc c c ccc c c cc c
c
c
c c(cc cc c c c c c
c
cc; c  
c

 c cc  cc c
ccc cc c cc
3cc
c cc
c c
cc c
c c c c  ccc

  cc&'''c c c
cc c c c
c
cc&'''()
ccc&)c(c c
cc c c
  c c c /c c
  c c c+ c  cc
 c cc
  cc ccc"c  c c

c c&5c
c
c cc
 ccc&''cc  c cc
c c
 c c
c c c
cc cc
  cc
c
c c cc
+ c các cc+ c cc  cc cc
  c
c c
ccác  c  c c cc
 c
cc ccc
c
  c  c c
,c c  c5"c c
c c&:68c 
c  c
c
c cc cc
  c c

c 
cc c c
c(c cc
cc cc&"6c
c
cc
c
c c ccc%c
%c c! cc c 
 ccc c
cc"6cc    c
c
 c c c 
cc

-c c
c c/c 
c
c
(c c<
 ccc c cc c c"6cc
 c c
c c  c c
c c ccc
 c(c 
c
cc/ c
c
c
c  ccc cccc
c

cc

c c)
! cc ccccc
c%
c c
c c
cc
 c c 
c c 
c
c c 
c

cc c c ccc
c
cc  c
(c&:'8ccc
c
cc 
c  c  c c
 
 c ccc
c(ccccc
c c

c  
 cc  c c
c c
cc c&:68c cc
0c c cc c  cc c
c c c ccc
c
(c

cc c*& c  c/c c
cc ccc

c  c
 c cc
c
cc  c c
 c
cc
cc c
c c
cc
cc c c /c c
c c
 c c cc

c c c c c
 
c c c
c c c

c c
c c  cccccc
 ccc c
c c c cDc c
cc
c c cc 
cc
c  c

cc..c
c c 
-c c c ccc c ccu c

c cc cc/ ccc
c
cc
c c/c c /c

 c c cc
c1ccc c
cc c c. c
.c
"#c
cc
c c
 c c
/cc"#c
 c
 c
c
c cc
 cc c /c
c
 cc c
c
c  c  cc
#()c
 c
(c
 
c c
c  c
c c c c
c cc

 cc
  c c
c
 c
c
c0 cc
cc  c
c
c c
 c;/c(

 c ccc cc ccccc
$c
c 
c cc c
c; $cc

cc c


 c

c
c
"  c ác
c 
c
c
c
 c

c c
cc
c
c
c  c c /c c
c c
 c
c cccc

-c  ccc c
c c

c
c cccc
c c cc c
c
c

cc cccc
c c+ c
c  c
c cc c
+ c
ccc
 c(ccc
c(cc ccc
 cc

ccc cc
c
c c c c
 c
 c cc

c
c
c 
 c cc c
c c c c/c cc
(
c cc /
c c c
c
cc cc c.$$.c c
cccc c
c c
 c
 c&?"8 cc c
  c c c c+ cc
,
c c
,c
 cc+ c&?58 c
c c
c
c cccccc  cc
 c
c
 c3cc
c cc /
cc ccc c
c cc
cc c c c
c 
 c c c  c ccc cc&c c
  c c
(c c c
c  c


  c


c c
 c cc 
 c  c

c c c


 c 
 c
c cc, c
, c cc 

cuc
c

c  c c
ccc cc+ c
c c c + cc
 c
  cc
cc c
c c ccc c
c c cc
c
c c c
c  c
c

cc
cc  c
   c c c c
c
c
c
 
c c
  c(c c c
cc c
cc  c  cc
c c c, 
,c ccc  c c
c  cc
 c
c c

c cc c
cccc
c
cc cc, 
,c cc
 c 
cc c c
cc
c
cc c
3c/
c c
ccc
  c+ c cc 
c
c 
 c c c
 c cc

 c ccc
  c   cc c.
. c
 c c c c cc5*56c(
c
c
 c c c c
c
c c
cc c cc
 c c c
c  c c c
 cc c

  c+ c cc c ccc c c
   cc
c

ccc cc / c  c c
c+ c
c cc c cc c c

cc  c
c
c c
c cc c cc c
c c  c  cc c
 cc   c
c c cc
cc
cccc c
c c 
c(c c 
c
cc cc
c
56c/ c
  c cc c
c ccc c c c/ c(c

c
c
c c c cc c cc c cc
  c+c/cc
c c0
c c
c c  cc
c  c cc c
c c
c

cc cc cc cc


c c c c
(
c 
c cc
c c"#c

cc c! c c
 c
c / c c
 
c c c c  cc ccc c! c
c c c c c
c c  c c c
 c 
 c
c c c c c
 c
c c
c
c / ccc
 c
 cc
ccc/c c
 c c c "8c c  c
 c(c
cc  c c c
c

   c
c

c
c
c
c c c
(c
cc

c
c
  cc

cc  c c  c  c

cc c
 c cc cc c c+ c cc
  cc c

 c
c c
  c  c c c  c c c  c c


c c
+ c c 
c
  c
cc c c
 c c c ccc c

c0+ cc  c 
c
cc
c cc c
 c cc
c cc
c
cc+ c c c
  cc
c c
 c c
(
cinterppillarccintero lar distan ec
c c  c


c c cc
 c
c
c*6c
c  c56c c  c c c+ c
cc  c c c 
c


 ccc"8cJc*6cKcA6c
c  c*c c c
c 
c
c &"8 c  c 
c
c
c
c
 c c

c c(c
c c  c+ c
c

 c c c 
c
c c c
c
  cc c c c cc  c
cc
c c cc 
c
ccc
c c&*8c
c cc c
c
ccc c c c
cc
/cc
c cc c
cc.  .c(
c   c c  cc c
cc cc
cc c
cc c ccc /ccc  c%c

c ccccc  c


 cc cc c&68cc&58c
c
ccc
c
c c
 c
c
!  c c c
(c
c ccc cccc c cc

c
 
ccc
 c
cc c cc c
c
 c


c
cc c
cc c
cc  cc  c cc c

c 
c
c
c(
cc
  c
 ccc c cc
 c
 c 
c 
 c
cc
  c
 cc
 ccc c
 c c c
c c
cc c c c

 c

c c


c c ccc


c
 c   c
c c
CO CLUSëO

c
c
c c  c c cc#
 c c
c 
c
c 
c c
c

c
c c+ccc
c
Oc $cc
cc*c(c
c c c  c c
c 
cc

 cc"#c cu c c
cc c
c  c
cc
c
"#c  cc c  ccc cc cc cc

c
cCc 
cc 
c c. 
.cc
cc"#c cc
c  c"#

c
 cc.( c  .c c.( c  c*. c c
,c c
 
c c
 
cc1c"#  c()c cc
cc cc
cc Ê  cc cc cc c

c c c cc  c

c
c
c"#c()cc
 c
c+cc
c"#c c c c cc
c. .c
.4.c c c
c
cc cu
+
c0 
cc c
Oc c c*;c
cc  c c c 
c 
cD$#c cD #c
()c
cc  c  c c cc
c/ c cc c cc c
  c
Oc Êácc*c1c"#cc ccc ccc
c c
&:68cc&:'8c c  c
c
c c
c ccc
ccc( ,c
 c c ccc cc c. .c
c
/c. .cu c
c c c c cc
c c
c c c.(cu
cu c( .c.D .c
c.
 c .Lcc c ccLcc
c
cc"#c c 
/c c
  ,c c ccc cc cc
ccc
 c cc  c/ c c c c

c c c c cc
 c
c c  c c
c
  
cc c c

 c c
cc c c
c , cc cccc  c=c
c c c c
c
 cc"#c
c c c c
c c
 
c
  c c
c cc c c
c
c
 c cc
c c
SOURCES

%
/

c
0 c
  cc
 ??
:&&?c
ÑBSTRÑCT

  c
cc 
cc

c c
 cc 
 
 c+ c(
c
 c
cc cc ccc
c  c
c c/c c
c

 cc
+ c(c c  cc c
c cc
  c c
c

-c c
 c
c

c c

 cc c(
cc
c
 cc c c

ccc
c
cc c
 c
c  c c cc
cc
c 
 
 c+ c
 ccc  c
c
 c
c
 c cccc c c c
c c
cc cc c
c


cc
cc
c
cc 
c
c c /
c c
 c
c
 c

 c