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Body Paragraphs

Where writing gets analytical =)

• When writing an analysis. the beginning of the text and work your way through it by • Begins discussing what the writer is saying and the effectiveness of • opens the strategies he/she is using at the beginning. . This means that you start at can use. middle. and end • ends of the text. and end • closes of the text. Whether you discuss each paragraph or each • moves to section depends on the length and organization of the text itself. it is • To help you move crucial that you work chronologically through the text. • contrasts • Sometimes this means that you will discuss each paragraph • Shifts to (one at a time). chronologically through the there are transition words you text. middle. and sometimes this means that you will divide • juxtaposes the text into sections and discuss the beginning.

• Identify the strongest rhetorical strategies used in that particular • The above items must be woven section. his purpose and reach his audience. strategy the writer uses. This includes together seamlessly into one incorporating specific text sophisticated paragraph of the examples (exact words from the body of your analysis essay.Each Paragraph Should… • Identify the part of the text you • Clearly and specifically explain are analyzing by using transition how the rhetorical strategies are words and strong verbs to used to help the writer achieve explain what is being said. pick the strongest! . text – see last page of this handout for proper format) into • Do NOT try to discuss every your own words.

• Topic sentences guide your reader through your thought process. forward toward the body of the paragraph” (Hacker). [signposts] pointing in two directions: backward toward • 2. the paragraph. . They link that content to the thesis of the essay and the thesis statement. . .Topic Sentences • 1. They predict the content of • Topic sentences “[act] as .

. – Reagan begins his tribute to the Challenger astronauts by acknowledging that the shuttle accident has appropriately postponed his planned State of the Union address and by expressing the depth of his and his wife’s personal grief.Let’s see that in action… • The first sentence identifies which section of the text you are discussing and the main idea of that section. • (Writer’s last name) (transition word) his/her (type of text) by (strong verb) that (main idea of this section of the text).

that today is rightfully a “day for mourning and remembering” (2-3). . •This outpouring of emotion from the president conveys a calming tone that reassures the Nation that their grief is both understandable and proper. •The third sentence explains how the rhetorical strategies you discussed in the previous sentences help the writer achieve his purpose by using an in order to statement. •He joins in this time of mourning in order to unify the nation and humbly admit that “we share this pain with all of the people of our country” (4) •The fourth sentence identifies the effect of the writer’s use of these rhetorical strategies on the audience.• The second sentence conveys the writer’s support for the main idea by identifying and providing a specific example for one rhetorical strategy used by the writer. [This sentence is repeated if you want to discuss more than one rhetorical strategy. and that the accident is “truly a national loss” (4).] – He appeals to the mournful emotions of the audience by admitting that he and Nancy are “pained to the core” (3).

that today is rightfully a “day for mourning and remembering” (2-3). This outpouring of emotion from the president conveys a calming tone that reassures the Nation that their grief is both understandable and proper. He appeals to the mournful emotions of the audience by admitting that he and Nancy are “pained to the core” (3).All together now… • Reagan begins his tribute to the Challenger astronauts by acknowledging that the shuttle accident has appropriately postponed his planned State of the Union address and by expressing the depth of his and his wife’s personal grief. and that the accident is “truly a national loss” (4). He joins in this time of mourning in order to unify the nation and humbly admit that “we share this pain with all of the people of our country” (4). .

. Paragraphs create the fundamental structure of the essay. • Many writers find topic sentences a useful tool both for organizing paragraphs and also for helping Readers navigate through the essay. students should indent paragraphs clearly. Essays that do not use paragraphs tend to be full of confused and rambling thoughts. • Although it may seem like a small matter. A paper without indentation or with unclear indentation often confuses a Reader.Tips from AP Readers… • Use paragraphs and topic sentences. and without them good ideas can get muddled.

– Include line/ page numbers.Use Quotations & Explain them! • To score at least a 3. • Use specific quotations to back up your claims. • Remember to explain and quotes clearly and demonstrate how they are relevant to the question. make pertinent references from the text. – Embed quotes in your thoughts. . • Long quotes without explanation bogs down your essay and can give the undesirable impression that you’re just trying to fill up space rather than answer the prompt! (even when you think you’re not).

very. • Connect ideas with transitional wording. choppy sentences without variety indicate a writer who has little background in grammar and style. ironically often score only a 2 because they lack clarity and sometimes say nothing of relevance to the prompt. • Use the RIGHT WORD. Sticking in big words just to sound scholarly. perhaps someone who has read and written minimally. etc. good). subordinate clauses. really. participial phrases.“Variety is the spice of life” • Short. – Avoid weak diction (A lot. but writers should make certain that the words fit. – An arsenal of appropriate vocabulary and analytical wording reveals a brilliant mind at work. . appositives.

Edgar Allan Poe will forever be remembered as a leader of the American Romantic Movement. For these reasons.In Conclusion • The conclusion is probably the easiest • Don’t begin with “In Conclusion” (or part. writers. His stories constantly challenge classic authority. Poe demonstrates many • Don’t begin a critic and review the characteristics of American romantic passage. simply remind your reader of the things you said in the introduction. In one-two sentences. His eerie idealism and uncertain description of – Miller is the best playwright I’ve read all time and space also tag him as a year. prime example of a romantic American author. • Don’t restate your introduction. a – Steinbeck does a really good job using imagery to illustrate Lenny’s feelings of cornerstone of the American isolation. Romantic Movement. its synonyms).if you haven’t before. • “Surprisingly. and you should read him too. Be brief.” .

essay will be N/S (not score able). your present tense. it). While the calm courtroom into a scene of reader won’t deduct points for chaos.Epilogue • In a rhetorical analysis avoid • If a reader can’t read your personal pronouns ( I. – Miller suggests a sense of hysteria as the yellow bird changes the • Yes. if • Write about literature in the they cannot crack the code. writing… they won’t. spelling counts. me. an essay overflowing with errors distracts • Look beyond the obvious the reader and takes away from – Punctuation your credibility as a writer. – While readers make every attempt to read your writing. – Stylistic changes added by an editor . we. each misspelled word. you.