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Subsea Center of Excellence


March 2008 Volume 4, Number 1

Contents Fiftieth Cabinda Gulf Oil Company Limited

2 Highlights
Subsea Tree Successfully Installed by Wire
2 MSV Maersk Achiever from the MSV Maersk Achiever
4 Global Projects
By Roger Bradley
4 Angola Liquefied Natural Gas
(LNG) Project
On February 9, 2008, the Subsea to install the jumper on the TA6I1 well
9 Subsea Technology team successfully completed the first with the vessel after the TransoceanSM
9 The Subsea Reliability installation by Cabinda Gulf Oil Richardson rig move on March 3rd.
Company Limited (CABGOC), a
12 Center of Excellence Update subsidiary of Chevron, of a subsea tree This achievement represents another step
12 Flexible Pipe Design by wire from the Maersk Achiever. By in building the subsea organizational
Optimization for West
Africa Deepwater: Agbami
chance, this tree was the 50th subsea capability in Angola. It is also a major
Production Riser Case Study tree installed in the concession. This step forward in our subsea capabilities,
14 Subsea Achievement ROV DP achievement is also significant because it and will enhance our drilling and
Trials demonstrated that we can move this type completion operations by taking these
15 Downhole Control Line of work from the rigs to the Achiever, operations offline from the drilling rigs.
thus saving rig time. The next step is
16 Welcome Aboard

17 S
 ubsea Performance Scorecard
March 2008

18 Letter from the General Manager

18 Subsea Unit Reorganization

19 A
 rticle Guidelines for Future

Published by:
Chevron ETC Subsea Department
Editor: Linda Gonzales
Co-editor: Jennifer Mills
Design & Production: Kim-Chi Le
Figure 1 Subsea Tree

MSV Maersk Achiever

By Zackary Lampkin

On December 14th, we welcomed the

latest addition to the Cabinda Gulf
Oil Company Ltd. (CABGOC) Subsea
team, the MSV Maersk Achiever. This
pocket battleship arrived from the Gulf
of Mexico where she had been busy
installing Blind Faith trees on wire in
7,000 feet of water.

Significant modifications were carried

out on the vessel in Mobile, Alabama,
to prepare her for dual-role operations
in Block 14. In addition to acting
as CABGOCs deepwater subsea
intervention vessel, she serves as
primary anchor handler for the mobile
offshore drilling units (MODUS),
Pride of Venezuela, Sedco 701, and
TransoceanSM Richardson rigs.

The Achiever is fitted with two

Figure 1 Two ROVs with Launch Recovery Systems (LARS)
oceaneering work-class remotely
operated vehicles (ROVs): one 225-hp
Millennium Plus, and one 175-hp
Magnum Plus. Both ROV systems
are equipped with a top-hat tether
management system (TMS) and are
rated to 10,000 feet of water. She has
a 250 ton, active heave-compensated
knuckle crane with a radius of 98 feet,
rated for over 8,000 feet of water.

The Achievers ROV arrangement,

clear of the deck and winches,
allows the vessel to switch seamlessly
between subsea and anchor-handling
operations. She retains all the
functionality of the standard Maersk
A-class anchor-handling vessel and,
with 23,480 hp, a maximum winch
pull of 625 tons and a massive
48,000 feet of winch wire, she is the
most capable anchor-handler in the
CABGOC fleet. Figure 2 Millennnium Plus ROV

Continued on page 3

 Energy Technology Company March 2008

MSV Maersk Achiever
Continued from page 2

With the Achiever, Chevron is allowed to use new techniques

in Angola. Subsea trees, jumpers, flying leads, pods, and
chokes will be installed and retrieved on wire from the vessel.

On February 9, 2008, the Achiever installed its first tree on

wire in Block 14. This was the 50th Chevron subsea tree in
Block 14. The CABGOC Subsea team is also developing an
intervention system to allow the vessel to perform riserless
downhole scale squeezes by removing and replacing the
subsea tree production choke insert.

With her dynamically positioned station-keeping capability,

state-of-the-art survey system, and multidiscipline support
team, the turquoise-colored MSV Maersk Achiever (see
Figure 3) is already improving offshore operational efficiency
and proving her worth. In the first month alone, the vessel
saved 13 days rig time. Vessel utilization has exceeded our
initial projections and we are planning a number of new
roles for the vessel.

Figure 4 Installing Subsea Tree by Wire

Figure 3 The MSV Maersk Achiever

Energy Technology Company March 2008 

Global Projects

Angola Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Project

By Jennifer Bell (Chevron Confidential Article)

Angola liquefied natural gas (LNG)

is an integrated gas utilization project
being developed by the wholly
owned subsidiaries of Sonangol E.P.
(22.8%), ENI SpA (13.6%), Chevron
Corporation (36.4%), BP PLC
(13.6%), and Total SA (13.6%). The
overall development, to be located
near Soyo in northern Angola, includes
an onshore LNG processing plant, a
marine terminal and loading facilities,
and a potential non-associated natural
gas (NAG) development. Sonangol, the
concessionaire for all concessions, is the
legal owner of the associated gas (AG)
and NAG produced from the petroleum
concessions. Sonangol has agreed to:
n D
 edicate gas reserves (to the

extent available) to the project free Figure 1 Pipeline Network Schematics

of charge, in sufficient quantities
to support operation of the plant customers are currently anticipated to the dedicated NAG fields (Quiluma,
facilities at full capacity for a be buyer affiliates. Enguia North, Atum, and Polvo fields).
period of thirty years. The offshore gas will be collected and
On December 10, 2007, Angola LNG transported to an onshore liquefaction
n E
 nable the project to meet
Limited announced that it had entered plant located near the town of Soyo
obligations for delivering domestic
into an investment contract with the in the Zaire province. The project
gas to Sonags.
government of Angola and Sonangol, will reduce natural gas flaring and
which defines the final provisions greenhouse gas emissions from offshore
The title to the AG will pass from necessary to implement the Angola oil producing areas, facilitate continued
Sonangol to Angola LNG Limited and LNG project. Additionally, Angola offshore oil field development, and
then block suppliers will deliver the LNG Limited announced the signing contribute to the development of a
gas to Angola LNG Limited. AG will by project entities of gas supply, gas future natural-gas-based industry
be delivered to the plant facilities by sales, and re-gasification agreements to within Angola.
the AG pipeline network to be built finalize the commercial requirements
by each of the block suppliers. When for the project. With the completion The Angola LNG project is expected
required, NAG will be delivered to of these agreements and the approval
to receive approximately one billion
the LNG plant by the NAG pipeline of the government of Angola, the
cubic feet (1 Bcf) of AG per day from
network, which will be built by the project investors authorized Angola
offshore producing blocks and produce
project or related entities. LNG Limited to proceed with the
5.2 million tonnes per year of LNG, as
construction and implementation of
well as related gas liquids products. It
After the natural gas is liquefied in the project.
is also expected to process and treat
Angola, Angola LNG Limited or related
up to 125 million cubic feet per day
entities will arrange dedicated shipping The Angola LNG Project will initially
(125 MM scf/D) of gas for use in
for the LNG to the United States, and use associated natural gas from the
domestic Angolan industrial projects.
possibly other markets, where it will be Cabinda Association and from Blocks
regasified and sold to customers. These 0/14, 15, 17 and 18, as well as from Continued on page 5

 Energy Technology Company March 2008

Angola Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Project
Continued from page 4

The construction and operational and other parts of the overall project housing project includes amenities
phases of the project will provide development, namely interfaces with and support infrastructure such as
new jobs and create opportunities for the AG pipeline gathering system recreational facilities, a clinic, and a
sustainable business development in (being constructed by the offshore school. These two projects include
Angola, particularly in Soyo and the block owners), the shipping function, road and bridge facilities connecting
Zaire province. the regasification terminal team, the housing areas to the LNG plant
and the Angola LNG Operating site and all associated support and
First LNG from the project is expected Company (opco). utility infrastructure required.
to be delivered to the U.S. natural
gas market by early 2012 via the Onshore LNG Facilities Pipeline Network
clean energy regasification terminal
The onshore LNG plant facilities As shown in Figure 2, gas from Blocks
near Pascagoula, Mississippi, which
(onshore facilities) will have a nominal 0/14, 15, and 17/18 will be transported
is under development by Gulf LNG
production capacity of 5 MM tpa of to the LNG plant by a dedicated
Energy LLC.
LNG for export and up to 125 MM pipeline system consisting of three
scf/D of gas to be made available primary pipelines. These pipelines
to Sonags for domestic gas supply. will connect the offshore blocks to an
The project scope consists of an Additionally, the onshore plant onshore LNG plant. The pipelines will
onshore nominal five million metric facilities will produce approximately start offshore, be routed to a specified
tonnes per annum (5 MM tpa) LNG 60,000 B/D of LPG and condensate landfall on the Angolan coast, and then
processing plant with marine terminal products. Approximately 1,100 MM terminate at the LNG plant next to the
and loading facilities, a nearshore scf/D of offshore feed gas is required town of Soyo.
gas supply pipeline network, and to supply the onshore facility.
AG pipelines. Plans may include Each block operator will connect to the
additional AG pipeline connections Gas Supply Pipelines blocks associated pipeline at a defined
and NAG pipelines. tie-in point. These tie-in connections
The offshore pipelines are the pipeline
will be located on subsea small pipeline
network for gas supply from the AG
The onshore LNG plant facilities will end manifolds (PLEMs) for all pipelines
producers (deepwater) and the NAG
be located on the north side of Kwanda south of the Congo River and from the
producers. This pipeline network
Island. The project will require 134 Sanha Complex for Block 0/14.
extends from each offshore block
hectares (331 acres) of land, including
production platform to the 20 m
approximately 78 hectares (193 acres) Block 0/14 Offshore Gas Export
(65.6 ft) water depth location.
of existing land located on the north Pipeline
side of the island, and approximately
The nearshore/onshore pipelines are The tie-in point to the line for Block
56 hectares (138 acres) of adjacent
the pipeline network for both the AG 0/14 will be at the Sanha Offshore
reclaimed land.
and the NAG producers from the Complex. The delivery point for gas
20 m (65.6 ft) water depth location from Block 0/14 into this pipeline will
These areas will accommodate the
to the pipeline manifold tie-in to the be the same as the tie-in point. Future
entire LNG plant facilities, with a
LNG plants inlet facilities. connections for Sonangol, between the
provision for a future second LNG
delivery point and the north pigging
train. Additional land will be obtained
Housing Projects platform and on both of the pigging
for laydown yards, docks, haul
platforms, will be provided.
roads, housing (both temporary and Two housing projects will be part of
permanent), temporary construction the overall project execution phase.
Block 15 Offshore Gas Export
facilities, construction housing, access One project is a construction housing
roads, bridge upgrades and, ultimately, development to house the up-to-7,000-
permanent residential housing. member construction workforce. The gas pipeline connecting Block 15 to
The second project is a permanent the onshore LNG plant is proposed to
The Project Management team housing development to house the be an 18-inch (46 cm) OD pipeline.
(PMT) is responsible for managing approximately 500 residential plant
the interfaces between the LNG plant operations workers. The permanent Continued on page 6

Energy Technology Company March 2008 

Angola Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Project
Continued from page 5

The tie-in point to the line for Block

15 will be at the inlet of PLEM 15b.
The delivery point for gas from Block
15 into this pipeline will be the same
as the tie-in point. The Block 15 gas
export pipeline will include one tie-in
connection for Sonangol.

Block 17 Offshore Gas Export

Pipeline (Phase 1 and Phase 2)
The tie-in point to the pipeline network
for Block 17 will be at a defined point
on PLEM 17b/c. The delivery point for
gas from Block 17 into this pipeline
will be downstream of the choke valve
and downstream of the bypass valve at
PLEM 17b. The pipeline will include
the following PLEMs to allow for tie-
ins with blocks and fields:
n P
 LEM 2a to tie-in to Block 2

n P
 LEM 3a to tie-in to Block 18 and

Block 32

n P
 LEM 17d to tie-in to the Figure 2 Angola LNG Pipeline Network
n P
 LEM 17b to tie-in to the CLOV The GERM also provides the control the gas flow rate and outlet pressure
field and shutoff functionality for protecting from each pipeline. These flow rates
the high-pressure/low-pressure (HP/LP) will be managed to ensure that gas
n P
 LEM 17c to tie-in to future
interface with Block 17 at PLEM 3A. inside the pipelines remains in the dense
Sonangol field(s)
phase under operating conditions.

Block 18 Offshore Gas Export Blocks 0/14, 15, and 17/18

The onshore pipeline right of
Pipeline way (ROW) will be designed to
Nearshore/Onshore Pipelines
The gas pipeline network connecting accommodate three AG lines, two NAG
Block 18 to the onshore LNG plant The three AG pipelines connecting lines, and other potential Sonangol
will begin with a proposed 12.75-inch Block 0/14, Block 15, and Blocks lines. No provision will be made in the
OD (PLEM 18B) and connect to PLEM 17/18 to the LNG plant will continue AG pipeline shore crossing for future
3A, whereby Block 18 will share from their offshore/nearshore interface NAG pipelines; however, allowance
pipeline with Block 17 to the shore. points overland to the plant where will be made for two additional NAG
The tie-in point to the line for Block they will terminate in pig receivers/ lines within the onshore operational
18 will be at the outlet of PLEM 18A. launchers. Within the plant fence line corridor from the shore to the plant.
The delivery point for gas from Block they will be tied into the LNG piping
18 into this pipeline will be the same as and control systems.
the tie-in point.
These LNG systems will include
Flow of gas into the Block 18 pipeline pressure and flow rate control,
is controlled by PLEM 18A the gas emergency shutdown, and slug catching
export regulating manifold (GERM). facilities. The LNG plant will control Continued on page 7

 Energy Technology Company March 2008

Angola Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Project
Continued from page 6

In July, 2005, it was agreed that CABGOC (on behalf of
the Angola LNG participants), each of the block operators,
and Sonangol E.P. should assign one representative each to
a team to coordinate the activities relating to the front-end
engineering design (FEED) scope of work, and in particular,
the design of the pipeline network. At that time, CABGOC,
each block operator, and Sonangol E.P. designated individuals
to represent them on the Integrated Work team (IWT).

Each representative had the right to bring to any IWT

meeting technical and other advisors as may be deemed
appropriate. Each representative participated as a member of
the Integrated Work team and kept the team fully informed
of all significant proposed and ongoing activities under the
contracts including, but not limited to:
n T
 he status of all scope of work activities.

n A
 ny potential incompatibility or inconsistency of

those FEED scope of work activities with the design

requirements of the pipeline network.

The Offshore Project Manager, BP secondee Steve Warburton,

was assigned by CABGOC to the integrated work team to
coordinate the activities of the team. Some of the primary Figure 3 Angola LNG Proposed Current and Future Blocks for Gas Supply
tasks of the integrated work team under the coordination of
the offshore project manager were to: In August 2005, Subseas Jennifer Bell started on the project
as its offshore interface and coordination manager for FEED.
n P
 rovide overall coordination and make all reasonable
In that role, her primary responsibilities were to:
efforts to ensure the proper integration and
implementation of all scope of work activities carried n I nterface with the blocks and concessionaire on behalf
out by the block operators under their separate contracts of the Angola LNG Offshore team. Provide all technical
and CABGOC from their inception to their completion. consultation to the gas supply team in development
of commercial agreements with the gas supply block
n C
 oordinate the division of the scope of work into
operators from Block 0/14, Block 15, Block 17, and
separate contracts to help ensure that all scope of work
Block 18. Coordinate technical work to accommodate
activities are consistent with the design requirements
requirements of the commercial negotiations on these
and are carried out by the block operators under these
major commercial agreements.
n P
 articipate with the Angola LNG offshore team in
n R
 eview all significant proposed and ongoing scope of
completing the near-shore, shore-crossing, and line-
work activities of the block operators, and make any
to-plant scope of work for the gas gathering pipeline
recommendations to or raise any concerns or questions
network. Provide feedback to the project team on the
with the block operators with respect to those scope of
results of the ongoing negotiations and interface with
work activities.
all work teams in the Project Management team in
n V
 erify, by periodic review and otherwise, that the resolving any conflicts.
scope of work activities satisfy or will satisfy all design
n D
 evelop cooperative working relationships among all

Continued on page 8

Energy Technology Company March 2008 

Angola Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) Project
Continued from page 7

n D
 evelop and implement the Angola LNGs Pipeline n A
 ppropriateness of Specifications

Network Interface Management Systems, Management n F

 low Assurance and System Performance
of Change (MOC) Plan and Technical Assurance Plan
n A
 dequacy of Safety Engineering
for dealing with other project work teams and the block
operators. n P

n E
 nsure that all stakeholders successfully complete their n M

assigned assurance programs under the leadership of the n F

 uture Tie-Ins
integrated work team coordinator.
n O
 perations and Maintenance Philosophy

The pipeline network interface and MOC procedures were

The Assurance team pulled together common findings, as well
immediately developed to support these responsibilities and
as findings relevant to each block. The findings of each review
the items above.
were presented in individual reports. The reports executive
summary included common findings to the network high-level
The FEED Pipeline Network Interface Management Plan
findings and appendices included raw, as well as categorized,
covered the direct technical interfaces between the Angola
data by findings, specific recommendations, and actions. The
LNG Offshore team and the Offshore KBR Project team,
criticality rating of each finding and recommendation will
block operators, Angola LNG SPI team, Angola LNG
be included in the report, indicating the timeframe available
HES team, Angola LNG Gas Supply team, other involved
to resolve each item. Criticality ratings will be determined
contractors, and the indirect interfaces with the Angola
based on the criticality index developed for the interface
LNG plant design teams via the Angola LNG Interface
management and MOC process for the pipeline network.
representatives. The plan included a process to track any
potential MOC that may be initiated by any IWT participant.
The Angola LNG Network Assurance, Interface, and MOC
procedures are part of the Interface Management Networks
The primary objective of the Angola LNG Project Offshore
lessons learned and suggested practices. Portions of the
teams MOC procedure was to establish a systematic process
lessons learned from Angola LNG FFED assurance, interface,
for managing and communicating changes that affect the
and MOC activities will be presented at the 2008 CPDEP
pipeline networks cost, schedule, and offshore basis of design.
Forum by Jennifer Bell.
The procedure ensured:
Much more information about Angola LNG can be found on
n A
 ny IWT participant, including the Angola LNG
Offshore team and Sonangol Gas block operators,
properly initiates, manages, and accommodates change. Acknowledgements and Recognitions
n C
 hanges were assessed, justified, and controlled through
The author would like to thank the following people:
the life of the project.
n A
 ssurance team members: James Buchanan, Mark
n T
 echnical assurance and the integrity of the offshore
Johnson, Sam Kashou, Lindsay Laskowski, Gerry Suhali,
basis of design were maintained. Richard Weser, Xiaolin Zhang, Jie Zheng, Earl Thomas
Terri Houle, Eric Harding, Mike Baley, Scott Irvin,
The assurance for FEED brought together many more
Grant Ward, and Marc Viguerie
of ETCs subject matter experts that participated in the
assurance process. Because of the multipartner nature of the
n P
 roject Angola LNG Leadership team members:

project, the Assurance Plan and process were developed to be Chris Miller, Dave Boyer, and Mike Denton
suitable for each participant. Initially, the plan was based on n A
 ngola LNG representative to Chevron: Bill Erwin

Chevrons operations assurance and expanded to include the n A

 ngola LNG FEED Gas Supply Team Lead: Ken Rice
review of over 1,000 documents to check for:
n A
 ngola LNG Project, Law Manager: Barry Kotler
n B
 asis of Design Accuracy
n C
 hevron personnel working on the Congo River
n A
 ppropriateness of Design Techniques
Crossing Project in SASBU: David Chan, Re-Anna Bell,
n C
 orrectness of Calculations Mike Heck, and Jitendra Kikani

 Energy Technology Company March 2008

Subsea Technology

The Subsea Reliability Partnership

By Elaine Johnston, Tim Schick, Eric Waguespack, Carl Mathisen, and Paul Wingstrom

The Subsea Reliability Partnership Table 1 Subsea Reliability Partnership Teams

(SRP), consisting of three ETC teams,
Team Role
was established to capitalize on the
synergy and strengths of the teams to Subsea Reliability Analyze data and recommend reliability improvement strategies
support subsea projects. The SRP teams Quality Assurance Assure that subsea equipment is manufactured to meet
are shown in Table 1. requirements by ensuring that its quality meets or exceeds Chevron
Each SRP team has the following roles Category Align reliability partners, develop the appropriate key
and responsibilities: Management performance indicator and scorecards, monitor reliability
initiatives and facilitate issue resolution with subsea equipment
vendors (SEVs), and lead development of a reliability plan
Subsea Reliability Team
Computerized Maintenance Phase 4 Data Collection and Early Life The Phase 4 data collection process
Management System (CMMS) Failure Analysis consists of defining relevant data,
In 2007, human factors experts from refining the data collection method,
Each CMMS is receiving a subsea
the Western Australian Energy Research and developing a database. A high-level
component, e.g., Systems, Applications
Alliance (WAERA), Oxford University, plan has been developed for 2008 to
and Products (SAP), J. D. Edwards
and Risk Reliability and Safety (RRS) begin defining the data collection and
(JDE), and Datastream 7i (D7i), that
Engineering were contracted to begin value-adding process. The first step is to
will link to the SubseaMaster database
initial investigations into the human- request information from major capital
and software to facilitate Phase 5 data
factor elements of recent Chevron project (MCP) personnel and subsea
gathering. This effort will support
subsea equipment failures. After last equipment suppliers (SEVs). Next, a
the analysis of subsea equipment
years success in gathering initial process to capture data, considering
performance and the procedures and
findings and recommendations in the Phase 4 database specification and
recommendations that could lead to
reducing early-life-related-to-human- requirements for early life failure (ELF)
reduced equipment failure rates.
factors impact on failures from Phase analysis, will be refined.
The status of each CMMS and its link 5 data, the work continues in 2008 by
Phase 4 data will consist of relevant
to SubseaMaster is shown below: collecting and analyzing Phase 4 data.
non-conformances currently
experienced on subsea equipment
SAP CMMS in Chevron n The ETC Subsea Reliability team led the effort to from factory acceptance testing
Upstream Europe (CUE) install the subsea equipment data collection component (FAT) through installation, including
in the operational version of the SAP CMMS for the commissioning. Analysis of this data
Captain Field. The linking of the Captain SAP CMMS to will facilitate understanding the causes
SubseaMaster, and the associated training to use the subsea of ELF, which encompasses:
component, is currently being addressed.
n I nvestigating vendor procedures
n The SAP CMMS for Alba is next on the schedule.
and testing that result in non-
conformance reports (NCRs).
D7i CMMS in Gulf n Discussion is in progress with the GOMDW.
of Mexico Deepwater n P
 roviding recommendations to
(GOMDW) reduce ELF at the vendor.

JDE CMMS all other n Discussion is in progress with the Agbami project.
global regions excluding Depending on successful completion of the Agbami JDE
CUE and GOMDW CMMS subsea component, deployment to other global
assets will begin.
Continued on page 10

Energy Technology Company March 2008 

The Subsea Reliability Partnership
Continued from page 9

n P
 roviding recommendations to developed by the Subsea Reliability Table 2 Reliability Over Five Years for
reduce site-specific ELF; trend and team, establish reliability targets to Vendors Subsea Component in Field
report on any apparent systemic improve performance of components Operation
issues in the short term. having less-than-desirable functional Years in Operation Reliability
characteristics, i.e., weak links.
n E
 xpanding the scope to include
1 92%
MCP ELF procedures. Basic time-to-failure and run-time 2 86%
n P
 roviding guidance to MCPs and information from the current version
of the SubseaMaster database and 3 81%
business units (BUs) on practices
that should be defined in the software on the GIL Options Panel 4 76%
Quality Assurance Plan. These can be used in advanced analytical
5 72%
practices will confirm that the methods. Some of these analytical
identified sources of ELF have methods can support the design 6 69%
been acknowledged. phase and logistics planning, sparing,
intervention planning, etc. for active With the information gained from
n I dentifying gaps or potential errors
fields. This knowledge can assist in actual field performance, the reliability
by reviewing MCPs contracts and
logistics and intervention planning. assessment can be extended to future
procedures regarding the quality
events. For example, one can forecast
and handling of subsea equipment. These methods include: that reliability will further decrease to
n F
 ollowing up on recommendations n P
 roviding data input for RAM 69 percent in the next year. With this
made in 2007 from ELF modeling. information, the team can determine
preliminary examinations by the total number of failures that may
n A
 ssessing field reliability.
WAERA and RRS. be exhibited in five years of operation.
n T
 rending failures.
n A
 ssuring traceability from Phase 5
Some questions arise regarding the
operating failures to Phase 4 data. n E
 valuating and forecasting the
validity of combining data from
number of failures.
components that have undergone
Phase 5 Data Collection and Analysis n I dentifying weak links and their modification and improvements over
Phase 5 subsea equipment failure relative contribution to failures. the years. The answer is that the
data collection is an ongoing process. modifications are also reflected in the
n D
 etermining goals to optimize
Current data collection is a manual analysis. The resulting bathtub curve is
reliability of weak links.
process, but it will be streamlined shown in Figure 1.
when the CMMSs are linked to As an example of the use of
SubseaMaster. This link will assure performance parameters, subsea The bathtub curve is the history of
higher quality data and reduce data control modules (SCM) were examined. the failure rate over time of operation.
gathering costs. The failure data ranged from less than Figure 1 plots this for six years. The
one year to over ten years. This initial failure rate is decreasing; that is, there is
Performance parameters from current a downward trend in failures over time,
evaluation resulted in the values of
Phase 5 data will be available in although they still occur. The figure
reliability shown in Table 2, which
handbook form to MCPs and BUs shows the history of the bathtub curve
contains component reliability figures
in Second Quarter 2008. These before wear out because the component
for the first six years of field operation.
parameters will provide insight has not yet progressed to a stage where
in understanding the reliability of Table 2 illustrates how reliability wear out begins to dominate. The
fielded subsea production system decreases with time. After five years, modifications improve performance and
items and support design reliability, the component exhibited a reliability therefore contribute to the decrease in
availability, and maintainability (RAM) of 72 percent. What does this mean? the failure rate.
studies. The origin of the data for In the actual field environment,
failure rates is known and traceable Chevron would expect to see 72 of
because the database contains only the 100 components to be successfully
Chevron data. Additionally, the functioning after the first five years
reliability optimization guidelines, of operation. Continued on page 11

10 Energy Technology Company March 2008

The Subsea Reliability Partnership
Continued from page 10

Failure Rate Over Time



Failure rate





0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Time of operation (years)

Figure 1 The Bathtub Curve Showing a Decreasing Failure Rate Trend

Category Management Team Quality Assurance Team For example:

The Category Management teams Reliability and availability of equipment n S tandard contract language for
role is to act jointly with suppliers is dependent on many factors design, the Instructions to Bidder (ITB)
and stakeholders to improve subsea manufacture, installation, startup, and is available to establish consistent
equipment, controls reliability, and routine maintenance. These activities quality requirements with the
availability. must align with the final goal to allow engineering, procurement, and
the equipment or system to operate as construction contractor.
The team will address these tasks: intended. Poor quality of any of the n S tandard criticality assessment
above factors, such as poor design,
n C
 ommunicate SRP progress to and non-conformance reporting
supplier selection, manufacturing,
MCPs and BUs processes based on best practices
installations, startups, or maintenance,
are being written and approved.
n D
 evelop Subsea Equipment can result in using equipment that does
Vendor (SEV) scorecards to not meet our requirements and will n G
 uidance on roles and

emphasize reliability have a negative impact on the success responsibilities regarding quality
of projects. assurance will be available for use
n D
 evelop and work with the SEVs
by project teams, so that everyone
on specific reliability initiatives
The role of quality assurance during the involved understands their quality
n R
 eport SEV-specific reliability manufacturing phase is to assure that assurance duties.
weaknesses to the MCPs, BUs, the designed and purchased equipment
and SRP meets specified requirements. To support Too often, quality is considered a
subsea projects, the Quality Assurance Phase 4 activity. In reality, the
n C
 ompile and share reliability
team is developing tools that allow development of a project quality plan
lessons learned
MCPs to take a consistent approach in before front-end engineering provides
assuring quality during manufacture. the greatest opportunity to influence
final project quality.

Energy Technology Company March 2008 11

Center of Excellence Update

Flexible Pipe Design Optimization for West Africa Deepwater:

Agbami Production Riser Case Study
Overview from OTC 2008 paper No. 19250
By Ahmed Omar

The 8-inch inner diameter (ID)

production riser system in the Agbami
Field is the deepest-rated, highest
combined diameter and pressure design
of flexible pipe qualified for low-sour
service in a single section.

The Agbami Field is located in 4,756

to 5,248 ft (1,450 to 1,600 m) water
depth offshore Nigeria, between
Oil Mining Leases (OML) 127 and
128, approximately 220 nautical
miles southeast of Lagos. The subsea
production and injection wells are
connected to a Floating, Production,
Storage and Offloading (FPSO) vessel
via subsea manifolds, with static and
dynamic umbilicals, flexible risers,
flowlines, and flexible jumpers between
trees and manifolds. Treated stabilized Figure 1 Agbami Field Layout

crude oil will be periodically offloaded

from the FPSO through mid-water steel wires lateral buckling, while the tension The main drivers involved in the 8-inch
offloading lines between the FPSO and it needs to withstand remains limited. production riser design optimization
a single-point mooring buoy. Conversely, the top section must be were:
able to sustain the high tension and
n C
 ontingency in the event of the
The field development demonstrated fatigue, while the collapse loading
onset of souring
the clear benefits of using flexible and armor lateral buckling issues
risers and flowlines instead of steel are irrelevant. Therefore, designing n L
 arge outside diameter due to high

catenary risers (SCR) in terms of flow a flexible riser in a single continuous insulation level
assurance and startup requirements. It length suitable to accommodate both n H
 igh hydrostatic collapse pressure
also provided long-term flexibility, to loading scenarios is a challenge, and
accommodate changes in subsurface results in a compromise, particularly n R
 everse end-cap effect

requirements, with minimum impact on so as the diameter and water depth n T

 ensile armor lateral buckling
the FPSO. increase.
n T
 op tension

For deepwater applications, usually the Splitting the riser into two separate n I nstallation equipment limitation
design requirements associated with the sections offers additional leak paths
bottom section of the flexible riser are due to the mid-water connection and
the opposite of those for the top section provides no direct continuity between
of the riser. Indeed, the bottom section the annulus of the bottom and top
must accommodate the high-collapse pipes, and hence introduces risk of
loading, as well as be resistant to armor corrosion fatigue and early failure. Continued on page 13

12 Energy Technology Company March 2008

Flexible Pipe Design Optimization for ...
Continued from page 12

With the improved design The design of the 8-inch production The bend stiffener arrangement fits
methodologies and the optimization flexible riser to satisfactorily over the flexible risers and is located
of material selection, a design has accommodate all loadings associated at the FPSO keel level. It has been
been successfully developed, tested, with the deepwater environment, the designed to accommodate an abnormal
manufactured, and installed to meet low-sour environment with the use of scenario where the FPSO heel angle
the field requirements related to the high-strength sweet steel armor wires, can reach 17 degrees under damaged
production riser system with up to and in a 6,561-ft (2,000-m) single pipe conditions to the vessels hull.
50-ppm H2S (which is defined as a low- section proved to be challenging.
sour service). An integrity management process
The sealed plastic outer sheath of was initiated at the beginning of the
Adequate plastic materials have been the flexible risers is protected by a project to identify potential causes of
selected to optimize the annulus plastic layer re-enforced by means failure and implement a risk-consistent
environment of corrosive gases to a of high-strength Aramid tapes. monitoring and inspection strategy to
level compatible with the selected sweet This design of the pipe structure avoid failure during the service life of
high-strength steel wires. Extensive significantly increases the mechanical the flexible pipe system.
testing has been carried out to ensure resistance of flexible pipe against any
that the steel wires selected for the kind of external damage. This was Continued on page 14
Agbami pipe structures have sufficient demonstrated through a series of full-
resistance to sulfide stress cracking/ scale qualification tests carried out on
hydrogen-induced cracking (SSC/HIC) real pipe samples and witnessed by a
in the anticipated annulus conditions. third party.

Outer plastic sheath

High strength Aramid tape

Additional plastic sheath

Insulation foam

Intermediate plastic sheath


Pressure plastic sheath

Sacrificial plastic sheath

Armor steel wires

Zeta steel wire

Interlocked steel carcass

Figure 2 Production Riser Structure

Energy Technology Company March 2008 13

Flexible Pipe Design Optimization for ...
Continued from page 13

The author of this paper would like to thank Star Deep Water
Petroleum Limited (an affiliate of Chevron Corporation,
the operator of the Agbami Unit), Texaco Nigeria Outer
Shelf Inc. (a Chevron affiliate), Petroleo Brasileiro Nigeria
Limited, Statoil Nigeria Limited, Famfa Oil Limited, Nigerian
National Petroleum Corporation, and Technip for their
permission to present this paper.

The author would also like to offer his gratitude to all

members of the Agbami Project team that offered valuable
comments after reviewing the paper.

Figure 3 Production Riser in Carousel during Outer Sheath Extrusion Figure 4 Production Riser Passing Through Tensioners for Storage on
Carousel during Outer Sheath Extrusion

Subsea Achievement ROV DP Trials

By Alexis Denz
The Subsea department deployed The Subsea team has identified a The trial also supports the SERPENT
the remotely operated vehicle (ROV) number of applications of the software (Scientific Environmental ROV
Dynamic Positioning (DP) system, that will automate common ROV Partnership using Existing iNdustrial
SeeTrack Offshore, onboard the activities, as well as complement an Technology) program, an academic
Discoverer Deep Seas (DDS) to gather ongoing ETC strategic research (SR) collaborative with the oil and gas
long-term performance data for the project into the use of Autonomous offshore industry to collect population
software. The trial is sponsored by the Underwater Vehicles (AUVs). The data on organisms within the water
Chevron team for the DDS in a cross- software enables hovering, point-to- column. A first for SERPENT, the
functional collaboration for technology point navigation, and station-keeping ROV DP system will provide a stable
on a current asset. as several of the key advances to platform for image data collection,
ROV task automation and improved as well as the ability to volumetrically
situational awareness. observe a location over a period
of time.

14 Energy Technology Company March 2008

Downhole Control Line Reliability
By George Siappas, Gus Colyer, and Scot Ellis

ETC Subsea engineers George Siappas fixed at only certain points along the n I dentify actual downhole control
and Angus Gus Colyer, along with tubing, the variation in stress from the line failures and reasons for the
their ETC Drilling & Completions average must be determined between failures
colleague, Scot Ellis, co-authored the clamps. This paper provides the n E
 valuate the operational impact
following two papers based on their technical details for both calculations.
between the control system,
2007 TD07 work on downhole control
control fluids, completion string,
line reliability.
A System Level Approach to and the downhole control line
Subsea Hydraulic Control Line equipment
Analysis of Control Lines Reliability Issues n S eek industry participation in
Strapped to Tubing Abstract the analysis and testing of the
The second paper was presented at
112624 downhole control line equipment
the Offshore Technology Conference
The first paper was presented on in Houston on May 8, 2008. More n G
 enerate dedicated software to

March 4, 2008, at the International conference presentation information identify the downhole equipment
Association of Drilling Contractors/ can be found at: installation and operational loads
Society of Petroleum Engineers (IADC/ n T
 est downhole control line
SPE) Conference in Orlando, Florida. schedule/thursday.html. equipment to establish the
working envelope of the
Abstract Abstract components
Hydraulic control lines are commonly In general downhole control lines n C
 ross compare the analytical

used to actuate surface-controlled are not subject to routine failures, and test data results to identify
sub-surface safety valves, and new but a study of downhole completion equipment short falls
applications include choke operation failures identified the downhole
and the control of more complex control line to be a principle cause The outcome of implementing the
SmartWell completions. In general, of the failures. The cost of recovering above workflow and associated tasks
control lines are not subject to routine downhole completions to repair has led the project team to a greater
failures. However, the analysis of downhole control line failures understanding of what processes
worldwide completion failures warranted the investigation of the work best for control line and clamp
indicates control lines to be a critical reliability of the downhole control manufacturing. Some questions were
component of failure. In fact, control equipment of control line clamps, raised during the study regarding
lines and associated components, control lines, and control line fittings. connections and connection make
such as clamps and fittings, are not up indicating limitations in the
engineered with the same rigor as the Early work indicated that the components and interfaces. To answer
rest of the well completion. downhole control line components these questions, the vendors of the
were not engineered as a system but components, as well as of the interfaces
The first step in understanding control rather as individual components driven the components relate to, were involved
line failure is predicting the loads and by the hardware interfaces of more in order to drive component design
stresses in a control line strapped to the substantial components at the physical improvements and also improve the
tubing. Tubing movement causes loads limits of the system. Hence the downhole control line system overall.
in the control line through stretching mechanical attributes of the collection
and bending. To a lesser degree, the of components had never been closely Finally, the highest impact finding
tubing is loaded by the control lines. To studied before. was a distinct lack of recommended
determine this interaction, a calculation practices specifically for control
is performed where the control line and In order to remedy this, a system level line systems. A next step is the
the tubing are treated as a composite, approach was developed to understand determination of recommended practice
with axial displacement constrained and resolve the problem areas involved and qualification testing for improved
to be the same in both. This analysis in downhole control line reliability. reliability and reduced workover cost
provides the average stress state in the This system level approach defined the for control system repairs.
control line. Because the control line is following workflow:

Energy Technology Company March 2008 15

Welcome Aboard

Andrew Andy Chidalek Akinsowon (Akin) Oke

Joins ETCs Subsea Equipment Joins ETCs Subsea Controls Team
Akinsowon (Akin) Oke joined
Andy joined Chevron on February 11, Chevron Energy Technology Company
2008, as a subsea equipment specialist. on January 2, 2008, as a subsea
In December 2007, he graduated from controls specialist. He graduated from
The University of Texas at Austin with Texas A&M University with a masters
a bachelors degree in Mechanical degree in Electrical Engineering.
Engineering. Akin received his bachelors degree in
Electrical Engineering from Louisiana State University.
Previously, Andy interned for Occidental Oil and Gas, Flint Hills
Resources, and Baker Oil Tools. He previously had two summer internships with Chevrons
subsea controls group. Additionally, he interned one summer
In his free time, Andy enjoys staying active by riding bikes and
as automations and instrumentation engineering intern for
working out. He also enjoys watching college football, cooking,
Franks Casing.
and playing recreational sports.
In his free time, Akin enjoys playing basketball, cooking, reading,
and supporting his LSU Tigers, New Orleans Saints, and
Michael McGhie Arsenal Gunners.
Joins ETCs Subsea Systems Team
Michael McGhie joined Chevron Bose Olomola
ETC on March 4, 2008, as a subsea Joins ETCs Subsea Controls Team
engineer working within the Subsea
Operations team on the Frade project. Bose Olomola joined Chevron on
Before joining Chevron ETC, Michael February 11, 2008, as a subsea controls
worked as a subsea engineer for specialist. She graduated from the
CUEs DCSG (Drilling, Completions University of Houston with a bachelors
and Subsea Group), supporting Chevrons North Sea assets with degree in Electrical Engineering.
subsea controls systems and DSV/IRM work.
Before she joined Chevron, Bose
In 2006, he graduated from the University of Strathclyde, worked as an automation engineer
Glasgow, U.K., with a masters degree in Mechanical Engineering. COOP for Shell Oil Company. She also worked as a software
Prior to joining Chevron, Michael worked in a variety of engineer intern for General Motors, as well as a subsea controls
departments during summer placements for service companies engineer intern for FMC Technologies, Inc.
including Halliburton and KBRSM.
Bose has a knack for crazy activities such as sky diving, bungee
Michael enjoys staying fit and healthy with a variety of outdoor jumping, parasailing, and riding roller coasters. In her free time, she
pursuits including downhill mountain bike racing, rock climbing, enjoys swimming, running, eating out, shopping, and reading. She
ice climbing, and snowboarding. also enjoys traveling, and has lived on three different continents.

Trent Schexnaildre
Joins ETCs Subsea Equipment Team
Trent Schexnaildre transferred from Chevrons Gulf of Mexico business unit to the Energy Technology
Company in January 2008, as Lianzi subsea equipment engineer.

Trent received his bachelors degree in Chemical Engineering from Louisiana State University in 1996. In 2005,
Trent joined Chevrons Gulf of Mexico Business Unit (BU) in Lafayette, Louisiana, as a facilities engineer. In
this position, he worked on Hurricane Rita Restoration projects, which included new pipeline and production
facility installations. Before joining Chevron, Trent worked with a small independent oil and gas company in
Houston where he gained nine years offshore Facilities Engineering (FE) experience.

Trent enjoys spending time with his wife and their 19-month-old twins. In his free time, he enjoys playing basketball, jogging, and golf.

16 Energy Technology Company March 2008

Subsea Performance Scorecard
March 2008

Target Status/Complete

HES 100% WorkWell and WorkPace programs (133 ee) 133 112
4 BBS Observations/Employee 532 228
Driver Training: 100% Completion of Program 133
Zero RSI Incidents 0 0
0 Motor Vehicle Crashes (MVC) 0 0

People Hiring: College (12)/Interns (7) 12 and 7 5 and 1
Total Employee Vacation Hours Taken 13,520 676 Hrs

Technology TD-Schedule/Deliverables/Milestones/Budget
& Processes Manage Specs & Standards Development & Updates
Long Distance Power Program Milestones Met:
n Achieve alignment with Jack/St. Malo and Lianzi Projects
n May 2008: Place Umbilical and Transformer Design Contracts
Sub-surface Data Transmission Project Aligned with ETC Completions
Wet Insulation Program Milestones Met
AUVehicle/ROV Strategic Research Program Milestones Met
ARC GIS Subsea Field Layout Ready for 2009 Deployment
Reliability & Integrity Program Executed and Deployed

Partnerships Align w/Chevron Pipe Line Company. Aligned on Pipeline Engineering

Align with D&C on Subsea Intervention & Equipment
FE Reliability Unit & Subsea team. Aligned on Subsea Reliability:
n Subsea Phase 4 Acquisition and Early Life Failure Examination
n Systematic Capture of Subsea Operational Data
(CMMS-SS Component and SSM link)
n Advanced Data Analysis and Mgt. (Reliability Handbook)
n Phase 5 Data Maintenance and SSM and Other Training
n Advanced Data Analysis and Mgt. (optimization)
Subsea Projects team is Self-Funded
Effectively Lead/Support Key JIP (Specifically, Chevron Statoil team)
ASR Program: Green Field Deplayment of All Electric Control System

Budget 60% Time Writing 45%

100% Cost Recovery (+/-3%) 70%

Knowledge TechNets Network Close Out >56% 67%
Debriefs from Conference & Forums Captured & Shared 3
Lessons Learned Sessions Held & Shared

Deployment Positioning/Station Keeping Tools (NASNet) to Other Projects & D&C

Specs & Standards to Major Capital Projects & Business Units
Subsea File Structure to Projects, BUs, & ETC Departments
n Floating and Fixed Systems 20%
n SASBU 10%
Develop & Deploy Process to Reduce Early Life Failure of PODs

Energy Technology Company March 2008 17

Letter from the General Manager

Subsea Unit Reorganization

By Randy Kubota

As the first quarter of 2008 comes to Subsea Technology Subsea Employees

an end, it is an excellent time to review
While a significant portion of the Our personnel are key components
and understand the Subsea Business
units work is supporting major in the Subsea units achievement of
Plan, which has been summarized
capital projects and/or operations, excellence plan. As we develop our
in a five-page document and in the
an additional task is our focus on engineers, it is also important to
scorecard on page 21. The plans
technology. The Subsea unit has establish and maintain a strong rapport
objective is to align our business
established a team, under Rick Kopps, with field operations. Here are the first
unit with the corporate direction for
to develop long-distance power and quarter employee highlights:
subsea. As part of the alignment with
pumping. This team will manage
Chevrons direction, the ETC FE Subsea n F
 ive engineers recently accepted
a portion of some projects power
unit was recently reorganized. Some short-term assignments with
and pumping developments, execute
key drivers of reorganization were to: Tengizchevroil (TCO): Eric
the Research Partnership to Secure
Use the reorganization to build Harding, Ever Hernandez, Cory
Energy for America (RPSEA) program,
integrated systems rather than Mull, Grant Ward, and Josh Ward.
and complete the Chevron Strategic
compartmentalized sectors. Research program. n In
 the spring Personnel
n Improve the supervisor-to-

Development Committee (PDC)
engineer ratio. Additionally, the subsea standard meetings, Bhailal Parmar,
specifications recently had a major John Bodine, and Doug Nally
n Promote common themes such as:

were transferred to business
revision. This revision took place to
l Umbilicals and flexibles

ensure that they were a suite of aligned unit operations teams. Subsea
(installation and integrity). standards documents, which can be personnel were also added to the
l Equipment and controls.
 used as a package by subsea projects. Gorgon, Jack/St. Malo, Lianzi, and
Along with the Chevron Engineering Negage projects. Soon to follow,
n Create a new team to focus on

personnel will be assigned to the
Standards (CES), they are ready for
long-distance power and pumping. Big Foot and Wheatstone projects.
upload into the CES Web page and
n Align management of the

subsequent deployment to projects. n A commendable article, published

Horizons engineer population. in the Society of Hispanic
n Highlight Subseas significant
 During the revision process, the team Professional Engineers magazine,
support role in major projects by made some suggestions to CES, which spotlighted Teri Houle, and also
providing: were adopted. The 2008 documents featured Teri on the cover of the
are currently being written and are magazine. Congratulations, Teri!
l Project support teams.

adopting the lessons learned from
l Subject matter experts (SMEs).

this revision. The revision team In closing, we have another challenging
n Establish a point of contact with
 members included: Brian Ferrier, year ahead and we must concentrate on
Phase 5 operations. Anthony Palisch, Scott Stjernstrom, our engineering excellence goals. It is
Sean Thomas, Dudley Gray, important to remember that engineering
As Chevrons upstream business moves Mendel Nock, Dewey Compton, excellence includes leadership and a
forward, the importance of subsea Curtiss Blankenship, Cathy Chapman, commitment to safety. I highly encourage
excellence in performance comes Kris McCall, and Carl Mathisen. you to exercise your Stop Work
into sharper focus. All the hard work Thanks to all of you for completing an Authority as needed. Please remember
accomplished in the past two and excellent project. that Chevrons most important asset is
one-half years will soon undergo the the people working with us.
tests of production. During production, For more information, please see the
Chevron Engineering Standards Web On a personal note, I want to remind
we must anticipate problems and be
site at you to maintain a healthy work/life
prepared to fulfill the new function of
balance. If you havent already done
ETC FE Subseas role as we support the
so, its time to start planning your
business units with their operations.
vacation time, as it is an integral factor
in creating work/life balance.

18 Energy Technology Company March 2008

Article Guidelines for Future Editions

Future Editions Guidelines for Submitting Articles

Each issue will focus on a different If you are interested in authoring an article for the newsletter, please follow these
region and, in each issue, the editor guidelines:
will communicate the focus area for
the next issue. The June 2008, issue n Verify that your articles are appropriate for readers outside of Chevron;
will focus on the Frade Brazil Project. do not include information considered confidential or proprietary in them.
Please ensure that you have approval from the respective business unit on
If you are involved in this area, we all the information submitted in the article.
encourage you to share with us your
projects, best practices, and overall n  Keep articles to a maximum of two printed pages and include
subsea experiences. photographs or graphics whenever possible. Try to provide photos in
JPEG, BMP, or TIFF format. Make sure that the photos have a resolution
of 150 dpi or higher. Also, try to send original screenshots in whatever
format they were saved.

n Make sure that you have written permission to use any text or graphics
created by non-Chevron sources. We must have this information to
comply with the Chevron Copyright Compliance Policy.

n Submit articles to Linda Gonzales by the 15th of the month in December,

March, June, and September.

n  Contact Linda Gonzales ( if you have any

questions regarding the process.

Energy Technology Company

1500 Louisiana Street
Houston, TX 77002

2008 Chevron Energy Technology Company, a division of Chevron U.S.A., Inc.

Unauthorized reproduction is strictly prohibited. All rights reserved. CBRES/IDC Houston 064607 05/08