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A number of institutions and individuals Karlsruhe University

supported and contributed to the completion of Prof. Dr. Friedemann Wenzel (Director,
this endeavor. The Project Working Committee Geophysical Institute), and
is grateful for the valuable time, ideas and German Embassy in Nepal
resources invested by the following entities in Mr. Udo Weber (Councilor, Development);
support of the project:
The offices of international development
The German Federal Foreign Affairs organizations in Nepal for their comments and
Office through the Deutsches Komitee sharing of information -
Katastrophenvorsorge for the financial support
which made this land use planning exercise Asian Development Bank
possible; Mr. Nogrendra Sapkota and Ms. Laxmi Sharma
The Kathmandu Metropolitan Council (Nepal Resident Mission), Mr. Norio Saito and
(KMC), Executive Offices and Departments Mr. David Margonsztern (Urban Development
for their commitment, cooperation and strong Division), and Mr. David Irwin (Consultant),
participation, especially the Mayors Office,
Urban Development Department, Physical German Technical Cooperation
Development and Construction Department, Dr. Horst Matthaus (Coordinator, Governance
Public Health and Social Development ad Civil Society), and
Department, Legal Department, and Economic
Management Department; Japan International Cooperation Agency
Mr. Sourab Rana (Program Officer);
The Kathmandu Valley Town Development
Committee for their relevant comments and And lastly, Mr. Ken Topping for his reviews,
guidance; comments and recommendations on the risk-
sensitive land use plan.
The Ministry Officials and related departments
for taking time in providing valuable inputs and The Project Working Committee appreciates
suggestions on the initial drafts of this land use the contribution of these individuals and
plan; organizations. Sincere apologies are extended
to those we might have inadvertently failed to
The members of the National Society for thank in this document.
Earthquake Technology-Nepal for their tireless
support, sharing of knowledge and resources,
and continued advocacy in mainstreaming
disaster risk reduction in planning and project

The various persons from different institutions

and organizations for their comments -


The past few years have reminded us that development and spatial plans by engaging the
disasters affect anyplace and anyone. Recent government at various levels, private sector, civil
tragedies such as the earthquakes that struck society, international development organizations,
Indonesia (2006), China (2007), Haiti (2010), and other key stakeholders (e.g. academe, media,
Chile (2010) and the massive flooding that private sector, etc.). The land use planning
hit the Philippines and Vietnam (2009) have process helps the city address its need to reduce
left thousands of people dead and injured, not disaster risks as part of its pursuit for sustainable
to mention tremendous losses in livelihoods, development.
properties, and resources and millions of people
left homeless. This Risk-Sensitive Land Use Plan (RSLUP)
for Kathmandu and the accompanying Sectoral
Acting on the premise that disasters are best Profile and Preliminary Zone Ordinance are
avoided through disaster risk reduction (DRR), the major outputs under Project Work Output
governments from around the world adopted 1.1 (PWO) of the project titled, Disaster Risk
the Hyogo Framework for Action (HFA) at the Reduction in Megacities - A Pilot Application in
2005 World Conference on Disaster Reduction Metro Manila and Kathmandu. The project was
in Kobe, Japan. The HFA called on national a collaborative undertaking between Kathmandu
governments to substantially reduce disaster Metropolitan City (KMC), Earthquakes and
losses by 2015 through concrete actions in five Megacities Initiative (EMI), and the National
priority areas, to wit: Society for Earthquake Technology - Nepal
1. Make DRR a priority by ensuring that it is a (NSET), with support from the German Federal
national and local priority through efficient Foreign Office (FFO) through the Deutsches
legal and institutional mechanisms; Komitee Katastrophenvorsorge (DKKV). The
2. Know the risks and take action by projects main goals under PWO 1.1 are two-
identifying, assessing and monitoring risks fold: (a) to develop a rational land use plan
leading to an effective warning system; for KMC that fully integrates risk reduction
3. Build understanding and awareness through parameters into its spatial and physical
knowledge, innovation and education to development strategies and their related tools,
build a culture of safety and resilience at all bylaws and procedures, and (b) to mobilize
levels; political commitment and cooperation for DRR
4. Reduce the underlying risk factors at the local and regional levels. The project
by ensuring that exposure to hazards, demonstrates that land use planning could be
vulnerabilities of people and their places an effective tool to lessen the physical, social
and resources are protected and safe, thus and economic vulnerabilities of cities to natural
resulting in resilient communities; and hazards.
5. Be prepared and ready to act by
strengthening the disaster preparedness for This RSLUP is a product of activities undertaken
effective response at all levels. in Phase 2 of the project, that is, from June
2008 to January 2010. Reports for Phase 1
Since then, land use planning has been (November 2007 - March 2008) were originally
identified as one of the most effective ways to submitted by EMI to DKKV and FFO in
take the HFA forward. For highly vulnerable March 2008; copies of which may be requested
cities like Kathmandu, a land use plan offers an from EMI or any of the projects partner
opportunity to incorporate risk reduction into organizations.


Kathmandu Metropolitan City

Mr. Ganesh Rai - Chief Executive Officer

Mr. Niranjan Baral - Former Chief Executive Officer
Mr. Bimal Rijal - PWC Team Leader; Head, Physical Development and
Construction Department; and former Head, Urban Development Department
Mr. Tribhuvan Pradhan - Chief, IT/GIS Section, Urban Development Department
Mr. Surendra Rajkarnikar - Civil Engineer, Physical Development and
Construction Department
Mr. Dhruba Kafle - Chief, Disaster Management Section,
Urban Development Department
Mr. Basantha Acharya - Law Division, Administration and Organizational
Development Department
Mr. Bishnu Joshi - Town Inspector, Enforcement Division, Administration and
Organizational Development Department
Ms. Kumari Rai - Division Chief, Public Health and Social Development Department

Mr. Devendra Dongol - Former Head of the Department of Public Works and
Current Head of the Urban Development Department

Kathmandu Valley Town Development Committee

Dr. Bhaikaji Tiwari - Town Controller

Mr. Shambhu K.C. - Member Secretary
Mr. Dan Bahadur Malla - Engineer
Mr. Ram Prasad Shrestha - Engineer
Mr. Kamal Prasad Bhattarai - Engineer

Ministries and Related Departments of the Government of Nepal

Mr. Reshmi Raj Pandey - Undersecretary, Ministry of Local Development

Mr. Dinesh Thapaliya - Joint Secretary, Ministry of Local Development
Mr. Suresh P. Acharya - Joint Secretary, Ministry of Planning and Public Works
Mr. Mahendra Subba - Deputy Director General, Urban Development Division,
Department of Urban Development and Building Construction, Ministry of Planning
and Public Works
Mr. G.P. Gorkhali - Deputy Director General, Housing Division, Department of Urban
Development and Building Construction, Ministry of Planning and Public Works

Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative

Dr. Eng. Fouad Bendimerad - Project Director, Earthquake Risk

Assessment and DRR Expert
Dr. Tabassam Raza - Project Manager, Disaster Risk Reduction Specialist

Mr. Jerome B. Zayas - Project Coordinator, Community Awareness Specialist
Dr. Renan Tanhueco - Task Leader and Land Use Planner
Dr. Marqueza L. Reyes - Task Leader, Land Use Planner and DRR Specialist
Mr. Marino S. Deocariza, EnP - Socio-Economic Planner
Dr. Eng. Noriel C. Tiglao. - Transportation Planner
Atty. Asteya M. Santiago, Ph. D. - Former, Legal and Institutional Planning Expert
Atty. Saviniano Perez - Legal and Institutional Planning Expert
Engr. Sergio Abad II - GIS Specialist
Leigh Lingad - Project Analyst
Mr. Rajjan Chitrakar - Local Coordinator
Ms. Julie Catherine Paran, EnP - Manager, Knowledge Development and Dissemination
Mr. Kristoffer Berse - Editor and Head, Knowledge Management
Mr. Wini Dagli- Knowledge Management
Mr. Jose Mari Daclan - Knowledge Management
Mr. Jerome Cruz - Knowledge Management and Layout Design
Mr. Jesus Dominic Dizon - Editorial Support
Ms. Zenaida Tejerero- Administration and Procurement
Ms. Letty Perez - Accounting and Finance
Ms. Anna Leah Baliton - Research Intern
Ms. Joyce Lyn Salunat - Research Intern

National Society for Earthquake Technology - Nepal

Dr. Amod Dixit - Chief Executive Officer

Mr. Ram Chandra Kandel - Director
Mr. Surya Acharya - Program Manager
Mr. Ganesh Kumar Jimee - Program Manager

German Federal Foreign Oce / Deutsches Komitee Katastrophenvorsorge

Mr. Karl-Otto Zentel - Chief Executive Officer
Ms. Birgit zum Kley-Fiquet - Finance

External Reviewer
Kenneth Topping - Kenneth Topping and Associates, San Luis Obispo, California

Project Adviser
Mr. Friedemann Wenzel - Professor, Geophysical Institute,
Karlsruhe University, Germany


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ADPC Asian Disaster Preparedness Center

ADB Asian Development Bank
BAP Bagmati Action Plan
BASP Bagmati Authority and Sewerage Plan
BCHLC Bagmati Civilization High Level Committee
BM Bhaktapur Municipality
CBD Central Business District
CBOs Central Business Organizations
CDS City Development Strategy
DDC District Development Committee
DDO District Development Office
DDRC District Disaster Relief Committee
DKKV Deutsches Komitee Katastrophenvorsorge
DLRM Department of Land Reform and Management
DOR Department of Road
DOS Department of Survey
DoTM Department of Transport Management
DRA Disaster Risk Assessment
DRM Disaster Risk Management
DRMMP Disaster Risk Management Master Plan
DRR Disaster Risk Reduction
DUDBC Department of Urban Development and
Building Construction
EMI Earthquakes and Megacities Initiative
FAR Floor Area Ratio
FFO German Federal Foreign Affairs Office
GIS Geographical Information System
GoN Government of Nepal
GTZ German Technical Cooperation
ICIMOD International Centre for Integrated
Mountain Development
IEC Information and Education Campaign
IMP Integrated Master Plan
INGO International Non-government Organizations
IT Information Technology
IWO Implementation Work Output
JICA Japan International Cooperation Agency
KMC Kathmandu Metropolitan City
KUKL Kathmandu Upatyaka Limited
KVERMP Kathmandu Valley Earthquake Risk Management Project
KVTDC Kathmandu Valley Town Development Committee
LSGA Local Self Governance Act
LSMC Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan City

MMI Modified Mercalli Intensity
MOC Memorandum of Cooperation
MoEST Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology
MOHA Ministry of Home Affairs
MOLD Ministry of Local Development
MOLRM Ministry of Land Reform and Management
MoPPW Ministry of Physical Planning and Works
MRF Material Recovery Facility
M-TM Madhyapur Thimi Municipality
NGA Non-Governmental Agency
NGO Non-governmental Organization
NSET National Society for Earthquake Technology
NWSC Nepal Water Supply Corporation
PDC Pacific Disaster Center
PEER Program for Enhancement of Emergency Response
PO Peoples Organization
PWC Project Working Committee
RSLUP Risk Sensitive Land Use Planning
UDD Urban Development Department
UNDP United Nations Development Programme
UNEP United Nations Environment Programme
VDC Village Development Committee
WB World Bank


This preliminary Risk-sensitive Land Use 2. Risk-Sensitive Land Use Plan 2020 (10
Plan (RSLUP) for KMC is a product of a years); and
two-year cooperative undertaking by a multi- 3. Draft Zoning Ordinance Framework (10
disciplinary team of specialists and practitioners years).
from KMC, NSET, and EMI. It is one
of the four components of a larger project The Sectoral Profile provides a compendium
aimed at mainstreaming DRR in Kathmandu of data and information on the physical,
and Metro Manila. The development of the social, economic, cultural, infrastructure,
RSLUP received the backing and support of environmental, and institutional characteristics
public officials from within KMC, as well of the city, including its disaster risk landscape,
as from other ministries and agencies of the which can serve as a chief source of information
Government of Nepal (GoN). The outcome for planning, research, investments, decision-
benefitted from inputs and comments of making, and other uses. It is available as a
external peer reviewers, KMC local officials, separate report.
and representatives of relevant ministries, in
particular the Ministry of Local Development This RSLUP is a ten-year guide (2010-2020)
(MOLD), Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA), for realizing KMCs desired spatial pattern of
and the Ministry of Planning and Public Works development, with due consideration to the
(MoPPW) through its concerned agencies, citys seismic risks, emergency response and
namely, the Department of Urban Development disaster management capabilities, through
and Public Construction (DUDBC) and different land use policies and urban renewal
the Kathmandu Valley Town Development schemes.
Committee (KVTDC).
The RSLUP builds on previous and existing
The project also received inputs from various land use plans, land use maps and land use-
development partners in Nepal through a series related programs of the government, as well as
of consultations and workshops that took place policies, initiatives and studies in disaster risk
during the course of the project. These include management (DRM) that affect Kathmandu,
the United Nations Development Programme such as the Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in
(UNDP), United Nations-Office for the the Kathmandu Valley undertaken by JICA
Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (UN- in 2002. The RSLUP explicitly incorporates
OCHA), Asian Development Bank (ADB), assessments and projections for transportation
German Technical Cooperation (GTZ), Japan and traffic management in the future. It also
International Cooperation Agency (JICA), and includes strategies and actions that prescribe
City Development Initiative of Asia (CDIA). reasonable limits and restraints on the use of
property through proposed zoning regulations
The deliverables for this particular project and other local ordinances and control
component (i.e. PWO 1.1) are as follows: mechanisms for development within the city.
1. KMC Sectoral Profile; It is intended to serve as a guide for engaging

in historical preservation, infrastructure Activities) in the different development sectors,
development (e.g. transport, utilities, facilities, the information on the financial performance
etc.), regulating housing settlements and open of KMC, as well as the potential sources of
space, reclassifying agricultural lands into non- funding for various projects, were not fully
agricultural uses, and improving emergency addressed due to constraints in budget and
management. It covers the entire territorial time. At the end of this document, a set of
jurisdiction of KMC. future activities is outlined to complete and
improve this RSLUP. This version of the
The Draft Zoning Ordinance is meant to serve RSLUP should be considered as a working
as the principal instrument for enforcing the document and not a comprehensive land use
locational policies and performance standards plan.
of the RSLUP. Once the zoning ordinance is
enacted, further land development must be The structure and summary of this report is
aligned with what is stipulated in the RSLUP. provided below. The document covers eight
chapters with annexes on document reviews
While this preliminary RSLUP provides a and proceedings of meetings conducted as part
clear framework to guide the citys future of the planning exercise.
development, it is constrained by the following
limitations: (a) some of the data used has not Chapter 1, Planning Mandates and Approach,
been fully qualified and may need further provides the rationale for risk-sensitive land
verification; (b) the financial implications of use planning and gives an introduction of
proposed programs, projects, and activities the planning mandates and key policies and
(PPAs) have not been evaluated; (c) the process plans that are relevant to land use planning in
of adoption, implementation and enforcement Nepal. It presents a summary of the mandates
of the RSLUP has not been engaged; (d) the of national, regional and municipal planning
understanding of the RSLUP by the national authorities and directives from the various
and international agencies (beyond KMC and ministries. The chapter also discusses planning
NSET) has been limited; and (e) the awareness and mainstreaming frameworks and the overall
campaigns, advocacy, and capacity building mechanism of integrating elements of DRR in
efforts have been minimal. These limitations KMCs planning process. It provides contents
are due to the lack of financial resources and and limitation of the RSLUP. The chapter ends
the limited timeframe allocated to the project. with the summary of KMCs Sectoral Profile.
The land use plan relied largely on secondary
information derived from previous studies by Chapter 2, The Study Area, provides a
KMC, KVTDC and government ministries. summary of the geography, hazards, and
One major difficulty encountered was the socio-economic conditions of the city. It draws
necessity of relying on risk assessment results information mainly from the Sectoral Profile to
prepared in 2002, which focused on earthquake provide the initial context of the planning.
hazards only. Data on other hazards (e.g., flood,
landslides, fire, and others) were sketchy. These Chapter 3, Vision, presents the outputs of
shortcomings are proposed to be addressed in the visioning exercise held in July 2009 in
a future phase of the project. In addition, the Kathmandu City. It includes the description
implications of existing or planned projects and elaboration of the measures of success
(e.g. ongoing riverside development, proposed for various vision elements, as prepared by
parking, and new roads) by development local stakeholders. In general, the citys vision
agencies were less studied and not fully emphasizes beauty, safety, tourism, health,
incorporated in this RSLUP. green living, robust economy, and resilient local
While the RSLUP includes an initial list
of proposed PPAs (Programs, Projects and

Chapter 4, Development Issues and Problems, of facilities maintenance similarly contributes
summarizes the challenges and opportunities to higher estimates of damage in the core and
that could bring KMC closer to the realization adjoining wards.
of its vision. Among the pressing development In terms of infrastructure, several bridges are
concerns identified include congestion in the likely to be heavily damaged, closing most
city core and sprawling development at the of the access points in and out of KMC. The
periphery, inadequate housing and urban same earthquake study in Kathmandu Valley
facilities, unregulated industrial and residential estimated that more than 10 percent of road
expansion, poor income, and high physical length will be damaged and more than 50
vulnerability. Socio-economic concerns percent of bridges will be impassable if an
include the loss of cultural heritage, ineffective earthquake with intensity IX hit Kathmandu
education policy, decreasing performance of Valley. Almost all bridges connecting to the
industries, and weak institutional capacities. international airport are at risk. As most of
Further the chapter emphasizes earthquake them have neither been replaced nor retrofitted,
risk and its impacts, represented by a M8.0 implications for damage and consequent
Mid-Nepal Earthquake scenario which could disruption remain substantial. Note that these
potentially produce a level of intensity of IX as estimates are based on data that is at least ten
measured by the Modified Mercalli Intensity years old. In view of the increase in population
Scale MMI1. Such scenario is expected to in the last decade and further degradation of
heavily damage 53,000 buildings and result the physical infrastructure, the losses should
in 18,000 deaths and 53,000 injured persons be expected to be much higher. However, the
within Kathmandu Valley. However, these project did not have the resources and time to
estimates are based on census data from 1991. improve on existing data.
Since then, the population of the Kathmandu
Valley has just about doubled and the density The public transportation system of KMC
has significantly increased, thus increasing the is characterized by the dominance of low-
physical and social vulnerability of the city. The occupancy vehicles namely, three-wheelers,
actual losses could be several times greater than microbuses and taxis. Furthermore, the low
these projections. quality of the existing public transport system
drives the increasing ownership and use of
On physical and environment issues, the private transport, particularly private cars and
following are highlighted: shortage of motorcycles. This situation has contributed to
habitable land against an increasing demand serious traffic congestion, air pollution and low
for urban land, continuing loss of public energy efficiency.
open space, conversion of agricultural lands,
fragmentation of land parcels arising from Traffic scenarios developed by reducing trips in
inheritance activities, backlogs in infrastructure the Core Area, that is, by transferring part of its
development, declining water supply against population to the eastern or western areas of the
increasing demands, poor wastewater collection city, revealed that such action only transfers the
and treatment, deterioration of heritage sites traffic elsewhere within its boundaries. Hence,
and environmental deterioration, air pollution, it is suggested that decongestion may likely be
electrical power shortages, open dumping of achieved if future population be directed outside
solid wastes, traffic congestion with decreasing of Kathmandu City and towards the Valley
capacities, and structural risks to old buildings boundaries. An identification of possible sites
specially those made of brick and mortar. Lack is suggested in this RSLUP, but requires further
 1SHMIH1IVGEPPM-RXIRWMX] 11- MWEGSRZIR studies on their availability and suitability, and
WSYVGI this movement and identify the needed

infrastructures and policies, the implications accommodate the population projected
of hazards (e.g. flooding, landslides, ground in 2015 but it is unlikely that they will be
shaking, and liquefaction) and their related risks able to do so in 2020. Wards 11 and 32
on the proposed new development sites, the will remain congested, and raising the FAR
transport system proposed, and the resulting may be questionable at this time without
emergency scenarios that need to be identified further information on ground conditions
and evaluated. The appropriate risk reduction and allowable height restrictions from
measures should then be integrated into future microzonation studies. Wards 1 and 33 can
land use plans or investment projects not just for accommodate a larger population and may
Kathmandu City but for the entire Valley. be possible for densification.

The chapter similarly suggests a list of mutually In the North, even if a FAR of 2 is
reinforcing risk reduction and development maintained, Ward 16 will still have the
strategies such as (a) restricting or discouraging heaviest concentration of population to be
new structures in high-risk areas (Core Area); housed. Ward 3 will increase its capacity;
(b) providing economic incentives to discourage while Wards 2, 4 and 29 can accommodate
development in high-risk areas; (c) use of land residential population in 2015 but will
pooling experiences by KMC; (d) relocating exceed this capacity in 2020.
occupants in high risk-buildings; (e) protection
of critical facilities; and (f ) encouraging In the Core, available land area will no
government and private sector to observe longer meet the projected population in
building bylaws and zoning regulations. These either year even if the FAR is raised to 2,
strategies are further listed in Tables 4.7-4.11. revealing a truly congested situation.

Chapter 5, Towards a Preferred Urban Form, In the West, raising the FAR to 2 increases
discusses the preferred urban form as the the residential capacity to meet demand in
organizing concept for guiding the physical 2015 but not in 2020.
growth of KMC. It indicates the initial bases
and considerations for deciding on an alternative While these are crude assumptions and
strategy. In the absence of an updated inventory estimates, augmenting existing residential
on characteristics of residential buildings (i.e. areas for future population through infilling
floor area ratio (FAR), percent area occupation and densification may be possible but rather
of buildings), assumptions were made to difficult to promote at this time without
check theoretically if future residential areas in verifying the actual FAR of buildings on the
each ward having a FAR of 2 and 50 percent ground, and resolving the transport congestion
occupancy were sufficient to house its future problem. Hence, special studies on these
residential population (based on projections). are required for ascertaining availability and
Based on this, results of the projection are as suitability of sites for residential-mixed used
follows: areas.

In the East sector, the projected population At the same time, it also points to the fact that
by 2015 or 2020 cannot be accommodated in some wards, increases in capacity, through
by its own allotted residential areas. Wards densification of residential areas, may no longer
7, 34 and 35 are likely to remain congested, be feasible after the planning period. Hence,
even if the FAR is doubled. Wards 8, 9 and looking for possible residential sites outside of
10 have enough space to accommodate their KMC and towards Kathmandu Valley remain
own populations, but this is likely to be the most plausible options. These findings
exceeded in 2020. and conclusions should be further refined by
more detailed studies that also integrates an
In the Central sector, Wards 5 and 31 can comprehensive analysis of the transport system

in the Valley. the streets and square be restored to allow for
their exclusive use by pedestrians. Mercantile
The redevelopment of the core area needs to be operations shall also be regulated; hence, private
prioritized to include measures for (a) relocating buildings shall be used only for traditional and
part of the existing residential population compatible activities. Boundaries and buffer
outside the Core area; (b) reducing building and zones identified and approved by the World
traffic congestion and deterioration of heritage Heritage Committee shall be enforced. Access
sites; (c) directing future non-compatible to emergency vehicles and fire fighting engines
commercial activities outside the city; (d) should be improved.
pursuing redevelopment or preservation with
seismic risks in mind; and (e) providing access Given the varied and special requirements
to open areas and an emergency plan (e.g. towards the preservation of the heritage site and
considering the possible blockages created by redevelopment of the Core and its vicinity, this
damaged buildings over narrow streets and area should be taken as a special zone.
roads in an earthquake).
The Central Sector Growth Area
In summary, the strategy proposed at this
time focuses on protecting assets (specially the The central area being heavily built up, is
core area) through a combination of seismic congested with mixed uses. The circulation
retrofitting of buildings and infrastructures and network serving the wards in this area is the
relocating existing structures or locating future Ring Road, which shall be improved by
structures in safer environments and planned widening its connection with the Madan
areas. The latter strategy may include future Bhandari Path. A commercial buffer strip along
planned expansion in safe, available areas in the the Madan Bhandari Path shall provide for the
Valley. The possibility of forming a new risk- new medium to high density commercial uses
sensitive multi-centered development supported proposed to concentrate along this road; while
by a properly planned transport system may dense mixed residential uses shall continue to
hold the most promising prospect towards the dominate the rest of the sector. Strong land use
realization of the KMC vision within the Valley. policies will have to be instituted to maintain
Within Kathmandu City, different development the buffer as well as densify these areas to its
areas and corridors (see Figure on Kathmandu carrying capacity under FAR of 2 to 3.
City Land Use) are described briefly:
This central sector will maintain its function
The Core as the financial and business district of the
city, leaving the traditional role for worship,
As the traditional city core, it functions as pilgrimage and other related mercantile
the nerve center of the social, economic and functions at the core.
political life of KMC. The heritage site in the
core shall be restored close to its original design Wards outside the CBD (central business
and form (Integrated Management Framework, district) will be medium density residential
Kathmandu Valley World Heritage Site, 2007). areas, where row houses and townhouses will be
With the cultural and heritage value of the encouraged.
monuments in mind, the structural integrity of
the monuments and remaining structures shall The East Sector Growth Corridors
be reviewed for possible seismic retrofitting
against ground shaking and related hazards. Development of the eastern and southeastern
The use and function of the public spaces sections of the city is influenced by the airport
shall be continued, but will be based on the location. Providing the vital link from this
understanding and appreciation of the heritage airport into inner areas is the same Madan
values of the site. The RSLUP suggests that Bhandari Path. The east sector, in general, will

be promoted as a tourism and residential area Chapter 8, Conclusions and Future Work,
incorporating into its master plan two major presents a rationale for the extension of the
developments: 1) road commercial strips, and RSLUP to the whole Kathmandu Valley and
2) apartment housing. These two features will the completion of the Kathmandu City RSLUP
serve as the focal points of this growth corridor. into a Comprehensive RSLUP. It proposes a
Vegetable markets here will be expanded and related work plan for a subsequent three-year
modernized in order to cater to the growing phase to undertake the work.
In line with the citys aim to further strengthen
its role as the premiere center in education and Moving forward with the adoption,
health services, vacant lands still available in the implementation and enforcement of the
fringes of the East area (near land pooled areas) RSLUP will undoubtedly curb the risk
may be used for setting parks that are conducive to Kathmandu and build the discipline
to learning and healing. in development decisions and approaches
The North Sector Residential Growth Area that has been lacking to date. The RSLUP
This area shall be maintained as a tourist is a benchmark document in filling an
destination. The highways oriented toward the important gap for the direction and control of
north can serve as visual corridors leading to development within Kathmandu that should be
the forest areas of the mountains. Therefore, the endorsed, adopted, implemented and enforced
construction of high rise structures in this area urgently.
shall be regulated.
Nonetheless, it must be noted that this version
The West Sector Growth Corridor of the RSLUP remains a working document.
New developments will be identified by urban Some of its underlying data needs to be
redevelopment zones (along the Outer Ring qualified, completed and refined. Its biggest
Road) within the commercial buffer strips to limitation is that it is limited geographically to
promote further commerce in the area. The KMC. Kathmandu City is physically, socially,
West sector shall remain largely a residential area politically and economically fully enclosed
comprised of other residential area categories within the Kathmandu Valley. The link between
and land pooled areas. The preferred form will Kathmandu City and Kathmandu Valley is
improve the riverside (Bagmati and Bishnumati) vital in terms of its demographics, economy,
in this sector. living, and livelihood conditions. The
RSLUP for KMC leads to the realization that
Chapter 6, Kathmandu City Risk-Sensitive proposed strategies and approaches for future
Land Use Plan, presents the land use plan and development are dependent on looking beyond
the different land use policy frameworks for the the boundaries of the city proper. Key elements
regulation of future land use activities, consistent such as transport and housing require a Valley-
with the chosen spatial strategy. This section wide analysis in order to be understood,
presents the four major land use policy areas assessed and incorporated adequately. Further,
of settlements, production, protection, and the hazards and their consequences do not stop
infrastructure. These four policy areas cover all at the city boundary; thus, approaches for DRR
possible areas within KMCs territory. and for effective emergency management must
take a Valley-wide perspective. Other hazards
Chapter 7, The Zoning Ordinance, presents a such as floods and landslides but also including
framework for the zoning plan. Much of the the long-term effects of climate change
materials are drawn from the KVTDC Building also need to be incorporated. Emergency
Bylaws of 2007. Other annexes are also included management approaches must be framed in
for completeness. the context of the Valley in order to organize
essential emergency management elements such

as fire fighting, search and rescue, evacuation, includes the extension of the RSLUP to
shelter, water, health, sanitation, etc. Hence, multi-hazards as well as the incorporation of
the comprehensiveness and completeness of a emergency management parameters.
risk-sensitive plan is only possible in the context
of the full Valley. At the same time, efforts to Task 4: Valley-Wide Risk Sensitive
extend the RSLUP to the whole of Kathmandu Transport Analysis. This task includes the
Valley will lend themselves to improving and incorporation of Valley-wide risk sensitive
completing the current Kathmandu City transportation study to serve as a backbone
RSLUP, which will serve as a model to other to the Valley-wide risk sensitive development
cities. framework.

The proposed scope of future work is structured Task 5: Special Studies. This task includes
into six tasks which will have two key the undertaking a several special studies
deliverables: needed to refine the RSLUP (e.g., social
housing, historical preservation, building
1. A Kathmandu Valley Risk-Sensitive code implementation).
Planning Framework (KV-RSPF)
2. A Comprehensive Risk Sensitive Land Use Task 6: Development of the Kathmandu
Plan for Kathmandu City Valley Risk-Sensitive Planning Framework,
This is the final task to integrate the above
The six tasks are fully detailed in Section 6 elements into a Kathmandu Valley Risk
of the report together with a corresponding Sensitive Development Framework with
timeline. The proposed work is expected to take its companion document Kathmandu-City
three years. However, the work can be phased Comprehensive RSLUP. These elements
with Task 1 being given the priority, followed can then serve as guides and model for other
by an effort to complete the Kathmandu cities to develop their own RSLUP.
City RSLUP. For reference, the six tasks are
indicated below: It has to be emphasized that the mainstreaming
process should continue towards further refining
Task 1: Adoption, Implementation and and updating this land use plan up until the
Enforcement of Kathmandu City RSLUP. implementation stages. Hence, other stages of
This task includes reviewing, improving, planning such as local financial planning, project
and testing the legal and institutional programming and budgeting, monitoring and
arrangements for adoption, implementation evaluation programs need to be included in
and enforcement of the RSLUP. succeeding planning activities.
Performance indicators will also be included

Task 2: Valley-Wide Data Collection The decision to manage the city according to
and Completion of the Kathmandu City the mandates of the Local Self-Governance Act
RSLUP. This task includes the development (LGSA) provides local governments such as
of a Sectoral Profile and related Resource KMC and other municipalities the authority
Maps to the whole Valley. It also includes to take public control over the direction and
the incorporation of on-going and planned pattern of development in their territories.
development projects into the RSLUP, as Through a rigorous risk-sensitive planning
well as its completeness and refinement into process, local governments such as KMC can
a Comprehensive RSLUP. be proactive in prescribing the use of land, with
the guidance and support of higher government
Task 3: Valley Wide Multi-Hazard Analysis offices to achieve the following results:
and Emergency Management. This task

Hazards such as earthquakes, floods and
others are accounted for and their impacts
reduced with time;
Settlement areas are made livable and safe;
Communities and institutions are prepared,
with sufficient understanding of their
capabilities, responsibilities and authorities
before, during and after a disaster
Protected areas are respected and preserved
for the benefit of all;
Infrastructure support is adequate and
efficient to help a modern city become
the model in the management of planned
change; and
Production areas are used sustainably so
that the needs of the present and future
generations will continue to be adequately

Performance indicators of accomplishments

in DRM by KMC and other national agencies
responsible for land use planning, urban
development and DRM should be used to
benchmark the current situation and measure
future progress. While being a first step, the
framework for mainstreaming introduced
in this RSLUP could similarly be used to
guide development and allocation of land.
The replication of the approach towards
the Kathmandu Valley can provide lessons
in managing risks common to cities and
municipalities arising from natural hazards and
climate change-related effects in Nepal and


Many highly urbanized and urbanizing cities A collaborative approach was selected to ensure
fail to consider that risk to disasters is not pro- full ownership of the project by KMC and other
duced by natural hazards alone, but are similarly local partners and build the capacity within local
man-made. Locating buildings, changing oc- professionals. The engagement of the partners
cupancies, increasing building densities without in the project and their integration in a single
considering the hazards of the place, developing team was instrumental to the success of the
poor infrastructures, and not providing enough project. To initiate the process, EMI organized
open spaces, among others, are among the main a series of consultation meetings within KMC,
ingredients for a disaster. The direct damage on leading to the creation of a Project Working
these structures may oftentimes be significant, Committee (PWC) comprising of different
but non-structural damages and loss of lives units from KMC, KVTDC, the various Min-
may prove to be more costly, derailing develop- istries (e.g., MoPPW, MOLD, and MOHA),
ment plans and washing out hopes of its people NSET and EMI. Each member of the team had
towards recovery. specific roles and responsibilities and contrib-
uted to the project according to his/her own
The major disasters in Yogyakarta, Indone- expertise. Leadership in the project was shared
sia (2006) and Port-au-Prince, Haiti (2010) between partners, with EMI filling the technical
are painful images which can provide similar and managerial gap, while local partners under-
scenarios of a devastating earthquake hitting took most of the data collection, consultations,
Kathmandu Valley in Nepal. Rather than taking coordination and validation. The mobilization
the Mid-Nepal Earthquake scenario (KVTDC/ of all the resources among the partners enabled
JICA earthquake study in 2002) as one of fate, a significant scaling up of the outcome of the
this potential disaster can be avoided. project as well as the possibility to overcome
many hurdles during its implementation. The
Essentially, RSLUP came about as an offshoot PWC served as the technical, managerial, logisti-
of a previous study undertaken by EMI, KMC, cal and administrative unit of the project, as well
NSET and other local and international part- as the consultation and coordination agent for
ners to develop a disaster risk management the different activities needed for the RSLUP
master plan (DRMMP) for Kathmandu during formulation.
the period 2005-2006. This RSLUP integrates
elements (i.e. disaster risk assessment and During the initial meetings by the PWC, several
mitigation) into local land use planning by: (a) key points were identified as crucial in ensur-
using available seismic hazard and risk informa- ing the crafting of the plan: (a) incorporation
tion; (b) including emergency management of existing land use maps and other available
parameters (e.g., evacuation roads), (c) prescrib- land use information (e.g., development and
ing a series of disaster risk reduction strategies master plans, the risk maps resulting from the
and actions in the land use planning practice; JICA-funded study in 2002, and the findings
and (d) delivering a rational risk-sensitive land and results of Phase 1 of this study); (b) devel-
use plan to guide the future development of oping protocols to improve inter-institutional
Kathmandu. coordination, complementing strengths and

weaknesses of the PWC members; (c) providing At this time, the current zoning schemes main
for a framework for mainstreaming DRR in land functionality is to frame possible urban zon-
use plan formulation; (d) identifying and defin- ing. In spite of these limitations, the RSLUP
ing programs aimed at reducing physical and provides a rational framework to guide future
social vulnerability; and (e) promoting aware- development within Kathmandu in a process
ness and gaining support on the importance of that will undeniably produce a safer and more
practicing risk sensitive land use planning. These sustainable development than the ad-hoc and
initial series of activities provided for the project haphazard manner under which the city has
scope and framework for mainstreaming DRR in developed in the last several years.
Similar project-related outputs were prepared
The elements of the RSLUP and its driving by KMC complementing this RSLUP, namely,
parameters were prepared through a series of the creation of Disaster Risk Management and
workshops and investigations by the members of Citizen Safety (DRMCS) Unit and the for-
the PWC, relying mainly on secondary informa- mulation of a related Emergency Operations
tion and subsequently reviewed and updated by Plan, both as part of PWO 1.2 of the larger
the PWC members through validation exercises. FFO project. These are meant to institutional-
In terms of data processing and mapping for the ize disaster preparedness and management and
RSLUP, substantive efforts and resources were preparedness units within KMC and further
committed by KMC and NSET to collect the strengthen the ownership process by local insti-
appropriate information, analyze and formulate tutions.
it in a way that is required by the RSLUP. The
project drew particularly on information in the Several follow-on activities need to be under-
geographic information systems (GIS) in place taken in order for the RSLUP to become an
in each of the KMC departments as well as at effective document in guiding the citys future
NSET. Coming up with new data and updated development. First and foremost, implemen-
information proved to take much time and re- tation and enforcement mechanisms need
source, especially for purposes of understanding to be developed through appropriate regula-
and establishing trends on demographic, social tion, empowerment, training and awareness.
and economic growth, and spatial distribution in Without enforcement, the RSLUP will remain
Kathmandu. The EMI technical team provided just a plan. Secondly, Kathmandu City is
the guidance in terms of the type and format of geographically and politically integrated with
the data and lead the analysis and integration of the rest of the Kathmandu Valley. Its land-use
the data within the PWC. However, while some strategy and requirements cannot be undertak-
of the data was in satisfactory quality, others were en in isolation from the adjoining municipali-
either unreliable, could not be located, or did ties and localities within the Valley. Thus, the
not exist. In addition, the PWC did not have RSLUP must be completed to include the full
the resources or time to locate and collect all Kathmandu Valley. Thirdly, the RSLUP needs
the data that may be in the hands of the various to be completed by integrating all development
national institutions and international develop- projects undertaken by national and interna-
ment partners. Furthermore, the same limita- tional development agencies and by completing
tions in time and resources made the project rely and qualifying uncertain or incomplete data.
mostly on available information. The project Fourthly, refinements of the plan are needed
did not have the possibility to update existing to include other hazards (e.g. flood). There is
information or generate new data (e.g., hazard also a required activity to improve the technical
and risk information, inventories on buildings, capacity of planners and other professionals at
traffic demands, among others) through further KMC, KVTDC and at national level institu-
inspections and studies. Thus, some elements of tions (Ministry) which are similarly envisioned
this RSLUP need to be further qualified and its to take the lead in mainstreaming risk reduc-
accompanying zone plan accordingly modified. tion in the land use and development processes

in the Kathmandu Valley and the rest of the

The Kathmandu RSLUP is undertaken as a

pilot study to provide an example for Nepal and
other cities in the developing world as to how
DRR and emergency management consider-
ations can be explicitly integrated with land use
planning and urban developmental planning.
By completing this project, Kathmandu City
will be one of the very few cities in the develop-
ing world that has completed a risk-sensitive
land use plan. Thus, this project could have
significant value to the implementation of urban
DRR if this pilot study is completed, duplicated
and refined in other cities.


1.1. Rationale for Risk-Sensitive Land Use KMC is facing a number of problems related
Planning for Kathmandu City to its growing population. One major issue of
the city is congestion due to high population
Historically, Nepal has experienced several density. Population density in the city had
destructive earthquakes with more than 11,000 crossed over 1,000 persons per hectare in some
people killed in four major earthquakes just wards particularly at the city core. This has
in the past century. The recently developed resulted in several related concerns such as
and published Three-Year Interim Plan increased traffic, high level of waste generation,
(2007 - 2010) of Nepal recognizes disasters as and increased demand for urban services and
one of the major impediments to its national facilities. In relation to seismic hazards, most
development. A review of the seismicity and structures are old and made of stone, brick and
damages in Nepal reveal that damage intensities mud whose structural elements are unlikely
(see NSET website, ) to withstand strong shaking leading to their
greater than or having same intensity (MMI) damage or structural collapse. Some buildings
VI may recur every 21 years, damage intensities stand closely near rivers (Bagmati, Bishnumati
greater than or having intensities greater than and Dobikhola) and are prone to collapse from
(MMI) VIII may recur every 38 years, and the liquefaction. Previous studies have identified
more extensive damage under (MMI) intensity possibilities of strategic roads and bridges likely
IX may recur every 75 years. Based on the to suffer damages under strong ground shaking.
earthquake catalog, Nepal faces one earthquake Other visual indications that damage and
of Magnitude 7 or greater every 75 years, on collapse are likely to result in deaths and various
average. Such magnitude earthquake could be degrees of injury are revealed from high density
extremely damaging to urban metropolises as of structures and their high occupancy adjacent
demonstrated by the M7.0 January 2010 Haiti to narrow streets; heavy foot and vehicular
earthquake. Even more alarming is that since traffic in old sections of the city, and lack of
1800 five (5) events of M>= 7 have affected strategic fire stations to contain building fire.
Kathmandu. Recent damaging earthquakes in The visual images of mass casualties and injuries,
Nepal were recorded in 1980 and M8.3 in1934, poor access to the damage site and egress to
with the first documented earthquake in 1255. evacuation sites and to medical facilities provide
impetus in planning the city against seismic
A risk assessment by JICA and MOHA in risks.
a 2002 study titled, Earthquake Disaster
Mitigation in the Kathmandu Valley, illustrated In general, these existing conditions contribute
the implications of a Mid-Nepal Earthquake to increased vulnerability of communities,
scenario on Kathmandu Valley as follows: (a) compounding the possible disruption of various
number of heavily damaged buildings: 53,000 functions and destruction of physical assets.
or 21 percent of all buildings; (b) death toll: Added to this problem is the limited supply of
18,000 or 1.3 percent of the total population in lands and resources to serve the needs of the
the Valley; and (c) number of seriously injured future population for infrastructure related
people: 53,000 or 3.8 percent of the total to housing, transportation and other urban
population in the Valley. services.

One way of addressing development problems in ability to cope with or recover in times of
the face of seismic risks is to deal with identified disaster.
risks and their management in the planning
process. This approach was taken in the land use Identification of hazard-prone areas where
planning exercise for KMC. future settlements may be discouraged
or restricted, or where possible structural
This RSLUP is the municipal counterpart of adjustments may be implemented. These
Valley-wide physical framework plans prepared constraints to development become part
by KVTDC. It is a ten-year guide (2010-2020) of the development goals and issues.
for more detailed development planning of
Kathmandu City. The land use plan provides a Improved preparedness and realistic
long-term view of how land can be best utilized emergency operation plans to prepare
to provide the platform for various development for effective response and to develop the
activities, as well as serve as a key component capability to deal with emergency and
(e.g. soil) for producing various goods. As such, reduce loss of life.
land can serve a multitude of uses such as for
settlements, production, infrastructures and Increased awareness of decision-makers
maintaining lifelines (e.g. food from forests and and stakeholders to ensure reduced loss to
water from aquifers). life and property from seismic risks.

It also adopts or seeks to strengthen the role Inclusion of appropriate risk reduction
identified for the city in the higher-level plans measures in priority programs and projects
and aligns its infrastructure projects along those and eventually provided with budgetary
plans (e.g. KVTDC, Ministry). Regional plans resources and implemented in periodic
or Valley-wide projects that will be located in plans, duly monitored and evaluated.
KMC shall be chosen with the participation of
affected local residents and in consideration of Appropriate identification of zones for
the inherent natural hazards of the place. These various land uses, with relevant resolutions
sites will be committed lands forming part of the and legislations promulgated to support
Kathmandu City land use plan. It shall confine them. Clear directions to Building
or divert settlement, production areas, and Bylaws of KMC are crafted following the
infrastructures outside of areas that are protected prevention and mitigation policies and
from human activities and shall identify and measures identified in this plan.
prescribe the necessary adjustments in case of
unavoidable threats from natural hazards. These elements constitute the foundations of
a risk-sensitive land use plan. Once translated
Natural hazards that pose significant threats to and enacted into a zoning ordinance, the
these land uses, to the elements below and above policies in this RSLUP become mandatory
them, and to corresponding land use activities, and enforceable. Enforcement is the key to its
shall be reduced, if not eliminated. Hence, land implementation, and concerns regarding this
use planning offers a way of integrating these area remain to be addressed.
concerns as well as their possible solutions.
As a first step, the integration of seismic risk This document was developed to serve as
assessment and the subsequent risk reduction a source of information for the important
measures in this plan may result in: elements, approaches, methodologies for
mainstreaming seismic risks and their
A better knowledge and understanding management in the land use planning
of the seismic risks and the vulnerabilities exercise at the local (e.g. city or municipal
of exposed communities, their social planning) level. It is hoped that it can be
and economic susceptibilities, and their adopted, completed, improved, implemented

and enforced by KMC and other relevant 1. The Interim Constitution of Nepal 2063
government agencies in Nepal. It is also (2007)
hoped that it will serve as a model to other
cities in Nepal and other countries on how to Under this Interim Constitution, provinces are
integrate DRR in land use planning and urban granted autonomy and full authority to plan
development. for their territories. Article 140(1) stipulates the
mobilization and allocation of responsibilities
1.2. Legal Mandate for Plan Formulation and revenues between the Government of
Nepal and local authorities as provided by law,
In coordination with local municipalities and in order to make the latter accountable for the
Village Development Committees (VDCs), the identification, formulation and implementation
KVTDC is responsible for the overall planning of local level plans, while maintaining equality
and regulation of urban development at the in the mobilization, appropriation of means and
Valley level. Its work includes the formulation resources, and distribution of development.
and updating of Valley development plans and
land use plan for the region. These plans serve to 2. Three-Year Interim National Plan (2064-
guide the municipalities within the Kathmandu 2067) (2007 - 2010)
Valley, including KMC, in developing their own
detailed land use plan. This plan was prepared with federalism in
mind in order to provide a certain level of
KVTDC exercises land redevelopment through autonomy to the local government, under the
land pooling and guides land development supervision of a Regional/Provincial body.
projects in KMC and other municipalities The regional body and the local government
and cities within the Valley. Land pooling is a units that compose the regional body shall be
powerful tool that KVTDC is already using, responsible for the development of the region
which may be used to integrate DRR in the in accordance with the specific needs of the
urban development and land use planning constituents in order to uplift the present
processes of KMC. standard of living. Hence, the restructuring
process results in a multi-tier government with
At the national level, laws and acts of the State the national government being called the Federal
are being approved by the Parliament. These Government and the regional government as
legal frameworks and policies may come from Federal States. The local government is to be
various ministries while the Ministry of Laws given autonomy, but supervised by the State.
reviews and consolidates such initiatives. After
receiving confirmation from the Cabinet, the 3. Tenth National Plan (2002-2005)
legislation enters into force and is implemented
by concerned ministries. These national Significant issues addressed in this document
legislations are cascaded down through the include Unit 21-Residential Building and Town
bureaucracy in the form of bylaws promulgated Development Planning, which covers, inter alia:
by the concerned ministries and other
governmental institutions. Regulating haphazard construction with
proper development controls in town
Below are highlights from several key policies development planning;
and development action plans that are relevant Establishing good partnerships with
to understanding land use planning and local villages;
development in Nepal: Providing incentives to private sector
developers to ensure safe and affordable

housing (i.e., with considerations of (1) Conserve rivers, streams, ponds, deep water,
earthquake safety and promoting local and wells, lakes, stone water-taps etc. and utilize or
affordable construction materials); cause to be utilized them properly.
Providing guidelines for managing
environmental degradation and for (4) Assist or cause to be assisted, in environment
orienting people about DRR before the protection acts by controlling water, air
implementation of any project; and and noise pollution to be generated in the
Preparing and implementing town Municipality area.
development policies and regulating city
development by local governments. The (5) Protect or cause to be protected the forests,
program and policies will be developed, vegetation and other natural resources within
taking into account the disaster risks in the the Municipality area.
(7)Carry out and manage or cause to be
4. Local Self Governance Act of 1999 carried out and managed the acts of collection,
transportation and disposal of garbage and solid
Section 96 of the Local Self Governance Act wastes.
(LSGA) of 1999 stipulates the functions, duties,
and responsibilities of municipalities, including (d) Education and Sports Development:
Kathmandu City, to wit:
(1) Establish, operate and manage pre-primary
Section 96. Functions, Duties and Power of schools with own source in the Municipality
Municipality: In addition to executing or causing area and give permission to establish the same.
to be executed, the decisions and directions of the
Municipal Council, the functions and duties to be (6) Open, operate and manage or caused to be
performed by the Municipality mandatorily in the opened, operated and managed, libraries and
municipal area shall be as follows: reading halls in the Municipality area.

(a) Finance: (7) Prepare and implement or cause to be

implemented, sports development programmes.
(1) Prepare annual budget, plans and
programmes of the Municipality and submit (e) Culture:
them to the Municipal Council.
(1) Prepare an inventory of culturally and
(b) Physical Development: religiously important places within the
Municipality area and maintain, repair,
(1) Frame land-use map of the Municipality protect and promote, or cause to be maintained,
area and specify and implement or cause to repaired, protected and promoted the same.
be implemented, the industrial, residential,
agricultural, recreational areas, etc. (f ) Works and Transport:

(2) Prepare housing plan in the area of (1) Prepare plans of unpitched and pitched
Municipality and implement or cause to be roads, bridges and culverts as needed within
implemented the same. the Municipality area, except those roads which
are under the responsibility and control of the
(4) Develop, or cause to be developed, green Government of Nepal (GoN), and construct,
zones, parks and recreational areas in various maintain and repair or cause to be constructed,
places in the Municipality area. maintained and repaired the same.

(c) Water resources, Environment, and Sanitation: (2) Arrange or cause to be arranged for bus

parks and parking places of rickshaws (three- (26)Carry-out such other functions as are
wheelers), horse-carts, trucks etc. within the prescribed under the prevailing law.
Municipality area.
In addition to the functions and duties referred
(g) Health Services: to in sub-sections, the Municipality may also
perform the following optional functions:
(2) Open, operate and manage or cause to be
operated and managed health posts and sub- a. Control unplanned settlement within the
health posts within the Municipality area. Municipality area;

(h) Industry and Tourism b. Make the structure and development of the
town well-planned through the functions such
(1) Act or cause to act as a motivation to as guided land development and land use;
the promotion of cottage, small and medium
industries in the Municipality area. c. Launch programmes to control river pollution;
(2) Protect, promote, expand and utilize or
cause to be protected, promoted, expanded and d. Carry out preventive and relief works to lessen
utilized, natural, cultural, and tourists heritage the loss of life and property caused by natural
within the Municipality area. disasters.

(i) Miscellaneous: Further, Section 111 of the LSGA provides the

following instructions in the formulation and
(1) Determine and manage places for keeping implementation of municipal plans:
pinfolds and animal slaughter house.
(1) Each Municipality shall have to formulate
(2) Protect barren and government-owned periodical and annual development plans for the
unregistered (Ailani) land in the Municipality development of the Municipal area.
(2) In formulating the plans, the Municipality
(6) Frame by-laws of the Municipality and shall, as per necessity, have to launch plans such
submit it to the Municipal council. as land-use, land-pooling, and guided land
development for making the development of the
(7) Carry out necessary functions in managing Municipal areas balanced and planned.
and responding to natural disasters.
5. Town Development Act of 1988
(8) Maintain inventory of population, houses,
and land within the Municipality area. Section 3 indicates the role of the local
government in developing the plan and the role
(13) Update the block numbers of the houses in of Town Development Committee to approve
the Municipality area. the plan for implementation.

(14) Arrange for animal slaughter houses. 6. Kathmandu Valley Development Authority
Act of 1988
(17) Grant approval to open cinema halls in the
Municipality area. Section 6 pertains to the development of
Kathmandu Valley by improving existing
(21) Carry out or cause to be carried out town development and identifying new areas
other acts relating to the development of the for urban expansion. It also highlights the
Municipality area. development and implementation of land

pooling program and building construction in affordable to citizens through joint partnerships
identified areas. with housing and land developers. As provided
for in the law, housing companies or developers
Section 7 explicitly highlights the need to stop and land owners may enter into agreements
land fragmentation in the identified land use regarding development and ownership of
plan area. Land fragmentation is the result of apartments. Approval and permits are obtained
dividing a parcel of land into smaller sizes by the from the local government. Ownership cannot
head of the family and distributing the pieces be transferred without permission from the
of land to his heir or members of his family. In joint committee.
many cases, the resulting lots become inadequate
in size and shape for the construction of a 10. 2007 Bylaws for Construction in
comfortable house or that the building is built Kathmandu Valley
higher in order to accommodate the expanding
family occupants. However, whenever the With the enactment of Kathmandu Valley
original lots are pooled or consolidated into Town Development Act of 1976, a building
bigger lots or parcels, the resulting area would construction bylaws was formulated and
yield a building structure with adequate implemented to safeguard life, health and
amenities and open spaces for air to flow public welfare. It was a framework containing
through. minimum standards and requirements to
regulate and control the construction of new
7. Building Act of 1999 buildings in the Valley. The building bylaws was
updated in 1993 and in 2007.
The Preamble of this Act provides for disaster-
resistant building design and construction The current building construction bylaws
standards to make buildings safe from natural cover the rules and regulations on building
disasters like earthquake, fire, floods, among construction in the following cities,
others. Section 4 calls for the formulation and municipalities and VDCs:
adoption of a building code and implementation
of the same with the end in view of improving KMC,
the quality and safety of each building. Section Lalitpur Sub-Metropolitan City,
8 mandates the categorization of buildings into Bhaktapur Municipality,
different classes and the issuance of a building Madhyapur Thimi Municipality,
permit prior to construction in the municipal Kirtipur Municipality, and
areas. adjoining VDCs

8. Local Administration Act of 1971 According to the Building Bylaws of 2007,

KMC is divided into nine zones, listed as
The Act designates the Chief District Officer to follows:
make an inventory of local, unregistered, open
government land and protect the government A. Old City zone
land from private illegal acquisition. If public a) Protected Monument sub-zone
lands such as parks, ponds, grass field and others b) Protected sub-zone
are unlawfully registered, this registration will be c) Mixed Old Residential sub-zone
B. Residential zone
9. 2003 Apartment Ownership Act 1998 a) Business sub-zone
Revised Bylaws for Construction b) Dense Mixed Residence sub-zone
c) Other Residential sub-zone
This Act is issued to facilitate apartment d) Planned Residential sub-zone
ownership by making house ownership

C. Institutional zone D. Municipalities should concentrate on
D. Industrial zone priority areas while taking into consideration
E. Protected zone (park, forest, greenery, open the following :
space, historical, cultural and religious areas, a) Productive and results-oriented;
etc.) b) Improvement in citizens standard of
F. City expansion zone living;
G. Plane transport zone c) Low-cost and engaging peoples
H. Airport zone participation
I. Sports zone d) The use of local resources;
e) Technology-oriented
Development controls to regulate the areas f ) Women and children
include the following: g) Environmental sustainability

maximum ground coverage, E. Additionally, plan preparation should

maximum floor area ratio, consider the following elements:
maximum height of the building, a) Citys geophysical situation, economic
maximum number of stories, and activities, and state of natural resources
setback to adjacent plot as well as widths b) Different sectors balanced estimate and
to road approach, feasibility analysis
c) Indigenous or ethnic groups
Provision of basement is classified for different d) Plans should be prepared by local people
zones. Similarly, types of road within the city and should concentrate on local resources
are classified as circumferential (ring road),
highways, arterial road, connector road, feeder F. Each municipality should prepare a base
road, special road, link road, river corridor, etc. map with city level statistics.
Right of ways and setback for different roads are G. Each municipality should prepare feasibility
classified accordingly. study for the project on the basis of:
1. Project objective;
With the enactment of apartment laws, the 2. Project beneficiaries and type;
Building Bylaws had included the rules and 3. Type of project and alternatives;
regulations to construct apartment buildings as 4. Cost of project;
well as group housing units. 5. Participation and contribution by users;
6. Environmental considerations;
11. Local Self-Governance Regulation of 2001 7. Peoples participation coordination
with government and non government
The Local Self-Governance Regulation (LSGR) organization.
2001 Municipal planning process highlights the
following: H. City Level Planning can make use of various
fund sources such as:
A. Each Municipality should prepare a fiscal a) Cities own resources
year plan for development. b) Grant from district development
B. While preparing the plan, there should c) Grant from the national government
be balanced city development strategy; to d) Grant/loan from different nongovernment
regulate urban development, it should be organizations and international development
based on land use plan, land pooling, and organizations.
guided land development programs.
C. Municipalities can take in consultants for
the preparation of the plan.

12. Disaster Risk Reduction Mandate planning, settlements, and regulation of actual
development on the ground. As shown in
Upon completion of the proposed risk-sensitive Fig. 1.1, national ministries have a strong
land use plan, KMC shall continue to review influence on decisions and actions at lower
and evaluate the risks from natural calamities, levels. Additional plans and programs direct
as provided for in Section 96(2)(m) of LSGA the development thrust on the ground, such
which mandates local governments to carry out as the Bagmati Authority and Sewerage Plan
preventive and relief works to lessen the loss of (BASP) (a high-level authority for Bagmati
life and property caused by natural calamity. and Sewerage plan), Bagmati Action Plan
A hazard assessment is initiated during the (BAP), Integrated Master Plan (IMP) of
preparation of the Resource Map, which World Heritage Sites, Bishnumati Corridor
according to Section 112 of the LSGA, Development Plan, Dobikhola Corridor
reflects the situation of the municipal area. Plan, and Land Development Programme of
Resource Maps include geologic maps, seismic KVTDC.
and geotechnical hazard maps, soils map,
geomorphologic maps, natural drainage map This RSLUP for KMC is a product of a
and soil cover map, among others. These maps, series of consultations with several concerned
when used together, would indicate the protected ministries and other national and international
areas, areas of high risk, areas fit for building institutions involved in urban development and
structures, and the citys gross carrying capacity land use planning. The RSLUP also builds on
for development. previous and existing plans and programs of
the government in DRM as well as outputs of
On the other hand, project feasibility studies, Phase 1 of the KMC RSLUP (e.g. Institutional
when done in accordance with Section 113 Framework for Planning in Figure 1.1).
of the LSGA, could help reveal vulnerability
of projects, of its environment and of the The planning process for the current RSLUP
community it serves to emergencies and follows the existing planning structures and
disasters, susceptibility to hazards, and the functions i.e., RSLUP endorsement through
communitys capacity to cope with hazards. the municipal council and consultation with
the related ministries and Valley authorities
The post-completion risk assessment of the simultaneously. KMC, being a leader of the
proposed land use plan is important for municipalities, shares this plan, lessons learned
making the development of the Municipal area and good practices with other municipalities
balanced and planned (Section 111(2)), and and VDCs in their planning, and as an input
for making sure, that the projects identified are to the different existing plans and the programs
environmentally sustainable (Section 111(4)(f ), in their jurisdiction. Thus, the current RSLUP
LSGA). can be considered by other local government
units in their development and physical
The identification of risk could then serve planning processes. Hence, this allows KMC
as basis for the preparation of appropriate to align RSLUP with national and local-level
development and land use policies to help development thrusts.
prevent, prepare for or mitigate the impacts of
disasters, as mandated in the LSGA. There are, however, exceptions to the general
hierarchy of ministries and these include
1.3. Institutional Framework for Planning politically significant entities such as the
KMC, which had already exercised significant
Nepal has a unique network of ministries autonomy in its development decisions and
and other government subdivisions that are plan formulation. These plans and decisions
concerned directly or closely with land use may not necessarily be aligned beforehand with
KVTDC and a closer cooperation between




130( 1S44; 13,% 13061 130

((3 /:8(' (9(& (36 /90/ &',0' (061 (37

3XLIV /1' 071'&1181/1 ((6'




local officials like KMC and KVTDC need to development may be seen in Table 1.1.
be encouraged and strengthened. On the other hand Sec. III, subsections
1 and 2 of LSGA provide guidelines in
Future planning interventions should consider formulating periodic (5-years) and annual
the current weak horizontal linkages between (1-year) development plans for the municipal
various ministries, which had previously resulted area. Likewise, Section 111 provides the list
in uncoordinated and poorly implemented of projects that shall be given priority, such
information exchanges and joint development as projects that can generate income for the
projects; hence, engaging them early on in any municipality, poverty alleviation projects at the
project is an important lesson to share. field such as livelihood improvement projects
which can be operated with low cost and with
Horizontal integration of land use plans peoples participation; projects to be operated
were found to be very critical since the five though local means, resources and skills; projects
municipalities had adjoining boundaries. providing direct benefits to the disadvantaged
Moreover, land use issues and urban as well as indigenous groups and children; and
development did not recognize political projects that can contribute to protect and
boundaries between municipalities, albeit being promote the environment. (Section. 111(4)
cross-territorial in nature. Hence, effective (a-f ))
horizontal and vertical coordination is a must
should land use planning in KMC is to become The above-mentioned priority projects are
a model for risk-sensitive land use planning in mirrored in the proposed programs and
the whole Valley. projects developed during the workshop on
Development Thrust and Strategic Planning
In summary, many of the planning-related held on 17-20 September 2009. Unfortunately,
agencies are still highly centralized, traceable the sources of funds to implement them have
to the Nepalese history of hierarchical rule by not been identified. In the preparation and
a single authority. There were other variables, formulation of its annual development plans
uncovered later on that also explained the for the development of municipal area, Section
habitual adherence to the chain of command. 111 (5) of the LSGA requires the municipality
Institutions involved with settlement to obtain guidance and prior estimation of the

resources and means from the GoN, District Municipality shall, for the development of
Development Committee, and other concerned the Municipal area, collect municipal-level
bodies for the coming Fiscal year until the objective data and prepare a resource map
month of March of each year. reflecting the situation of the Municipal
Area. This is what KMC has done upon the
The same section of the LSGA provides that completion of its Existing Land Use Maps for
even the Municipality itself shall have to 2001 and 2006. Several thematic maps were
provide guidance on selection of projects and also prepared.
formulation of plans to the different Ward
Committees for the formulation of service and Additionally, the LSGA requires the conduct
development programmes for the forth-coming of project feasibility studies. Section 113
fiscal year. This requirement is consistent with stipulates that in the course of implementation
Section 111 (5) (b) which states that projects of municipal projects, the Municipality shall
have to be invited from the Ward Committees, have to undertake or cause to be undertaken
consumers committees, and non-governmental feasibility study of the project. The same
organizations in the Municipal area, and plans section enumerated the matters to be set out in
have to be formulated on the basis thereof. a feasibility study.

Additionally, the LSGA in Section 111 (7) states 8EFPI4SPMGMIWERH4PERWSR0ERH9WI

and reiterates that in formulating annual plans, 7SYVGI8STMGEP6ITSVX)1-
the following matters have to be taken into 0IZIPSJ+SZIVR )\EQTPIWSJ8]TIWSJ4PERW
account: QIRX
1. Directives received from the National
Planning Commission and the District /EXLQERHY:EPPI]  :MWMSRSXLIVWTI
Development Committee (which in
the case of KMC is represented by  9VFER(IZIPSTQIRX
KVDTC, establish in 1988) on national ERH'SRWIVZEXMSR7GLIQI
development policy; JSV+VIEXIV/EXLQERHY
2. Overall necessities indicated by periodic  7XVYGXYVEP4PERJSV
plans; and /EXLQERHY:EPPI] 92(4
3. Suggestions received from the Ward ERH;SVPH&EROJYRHIH
Detailed land use planning is an inherent duty QERHY0EPMXTYV
and responsibility of municipalities. However, &LEOXETYV
municipal land use plans should be congruent 1YRMGMTEPMXMIW 0ERH9WI>SRMRK JVSQ%WMW
with the general or regional land use plan /1'&LEOXETYV 0ERH9WI1ETW
prepared by the GoN or through the KVTDC 0EPMXTYVIXG
in the case of KMC. This is the top-down :MPPEKI(IZIPST :MPPEKI4PERW
aspect of the planning process. Moreover, QIRX'SQQMXXIIW
KMC, as the municipality, is required to receive
and consider suggestions about projects in the 1.4. Planning Structures, Practices, and
municipal area from the Ward Committees. This Types of Land Use Plans
is the bottom-up component of the planning
process. Several plans had been prepared at the national
and the local levels by concerned ministries and
In order to support the formulation of municipal KMC over the past decades. However, many
plans, Section 112 of the LSGA requires the of these documents were only incrementally
preparation of a resource map, to wit: Each implemented, if at all. Within the last decade,







GIS mapping had been developed in KMC, This framework also suggests that DRR can be
making the visual planning easier; however, mainstreamed in local governance by harnessing
the data had not been updated and most existing mechanisms, processes, and systems
information were dated in 2001. that are already in place and making use of such
1.5. Planning Frameworks
In the context of KMC, EMI organized a series
This section discusses the different planning of consultation meetings with different units
frameworks and processes involved in drafting from KMC (the Urban Development Division,
the risk-sensitive land use plan. Physical Development and Construction
Department, Law and Enforcement Divisions
1.5.1 Mainstreaming DRR in Land Use of Administration and Organizational
Planning Development, Public Health and Social
Development Department); the KVTDC,
Two important frameworks were used to guide various national-level Ministries (i.e. MoPPW,
the preparation of risk-sensitive land use plans, MOLD and MOHA), and local partners such
namely: the DRR mainstreaming Framework as NSET. Towards the latter stages, print and
discussed below and the Risk-Sensitive Land broadcast media were also engaged to widen
Use Planning Framework for KMC described in the awareness about the risk-sensitive land use
the next section. planning project in KMC.

Fig. 1.2 shows the DRR mainstreaming The consensus of the initial investigative work
concept developed by EMI to promote the undertaken by EMI in 2005 revealed the need
integration of risk reduction measures in local to integrate natural hazard risk information in
governance, in a way that significant risk physical planning. A series of discussions and
reduction occurs at the local level (Buika et. al., workshops revealed the following conditions:
2006). The mainstreaming framework can be
highly effective when local authorities, engaged A need to understand and identify,
in the normal conduct of their functions, describe implications of natural hazard (i.e.
responsibilities, and practices, integrate DRR earthquake) risks in Kathmandu City and
measures and objectives in various aspects reduce them through strategies (e.g. road
of local governance such as urban planning. development) and land use approaches (e.g.,

bring to safer places, use of open spaces). The above requirement to incorporate risk
assessment in land use plans resulted in
A need to protect people, public and private identifying the following planning objectives:
property (e.g. heritage sites, institutional
and residential buildings), and maintain a. to identify, describe and understand the
functions of critical facilities (e.g. hospitals, hazards and its impacts;
water systems, public buildings, roads) from b. to understand the implications of the
earthquake damages and losses. This was selected natural hazard risks;
highlighted by the 2002 earthquake study c. to incorporate emergency management
for the Valley where estimates of damages improvements;
and losses under different scenarios were d. to incorporate/integrate the assessments
made for the Kathmandu Valley and later as development issues and concerns and
evaluated for Kathmandu City-being the translate it to planning goals, objectives
center for various functions of the Valley. and targets; and
e. to address the identified risk concerns
A need to pursue urban renewal strategies through available and possible strategies
and transport strategies to address congestion and land use practices to achieve
at the city core and central areas, preserve the identified development goals and
public structures, squares, and rehabilitate objectives
old, deteriorating buildings, redevelop areas
as well as to control or delay sprawl towards The first three objectives were answered by
the periphery with the implementation of revealing information about the hazards and
building by-laws. their impacts. In Phase 1, earthquake concerns
were highlighted and these became the basis
A need to address the observed for preparing the RSLUP. This was not to say
fragmentation of land parcels and that other hazards were any less important,
partitioning of building floor areas but studies were readily available to reveal
in residential areas and the lack of the seismic risk information and became
implementation of building codes and logical to integrate them as a first step in the
by-laws that will help in allocating spaces mainstreaming approach. The fourth and
to improve access, provide easements and fifth objectives were achieved by translating
maintain a good mix of built up and open the seismic risk and their management as
areas. development concerns and evaluating their
implications as part of the land use planning
A need to integrate the needed changes exercise.
under a risk sensitive planning approach
which addresses the risks (natural hazard Figure 1.3 presents the risk-sensitive land
risks) and their management as an approach use planning framework for KMC. The
for sustainable development of Kathmandu components of the framework are explained in
City. the next section.

These considerations were further confirmed in 1.5.2 Risk-Sensitive Land Use Planning
Phase 1 of the project (EMI, 2008). However, Framework
with the information obtained, an approach
was needed on how mainstreaming seismic risk This section explains the components of the
parameters in plans may be done at a metro- Risk-Sensitive Land Use Planning framework
wide or city-scale planning level (i.e. KMC) shown in Figure 1.3. The framework
considering the planning limitations and describes disaster risk assessment, the process
arrangements with higher institutions in Nepal. of integration in planning, and the plan


formulation phases and the implementation earlier study entitled Earthquake Disaster
stages. Mitigation in the Kathmandu Valley in 2002.
The parameters considered are shown and The Disaster Risk Assessment Process briefly described in Table 1.2. In Phase 1 of the
project, vulnerability and risk maps specific for
The Disaster Risk Assessment (DRA) process Kathmandu City were prepared. These sets of
entails several steps prior to the integration information formed the bases for determining
(or mainstreaming) of risk information in the the implications on the future development and
planning process. It involves an assessment land use of KMC.
of the following: (a) seismic hazard, (b) the
vulnerabilities and risks of different elements The risk assessment relies on the following
(e.g. people, buildings, facilities, activities, parameters shown in Table 1.2 as provided in
etc.) in the city and the (c) requirements for the 2002 earthquake study by JICA.
emergency management (e.g. open spaces, open
access, access routes, etc.) It may be possible to include in the risk
assessment different types of vulnerability
A. Obtaining the Risk Information analysis such as socio-economic vulnerability
and risk analysis related to other consequences
Information on seismic hazards, vulnerabilities (e.g. indirect damages and losses, i.e. monetary
and risk estimates were obtained from an loss, loss of function of specific sectors), effects






from climate change and climate variability. emergencies, information on possible escape
Understanding the implications of the risk routes at the Core area, temporary sites
assessment to development requires the collective for evacuation, and locations of critical
experiences and expertise of the planners, infrastructures (e.g. hospitals, water sources)
scientific experts and stakeholders in different were mapped and provided. The basic
sectors to address these threats. To treat them information on critical infrastructures, routes,
as significant or not, or whether they are temporary sites were obtained from the JICA
impediments to development and progress, will study (2002) and remapped using the aerial
require further evaluation. images of Nepal from Google Earth. This
revealed indicative movements and possible
B. Emergency Management evacuation locations. However, the information
will still require further validation as to
In view of the spatial requirements for suitability in ground conditions.

 1EMRWXVIEQMRK(MWEWXIV6MWO6IHYGXMSRMR1IKEGMXMIW%4MPSX%TTPMGEXMSRMR1ERMPEERH/EXLQERHY The Mainstreaming Activities A collaborative approach was selected to ensure
full ownership of the project by KMC and other
Mainstreaming activities pertain to the various local partners and build the capacity within local
activities in the general planning process professionals. The engagement of the partners
which aim to build on existing capabilities in the project and their integration in a single
to initiate land use planning and integrate team was key to the success of the project. This
risk information in the plan and in the unified Project Working Committee had the
decision processes leading to the adoption of following Terms of Reference:
the land use plan. These activities generally
involved the mobilization of stakeholders and To initiate the land use planning process,
promotion of educational campaigns about EMI organized a series of consultation
the following: disaster risks, role of land use meetings within KMC, leading to the
planning in sustainable development, and the creation of a Project Working Committee
activities for mainstreaming. Theoretically, (PWC) comprising of different units of
the mainstreaming activities may be taken as KMC, KVTDC, the various Ministries
being embedded within the planning process, (i.e. MoPPW, MOLD, and MOHA),
assuming that an organization is available NSET and EMI. The PWC served as
and capable of preparing a land use plan. The the technical, managerial, logistical and
main difficulties, which are addressed by the administrative unit of the project, as well
mainstreaming activities, lie in explaining the as the consultation and coordination agent
elements of the disaster risks, how to use the for the different activities needed for the
information for planning, determining its RSLUP formulation. See figure 1.4
implications to development and spatial plans
and taking the necessary strategies for risk Each member of the team had specific
reduction. These apparently are the difficult roles and responsibilities and contributed
areas, which traditional planning may need to to the project according to his/her own
be enhanced by said mainstreaming activities. expertise. Leadership in the project was
It is worth mentioning that it was through shared between partners, with EMI filling
these mainstreaming activities that significant the technical and managerial gap, while
work was made towards the finalization of the local partners undertook most of the data
document. collection, consultations, coordination and
A. Mobilization of stakeholders
The mobilization of all the resources among
The first step includes the involvement, the partners enabled a significant scaling up
and mobilization of different organizations of the outcome of the project as well as the
representing various sectoral task groups, possibility to overcome many hurdles during
(e.g. from MOLD, MoPPW, KMC, NSET its execution
and EMI) and defining and allocating their
respective tasks and functions. This step also Through the PWC, several key points were
included the conduct of orientation seminars. identified as crucial in crafting the plan, namely:
The orientation was attended by officials and
representatives of KMC, KVTDC, concerned a. incorporation of existing land use
national ministries, hazard agency and civil maps and other available land use
society. The objective was to familiarize the information (e.g., development and
constituents with the objectives, processes, and master plans, the risk maps resulting
importance of the planning project to the city, from the JICA funded study in 2002,
as well as to seek their support and involvement. and the findings and results of Phase
Participation and ownership building were 1);
stressed as part of the goals of the project. b. development of protocols to improve


inter-institutional coordination, B. Awareness and educational campaigns and

complementing strengths and explaining the risk information
weaknesses of the PWC members;
c. provision of a framework for Previous and current awareness campaigns
mainstreaming DRR in land use plan undertaken by KMC, NSET and the Ministry
formulation; of Education, together with the series of
d. identification and definition of stakeholder workshops conducted by EMI from
programs aimed at reducing physical 2005 to 2007 to develop the local DRMMP
and social vulnerability; and and its corresponding IWOs, were also helpful
e. promotion of awareness and gaining in explaining the earthquake hazards and
support on the importance of practicing their threats among various stakeholders.
risk sensitive land use planning. These Though the educational campaigns had limited
initial series of activities provided for coverage, they helped in contextualizing these
the project scope and framework for risks as possible impediments to individual
mainstreaming DRR in KMC. and collective goals and objectives of different
Similar project-related outputs were prepared
by KMC through the PWC, complementing The planning activities and field investigations
this RSLUP, such as the creation of the Disaster conducted by EMI have highlighted the
Risk Management and Citizen Safety (DRMCS) importance of including seismic hazard
Unit and related Emergency Operations Plan assessment, vulnerability assessment,
developed under Project Output 1.2 of this information on damage to infrastructure
project, which provide for the institutionalization and utilities, and loss of life and property
of the emergency management and preparedness information in planning Kathmandu City
units in KMC and further strengthen the in order to initiate risk reduction through
ownership process by local institutions. the existing processes. To provide the initial

inputs, risk assessment results from JICAs and future decisions. This mainly formed
Valley-wide earthquake study were used. The the content for mainstreaming activities in
spatial information of earthquake risks in the the land use plan shown in Figure 1.5. The
Kathmandu Valley was remapped and reviewed implications to development thrusts, existing
in this planning exercise through a series of and future land use, as well as their management
workshops, with NSET providing support and through different strategies of urban renewal
validations as well as providing updates related and development control were discussed and
to their earthquake risk reduction activities documented.
in Kathmandu City (e.g., the community-
based and institutional-based preparedness Towards the latter stages of the land use
and mitigation programs such as ward-level planning exercise, an awareness campaign
preparedness, school safety awareness, retrofit structure was developed by PWC to sensitize
programs, mason training programs, and the the population and relevant institutions
multinational PEER program, among others). on RSLUP, and encourage participation of
Risk mapping appeared as a good starting communities. The structure identified the key
activity for the spatial screening of audiences and corresponding communication
environmental constraints and for guiding land objectives, message to be reached, medium of
use to achieve sustainable development. communication, strategies and expected output
of the campaign. The focus persons for each
The implications of these assessments such as audience were chosen and expected outputs
the disaster management issues and concerns defined by the PWC members. Table 1.3 shows
identified were given possible and preferred the details of the awareness campaign structure.
solutions, while taking into account the limited
information and uncertainties involved. The two last field investigations in KMC were
Strategies were formulated in order to address conducted by the Land Use Planning (LUP)
these coupled problems of environmental Team from EMI to implement the strategies
constraints and infrastructure and land and achieve the objectives of the awareness
development, among others. Workshops were campaign. A series of consultations, meetings,
held for KMC officials to validate and evaluate interviews and workshops were carried out from
the risk maps and the information provided in the beginning of the project to the latest in
previous studies. December, 2009.

In workshop meetings in Manila with KMC Highlights of the consultations and interviews
officials in late September 2009, the risk conducted during the first field investigation on
maps were used as among the parameters to 1-3 November 2009 are shown below:
develop scenarios and implications to current
development concerns. One important activity 1. Mr. Reshmi Raj Pandey, Undersecretary,
which EMI accomplished with KMC was to and Mr. Dinesh Thapaliya, Joint Secretary,
form the linkages and relationships between MoLD. Mr. Pandey appreciated the
the planning environment (social, economic, presentation and said that it is really a good
physical and environmental) and the causes initiation and if we get the realities of Land
and effects of current development and land use planning in KMC it would be easy to
use problems in Kathmandu City. Hazard, replicate later in other municipalities as
vulnerability, risk information and emergency well. The involvement of KMC alone is not
management concerns which were previously enough for the conversion of the document
prepared in Phase 1 (DRA information, Table to become doable and hence, EMI needs
1.2) were similarly presented in the form of other representatives as well for support and
texts, graphs, tables and maps to facilitate effective implementation of RSLUP.
the discussion, that is, its significance, its 2. Mr. Shambhu K.C., Member Secretary, Dr.
implications to present problems and concerns Bhaikaji Tiwari, Town Controller, Mr. Dan


Bahadur Malla, Mr. Ram Prasad Shrestha, the project.
and Mr. Kamal Prasad Bhattarai, KVTDC.
Mr. Shambhu K.C. reminded the PWC A follow-up field investigation was undertaken
about KVTDCs overall policy framework by EMI on 13-18 December 2009 with the
that aims at strengthening all three major following objectives: (1) to secure commitment
cities within Kathmandu Valley. In such of stakeholders for the RSLUP and build
a way, according to Mr. K.C., KVTDC is partnerships, (2) to take part in ongoing
concerned with the overall development awareness campaign, and (3) to explore possible
of the valley and not only KMC. In funding for future RSLUP implementation.
appreciation of the fact the KMC has The following consultations and meetings were
proposed to shift the core population to conducted by the PWC during the mission:
periphery, he adds that KVTDC has also 1. On 13 December, the EMI team
done similar study. participated in a Ward-level Workshop to
3. Mr. Suresh P. Acharya,Joint Secretary, generate awareness on the project. KMC
MoPPW. Mr. Acharya said that the Officials and NSET staff conducted much of
presentation provided very important the meeting in Nepali.
message and he wished to be in further 2. On 14 December, a meeting with Mr.
contact with KMC, NSET and EMI. Devendra Dongol, newly appointed head
Also he suggested for organizing a half of KMCs UDD, was held. Mr. Dongol
day workshop on DRR which as he hopes assured his full support in implementing the
would bring a fruitful result. RSLUP.
4. Dr. Mahendra Subba, Deputy Director 3. On 14 December, a meeting with key
General, DUDBC. Showing more concern stakeholders from KMC, Tribhuvan
on zoning, he also suggested coming University of Nepal, United Nations Office
up with the environmental threshold. for the Coordination of Humanitarian
Disagreeing with strict separation of land Affairs (UNOCHA), District Disaster
use and zones, he said the very purpose of Response Team (DDRT) of the Nepal
zoning should be not to have undesired use Red Cross Society, District Development
of the land with environmental threshold Committee of Kathmandu, EMI-KMC and
values. He then asked, If zoning did not NSET was held to get inputs and comments
worked in 1960 why should we work for it on the first draft of the RSLUP and
in 2010? Emergency Operations Plan (EOP). It was
concluded that the RSLUP and EOP process
Moreover, to raise community awareness and be extended to the Valley and to resolve
support to the RSLUP, a local TV channel, shared problems with other municipalities
Hamro Kathmandu, was tapped. A channel such as those relating to traffic congestion
representative interviewed members of the and seismic risks.
PWC who highlighted salient features of the 4. On 15 December, PWC members including
project, and stressed the significance of the Mr. Jim Buika, EMI, met with Mr. Ganesh
project to a safe and sustainable development of Rai, newly appointed Chief Executive
Kathmandu. Officer of KMC to discuss the next steps to
be taken towards endorsement of RSLUP to
Key personnel of development partners, namely, higher authorities. Mr. Rai guaranteed that
Dr. Horst Matthaus, Coordinator, Governance on behalf of KMC, he is ready to take any
and Civil Society from GTZ; Mr. Sourab step for implementing the RSLUP and EOP.
Rana, Program Officer from JICA; and Mr. 5. On 15 December, a meeting with German
Nogendra Sapkota, Social and Environment Embassy Counsellor (Development), Mr.
Officer and Mr. David Irwin, Consultant for Udo Weber was held. The possibilities of
the Kathmandu Valley Sustainable Urban GTZ providing technical assistance and/or
Transport Project from ADB were briefed about continuation of the project by the German

government were suggested in the meeting. appropriateness of open spaces were made
6. On 15 December, a meeting with Mr. by NSET and KMC, in order to validate
George Murray, Disaster Readiness and impressions that the vulnerabilities continue
Response Advisor and Mr. Ram Prasad to exist, and possibly, have increased in
Luetel, National Disaster Response Advisor the absence or as a result of piecemeal
from UNOCHA was held. Mr Murray interventions. Due to resource constraints for
expressed concern about strategically locating conducting a full study, seismic risk analysis
new fire stations within KMC to reinforce and risk analysis of other hazards relied on
the existing facilities previous assessments. Hence, future updated
7. On 16 December, a meeting with Dr. assessments will help inform decision-makers,
Horst Matthus, Coordinator, Governance planners and affected communities to take
and Civil Society from the German specific measures to reduce these risks.
Technical Cooperation (GTZ) was held. Dr.
Matthus agreed that the work was very The outputs of these analyses were discussed
relevant to Kathmandu City, He expressed among the PWC, other KMC officials, and
interest in extending the work to the Valley later with other agencies and organizations such
level. as KVTDC and MOLD.
The principal output of the sectoral and land The General Planning Process use analysis workshops was the development of
spatial and alternative development scenarios
A. Data Collection, Inventory and Analysis (or options), which provided the bases for
development thrusts, land use strategies and
Characterization of the city involved gathering, policy options.
collating, and processing information necessary
to provide a clear picture of the city. The B. Setting the RSLUP Vision
information generated was presented in the
form of statistics as well as thematic maps. This Crafting the RSLUP vision statement for KMC
collective effort of the PWC culminated in the made use of the vision outputs developed
drafting of the KMC Sectoral Profile. for the KMC in 2001. The RSLUP vision
statement was crafted with the consideration
The Sectoral Profile was used as a major reference of disaster risk and their management through
for the analysis of the current situation in KMC. a visioning workshop held in July 2009 and
This activity was done by the PWC through a was then broken down into its component
series of consultation meetings and workshops elements; each element was given a set of
among its members. descriptors (i.e. words and phrases that
signify the desired quality of the future) city
During these meetings, it was realized that population, the local economy, the natural and
some necessary information was still needed to built environment, and the local leadership (See
complete the Sectoral Profile in order to analyze Chapter 2)
and to assess the gaps between what is desired in
the vision and what is happening in Kathmandu C. Formulation of Goals, Objectives and
City. Through carefully designed workshops Strategies
and by engaging KMC in each of the step of
the general planning process, many planning The descriptors guided the formulation of goals
assumptions and data gaps were filled towards and objectives developed from the analysis
the completion of the Sectoral Profile. of the development problems, issues and
concerns. The goals, objectives provide for the
Limited field inspections as to the conditions long to medium term requirements to achieve
of buildings, intensity of land use, and sustainable development of Kathmandu City.
The strategies provide for the approaches to

achieve the desired goals and objectives. analysis earlier undertaken in July 2009.

D. Generation and evaluation of alternative 3. Sectoral strategies and policies. These

strategies comprise the principles and values that
guide the formulation and implementation
Generation of alternative spatial strategies is a of proposed sectoral programs and projects.
major activity in the crafting of RSLUP. The They were derived from various sources,
spatial strategy is the form or pattern of physical mainly from previous development
development of the city that will contribute to literature, from higher level plans, and from
the realization of the long-term vision. Each the KMC PWC analysis and interpretation
form that is generated is envisioned to establish of the following: i) the spatial trends
a sustainable balance between the built and of settlement expansion, ii) economic
natural environment with considerations concentration and specialization and iii)
of natural hazards, risks and their possible environmental concerns. Spatial content or
management. This is to ensure the following: implications of the different development
a) that areas ought to be preserved in their open thrusts were included in the RSLUP and
character, are not built over; b) that the built into the zoning policies, ordinance and other
environment is directed into those areas that proposed local legislation.
are relatively free from hazards; and (c) that
the type, size and intensity of development are 4. Sectoral Programs and Projects. Programs
consistent with the capability of environmental and projects necessary to realize the
resources. (Serote, 2004) objectives and achieve the targets of the
sectors and subsectors were identified and
Evaluation of the alternative spatial strategies to listed in the RSLUP.
determine the advantages and disadvantages of
each strategy was done by the PWC. To support The outputs of this stage, however, are still
the land use strategies, the development sectors subject to public consultation. It is expected
represented in the PWC prepared their initial that the public consultation will result in a
sectoral strategies and programs following a few consensus on the final vision statement and the
sequential steps described briefly below. preferred spatial strategy.

1. Sectoral development issues and E. Detailing of preferred risk-sensitive land use

concerns. The sectoral profile, thematic plan
maps, earthquake hazard risks and other
data outputs were used to describe the The preferred spatial strategy served as a takeoff
development issues and concerns. Previous point for the preparation of the draft RSLUP.
issues, problems and concerns that The main activities included identifying and
resurfaced and documented in studies mapping the general land use policy areas,
prepared by KMC, were reviewed, validated, namely: settlements, protection, production and
prioritized and formed the various sectoral infrastructure. The preferred urban form is also
issues and concerns in the RSLUP. Their reflected in the land use plan.
implications and their possible solutions
were then discussed in workshops. In drafting the RSLUP, the existing plans
of the Valley and the Building Bylaws of
2. Sectoral development objectives and targets. 2007, the river development plans, and road
These were also derived from the vision development plans provided the bases for the
statement. The development goals and inclusion of higher level plans and projects in
targets are framed for ten years only(i.e., the Kathmandu City land use plan. Reviews
2010-2020). A useful input to this activity and recommendations were made to determine
was the result of the problem-objective tree whether there remain useful features that can be

retained, modified or improved upon. Similarly, these and other relevant agencies with
based on the available quality of information, support from the PWC. While various
a draft zoning framework was reviewed and programs, projects and activities are
accordingly, some parts were amended or implemented by different agencies, the
retained. role of KMC, KVTDC, MOHA and
MoPPW in the project development,
F. Formulating policies and implementation tools implementation and enforcement would
be explicitly clarified along with the roles
The other major activities consisted of reviewing of donors and development partners
existing relevant national laws, identifying b. Advocacy Campaign. KMC with
needed land use policies, and drafting the initial the support of national agencies and
zoning policies and ordinances. other relevant stakeholders should
continue with its advocacy (e.g. IEC) on
New local legislation. Some sectoral policies and acceptance, support and implementation
programs cannot be fully implemented by means of the strategies and provisions of the
of development projects alone. They may require RSLUP
enactment of possible regulatory measures by c. Capacity Building. through training
the legislative council or by the provision of of professionals, including planners,
certain incentives to attract private investments engineers, architects, developers and
or partnerships. others should be undertaken to build
the skilled resources for ownership
Drafting the Zoning Ordinance, which basically and competent implementation of the
translates the risk-sensitive land use plan into a RSLUP, and for future refinements and
implementing tool, was based on the preferred updates.
land use plan and initial land use policy d. Development of Performance Indicators.
frameworks. However, the zoning provided here To benchmark current status and
does not yet contain detailed information on measure performance in implementation
zone boundaries needed for the creation of a of RSLUP, performance indicators will
zoning map. be developed and tested with pilot
application in KMC.
G. Adoption and plan implementation activities
1.6. Tasks and Activities
Towards the finalization of the plan, the PWC
identified several follow-on activities (Adoption, Based on the foregoing, the following tasks
implementation, enforcement, monitoring, were identified to develop the RSLUP:
feedback) in order for the RSLUP to become
an effective document in guiding future a. Incorporate existing land use maps of
development in the city. 2007 developed by KVDTC and the
results of the earthquake scenario risk
a. Legal and Institutional Framework. For maps developed by the JICA-funded
the RSLUP to be useful at this point, study of 2002, and its related DRR
KMC needs to endorse and formally recommendations into a comprehensive
introduce it to relevant agencies of set of land use maps that incorporate
the government for adoption and social and physical vulnerability and
implementation. KMC can initiate actions risk parameters. This implies that the
that will seek endorsement from GoN RSLUP should explicitly address DRR
through the various agencies (i.e. KVTDC, goals and improvements in emergency
MOLD, MOHA and MoPPW). This task management in the land use plan;
can be structured around a special inter- b. Draft a zoning ordinance based on the
governmental committee that involved

RSLUP that would enable KMC to that may have significant impact on the
control future development in a risk- land use planning of the KMC;
adverse and sustainable way. Zoning c. Review the goals and objectives of the
ordinance is a key legal instrument for RSLUP vis--vis alternative spatial
controlling land use in an urban setting; strategies to check if the strategies are
c. Develop protocols to improve inter- aligned with goals and objectives of the
institutional coordination among planning;
concerned national agencies, KMC d. Review the evaluation and selection
authorities and KVTDC; process in determining the preferred
d. Strengthen of local institutions through spatial strategy; and
the creation of an ad-hoc structure e. Review the draft KMC RSLUP and its
and protocol between KMC as well as corresponding model zoning ordinance to
through legal instruments necessary to review and evaluate the:
support such interventions. This also i. Overall relevance of the data used,
includes inter-institutional coordination methodology applied, and conceptual
between national and local levels of framework implemented;
government; ii. Applicability in term of the
e. Expand the capacity of PWC through documents ease of use by KMC
related workshops in Manila and planners; and
Kathmandu. This activity ensures that in iii. Overall content to insure that it is
the long run, PWC will have technical in line acceptable land use planning
capacity to develop and revise the RSLUP practice.
with minimum assistance from external iv. The report from the external peer
experts; reviewer is attached as Annex A of this
f. Provide social and economic actions document.
aimed at reducing social vulnerability of
the most vulnerable population within 1.8. Outputs
Kathmandu; and
g. Structure an awareness campaign to The deliverables under PWO 1.1 of the FFO
sensitize population and institutions on project are as follows:
the importance of practicing risk sensitive Sectoral Profile of KMC;
land use planning in order to protect Risk-Sensitive Land Use Plan 2020 (10
resources and the environment. years); and
Draft Zoning Ordinance Framework (10
1.7. Peer Review years)

This RSLUP was later subjected to an Sectoral Profile. The Sectoral Profile is a
external peer review to evaluate and provide comprehensive set of information about
recommendations. The objectives of the review Kathmandu City organized under five
were as follows: development sectors, namely, social, economic,
infrastructure, institutional and environmental.
a. Review the conceptual framework for It contains the latest data available presented
risk-sensitive land use planning and with minimum of analysis so that the data can
provide comments to operationalize the serve as a general reference and can be utilized
framework in the context of KMC based by a wide range of readers for various purposes.
on the situational analysis done by the To the extent possible, the data are presented
PWC; in historical sequence and are aggregated or
b. Review the KMC updated Sectoral Profile disaggregated in different spatial scales or geo-
in order to identify the gaps in the data political units. This three-dimensional display

of information will allow readers to form a more (PPAs) in the different development sectors;
concrete picture of the city. The Profile served as the information on the financial performance
the principal data base for all the plans that were of KMC, as well as, the potential sources
produced in this project. Section 1.11 provides a of funding for various projects were barely
summary of the Sectoral Profile. discussed and reviewed due to limitations of
budget and time. Lastly, the engagement of
Risk-Sensitive Land Use Plan. The RSLUP serve national and international agencies (beyond
as the basis for prescribing reasonable limits KMC and NSET), as well as the awareness
and restraints on the use of property within campaigns, advocacy, and capacity building
the city jurisdiction, for regulating subdivision efforts, have also been limited. Given these,
developments, and for reclassifying agricultural this RSLUP should be treated as a working
lands into non-agricultural uses. The RSLUP document subject to further refinements in
covers the entire territorial jurisdiction of the future planning activities.
city. The authority to plan and manage these
latter areas is shared between KMC and the Towards the preparation of the plan, the
national government. risk assessment in the Kathmandu Valley
earthquake study of 2002 was used to come up
Zoning Ordinance. The principal instrument for with discussion points on hazard assessment,
enforcing the locational policies and performance building vulnerabilities and in evaluating their
standards of the RSLUP is the zoning ordinance. implications to the spatial plans.
Currently, the RSLUP remains an indicative
plan with only persuasive force and effect and The identification, description, and analysis
people can afford to ignore it. Once the zoning of various development issues, and the
ordinance is enacted, however, the right of corresponding goals, objectives, targets, and
property owners to develop their property is strategies to be achieved in the next decade
transferred from the individual to society and were then prepared. However, sectoral
everyone who wants to develop his/her land development plans were not prepared at the
must seek permission or clearance from the local outset as these required further discussions and
government. participatory processes, which the current land
use planning cannot accommodate. However,
1.9. Limitations of the Plan emphasis was given to the most pressing
concerns of each sector, described briefly below.
The preparation of this RSLUP has been limited
by a number of factors. First, the plan relied Social development. Issues and concerns on
largely on secondary information from previous the state of well-being of the local population
studies by KMC, KVTDC and government and social services such as health, education,
ministries. Updating the socio-economic and welfare, housing and the like were identified.
physical information and related field verification Questions of equity and social justice and
were limited by the few resources and limited gender sensitivity were partly discussed in this
funding. One major difficulty was to rely on sector. Programs and projects in this sector are
risk assessment results prepared in 2002, which soft non-infrastructure type.
focused on earthquakes. Data on other hazards
(e.g., flood, fire), were minimal. Second, the Economic development. The economic
implications of on-going projects (e.g. ongoing development concerns embody KMCs
riverside development, proposed parking, new intentions to create a favorable climate for
roads) by development agencies were less studied private investments through a combination
and written about in this RSLUP. Third, while of policies and public investments, necessary
the report has come up with an initial list of to enable private investments to flourish
proposed programs, projects and activities and, ultimately, assure the residents of steady
supply of goods and services and of jobs and

household income. held in July 2009 in Kathmandu City.

Physical and land use. This component deals Chapter 4 summarizes the sectoral and
with the hazard and risk sensitive infrastructure spatial constraints that must be overcome and
building program and the land development, opportunities that could be taken advantage of
acquisition required as right-of-way for in order to bring KMC closer to the realization
easements of public facilities. It contains the of its vision. Further, the chapter also presents
physical development strategies such as urban the information on earthquake risk and its
renewal or redevelopment schemes for inner city impacts, represented by a potential M8.0 Mid-
areas, opening up new urban expansion areas in Nepal Earthquake which would produce MMI2
the urban fringe, or development of new growth VII and greater damages in Kathmandu Valley.
centers in conformity with the chosen spatial
strategy. Chapter 5 discusses the preferred urban form as
the organizing concept for guiding the physical
Environmental management. This embodies growth of the city.
the strategies, programs for maintaining
cleanliness of air, water and land resources Chapter 6 presents the land use plan and the
and rehabilitating or preserving the quality of policy framework for the regulation of future
natural resources to enable them to support the land use activities consistent with the chosen
requirements of economic development and spatial strategy pursuant to national and other
ecological balance across generations. higher level policies and in accordance with the
residents vision for their city.
Institutional development. This focuses
on strengthening the capability of the local Chapter 7 details the framework of the zoning
government bureaucracy as well as elected ordinance to accompany the RSLUP. Much
officials to plan and manage their territory and of the material is drawn from the KVTDC
serve their constituency. Building Bylaws of 2007. Other annexes are
also included for completeness.
1.10. Contents of the RSLUP
Chapter 8 provides conclusion and
This RSLUP consists of five chapters arranged recommendations for the extension of the
logically as follows: RSLUP to include the whole Kathmandu Valley
and the completion of this preliminary RSLUP
Chapter 1 provides a brief introduction to the into a Comprehensive RSLUP.
RSLUP and other related plans prepared at
different levels including KMC, as mandated 1.11 Sectoral Prole of Kathmandu City
under the LSGA. The chapter also focuses on
the approach and methodology applied in the The KMC Sectoral Profile provides a
planning of KMC. compendium of data and information on
the physical, social, economic, cultural,
Chapter 2 provides a summary of the infrastructure, environmental, and institutional
geography, the hazards of the place, the socio- characteristics of the city, including its disaster
economic character of Kathmandu City. It risk landscape, which can serve as a chief
draws information mainly from the KMC source of information for planning, research,
Sectoral Profile to provide the initial context of investments, decision-making, and other uses. It
the planning. gives the necessary base information to support
the intra- and inter-sectoral analyses for the
Chapter 3 presents the outputs of various development of KMCs risk-sensitive land use
stakeholders in the RSLUP visioning exercise plan. Most of the decisions and situations

made in the project were based on the facts and Bureau of Statistics (CBS), World Bank City
information contained in the KMC Sectoral Development Strategy (CDS), Kathmandu
Profile. The summary of the Sectoral Profile is Valley Mapping Program (KVMP), JICA Study
provided in Table 1.4 below. The detail study of on Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the
the sectoral profile is available as a separate report Kathmandu Valley and other relevant materials.
titled, Sectoral Profile Kathmandu Metropolitan Primary information was also collected by the
City, Nepal. PWC through field investigations, windshield
surveys and direct observations in key areas
The KMC Sectoral Profile contains primary and of the city. Key informant interviews were
secondary information collected from various conducted to collect information from
agencies and organizations in Kathmandu and representatives of various national and
Nepal. The preparation of the profile required local agencies including KMC, KVTDC,
months of collecting official data, completing MoHA, MoLD, MoPPW, Department
data gaps, generating and validating data, of Roads, Department of Transport and
and performing data projections for future Traffic Management, and NSET, as well as
urban population and future demands for international organizations such as JICA, GTZ,
services and facilities in Kathmandu. Majority UDLE and CDIA, among others. The list of
of the information contained in the profile data collected and their corresponding sources
were collected from secondary sources and is provided in Annex B.
official documents such as the Nepal Census

',%48)6 '328)287



',%48)6 '328)28




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2.1. Location and Land Area south, and Gongabu VDC and Dhapasi VDC
in the north. Snow-covered mountains rise
KMC is located in the Kathmandu District, behind the green hills in the north to provide an
Bagmati Zone, Central Develoment Region awe-inspiring backdrop to the city. The city is
of Nepal. It is situated in the northwestern located at 2742 north Latitude and 8520
part of Kathmandu Valley. KMC is bounded east Longitude.
by Madhyapur Thimi Municipality, Gothatar
Village Development Committee (VDC) and 2.2. General Hazards and Associated Risks
Kapan VDC in the east, Ichangu Narayan
VDC, Sitapaila VDC, Khadka Bhadrakali According to the Kathmandu Valley DRM
VDC, Mahankal VDC and Siuchatar VDC in Profile (EMI, 2005), the most frequent natu-
the west, Lalitpur Sub-metropolitan City in the ral disasters in Nepal are flood, landslide, and



fire causing loss of life and severe damage to 2.2.1. Earthquake

property. The middle hills are mainly prone to
landslides while the flat Tarai region is suscep- The historical earthquake catalogue of UNDP/
tible to flood and fire. While earthquakes are UNCHS (1994) showed high seismicity along
not frequent, historically, Nepal has experienced the Himalaya.
several destructive earthquakes with more than
11,000 people killed in four major earthquakes Historically, Nepal has experienced several
just in the past century. destructive earthquakes with more than 11,000
people killed in four major earthquakes just
Nepals recently developed and published Three- in the past century. Based on the earthquake
Year Interim Plan (2007-2010) recognizes catalog, Nepal faces one earthquake of Mag-
disasters as one of the major impediments to nitude 7 or greater every 75 years, on average.
national development. It tries to address disaster Such magnitude earthquake could be extremely
risks by devoting one separate chapter on Disas- damaging to urban metropolises as demonstrat-
ter Risk Management (Chapter 26). DRM issues ed by the M7.0 January 2010 Haiti earthquake.
were also noted in different chapters pertaining Even more alarming is that since 1800 five (5)
to other development sectors. events of M>= 7 have affected Kathmandu, the
8EFPI0MZIW0SWX(YIXS(MJJIVIRX(MWEWXIVW most recent severe earthquake was the 1934
7SYVGI(LEOEP M8.3 earthquake. On average earthquake
8]TISJ(MWEWXIV  intensities equal to or greater than 8 take place
)EVXLUYEOI  every 36 years while earthquake intensities of
9 or greater take place every 75 years. The last
significant earthquake took place in 1980 of
magnitude 6.6. Based on these observations,
it is reasonable to conclude that there is a high
,EMPWXSVQ8LYRHIVFSPX  likelihood of an earthquake which will cause
%ZEPERGLI  intensities of 8 or greater in Kathmandu. Such
7XEQTIHI  intensities will create catastrophic damages in
8SXEP  the city.



For example, it was reported that in 1833, a across Nepal, namely, the Main Central
strong earthquake resulted in the destruction Thrust (MCT), Main Boundary Thrust
of 643 houses, death of 22 people, and injuries (MBT) and Main Frontal Thrust (MFT),
to 30 more. In the 1934 Bihar-Nepal Earth- and many of the past earthquakes occurred
quake, damage to Kathmandu Valley included in the area between MCT and MBT.
725 houses completely destroyed, 3,375 heav- Seismicity is active in the west of Nepal.
ily damaged, 4,146 slightly damaged, and 479 The central part of Nepal has suffered rela-
casualties. tively few earthquakes.

Figure 2.3 presents the historical epicentral A study by JICA and MOHA in 2002 covered
distributions in and around Nepal. The seismic risk assessment for the whole Kathman-
epicentral distribution map indicates the du Valley. It was, however, conducted within a
following characteristics: short duration of time under limited resources.
There are three main tectonic lines running At that time, there was no official building in-

the Valley will be severely dam-
aged, even if the damaged area
is not so large. The nature of
damage from the earthquake in
the valley will be different from
that of a huge earthquake that
occurs outside the Valley.

According to the same earth-

quake study, the main source
of seismic activity in Nepal is
the subduction of the Indian
plate under the Tibetan plate or
Himalayas. Another earthquake
generator in the Valley is the
identified seismic gap zone in
the middle of Nepal. Based on
seismic records dating back to
1255, destructive earthquakes
(estimated to have reached
M7 or greater) have occurred
in 1255, 1408, 1681, 1803,
1810, 1833, and 1869, 1913,
1916, 1934 and 1936 with the
M8.3 1934 earthquake being
the largest magnitude recorded

Earthquake Vulnerability

The concerns over the seis-

mic risk to Kathmandu are
driven not only by the high
rate of seismicity but also by
the extreme vulnerability of
structures and infrastructure,
and the high density of the
built environment. The per-
earthquake resistant is negligi-
ventory of the area so the total number of build- ble, whereas the overwhelming
ings was estimated from population and house- majority of buildings and structures indicate a
hold distribution as reported in the 1991 census. high to very high vulnerability. The density of
Information on building vulnerability was based buildings and population, the extreme vulner-
on an inventory survey of only 1,000 buildings ability, the difficulties of access due to narrow
and from onsite observation of the main sites. roads and the potential for secondary effects
such as fire following an earthquake, hazard-
There are several faults in the Kathmandu Valley. ous material release, landslides, liquefaction
If one of them moves, part of this lineament in and others are indicators of a large scale urban

catastrophe waiting to happen with a level of tions. Houses in rural regions, especially Tarai,
destruction that is unprecedented. Further, are composed of straw or timber and tend to be
Kathmandu is also subject to other hazards such very close to each other, thereby increasing the
as flooding, landslides and has high exposure to risk of fire and fire spread. In 1999, a blaze killed
climate change because of its location and frag- 39 people, injured 10, and affected 1,065 fami-
ile environment, which aggravate the vulnerabil- lies. The fire, with estimated total losses of NRs
ity of the city to natural hazards. 45.23 million, destroyed 1,035 houses, 52 cattle
sheds and 148 livestock.
2.2.2. Flood, Landslide and Debris Flood

There are more than 6,000 rivers and streams in

Nepal, most of which flow from north to south
generally at high velocity due to steep river
gradient. The majority of the larger rivers are
snowfed from the Himalayas. Since the topog-
raphy of the country is steep and rugged, with
high-angle slopes and complex geology, large
quantities of rainfall during the monsoon season
lead to floods, landslides, and debris flows in
a number of cities. Costly yet ineffective land
conservation causes flooding and landslides.
Unplanned settlements and structures built
without consideration of natural hazards ag-
gravate the situation. In addition, landslides
caused by torrential rains add enormous volume
to streams and rivers causing floods and debris
flows downstream that kill numerous people
and inflict immense harm to agricultural lands,
crops, and properties.

In July 1993, the Tarai region experienced a

destructive flood which claimed the lives of
1,336 people and affected another 487,534. In
1998, floods and landslides struck various parts
of the country, mainly the Tarai and middle Hill
regions, killing 273, injuring 80, and impacting
33,549 families. The floods and landslides also
ruined 45,000 hectares of crops. Similar flood-
ing occurred in 1999 and continues to occur

2.2.3. Fire

Fire occurs mainly between April and June

during the dry season when it seldom rains and
temperatures in the Tarai region reach higher
than 35C. Fires are common to the rural Tarai
and Hill regions where 90.8 percent of the total
population lives in very poor housing condi-


3.1. Vision Statement Nepal serving as the administrative center, cradle

of heritage and culture, and a world-class tourist
The vision statement for Kathmandu City serves destination.
as the ideal scenario upon which all major plans
and programs are anchored. The citys 2001was 3.2.2. Qualities of the people as individuals
crafted as follows: Beautiful, well-managed and and as a society
full of life city where citizens are proud of their
natural and cultural heritage and look forward to KMC residents are responsible. This trait is said
a bright future. to have been attained if they have reached a state
where most of its current social and economic
To put more emphasis on safety and disaster problems had been addressed, and may be fur-
resilience, this earlier vision was refined in a ther described as follows:
Strategic Planning Seminar-Workshop held in
July 2009. The new vision aspires for KMC to A low number of crime cases, having negli-
be a tourism center based on heritage and culture gible incidence of theft, pilferage, including
with healthy, responsible and economically active insignificant cases of drug abuse, and de-
citizens, living in a clean, safe, and disaster-resil- struction to property, less number of broken
ient environment. families and juvenile delinquents;
A genuine concern for the environment such
While the RSLUP is prepared for a ten year as garbage being properly disposed, cleaner
period, the conditions envisioned can inspire and greener environment;
KMC well beyond the plans 10-year time The city being child-friendly would connote
horizon, as it may probably take more time to no cases of child abuse or labor and minimal
attain. number of out-of-school youth.
The citizens are transformed into a disaster-
3.2. Vision Elements, Descriptors and Suc- prepared citizenry where the government,
cess Indicators private sector and civil society resources are
immediately mobilized in time of crisis and
A vision statement is meant to capture the de- emergency.
sired qualities of the city according to five major Public consultation/people participation has
elements namely, the quality of the people as been made an integral part of the govern-
individuals and as society, the nature of the local ments decision-making process and that
economy, the state of the natural environment, non-government organizations including
the condition of the built environment and the peoples organizations and cooperatives,
capability of the local leadership. (Serote, 2004) regularly participate in the physical and
development planning, implementation,
3.2.1. Role of KMC monitoring and evaluation of government
programs and projects.
KMC shall continue to be the capital city of

KMC inhabitants are healthy physically, mental- should be able to provide a quality of education
ly and emotionally. Being in good shape would and training in disciplines that cater to busi-
mean longer life expectancy i.e. at least 65 years, nesses in the 21st century such as information
zero malnutrition, low morbidity, sports-orient- technology, and handicrafts to increase the
ed, and possessing healthy mind and body. citys level of competitiveness.

KMC towns-people are economically productive 3.2.4. State of the built and natural environ-
having been able to provide the basic needs of ment
their respective families and that there is an insig-
nificant number of families below poverty level. Pollution (e.g.; solid waste; effluent; air pol-
lution, whether toxic or hazardous or com-
KMC residents are hospitable, as bearers of ing from households, hospitals, industries or
goodwill in a Valley which continue to serve as institutions) is one of the major problems in
a cradle of religious and cultural heritage for the Kathmandu City. However, its residents envi-
world to see, and for its visitors to experience the sion living in an environment that is clean,
hospitality of the people of Kathmandu. green and safe. A clean environment would
translate to a city where all types of wastes are
3.2.3. Nature of the local economy properly disposed of, and where air and water
quality supports a livable and healthy urban
KMC wants to be known not only nationally but environment.
also worldwide as the tourism destination of the
world, known for its competitive and environ- In line with KMCs desire to live in a green
mentally sustainable tourism industry. city, urban core/development clusters shall
flourish with flower-bearing trees along the city
Second, KMCs economy is envisioned to be entrances, highways and even minor roads. The
sustainable and progressive. This can be attained city will also become more attractive without
by creating an economic climate that will en- illegal settlements encroaching on critical and
courage inflow of investments. Progressive means hazard-prone areas (e.g. river side, public land,
KMC shall implement sustainable development etc.).
programs and projects in the different sectors
of the economy. The city must be able to use its This condition is said to have been attained
land and water resources sustainably to support when urban blight is considerably reduced,
its functions and industries, while at the same when the greenery becomes a dominant feature
time create a space (e.g. parks, open space) for of the city; when sidewalks along rivers, along
good quality living. Future human and physical main thoroughfares are continuous and inte-
developments will not be allowed to contribute grated with street lights, parks and open spaces;
to the degradation of the environment and will when rivers and creeks are cleared and cleaned
be sensitive to natural and technological hazard and become part of the network of parks and
risks. open spaces; and when public squares, monu-
ments and buildings which serve as landmarks
Third, in maintaining its dominance as the of the city (e.g. city hall, the public market,
regions center for distribution of goods and ser- the heritage sites) are transformed anew and
vices, Kathmandu City shall continue to develop restored to their original, distinct architectural
its tourism and handicrafts industry, and diver- character.
sify its economy in specialty areas of education,
health services, and in trade. 3.2.5. Condition of the built environment

The educational institutions located in KMC, Creating a planned community supported by

which offer formal education and training, adequate and appropriate transport and infra-

structure will enable every citizen to meet the When urban forests are delineated and protect-
demands of daily work and recreation between ed, and when standards on open space require-
workplace and home. To attain this desired con- ments such as those pertaining to subdivision
dition is to identify and develop suitable areas development, housing, road planning and river
for urban expansion in the form of mixed-use easements, and utility lines/facilities are strictly
growth nodes. Other requirements include: complied with, the desired condition of a safe
built environment is said to be met.
1. Increased efficiency of the circulation
network with new roads and bridges con- 3.2.6. Capability and quality of the local
structed, existing ones rehabilitated, the governance
public transport system rationalized, and
decentralized multi-modal transport termi- The people of KMC desire to have local leaders
nals provided; who are visionary, dynamic and people orient-
2. Improved mobility of pedestrians through ed. These desired qualities of local governance
the provision of pedestrian-oriented facili- are anchored on shared values committed to
ties such as overpasses, waiting sheds, etc.; promoting the public interest. This means that
3. Improved quality and quantity, and in- local leaders whether from the KMC leader-
creased affordability of water supply, power ship, nongovernment organizations or peoples
supply, telecommunications and internet organizations are determined to put the interest
services, etc., or welfare of the people above their self-serving
4. Adequate and effective drainage, sewerage interests. In concrete terms, the people of KMC
and flood control systems; and would like to experience the following effects
5. Buildings and infrastructures are engineered of visionary, dynamic and people-oriented local
with natural hazard risks in mind. governance:

Taking into consideration the natural limits Strict enforcement of laws

and constraints inherent to the land resource of
the city, a desired condition of the built envi- Laws are rules of conduct established and en-
ronment is the development of safe forms and forced by authorities supported by the people.
patterns of settlements away from identified Through a process of decentralization (i.e.
environmentally critical areas and the protec- LSGA), the KMC was allowed by the State to
tion of resource reserves such as urban forests, perform functions and responsibilities as well as
and remaining agricultural lands. As for exist- exercise powers and authority at their mandated
ing built-up areas, appropriate measures will be territorial and political jurisdiction. This entails
adopted to reduce building and infrastructure an unwavering commitment to enforce laws at
vulnerability and social risks. all times.

A planned and safe city results in a balanced re- Self-sustaining KMC

lationship between the built and the unbuilt en-
vironments. This condition is said to have been The people of KMC are empowered to become
attained when the built environment is inte- self-reliant communities and to act as effective
grated into the citys unbuilt space consisting of partners in the attainment of national develop-
parks and open spaces, rivers, creeks. Safe areas ment goals. KMC has the capacity to maximize
and safe forms (e.g. buildings and sites) and pat- its income through progressive means that are
terns of urban space mean existing and future practical and equitable and thus, reduce the
locations are decided with the inherent natural citys reliance on the national government. Apart
hazard risks in mind, and managing them all from maintaining financial stability through a
throughout the land use planning stages and in sustained positive balance in its financial state-
succeeding project development stages. ment, the KMC must also adopt a progressive

fiscal policy in terms of local revenue e.g., taxes
and other revenues, grant from the central gov-
ernment and donation from local and interna-
tional donor agencies.

Eective, ecient and responsive city govern-


The people hope to have an effective, efficient

and responsive KMC government. Effectiveness
means that KMC is able to deliver appropriate
services if and when needed. Efficiency relates
to the cost-effective delivery of public services.
Responsiveness refers to the relevance and
timeliness of the local governments responses to
problems as they arise. In this view, areas of lo-
cal governance shall be strengthened such as the
technical capability of its human resources and
system capability of its organizational structures.

Disaster-prepared and resilient government and


KMC is known to be located in an environ-

mentally-critical area. However, the occurrence,
frequency and magnitude of natural disasters are
unpredictable. Therefore, there is an imperative
for the KMC and citizenry of Kathmandu to be
prepared for disasters at all times.

With a common vision, under a dynamic and

people-oriented governance, KMC remains and
continues to be resilient, in spite of the political
turmoil, and possible natural and technological
disasters that may hit them. The government
and its citizens will rise above these situations, as
empowered citizens and not mere victims.

KMC shall continue to work with the nongov-

ernmental organizations and other institutions
that are recognized as active partners of the
KMC in the pursuit of local autonomy and good


This chapter discusses the development and 8EFPI/EXLQERHY'MX]EXE+PERGI

spatial planning concerns of KMC. An analysis 7SYVGI/1';IFWMXI
of the different sectoral issues, problems and 'SYRXV] 2ITEP
concerns, including relevant strategies to address 6IKMSR 7SYXL%WME
them, is presented. 0SRKMXYHI0EXMXYHI )EWX2SVXL
4.1. City Context
KMC is the capital city of Nepal. It is the
historic, political, commercial, cultural, and
tourist center of the country. It is the largest 4STYPEXMSR(IRWMX] WUOQ
city in Nepal and the cosmopolitan heart of the 2YQFIVSJLSYWI  '&7
Himalayan region. The principal language in LSPH
the city is Nepali and the major religions are 4IVGETMXEMRGSQI 97
Hinduism and Buddhism. With a history and 1ENSVVIPMKMSRW ,MRHYMWQ&YHHLMWQ
civilization dating as far back as 2,000 years ago, 4VMRGMTEP0ERKYEKI 2ITEPM2ITEP&LEWE
the city, along with the other towns and villages 2I[EVM
within Kathmandu Valley, ranks among the old- 2YQFIVSJ[EVHW 
est human settlements in the central Himalayas. 2YQFIVSJWIGXSVW 2 'SVI'IRXVEP2SVXL
The summary of information about Kathmandu F]VSEHEHHVIWWMRK )EWX;IWX
is provided in Table 4.1. 2YQFIVSJ;SVPH 
Kathmandu has a multi-ethnic demography
series of workshops conducted over the course of
although Newars, one of the indigenous groups,
the project. Development constraints are gener-
still comprise a large segment of the population.
ally classified into two: inherent and derived.
Old Kathmandu corresponds to the current city
Inherent constraints pertain to the limitations
core, encompassing a compact zone of temple
due to an areas geophysical features and natural
squares, court yards and narrow streets. The
environment. Derived constraints, on the other
Durbar Square, the old kings palace complex, is
hand, are the issues that arise out of the effort
located at the center of Old Kathmandu and is a
of man and society to adapt to or modify the
designated UNESCO World Heritage Site.
environment to further their individual interest
and collective wellbeing (Serote, 2005).
4.2. Development Issues, Problems and
Constraints The process of mainstreaming DRR in the
local planning process is shown in Figure 4.1
The following discussions on the factors that (the same figure is also available as Figure 1.5
hamper urban development in KMC are derived in chapter 1)and provides inputs to the pro-
mainly from the KMC Sectoral Profile and file which may be used to guide planning. The
other relevant documents, as wells as from the objectives of including the DRA is to inform the


planner on the attendant risks, interpret its im- seismic, seismo-tectonic and geological con-
plications to development, and guide the physi- dition around Kathmandu Valley, and the
cal framework and succeeding land uses to avoid, fault model of 1934 Bihar-Nepal Earthquake.
prevent, or mitigate risks as well as prepare the Among the three, the Mid-Nepal earthquake
population or settlements through the plans. was selected. Figure 4.2 shows the distribution
seismic Intensity in KMC.
4.3. Disaster Risk Assessment
The liquefaction potential map is based on
4.3.1. Seismic Hazard Information information on soil properties and seismic
motion from JICAs Study on Earthquake
Hazard information includes the inventory, Disaster Mitigation in the Kathmandu Valle
description and preparation of the hazard maps in 2002. The liquefaction potential map shown
in Kathmandu Valley. The maps described in in Figure 4.3 indicates that the liquefaction
this section pertain to earthquakes (i.e., nature is moderate in areas along the Bagmati River.
and magnitude of the hazard, susceptibility of A closer look into the moderate liquefaction-
the area, and extent of the intensities of damage prone areas reveals several buildings standing
or impacts over the affected areas.) as described over these areas, among them hospitals (Figure
in the study, Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in 4.4).
the Kathmandu Valley in 2002.
Scenario projections indicate that a repeat of
Three fault models were selected based on the the 1934 Bihar-Nepal earthquake would pro-

duce a death toll between 22,000 and 40,000, On the socio-economic side, political instabil-
while about 60 percent of all buildings in the ity, high mortality rate, illiteracy and extended
Kathmandu Valley will be heavily damaged, poverty are the main components of vulnerabil-
many beyond repair. Ninety percent of the ity. Weak emergency preparedness and response
water pipes would be seriously damaged and capacity, limited hospital and health resources,
about half of the bridges would be closed due and inadequate land use controls have been
to damage. Note the loss estimates of the JICA identified as the most significant components
study are based on 1991 Census. Since then, the that contribute to low-coping capacity and
population in the Valley has just about doubled disaster resilience. High structural vulnerability
and density has increased also. Thus, based on of existing buildings were due to inappropri-
current conditions the actual losses could be ate construction practices, unregulated urban
several times greater than the JICA study projec- development that allows settlements in land-
tions, should the earthquake happen today. slide prone areas found in the hilly fringes, and
increasing number of informal settlements that
For Kathmandu Valley, as well as for Kathman- significantly contribute to accumulation of risk.
du City, the worst-case scenario earthquake has
been identified as the Mid-Nepal Earthquake The components of direct damage in urban areas
with Ms=8.0 (see Figure 4.5). Comparing it to considered in the 2002 report include buildings
the 16 July 2001 Gorkha earthquake of Ms=5.1, for housing, commerce, industries, tourism,
the energy of a probable Mid-Nepal earthquake hospital, roads and bridges and other economic
would be about 30,000 times greater. or social infrastructure. It also covered utilities
which include transport, communication facili-
The VDCs were adopted as the basic units for ties, energy sources, water facilities and sewerage
the administration boundary. Also, in study- facilities. The damages are expressed as percent-
ing the ground earthquake motion and ground age of building or number of breakage points.
condition, the 2002 JICA study made use of
grid system having a mesh of 500m square. The There were no official building inventory data
meshed areas covering KMC were taken from for the Kathmandu Valley in the 2002 study,
the same study and were used in overlaying and so the building vulnerability was estimated
process. from the population and household distribution
by the 1991 census. Similarly, the total number
The following maps from the 2002 JICA study of buildings was based on estimates of these
provide a spatial description of the potential buildings in 1991. In assessing building vulner-
damage and losses that Kathmandu Valley ability, the building material was used but the
would probably sustain in the event of this sce- age and height of buildings were not taken into
nario (Figure 4.5). consideration. Among other elements considered
were the damage on road network and utilities.
4.3.2. Assessment of Vulnerability Detailed and updated data need to be prepared
in future seismic vulnerability studies for a more
Vulnerability analysis defines the possible areas accurate risk estimates.
or elements exposed to the hazard. The elements
at risk may include population, settlements, For this RSLUP, vulnerability of KMC was also
property, land cover features or their values. interpreted from the concentration of major
When overlaid with the hazard maps, they establishments in various wards. The location
provide information about the potential affected of these different types of establishments (spe-
areas. The consequences typically analyzed are cialization or sector) on the hazard maps would
risks to life, risks to property and possible loss indicate the potentially affected sectors (e.g.
of certain functions such as communication, tourism, commercial). In addition, the com-
transportation, power supply, and water supply, mon areas between the different land uses of the
among others. 2001 and 2006 land use maps and the seismic





intensity map were overlaid and their exposure a. Urban area: urbanized area corresponding to
qualitatively described. the five municipalities; population density is
mostly over 100 persons/ha.
In the following sections, the existing situation b. Sub-urban area: relatively urbanized and
of the different sectors of the planned envi- adjacent to the municipalities.
ronment is described. The implications of the c. Rural area: non-urbanized area consists of
seismic hazard and risks are discussed as well. VDCs other than the sub-urban VDCs.

4.3.3. Settlements and Population Figure 4.7 provides a map of the various wards
in Kathmandu City, dividing the area into five
Initially, the basic demographic characteristics sectors, namely, Core, Central, North, East and
and settlement patterns of the city are described West.
in so that trends may be known, and later
verified if these trends are proceeding towards The core built-up area is comprised of central
unsafe areas, making it a development concern. areas of Kathmandu, Kirtipur and Lalitpur. For
Trends therefore are reviewed in this section. Kathmandu City, sprawl had already spilled
over toward the outer ring road, an urban fringe
Based on the KVTDC Earthquake Study of immediately outside of the Ring Road. The rural
2002, Kathmandu Valley has three main sec- sector comprising the rural hinterland showed
tors which can be recognized as urban core, signs of urban influences such as the presence
urban fringe and rural hinterland. According to of economic activities directed at servicing the
KVTDC, the Valley may be divided into local- urban market. This trend is illustrated in Figure
ity categories as follows (Figure 4.6). 4.8.




To date, KMCs City Core still maintains more fertile areas along the river flood plains
its function for worship and tourism. It has, (Figure 4.9).
however, deteriorated over the years. Its form
has similarly changed and other sections of the Summarized below are the issues and concerns
city have since grown into urban centers in their identified during Strategic Planning Workshops.
own right. The expansion has gone beyond the The problems are organized in a cause-effect re-
core area (Durbar square) towards the once lationship with the lower boxes representing the
rural hinterland and farther outside its territory causes (roots) and the upper boxes indicating
resulting into a metropolitan area. the effects (foliage). All problems and issues are
presented from the perspective of the municipal
Population density of Kathmandu City at the or city government (institutional sector), which
core area was about 427 persons/ha in 2001, forms the basis for the identification of appropri-
while those around immediately east and west ate intervention measures or strategies. (Serote,
of the core, it ranged from 800 to1070 persons/ 2005)
ha, with Wards 21, 26, 27 and 28 having the Contemporary urban development in Kathman-
highest densities. Close to the Ring Road, some du City is observed to be driven by the following
ward densities are pegged at around 50-100 per- factors: (PWC, 2009)
son/ha. (See Table 3.2 of Sectoral Profile) Much
of the agricultural land had been converted into Influx of population (people pushed out/in
urban built-up areas, although estimates using by political instability and disasters)
digital maps reveal about 900 hectares remained
agricultural in 2006. This conversion has The influx of the population is bound to
sprawled across agricultural lands and towards grow faster than settlements of smaller size.



The main reason may be due to the econom- Migrant workers/laborers in Kathmandu City
ic attractiveness of Kathmandu City as well would normally locate themselves among simi-
as being the receiver of people pushed out of lar ethnic groups or castes. Some of them may
certain areas by natural and human-induced obtain their housing and urban services from
disasters (i.e. natural hazards, insurgency and the informal market and whatever facilities
armed conflict, relocation of squatters) (See the host locality can offer. This rural-to-urban
Figure 4.10). migration results in the build-up and increase
of informal settlers, putting greater pressure on
Increased income in the city (tourism, remit- the citys scarce basic services (water, sanitation,
tances, and institutions/centers) power, etc.).

The economy of Kathmandu City may be attrib- These combinations and ineffective develop-
uted to the net capital inflow from the incomes ment policies had resulted in the following:
of households, and investments of institutions Unplanned use of land. Partly due to the short-
and government especially in the Central area. age of buildable land and due to the absence
Major contributors to the net inflow include of a clear zoning plan, some house builders
tourist influx, manpower export (remittances were found to have constructed their houses
from deployed labor), and presence of major in places that ought not to be built over or in
institutions and regional and national govern- areas that should not have been encroached
ment centers. upon (e.g. riverbanks, river easements and road
Ethnicity (ethnic groups outside KMC who
are seeking jobs in the city used to live with Due to inadequate information about possible
the same ethnic groups in Kathmandu City) damages from ground shaking and liquefaction
in certain areas, many builders located their

structures without the benefit of thorough geo- Similarly, new residential areas prefer agricultural
technical investigations thereby exposing dwell- or open sites essentially because of lesser prob-
ers to risks. At present there are many buildings lems in consolidating fragmented inner land
with compromised structural quality due to this parcels. Demand for urban land is concentrated
lack of information and lesser concern about the in areas where new industrial sites or service
soundness of their houses/structures against the centers are located. This further puts pressure to
risks from natural hazards inherent to the place. the remaining agricultural lands.
Inadequate housing and urban facilities. There is
a high concentration of activities in the tradi- More suitable lands are owned by large private
tional core (heritage area) and central areas. developers and wealthy residents who may have
banked sizeable quantities of agricultural lands
This owes much to KMCs role as Nepals main so they could resell their better located proper-
place for worship (e.g. pilgrimage), commerce ties or develop them for high-end markets. This
and trading. Kathmandu City and its adjacent leaves low-income groups to locate themselves in
municipalities also serve as the regional center less suitable and high-risk areas.
for higher education and health services. In
addition to the need for more lands for the 4.3.4. Settlement Risks to Natural Hazards
expansion of these urban services and facilities,
the city is severely constrained by old and non- The Great Gujarat Earthquake that hit India in
framed buildings (e.g. brick, mortar-based) in January 2001 revealed the vulnerability of non-
the core area. The problem is compounded by earthquake-resistant cities and villages. The
fragmentation of land parcels and partitioning earthquake killed approximately 20,000 people
of old buildings, many extended vertically and and destroyed over 300,000 houses. An even
horizontally with the same amount of footprint closer comparison is the 2010 Haiti Earthquake
and possibly without the guidance of trained which killed in excess of 250,000 people and left
masons and/or engineers. more than 2 million homeless. The physical vul-
nerability of Kathmandu is not any better than
A great number of the transient population also Port-au-Prince in Haiti; to some extent it is even
exists. The transient population is distributed in worse because of the types of buildings and the
the core and in the central areas determined by very high concentration of construction. Com-
the services offered (e.g. work, education, social pared to the Gujarat region, Nepal lies closer
functions). The main reasons for coming to the to the subduction zone where the Indian plate
Valley (especially in Kathmandu City) are work, passes under the Tibetan plate, and may actu-
higher education, medical check-ups, pilgrim- ally be susceptible to even larger earthquakes. In
ages, bureaucratic formalities, visiting relatives, 1934, an earthquake of magnitude 8.4 caused
internal tourism, and official visits. In the last serious damage to 60 percent of the buildings in
five years, people seeking jobs overseas have Kathmandu Valley (Figure. 4.11), killing about
constituted a large proportion of the transient 4,300 people. Probability studies suggest that
population. The nature and flow of population the next great earthquake may occur at any time
depends upon the time of year and festivals. after around 70 years of silence. As population,
Industrial and residential expansion. Urban buildings and facilities have increased many
growth through industrial location or expan- times more since1934, so does KMCs overall
sion may have been due to new industries just exposure to seismic risk.
outside of the ring road to the north. Agricul-
tural areas are preferred sites in the urban fringes The earthquake scenario that is expected to
over low-lying vacant lots in city centers and create significant destruction and disruption in
inner cities. This contributes to the conversion the Valley is the Mid-Nepal Earthquake (Mag-
of agricultural lands. nitude 8). This earthquake scenario has been set
based on the seismic gap in the middle of Nepal.
Private-led development (malls and residences). Except in mountainous areas, an MMI VIII is

expected to be experienced in the Valley under (b) training of teachers, parents, and children
this scenario. If an aftershock of magnitude 7 oc- on earthquake preparedness. (EMI, 2005)
curred at a position nearest to the main rupture
zone, Kathmandu Valley would experience MMI Buildings constructed with brick and mortar
VII. Moderate liquefaction potential was identi- and without competently designed frames that
fied in some areas along the Bagmathi River. The tie the brick walls together are typically more
anticipated impact of the Mid-Nepal Earthquake vulnerable than buildings made of reinforced
scenario is as follows: concrete. Many of the buildings in the core
area are made of brick and mortar. Age, lack
Number of heavily damaged buildings: of maintenance and structural transformations
53,000 or 21 percent of all buildings; have further weakened these buildings and
Death toll: 18,000 or 1.3 percent of the total made them extremely vulnerable. These are the
Valley population in the Valley; and reasons for the higher estimates of damage in
Number of seriously injured people: 53,000 the core and adjoining wards. Most reinforced
or 3.8 percent of the total Valley population. concrete buildings in Kathmandu also exhibit
high vulnerability because they were designed
Should the earthquake happen today, the losses and build without any consideration to earth-
will undoubtedly be several times higher because quake loads. They will not be able to sustain
of the population in the Valley has doubled since prolonged shaking and swaying induced by
1991 (the date for the data of the JICA study) strong earthquakes, but to a lesser degree than
and the concentration of construction is much the old brick buildings. Among concrete frame
greater now. buildings, older ones (20 yearsand more) will
tend to be more vulnerable, in general because
According to an earthquake vulnerability as- of advances in concrete technology and effects
sessment carried out by NSET, more than 643 of age.
school buildings or 66 percent of public schools
in three administrative districts of Kathmandu Figure 4.13 shows the distribution of buildings
Valley - Bhaktapur, Kathmandu and Lalitpur based on the type of materials, as classified in
- could collapse given an MM IX earthquake. the 2002 study.
Figures 4.11 and 4.12 reveal the distribution of
damages to buildings under different scenarios of Figure 4.11 provides a damage distribution
ground shaking. Based on prior surveys con- map of the 1934 earthquake. The figure shows
ducted in the Valley by NSET, use of traditional that majority of the building damage are
building materials, such as adobe, stone rubble concentrated in the Core area and the wards
in mud mortar, or brick in mud mortar, is the immediately surrounding it, particularly the
leading cause of building school vulnerability, Central areas.
followed by lack of structural maintenance. Of
the inspected buildings, 10-15 percent was found The Mid-Nepal Scenario, similarly points to
to be in very poor condition, many with roofs on the same Core area of Kathmandu City as a
the verge of collapse or walls that could crumble very high risk area. Note the cluster of red grids
at any time (Table 4.2). in Figure 4.12. The Central areas, as well as the
wards around the core are similarly at high risk.
This is an alarming observation given that Based on the distribution of buildings, follow-
schools could play a significant role in the after- ing the dominant type of material in that grid,
math of an earthquake as they are typically well- as shown in Figure 4.13, and the likely greater
distributed throughout the communities and number of buildings in the Core, the more
could be used as temporary shelters. Initiatives catastrophic building damages are likely to be
by NSET to reduce the vulnerability of schools more in the Core. The dark and light green
included (a) training of masons on issues related areas towards the periphery of Kathmandu
to building earthquake-resistant structures, and City may indicate lesser buildings constructed



during the time of the earthquake study before of injuries per unit area (greater than 2000
2002. Given the increases in population and the persons per sq. km); but a greater concern is
corresponding densification in the core in the the wider coverage of these intensities, 500 to
past decade; as well as, the expansion of built up 2,000 persons per sq. km, indicating tens of
areas towards the periphery, this risk to dam- thousands of injured persons, which will be a
age distribution is expected to intensify over real challenge for post event rescue and relief.
the same areas. An enlarged image of the Core The post-event emergency operations will also
and portions of the Central area in Figure 4.14 be severally impeded by lack of access due to
reveals Wards 18 to 30 are very high risk areas to debris and collapse buildings. Potential for fire
building damage and human life loss. following the earthquake and hazardous materi-
al release could further aggravate the impact of
Risk to life such as death or injury is likely to the earthquake on life loss. An enlarged image
occur where severe building damage and collapse of the Core where moderate and severe injuries
take place. Figure 4.15 shows that in the Core, are expected may be seen in Figure 4.18.
where heavy damage or collapse is likely, death
toll or its density is highest. Note that the Cen- As a summary, the anticipated disaster in
tral areas follow suit in terms of casualties and the Kathmandu Valley under the Mid-Nepal
calculated death toll densities. Figure 4.16 shows Earthquake scenario is characterized by heavy
an enlarged image of the Core and portions of damage of 53,000 buildings, death of 18,000
the central areas, revealing the same Wards 18 people and serious injuries to 53,000 more
to 30 as very high risk areas. Figure 4.17 reveals (based on 1991 census data). The risk to life
the distribution of moderate and severe injuries. in terms of number of deaths and injuries is
The Core exhibited the highest intensity in terms More likely to be much higher over the same

areas considering todays density in buildings very close to each other, thereby increasing the
and population. A current inventory of building risk of fire and fire spread. A major fire blaze in
densities and characteristics, and the number 1999 killed 39 people, injured 10, and affected
of population and occupancy types need to be 1,065 families. The fire, with estimated total
determined in order to get an image of the real losses of NRs45.23 million, destroyed 1,035
conditions in Kathmandu City. These current houses, 52 cattle sheds, and 148 livestock.
estimates on risks are assumed to exist and con-
tinue to increase, and forms, in part, the basis of Earthquakes. The risk from earthquakes and its
decisions in strategizing the land use and urban impacts have been extensively discussed in the
redevelopment programs in this RSLUP. previous sections. A few important points can
be repeated here:
4.3.5. Natural Resources and Environment
Nepal is a highly seismic area due to its
This section provides a description of the position along major active tectonic setting
natural environment, based on limited available caused by the subduction of the Indian plate
materials and prior assessments on the subject. under the Tibetan plate, which moves at a
A more detailed discussion of this section is very high geological rate and has caused the
included in the KMC Sectoral Profile. creation of the Himalayas. Another genera-
tor of earthquakes in the Kathmandu Valley
Flood, landslides and debris ow. There are is the seismic gap zone in the middle of
more than 6,000 rivers and streams in Nepal, Nepal;
most of which flow from north to south gener- Since 1255, where the earthquake catalogue
ally at high velocity due to steep river gradient. starts, about 12 major earthquakes (all
The majority of the larger rivers are snow-fed believed to be at least equal or greater than
from the Himalayas. Since the topography of Magnitude 7 have affected Nepal. They
the country is steep and rugged, with high-angle include earthquakes in the following years:
slopes and complex geology, large quantities 1255, 1408, 1681, 1803, 1810, 1833, and
of rainfall during the monsoon season lead to 1869, 1913, 1916, 1934 and 1936 with
floods, landslides, and debris flows in a number the M8.3 1934 earthquake being the larg-
of cities. In July 1993, the Tarai region experi- est magnitude recorded earthquake killing
enced a destructive flood that claimed the lives 4,300 people and destroying 20% of all
of 1,336 people and affected another 487,534. structures in the Valley and damaging anoth-
In 1998, floods and landslides again affected Ta- er 40%. In Kathmandu itself, one quarter
rai and other parts of the country including the of all homes were destroyed along with a
middle Hill region killing 273, injuring at least number of temples in Bhaktapur.
80, and impacting 33,549 families. The floods Thus, the historical seismicity indicates a re-
and landslides also ruined the agricultural sec- turn time for earthquakes of M>=7 of about
tor, destroying 45,000 hectares of crops. Similar 75 years in the country
flooding occurred in 1999 and continues to In terms of intensity, the earthquake
occur annually. catalogue indicates that one should expect
intensity 8 or greater to take place every 36
Fires. Fires are a common hazard during the dry years on average and intensity 9 or greater
season (April-June) when it seldom rains and every 75 years. These intensities will cause
the temperature in the Tarai region can reach catastrophic damages in the city.
higher than 35 Celsius. Fires are prevalent in More alarming is the fact that many of these
Tarai and Hill regions where 90.8 percent of the earthquakes tend to cluster into two zones,
total population lives in very poor housing con- one of them being around Kathmandu,
ditions. Houses in rural regions, especially Tarai, where five earthquakes of M>= 7 have taken
are composed of straw or timber and tend to be place since 1800.
Even more alarming is the fact that physical









vulnerability is extremely high because of a rameters that need to be resolved in the RS-
number of aggravating factors, including: LUP, through a change of vision and paradigm
The large number of old brick and mortar for development and through education and
buildings, the lack of any consideration to awareness. Strategies and actions of the RSLUP
earthquake loads in the design and con- would be aimed at reducing vulnerability and
struction of buildings and other structures, improving emergency management capabilities.
the lack of structural maintenance, the
frequent structural modifications done to Degraded and denuding water resources. Ac-
buildings to create open areas for com- cording to a joint study by MoEST, ICIMOD
merce, and the high density of buildings. and UNEP (2007) titled, Kathmandu Valley
Kathmandu presents one of the most vul- Environmental Outlook, the Valleys surface
nerable environment to earthquake among water sources, such as rivers and kunds, have
the major cities in the world. received tremendous pressure from increasing
The high potential for fire following and population and economic activities. The pressure
potential for hazardous material release that on these water sources has also increased over
could follow an earthquake due to mix uses the years as the agricultural sector intensified
of residential, commercial and industrial its demand for water. Almost all major rivers
functions, lack of enforcement of fire safety have been tapped at source for drinking water
and hazardous material regulation, and basic supplies. This supply is only about 120 million
safety requirements, as well as high density litres per day (mld) during the rainy season and
of buildings. These secondary hazards could 80 mld during dry season, against the estimated
aggravate the damage and losses from the daily demand of 170 mld (NWSC 2001). In dry
shaking. season, 60-70 percent of the water supply comes
The extreme difficulties that will be experi- from groundwater. Only 79 percent of the total
enced after an earthquake to organize rescue demand for water of the urban population has
and relief operations as well as to deliver any been met. (MoEST, ICIMOD and UNEP,
other emergency response function such as 2007)
ensuring public safety and fire fighting, due
to congestion, high level of debris on the The physical vulnerability of Kathmandu city is
streets and lack of access due to building a result of several factors related to poor building
collapse and debris planning, lack of land use plan and a support-
The extreme difficulties in finding areas ing transport plan to guide development, and
for staging relief operations, for organizing inadequate technical capacity and resources at
emergency response functions, for providing the local government level to address infrastruc-
emergency shelter, and temporary housing tural demands for health, water, sanitation, and
due to the lack of open space in the city. safety. Over the years, the vulnerability of the
Critical facilities such as schools, hospitals, population against natural and man-made haz-
public safety buildings, essential public ards continue to increase and at the same time,
buildings, banks, and others important continue to threaten the remaining resources
facilities are likely to sustain heavy damages and amenities, thus further eroding the quality
and not be functional after an earthquake. of life of its residents.
Damage to infrastructure mainly water,
wastewater and sanitation, drainage, trans- These problems are cross-sectoral and the solu-
portation system (including airport and tions in each sector need to be integrated in a
main bridges), power, communication, fuel plan (Figure 4.19). This has implications on
supply and food supply systems are likely future investment projects that need to be har-
to also be disabled for several days if not monized to achieve sustainability. For example,
months. in principle, future constructions should not
increase vulnerabilities or risks to already high-
These conditions are driving constraint pa- risk areas. Another example is that a proposed

decongestion in the core area should be accom- managers because of the high cost of providing
panied by appropriate strategies for housing and and maintaining municipal services. (MoEST,
possible livelihood or business opportunities in ICIMOD and UNEP, 2007)
other areas of the city for those to be displaced or
moved. Continuing loss of open space. In KMC,
buildings are rampantly constructed over lots
4.3.6. Land Use and Physical Framework without the appropriate size or considerations
for road rights-of-way. The lack of riverbank
Shortage of habitable land. The projected popu- protection has resulted in the erosion of banks,
lation of Kathmandu Valley in 2020 is estimated encroaching into adjoining properties and
at 2.5 million compared to 1.6 million in 2001. putting the inhabitants at risk. Unplanned
(KVTDC, 2002) KMC has the highest gross settlements and structures, built without
population density in the city core and central consideration of natural hazards aggravates
areas at 437 persons/ha and 139 persons/ha, the situation. The importance of open spaces
respectively, in 2001. This process of densifica- should neither be underestimated nor over-
tion within the existing Ring Road, as well as the looked. As noted by Serote (2004), Any city
conversion of farmlands, are likely to continue regardless of the amount of land available must
(MoEST, ICIMOD and UNEP, 2007). maintain a network of public open spaces.
The social, cultural and ecological function of
The same study by MoEST, ICIMOD and open space is vital to any level of settlement. In
UNEP (2007) states that rapid urbanization in socio-cultural terms, the value of public open
the Valley has been guided by several factors such space lies in providing a learning opportunity
as a concentration of political and economic for citizens to recognize and respect the public
power resulting in employment opportunities domain. Public open space serves as the citys
and multiple activities; availability of urban life support system and hence, must be kept in
basic services such as water, roads, electricity, its open character.
and telephones; proximity to work areas such as
administrative centres and industries; location of Increasing demand for urban land. Kathman-
an international airport and tourist centres; push du City is the oldest city in Nepal. Consistent
factors in rural areas such as natural calamities, with its central place functions, the services and
unemployment, and social stigma. All these facilities available in KMC also cater to regional
observations apply to KMC. needs (Kirthipur, Thimi, Bakthapur, among
others), in addition to the local populations.
Taking the Mid-Nepal Earthquake Scenario
as reference, riverside areas are vulnerable to Conversion of agricultural lands. Due to an
liquefaction, while all built-up areas in KMC increasing demand for urban land, existing
are prone to strong ground shaking. From an agricultural lands continue to be converted for
institutional point of view, the existing chal- urban development. Using up open areas in the
lenges to urban development, to include the fringes appears to be the easiest approach to
increasing vulnerabilities, result mainly from a meet this demand. The land pooling experience
lack of land use plan for Kathmandu City and by KMC applied only to fringe areas where cost
from the non-adoption or loose implementation and rearrangement are still manageable. Hence,
of the Building Bylaws. (KMC, 2001) The study attempts to pool land in highly dense built-up
team similarly describes urban growth as follows: areas are quite unlikely but potentially useful to
The growth of settlements in the Valley is gener- meet the demand for new spaces.
ally spontaneous, and there is very little plan-
ning intervention on the part of the government Fragmentation of land parcels arising from
to guide its directions. The low-density urban inheritance. Inheritances of common proper-
sprawl and uncontrolled settlement development ties lead to dividing the same property among
in rural areas similarly pose a challenge for urban children and kin. As a result, a big parcel of


land may be fragmented into smaller units in percent of the total population in the Valley
the long run, making the area more difficult enjoys safe drinking water. Table 4.4 shows the
to maximize or densify. Building spaces may total population of each district and the percent-
similarly be partitioned to accommodate several age of the population receiving drinking water.
households housed therein. Poor wastewater collection and treatment.
Dumping of sewage and garbage into rivers had
Backlogs in infrastructure development. Infra- resulted in poor sanitation and blockages of
structure development has not coped with the drains in the city. In most cases, wastewater flow
increasing demand for urban facilities and ame- is ultimately collected in storm sewers, as the
nities. It has resulted in overcrowding, housing sewage directly flows into the river without any
congestion, unplanned electrical system, lack of treatment. The problem has been aggravated by
fire safety, narrow streets, lack of open space for the growth of settlements along the riverbanks.
shelter, and continued exposure to disaster risks, Shortage of water in the river, especially during
among others. winter, leads to rivers virtually being used as sew-
ers, increasing pollution concentration. Illegal
Water supply and distribution problems. Not quarrying of sand also causes environmental
all households and people in the Valley have problems along the riverbanks, severely affecting
access to safe drinking water. The dependency the structural safety of bridges at major arterial
of households for drinking water on a variety of roads. (MoEST, ICIMOD and UNEP, 2007)
sources is shown in Table 4.3.
Heritage area and environment deterioration.
Based on the 2005 data from the Department If proper consideration is not given, the natural
of Drinking Water and Sewerage, less than 75 and cultural heritage will continue to deterio-



,, ,, ,, ,,

rate because of environmental pollution which imity to the heritage sites which contribute
inevitably hampers further development of the to the wear and tear of the structures;
tourism industry.
b. lack of inventory to provide intensive inves-
Conservation and preservation problems of tigation of the historical and archeological
heritage areas cover several aspects such as those heritage and the lack of inventory of the
related to institutional coordination, lack of building stocks that may be required for
proper preparatory inventories, lack of awareness retrofitting;
and understanding about the culture and devel-
opment pressures, deterioration of structures, c. lack of community-awareness and apprecia-
loss of cultural significance and congestion. The tion of maintaining heritage ambiance;
World Heritage Organizations Integrated Man-
agement Framework for KMCs heritage sites d. permitting of the new buildings or altera-
described these in detail as follows: tions in the sites without permission from
KMC; and
a. non-compliance to building regulations
8EFPI4STYPEXMSR6IGIMZMRK(VMROMRK;EXIV e. narrow streets and access to nearby safe
7SYVGI1S)78-'-13(ERH92)4 open areas adds to the risk particularly in
  Air pollution. Air pollution is caused by emis-
/EXLQERHY    sions from vehicles plying along narrow and
0EXMTYV    winding streets, which is exacerbated by poor
&LEOXETYV    road networks and conflicting land uses In un-
8SXEP    planned settlements. (See Section 8.3.1 of the
Sectoral Profile for more discussion.)

Electrical power shortage. Not all households

by old and new constructions at identified
in the Valley have electricity. The proportion
World Heritage Sites, especially at the Hanu-
of households having electricity in the three
man Dhoka Palace Square and Boudda mon-
districts may be seen in the Nepal Human
ument zones. The issues pertain more on
Development Report 2001 (UNDP 2002). The
private buildings enveloping heritage sites,
overall proportion of households connected to
development pressures in heritage sites, and
electricity is approximately 95 percent.
mercantile operations located in close prox-

Dumping of solid waste. Illegal dumping of converge in the traditional core and central area
solid waste is a common sight in unplanned where almost all the traffic generators/attractors
settlements. These areas are either not served by are concentrated.
the municipal solid waste collection system or
the community is not well organized to handle Compounding the congestion problem is the
the problem. (See section 8.1 of the Sectoral inadequacy of the existing circulation network.
Profile for waste disposal issues and problems.) The inadequacy of existing roads is acutely felt
along the arterials or those roads that convey
4.3.7. Transport and Linkages through traffic in the central area. All north-
south and east-west vehicular traffic must pass
The main road network inside the Kathmandu through the central business district thereby ag-
Valley consists of corridors, one from east to gravating the traffic condition in the city center.
west and the other from north to south, along With the intention of increasing densities in the
with a Ring Road surrounding the cities of central area, and near surrounding areas of the
Kathmandu and Patan. Several radial roads also core, the circulation needs to be improved.
exist; some radiating from the city core area
and others from the Ring Road that are not 4.3.8. Natural Hazard Risks to Buildings and
constructed according to Nepals road standards Infrastructures
and possibly less maintained. Aside from these,
there are 33 urban roads in Kathmandu Dis- The components of direct damage to Kath-
trict, 10 in Lalitpur District and 11 in Bhakta- mandu City may include buildings for housing,
pur District. According to the Department of commerce, industries, tourism, hospitals, roads
Roads database, most of these urban roads are and bridges and other economic or social infra-
narrow and heavily built up on both sides. structure such as critical lifeline utilities (water,
energy) and facilities (transportation, communi-
Bridges. Since most of the bridges were built cation, sewerage). The impact can be expressed
and supported by various foreign aid agencies, as a percentage of buildings destroyed or number
there is no uniform bridge design standard in of breakage points. However, an understand-
Kathmandu Valley. ing of the severity of the impact of the damage
on life, livelihoods, delivery of critical services,
Airport. Nepal has only one international air- and potential for restoration is also important to
port, the Tribhuvan Airport located in Kath- acquire. These elements were discussed in other
mandu City. It has two terminals, one domestic sections of the report including section 4.3.5.
and one international. The airport is built on Risk to buildings. There were no official build-
terrace deposits with stiff ground. In case of ing inventory data for Kathmandu Valley in the
earthquake disasters, if this sole international 2002 JICA study, and so the building vulner-
airport is damaged, not only Kathmandu Valley ability was estimated from the population and
but the whole nation is in danger of complete household distribution based on the 1991 cen-
isolation from the outside world. sus. This is to say that the total number of build-
ings was estimated and not obtained from field
Perennial trac congestion. Roads and streets inventory activities. Data on building material
in Kathmandu City, like its establishments and used predominantly for building construction
institutions, do not serve the needs of the local were used to assess building vulnerability. The
residents only. They are also used by residents age and height of buildings were not taken into
from other districts crossing the city to attend consideration due to unavailability of data and
college classes, watch movies, shop, transact constraints in doing detailed surveys. Among
business with government and private offices, other elements considered were the damage on
and attend religious functions and worship. All road network and utilities. Detailed and updated
vehicles that carry this volume of traffic must data need to be prepared in future studies. Thus,

the results of the JICA study are very informa- number of buses, including microbuses, has
tive of the relative distribution of the impact of more than doubled in the same period. One
earthquake but could be considered to be low of the consequences of this was an increased
estimates in absolute values. For the purpose of competition for passengers, with resultant
the RSLUP, the relative information on risk is congestion at passenger boarding points and
very relevant to laying out a strategy and a ratio- unregulated rates. (See Chapter 7, Section 7.1
nale for land use and development. However, of the Sectoral Profile)
for emergency management purposes, absolute
values of damage and loss are also important. The road network within Kathmandu Valley is
Refer to section 4.3.4 for more discussion. inadequate. It has experienced a large growth
in the number of vehicles as urbanization
Risk to roads and bridges. The density of roads takes place in a rapid manner. The number of
in the Valley, that is, 14 meters per hectare or 5.6 vehicles continues to grow despite the lack of
percent of developed land 1, is below internation- improvement in existing facilities and the dis-
al standards. Sixty percent of total vehicles run in organized traffic movement; thereby resulting
roads of the Valley. With a surge in population, in increased congestion and accidents. These
the pressure on existing transportation facilities in turn, have decreased vehicle speeds affecting
will continue to grow. The problem is also esca- road capacity. Roads are not classified according
lated due to lesser number of public transporta- to vehicle types. With increased vehicular traffic
tion modes as compared to private. and common tracks for all types of vehicles in
the Valley, traffic congestion is increasing and
According to the Department of Transport Man- contributing to excessive vehicular emissions.
agement (DoTM), the total number of vehicles
registered in Bagmati Zone was 246,760 in In view of the Mid-Nepal Earthquake scenario,
2003-04. The total number of vehicles registered several bridges are likely to be heavily damaged
in 2005-06 was 27,262. The present trend in closing most of the access points in and out of
addition of vehicles in Bagmati Zone is estimated Kathmandu City. Figure 4.20 shows the bridge
to be around 12 percent per annum. (Source: damage distribution for the said scenario. The
Sectoral Profile) Table 4.5 provides the vehicle Kathmandu Valley Earthquake Risk Manage-
registration in Bagmati Zone. ment Project (KVERMP) has estimated that
more than 10 percent road length will be dam-
As shown in Table 4.6, the growth of motorized aged and more than 50 percent of bridges will
vehicles, especially buses, has been tremendous in be impassable if an earthquake with Intensity
the last five years. The number of three-wheelers IX hits Kathmandu Valley. (KVERMP, 1997)
such as tempos has remained fairly static, but the
Almost all bridges connecting the international
QERHY:EPPI] airport are at risk. Most of them had not been

8EFPI%RRYEP-RGVIEWIMR4YFPMG8VERWTSVX9RMXW mandu Valley (Figure 4.21). It includes the road
MR&EKQEXM>SRI network linking the Valley to other parts of the
:ILMGPIX]TI =IEV %ZIVEKI nation, to the international airport and bound-
  ERRYEP  aries, to districts, city centers, municipalities of
KVS[XL the Valley, and to water sources in and around
8LVII[LIIPIV    the Valley, etc. The Ring Road and other basic
1MGVSFYW    networks important for conducting socio-eco-
8VYGO    nomic activities during normal periods were also
&YW    included in the Strategic Road Network.
8SXEP    Figure 4.22 below shows the location of other
critical facilities exposed to ground shaking and
retrofitted nor replaced, so in the case of the liquefaction under the Mid-Nepal Earthquake
Mid-Nepal Earthquake Scenario, disruption of scenario.
traffic may result in more losses. However, no
detailed studies for earthquake loss estimation 4.3.9. On Incomes and Other Services
have been carried out after the KVERMP and
JICA studies. The increasing pressure of urban development
on a city has given rise to a number of other is-
The parts of the road network that will play a sues as discussed below.
vital role during an earthquake were identified
and termed the Strategic Road Network for Loss of cultural heritage. The rich cultural heri-
Earthquake Disaster Mitigation in the Kath- tage of Kathmandu Valley is believed to gradu-



ally eroding because of the excessive pressure of had resulted in lesser possibilities of gaining
commercial activities. Historic ponds, court- employment. These may have contributed
yards, public rest houses, and grazing grounds to the rise in criminality. Political cuddling
and playing fields are being converted into and limited support in fighting criminality
private property. Similarly, public lands are being had translated into erosion of confidence in
registered as private land for profit and specula- the police system and has allowed anarchism
tion, while traditional guthis (trusts), which of unlawful elements in the streets, thereby
looked after the management of public lands, decreasing tourism and lesser faith in the police
have either ceased to exist or are inactive. system. Indirectly, this could have resulted in
Ineective education policy. Figure 4.23 in- financial losses to the tourism industry as well
dicates that too much politics and ineffective as outmigration of residents. These perceptions
monitoring of performance of the education and beliefs raised in the workshop need to be
sector contributed to insufficient educational validated further in other studies.
facilities and services resulting further in a less
desirable quality of education. The number of Decreasing performance of industries (cottage
school dropouts continues to increase, while a and others). A report by MoEST, ICIMOD
growing number of people are having less faith in and UNEP(2007) notes the establishment of
the educational system because of incompetent Udhyog Parishad (Industrial Development
graduates and limited employment opportuni- Board) in 1935 and the promulgation of the
ties. Company Act in 1936. This paved the way for
industrial development in Kathmandu,Valley
Increased crime rate. Fig. 4.24 shows that the such as traditional cottage industries(e.g.,textile
lack of skills coupled with poor quality living, weaving (handlooms), brick and tiles, pottery,

handicrafts (e.g. idol making), precious how of the local government to effectively plan
ornaments, traditional food processing and and manage its territory (Figure 4.26). Decades
preservation (such as rice milling, beaten rice, of highly centralized power and resources and
oil milling, sweetmeats, and traditional dairy the dependence of KMC on the national gov-
products), wooden furniture and carving, ernment may have made it difficult to address
bamboo crafts, traditional textile printing and growing concerns by its own; but slowly, steps
dyeing, traditional art and paintings, copper and had already been taken by KMC which in-
brass metal utensils, herbal medicines, forges, cludes this local planning activity. Henceforth,
and cordwaining (leather crafts). the KMC officials are sustaining a proactive
stance in defining the direction and shaping
Inspite of these developments, the same report the pattern of development in their territorial
reveals other factors related to political rifts, jurisdiction.
power shortage, work-related disputes and
insufficient government support resulted to A 2007 study confirmed several of these
poor investments and business closures. Where perceptions and beliefs, noting the following
new services are becoming in demand, the lack points:
of skills and possibly training and education
programs for such services are hindering people Government is unable to acquire land be-
to gain employment. As shown in Fig. 4.25, this cause of financial constraints while private
resulted in seriously poor living conditions and developers face difficulties in assembling
rise in crimes against persons or the community land parcels.
in general. Developers also face difficulties in procur-
Weak institutional capability. At the root of all ing land parcels from speculative landown-
these constraints is the weak capability or know- ers who either demand exorbitant prices



or simply refuse to sell the land. There is 4.3.10. Risk to services and livelihood means
no legal tool that can be used to acquire
isolated land parcels from uncompromising The location of establishments relative to the
landowners. hazard-prone areas initially determines their ex-
Although municipalities are spending a posure. However, the greater risks and negative
large proportion of their income on person- consequences to the various sectors of the city
nel expenses, they have very little trained are felt in the long term, especially if industries
manpower. are too specialized and heavily concentrated in
Other institutions are involved in urban an area and may not be diverse enough to cope
development and urban environmental with losses. In view of the limited resource to
management, but they have very limited study thoroughly the service functions of the
resources and programmes. wards in KMC and outside the Valley, the ser-
Most municipalities and other institutions vice functions defining the urban geo-spatial and
that have responsibilities for urban environ- economic fabric were based on a distribution
mental management do not have plans and of establishments from different industries in
programmes to combat pollution. KMC. As indicated in Fig. 4.27, tourism is con-
Another major weakness of institutions is centrated in Wards 1 (Central)and 29(North),
in regular monitoring and enforcing com- with more than three quarters of its business
pliance with standards and regulations. establishments located in these areas. Estimated
Nepal has standards for ambient air quality building damage in these areas are moderate to
and vehicle emissions, but these are rarely high. Much more critical are the tourism and
enforced. (MoEST, ICIMOD and UNEP, services in the core areas which, unfortunately,
2007) are expected to experience the most severe dam-
ages and loss from an earthquake, and are likely
to be completely disabled for a long period of


time. Considering the importance of tourism relocation is indicative as of this time. Among
and service sector to the economic life and the the key considerations in relocation are the
livelihood means of the population, these are number and availability of other service func-
areas of high socio-economic vulnerability as well tions in other wards, which should complement
and should be addressed in the RSLUP. available services in these same areas, as well as
the population density to support them. It is
Services are concentrated in the core area but assumed that a population density of 60 per-
dispersed in other wards. The manufacturing sons per hectare would be sufficient to support
industries are located in the core, northern and neighborhood services. Based on the 2001 esti-
eastern sectors. While damage or disruption to mates and current projections, this density has
these services in the core are likely, a detailed already been exceeded in most areas of KMC
study to fully understand the spatial relationships and in other municipalities in the Valley. Even
of these services is necessary to understand bet- with these viewpoints and directions, several
ter the impact of the earthquake on the economy issues need to be further addressed, such as the
of KMC. Even with these limitations, removing implications of the building bylaws to existing
non-compatible services from the core (heritage constructions and urban form and the changes
area) and relocating them to the periphery ap- in travel demand these new centers will create,
pears rational considering the need to decongest among others.
the area in order to reduce the exposure of the
population. Such approach will reduce the risk 4.4. Goals, Objectives and Targets
in the long term but will also enable of more
rational use of land and space. Goals reflect the problems and the actions that
may be taken to address them over a long pe-
The identification of appropriate places for riod of time while objectives are more specific,


measurable and time-bound. For KMC, the further detailed in the succeeding chapters.
main problems identified and discussed may be
translated into the following goals: 4.5. Implications of Risks on Goals, Objec-
Reduced and regulated migration; tive and Targets
Reduced vulnerability and exposure to natu-
ral hazards; Following the seismic risk information provided,
Improve emergency management capabili- the more important concerns that need to be
ties addressed are those that pose threats:
Increased employment opportunity; To public safety;
Reduced crime rate and greater peace and To the sustainability of key production
order; resources or employment activities;
Strengthened institutional capabilities to To the delivery of basic services; and
carry out functions; To protected areas, flora, fauna, and other
Reduced pollution; and protected natural resources.
Improved services.
Hence, the analyses should focus on the impli-
To meet these development goals, they are cations of these seismic risk information to the
broken down into manageable actions over development of specific settlements, produc-
short periods and become the objectives to be tion and protection land uses, infrastructures of
met. Strategies are then developed and described Kathmandu City. The resulting problems and
on how these objectives may be carried out. concerns arising from this evaluation should
Tables 3.5 to 3.9 lists down the strategies that be translated into goals, objectives and targets
were identified and described by the PWC for for risk reduction and increased resilience. The
the following sectors (a) population and settle- succeeding Tables 4.7 to 4.11 are the outputs of
ments, (b) physical resources, (c) economy, (d) these analysis and goals, objectives and strategies
incomes and services and (e) land use and physi- formulation. The land use strategies are the sug-
cal framework. Land use-related strategies are gested policies and interventions so that sustain-


able development may be carried through an physical development was reached through
appropriate land use plan and zoning ordinance. several meetings with KMC. The existing land
In general, the DRR measures may include one uses, intensities of use and arrangement for
or several of the following approaches: the settlement, production, infrastructure and
Avoid or eliminate - remove a risk trigger or protection areas were based from the current
deny a risk- creating activity land use map. Possible changes in the intensi-
Reduce or mitigate - reduce the frequency or ties through redevelopment of urban spaces,
the severity by changing physical characteris- possible conversion of agricultural areas, land
tics or operations pooling opportunities, core area preservation,
Share or transfer - shift the risk-bearing possible urban expansion outside of Kathman-
responsibility to another party du City, and development controls prescribed
Retain - fund potential losses with own by the building by-laws and information on
resources risk formed the parameters for deciding on
the preferred land use. The preferred land use
4.6. Development of Spatial Strategies plan that resulted served as the basis for future
utilization of resources and a guide for future
The development of strategies started with a de- developments in KMC.
scription of existing land uses in the city. Guided
by the vision, goals, objectives and strategies to The following activities were undertaken to
address the problems of development and land come up with the strategies:
use in Kathmandu City, a framework for future Review of existing land uses and trends

Assessment of the initial physical frame- ner together with serviced building sites. This is
work (i.e. demand management strategies, used to transform urban areas that had earlier
land supply strategies, demand and supply developed in an unplanned spontaneous manner
integration and physical framework formu- where houses are built in a very dense haphazard
lation) way, where public facilities are inadequate, and
where the environment is deteriorating. Land
In identifying the strategies, the PWC initially readjustment should result in new public facili-
defined the land use and urban development ties and utilities that are well integrated with the
terminologies that may have conflicting con- new configuration of building lots wherein each
tents. From this agreement, the following terms lot is regularly shaped and has a street frontage.
have been consensually adopted: In this situation, it is assumed that there is equi-
table sharing of costs and benefits for all holders
Urban Renewal comprises any or a combina- of rights in land. (Serote, 2004)
tion of the following programs, as defined by
Weimer and Hoyt (1966): The following strategies were reviewed and con-
Rehabilitation-bringing substandard struc- sidered for KMC.
tures to a standard
Conservation-combination of rehabilitation Land supply strategies
and spot clearance in order to upgrade an
area 1. In-filling of vacant urban lands in order to
Redevelopment-demolition, clearance and maximize use of land and delay conversion
reconstruction of an entire area 2. Densification of inner city areas to aid in
urban renewal of Core and Central areas.
Preservation involves maintaining or rebuilding This includes the construction of new hous-
the site or structure near its original form and ing sites (e.g. apartment housing, socialized
arrangement. Note that the word conservation housing)
had rather been equated with preservation 3. Conservation/Preservation of heritage sites
particularly when referring to heritage sites. For and redevelopment of the Core and Central
clarity, the urban renewal described for the Core areas (e.g. land pooling, demolition and new
area is largely preservation (e.g., monuments) construction)
and a mix of other programs or schemes (e.g., 4. Agricultural land conversion is the primary
redevelopment). approach taken by KMC in order to provide
land; however, this practice has to be regu-
Re-blocking involves realignment of structures lated through ordinance and strict imple-
to provide alleys and pathways connecting the mentation of building bylaws (i.e. construc-
interior area to major roads and subdividing the tion and zoning).
area into residential lots for awarding to quali-
fied beneficiaries. Serote (2004) mentions four Demand management strategies
basic principles of re-blocking, namely:
maximum retention of structures and mini- 1. Improved city service in the city Core and
mum displacement of families; Central areas
provision of basic services and utilities; 2. Transfer of future residential population to
land ownership by qualified beneficiaries; alternative sites coupled with commercial
and corridors proposed in the central and eastern
maximum community participation. sectors of KMC to decongest the Core and
relieve it from certain functions. Transfer of
Serote further adds that: Land Readjustment is traffic and a review of carrying capacity of
a comprehensive urban redevelopment project existing roads.[rtt3]
which provides urban infrastructure such as 3. Relocation or resettlements for illegal settle-
roads, parks and sewerage in an integrated man- ments (ex. in riverside areas).

Sprawl control strategies and the Valley as a whole to become a mod-
el in the management of planned change.
Discussions on sprawl control led to the follow-
ing suggestions: 4.8. Risk Reduction Strategies among Devel-
1. Deny further fragmentation of agricultural opment Strategies
areas or large lots
2. Maintain a mixed-use development with Risk reduction strategies against earthquakes
strict enforcement of building by-laws (e.g. which can appropriately support KMCs de-
maintaining built-up and open area ratio; velopment goals and objectives are indicated
building floor area ratio-FAR) in the succeeding tables. Originally, the initial
3. Denying utility extension policies (in re- development goals, objectives, and targets were
stricted development zones) considered in the absence of risk information
4. Promote park and open space policies (river- from the previous earthquake study results.
side development, land pooling) With the risk information, its implications
5. Greenbelts to prevent encroachment by on the current and future settings were evalu-
urban development ated. KMC then reviewed the goals, objectives
and strategies previously made. Strategies were
4.7. Development Opportunities made sensitive to the seismic risks evaluated.
This process ensured that the risk concerns and
KMCs biggest advantage is accorded by its their solutions are incorporated in the previous
culture and heritage through its public squares, decisions. The identified development strate-
monuments and old historical buildings. These gies were then grouped under the following
had generated tourism and commercial opportu- headings: Populations and Settlements (Table
nities for fine handicrafts, woven products, food 4.7), Physical Resources (Table 4.8), Economy
specialties, among others, to flourish. These areas (Table 4.9), Incomes and Services (Table 4.10),
should be prioritized for protection and manage- and Land Use and Physical Framework (Table
ment by KMC. 4.11).

The decision to manage the city according to the The more important strategies and policies
mandates of the LSGA provides local govern- towards risk reduction pertain to the following:
ments such as KMC and other municipalities to Restrict or discourage new structures in
take public control over the direction and pattern high hazard prone areas;
of development in their territories. Through this Allow some improvements or activities in
planning exercise, KMC underwent a learning high-risk areas but disallow residency in the
process (e.g. planning, city to city exchanges) and same;
came to a realization that within the territorial Provide economic incentives (such as tax
jurisdiction of the city, the local government can relief ) to encourage transfer of develop-
be proactive in prescribing the use of property to ment from or discourage development in
achieve the following results: high-risk areas, especially in congested areas
in the core;
Protected areas are respected and preserved Encourage the removal or relocation of oc-
for the benefit of all; cupants in high-risk buildings;
Production areas are used sustainably so that Set in place mechanisms that would
the needs of the present and future genera- discourage people to acquire or encroach
tions will continue to be adequately met; hazard-prone areas for redevelopment;
Settlement areas are made livable and safe; Consider a transport system that is simi-
and larly risk-sensitive;
Infrastructure support is adequately and ef- Prepare post-event recovery and reconstruc-
ficiently provided to help Kathmandu City tion plans for the Valley;

Pursue urban expansion within the shelters (e.g., pursue vulnerability assessment
framework of Kathmandu Valley wide and appropriate mitigation), water systems,
development. among others;
Improve capabilities for emergency Building safer and more resilient structures
response by improving access to emer- through better construction methods and
gency vehicles, reducing density (mainly management
in the core), creating and identification Reducing high potential for fire and po-
of open space, identifying and posting tential for hazardous material release that
escape roads, improving fire fighting could follow an earthquake due to mix uses
and search and rescue capabilities, and of residential, commercial and industrial
emergency response planning; functions, through better enforcement of fire
Protect critical facilities, such as hos- safety and hazardous material regulation, as
pitals, police stations and emergency well as basic safety requirements
















The constraints and opportunities discussed in is adequate supply of land to meet the projected
Chapter 4 point to the need to bridge the gap demand for urban use 10 years hence, which is
between KMCs vision and the current reality. the timeframe used for this planning exercise.
This requires spatial strategies that will con- This activity proceeds as follows: (a) projection
tribute to achieving the desired scenario. The of future demand; (b) assessment of land supply;
chosen urban form will serve as a framework and (c) matching demand with supply.
for a detailed allocation of space and location of
various activities and facilities for the planning 5.1.1. Available Supply and Projected Demand
period. Two scenarios could result depending on for Land
the interventions that are introduced by major
stakeholders. One is called trend scenario, where As shown in Table 5.1, residential land use cov-
past and current conditions simply continue. ers more than 50 percent of the total land use in
This happens when there is no major govern- Kathmandu City. The urban area covering resi-
ment or private intervention other than those dential, business, service and mixed use is 3,720
that are already on-going, programmed or com- hectares or about 72.9 percent of the total land
mitted. The other scenario is called development area. Agricultural area covers about 911 hectares,
scenario, which occurs when major government while a disproportionate amount of greens total
and private sector interventions are introduced. to only 911 hectares. Residential area by wards is
The latter will produce new patterns of growth larger in the East and West sectors, where mixed-
and create discontinuities in current trends. use other residential areas categories are found.
(Serote, 2004) At the Core and Central sectors, the areas are
smaller. The residential areas in the North Sector
5.1. Demand-Supply Balancing of Land have slightly bigger areas than near the Central
Requirements Sector areas. For settlements planning, certain
parameters should be determined to assess the
The process of generating alternative spatial true availability of land supply. These include
strategies for KMC involved five sets of activi- actual use, existing densities, built up to non-
ties namely, (a) available supply and projected built up occupancy ratios, and actual building
demand for land, (b) demand-supply balancing floor to area ratios (FAR). Given the constraints
of urban land requirements; (c) map overlaying in resources in coming up with such invento-
or sieve analysis; (d) generation and character- ries, assessing the capacity of the 2006 land use
ization of alternative urban forms; and (e) evalu- to carry the future population was taken using
ation and selection of the most preferred spatial several assumptions, namely: (a) the estimate
strategy. These are discussed in more detail in of 13 square meters per person (See Table 4.4.1
the succeeding sections. in Sectoral Profile); (b) use of 5 members per
household, which translates to about 65 sq.m
Land, as the platform of activities, is finite while housing for a family of five; (c)the use of FAR=1
population and socio-economic development or 2; and (d) the ratio of built and un-built ar-
activities increase through time. Demand-sup- eas of 0.5. Table 5.1 below displays the scenario
ply balancing seeks to determine whether there used in the plan.


The first row of numbers in Table 5.2 assumes In the East sector, the projected population
that potential residential areas, as identified in in either 2015 or 2020 cannot be accom-
Table 5.1, are available and that all possible resi- modated by its allotted residential areas.
dential areas assume a FAR of 1.0 and that only Wards 6, 7, 9, 10, 34 and 35 are likely to be
50 percent of the land area can be built upon congested if population is to be housed in
by housing or residential structures. The second the same areas. Ward 8 has enough space to
condition describes increasing the FAR to 2.0 to accommodate less than a thousand but this
indicate more intense use and having a similar is likely to be exceeded in 2020.
ratio of 0.5. The ratio of 0.5 somehow assures In the Central sector, Wards 5, 11, 31 and
that open spaces are created when construct- 32 buildable area with this FAR cannot ac-
ing residences and allows for the easements and commodate the population projected. Ward
road right-of-way. These assumptions are within 1, based on either year can accommodate its
the FAR ranges prescribed by KVTDC for vari- own population. Ward 33 exceeds its capac-
ous residential uses, which may reach as high as ity under this condition in 2020.
4.0. In the North, the heaviest concentration of
population is in Ward 16 and capacity based
on this FAR and percent buildable area can-
not meet the increases in population. Ward
3 apparently remains available for densifica-
tion while Wards 2, 4 and 29 will exceed
their limit in 2020.
In the Core, population can no longer be
met by the available residential land in either
In Table 5.3, the two scenarios are given in year, revealing a similar congestion, even if
columns 5 to 7 and columns 8 to 10. Columns a FAR of 1 is maintained. As a heritage site,
5 and 8 are estimates of the population capacity a FAR of 1 is somehow reasonable, since
of the residential areas in each ward identified high rise buildings are not to be allowed to
in Table 5.1. Columns 6, 7, 9 and 10 reflect the obstruct the monuments.
remaining population that needs to be housed. In the West area, the population cannot
The following expressions help clarify the num- be maintained by the available land area in
bers shown. either year.

Condition 1: The numbers in column 6 and 7 To facilitate possible strategies, columns 6 and
mean that with a FAR=1, and ratio of buildable 7 are shaded red indicating the space in these
land to total residential land as 0.5, the follow- areas that can no longer support the housing
ing interpretations are given: requirements of its population. These areas need







be decongested or possibly re-planned. This may Wards 2, 4 and 29 even up to 2020.
also be identified by having a (+) excess number In the Core, for most areas, even raising the
in 2015 and a (+) excess number in 2020 FAR to 2 will no longer meet the projected
population in either year, revealing a truly
A yellow shade indicates that the population congested situation.
capacity may be exceeded in 2020 but possibly In the West, raising the FAR to 2 increases
not in 2015. Raising the FAR in these areas may the residential capacity and can meet resi-
create available buildable space, though vertically. dential demand in 2015 but not in 2020.
This may be identified by having a (+) excess
number in 2015 and a (-) available capacity Column 11 provides strategies which may be
number in 2020. looked into; however, the recommendations
still require validation from an inventory of
A green shade may indicate possibility of land areas available for infill, densification or limited
areas available for expansion and planned de- expansion. Given the large numbers of popula-
velopment. This may be identified by having a tion to be housed, it is a likely possibility that
(-) available capacity in 2015 and a (-) available new sites outside of KMC may need to be
capacity number in 2020 explored for residential uses. This necessarily
will result in a Valley-wide view of development
While these are simplistic assumptions, it is with the other municipalities serving as centers
indicative of the possible congestion that may of services.
result and the areas which may need possible
expansion or densification. An actual inventory Another way of estimating the land require-
in these areas is needed. ments is to use planning standards for land al-
location. The standards set by the Housing and
Condition 2: The numbers in column 9 and 10 Land Use Regulatory Board of the Philippines
mean we raise the FAR=2 while maintaining the was used initially to ascertain demand for land
ratio of buildable land to total residential to 0.5 for various uses and later checked against total
to provide the open spaces. It is given the follow- land supply for KMC. Where demand for land
ing interpretations: exceeds available supply, this indicates possibil-
ity of looking for open areas elsewhere.
In the East sector, the projected population
by 2015 or 2020 cannot be accommodated The demand for land uses depends on the num-
by its allotted residential areas. Wards 7, 34 ber of future population and the standards set
and 35 are likely to remain congested even by government for the particular land use. By
if doubling of the FAR is set. Wards 6, 8, 9 the year 2020, the demand for various types of
and 10 have enough space to accommodate land uses will become more intense and may no
its own population but likely to be exceeded longer be able to accommodate the demand for
in 2020. Kathmandu City as shown in Table 5.4 below.
In the Central sector, Wards 5 and 31 can As the population of Kathmandu is expected
accommodate the population projected in to grow to 1,589,214 by 2020, the demand
2015 but unlikely in 2020. Wards 11 and for residential land will likewise increase to
32 still remain congested as raising the FAR 4,131.96 hectares by 2020, while infrastruc-
to 2 may not solve the problem of providing ture use will require another 3,019.51 hectares.
buildable spaces. Wards 1 and 33 can ac- Combined with future demand for all other
commodate a larger population and may be land uses, the city would not be able to accom-
possible for densification. modate these demands given KMCs finite sup-
In the North, the heaviest concentration ply of land which totals 5,076.6 hectares. The
of population to be housed still remains in city would need to maximize the use of land or
Ward 16, even if a FAR of 2 is maintained. find alternative strategies such as vertical expan-
Ward 3 increases its capacity along with sion, urban expansion outside of KMC, etc. in


7)'836 ;%6( *%6!   *%6!   
)%78             VEMWI
')28)6             I\TERH
2368,             I\TERH
'36)             I\TERH


;)78             VEMWI

order to accommodate the projected demand for use map, shown in Figure 5.1, already indicates
future uses of land for its growing population. that new development sites are only possible
in VDCs and identifies KMC as mostly urban
5.1.2. Matching Demand with Supply with little pockets for expansion.

Inventory of the supply of buildable land within In-lling of vacant urban lands
KMC still needs to be pursued in order to iden-
tify available urban land for the next ten years. Vacant lands are land parcels within existing
The sites that were initially explored in this study developed areas that were bypassed by develop-
were taken from the recommended locations ment and remain unutilized. When these lands
in the Kathmandu Valley Earthquake Study in are put to use, the process is known as in-
2002 and from the zones identified as other filling. Due to limited resources available for
residential areas in the KVTDC land use plan. producing an inventory of these areas, KMC
Possibilities of infilling and densification appear initially identified the sites through previous
few, with the exception of land pooling and use maps. However, these areas for possible in-
of land from institutional zones. At this time, the filling need to be surveyed, and the amount and
quantifications are limited and suggestions made size of land recorded. In previous meetings, the
herein are essentially based from evaluations of PWC had expressed their reservation regarding
recent remote sensed images and with reference the availability of such areas in KMC. There is
to the earthquake study results and the KVTDC very little public land for in-filling as most open
2007 land use map. The Kathmandu Valley land spaces are from privately owned lands, where




government has little control. Part of these open Potential urban renewal projects surrounding
spaces may be recognized by the dispersed white the core, specifically in the dense mixed resi-
spaces in Figure 5.2. dential sub-zone immediately surrounding the
heritage buffer zones can be targeted.
Densication of inner city areas
The urban renewal will be complemented by
Increasing the FAR in areas of low hazard and riverside development programs possibly con-
designing structures appropriately to withstand necting to open spaces and parks. These may be
strong ground shaking appear to be a feasible found along areas of the Bagmati and Bishnu-
option to take. For residential purposes, this mati Rivers, as identified in the Bhagmati River
approach towards densification can be pursued Development Plan. New developments shall
through land pooling in zones identified as be regulated, including the provision of a 100
other residential sub-zones. This may actually meter buffer strip surrounding the main rivers.
be easier said than done, especially when applied
in moderate to highly dense areas, as there are Preservation of World Heritage Sites
likely oppositions to readjusting privately owned
land for provisions of easements and open spaces, There is a strong advocacy to preserve the
efficiency of use, road widening and putting monument zones and buffer zones of heritage
order in the arrangements following the build- sites. The Integrated Management Framework
ing by-laws. The perception that exclusive use prepared jointly by the Government of Ne-
of land amounts to absolute control in the use pal, Ministry of Culture, Tourism and Civil
of the land makes government interventions for Aviation, and the Department of Archaeology
controlling land development for public benefit provides the principles and guidelines for con-
and welfare impossible. In high valued areas, serving the monuments, the necessary building
redevelopment costs can be recovered through bylaws and the process for rectifying buildings
increased FAR. Pursuing densification shall be which are inappropriate in the monument
guided by the Nepali Building Code and the zones.
KVTDC land use zone in general. New areas
for commercial operations or new areas for hous- Agricultural land conversion
ing (e.g., apartments, townhouses or row houses,
high-rise structures) suggested in this RSLUP Among the supply augmentation strategies
aim to decongest the core, leaving the heritage available to KMC, agricultural land conversion
area available only for compatible uses. is considered the most feasible. The absence of
irrigation infrastructure and other agricultural
In view of the seismic risks identified in the support facilities render the remaining crop-
2002 JICA study, the densification of areas must lands marginal. The conversion of these areas
initially be subjected to site hazard assessment or requires approval, the rationale for which is of-
seismic microzonation studies. These will aid in ten based on the non-productivity and unsuit-
sensitizing the FAR and height parameters sug- ability of the land for agricultural purposes.
gested in the Building Bylaws of 2007.
Valley-wide development
Urban renewal in slum and blighted areas
Given the limited space for new development
Strongly related to the strategy on densification, sites within Kathmandu City, the Valley-wide
urban renewal or redevelopment of slums and perspective of expanding in new areas appears
blighted areas usually results in increased densi- viable since KMC and other municipalities,
ties in inner city areas surrounding the core (i.e. namely, Bakthapur, Thimi, Lalitpur and Kirth-
heritage area). Residential density increases when ipur, can be developed to host region-wide
dilapidated make-shift structures are converted services. With densities of at least 60 persons/
into row houses or medium-rise walk-up units. ha the VDCs can ably support new economic


centers located close to these cores. A valley-wide 8EFPI8VEJG%REP]WMW>SRI(IWGVMTXMSR
transport plan supporting the new roles of these 7SYVGI.-'%7XYH]SR/EXLQERHY:EPPI]9VFER6SEH
centers can relieve congestion in KMC and offers (IZIPSTQIRX
a fresh chance of planning the land use of the >SRI 'MX]1YRMGMTEPMX]:MPPEKIW
Valley with the disaster risks in mind. This may  /EXLQERHY1IXVSTSPMXER'MX]
not only help achieve sustainability for KMC, 
but for the Valley as a whole. 

Towards a risk-sensitive transport plan 

The zoning system used in describing traffic 
trends is based on the aggregated zoning system

from the 1993 JICA Study on Kathmandu Valley
Urban Road Development. The complete zoning

system of the JICA Study consists of 41 traffic
analysis zones (TAZ). Of these, 18 zones cover 
the KMC. The aggregated zone system consists 
of 25 individual zones. Table 5.5 presents the  &LEOXETYV1YRMGMTEPMX]
description of the zoning system. 
Table 5.6 shows the correspondence of among  %PETSX&LEHVEFEW8LEPM(ERGLLM1YPTERM
the TMZ, KMC wards and the Planning Zones +SXLEXEV
within and around the immediate vicinity of the  2EKEVOSX'LERKYREVE]ER'LLEPMRK(Y[E
KMC administrative area. The core area is repre- OSX.LEYOLIP
sented by Zone 1 in TAZ while the central area  &EKIWS[VM7YHEP8EXLEPM/EYXYRNI&EPOSX
corresponds to Zones 3 and 4. With the corre- (EHLMOSX7MTEHSP'LMXETSP2EROLIP
spondence between the planning zone and traffic +YRHY7MVYXEV
zones clearly identified, various future land use  -QEHSP8MOEXLEPM0YFLY7MHHLMTYV,EVMWMH
and redevelopment scenarios can be reflected in HLM0EQEXEV+SHEQGLEY8LEMFE&MWEROLY
the transport analysis. For example, a reduction
in the population and land use activity of the
core area implies a decrease in the total number 'LETEKEYR&EHMOLIP
of trips coming out and going into Zone 1.
Business-as-usual scenario 7EXMOLIO(E\MROEPM'LLEMQEPI(YOYGLLET
As discussed in Chapter 7, Section 7.1 of the 7MXETEMPE'LSYOIXEV(ELEGLSO&EHH
KMC Sectoral Profile, the analysis of business- &LERN]ERK7IYGLEXEVQ2EMOET4YVERS
as-usual (BAU) traffic situation established the &LERN]ERK&EPEQFY8LEROSX2EMOET2E]E
expected traffic patterns if there are no specific &LERN]ERK8MRXLERE1ELEHIZWXLER7EXYR
pro-active programs or interventions implement-
ed during the planning horizon. In most cases, it  7ERKPE/EFLVIWXLEPM.MXTYVTLIHM*YXMRK
corresponds to a do-nothing scenario.
In terms of average daily traffic condition, the 1ELEROEP/LEHOE&LEVHVEOEPM+SRKEFY
model results pointed out those existing road (LETEWM
capacities for majority of the road section which  7YRHEVMNEP2ERKPIFLEVI0ETWITLIHM
are still sufficient. However, several road sections &EPY[E2E]ETEXM+EKEPTLIHM&ENVE]SKMRM
are already becoming saturated. These include 7EROLY +SOEVRIW[SV/ETER-RHVE]ERM
sections of Arniko Highway from Tinkune- 7EROLY7YRXSP.SVTEXM7EROLY4YOLYPEGLLM

8EFPI'SQTEVMWSRSJ>SRMRK7]WXIQW be exceeded. As such, major transport interven-
7SYVGI.-'%7XYH]SR/EXLQERHY:EPPI]9VFER6SEH tions will have to be introduced. During the
(IZIPSTQIRX peak-hour condition, traffic volumes along the
4PERRMRK>SRI 8%> /1';EVHW Inner Ring Road are still relatively better than in
'SVI   other road sections. Severe congestion is expect-
 ed on the following road sections:
 XER'MX] Arniko Highway from Tinkune-Koteshwar;
2SVXL   Bag Bazar;
;IWX   Kamal Pokhari;
)EWX   Kanti Path;
Singha Durbar;
Koteshwar, Kamal Pokhari and the Kanti Path. Ramshah Path
During peak-hour conditions, traffic volumes Naya Bazar; and
along the Inner Ring Road are still manageable. Kupandol
However, serious traffic congestion is experi-
enced along key road sections including the Redevelopment Analysis
Table 5.7 presents the development scenarios
Tripureshwar; for KMC for the years 2015 and 2020. The area
Arniko Highway from Tinkune-Koteshwar; coverage of KMC corresponds to Zones 1 to 8
Bag Bazar; of the traffic zoning system. The capacity value
Kamal Pokhari; of the respective zones refers to the number of
Kanti Path; persons that can be accommodated adequately
Singha Durbar; in available dwelling spaces based on a lot area
Bhadrakali; of 13.0 square meters per person. In a sense,
Naya Bazar; and this is the carrying capacity of the zones. These
Kupandol values are calculated with the assumptions of a
FAR equal to 2.0 and a Built-up Ratio equal to
In 2020, it is expected that the daily capacity 50 percent. The need to transfer a fraction of
of key road sections especially those that are the population from the core to other wards will
located in close proximity to the urban core will certainly result to changes in traffic demands and

8%>   'ETEGMX]  

may result in new volumes and changes in lane and Kanti Path, as well as sections of the In-
capacities. Two scenarios are proposed - the core ner Ring Road, Balaju and Swayambhunath
residential population is transferred (a) to the areas. However, traffic condition is expected to
Eastern area (Zone 8) or (b) to the Western side worsen along Bag Bazar, Dilli Bazar and Kamal
in land pooled areas. Pokhari.

For the year 2015, it is expected that the capacity Scenario 2 would have moderate impacts com-
for Zone 1 which is the Old Core Area will be pared with the BAU scenario. However, traffic
exceeded by around 3,800 persons. Once the ca- is expected to worsen along major road sections
pacity is exceeded, this will manifest in congested providing ingress/egress at the northern sections
dwelling conditions. The other zones, on the of KMC. A notable increase in traffic demand
other hand, will still have manageable dwelling will be expected along Naya Bazar, Ramshah
conditions. However, the 2020 estimates provide Path, as well as northern sections of the Inner
sobering results as Zones 1, 6 and 8 are expected Ring Road. Figure 5.5 indicates the V/C ratio
to have exceeded their carrying capacities. The for 2015, where a V/C ratio of 0.9 means that
Volume/Capacity (V/C) ratio at peak hours in the road has reached congested condition.
2015 and 2020 are shown in Figures 5.3 and 5.4,
respectively. The red color indicates that the ratio While another scenario of transferring future
is equal or greater than .9, which means that the residential population to the North is a possible
road has reached congested condition. option, the two scenarios already reveal limited
possibilities of transferring further until 2020
As a possible redevelopment strategy for 2015, in the East and West sectors, considering that
some functions in Zone 1 can be transferred to the capacity of the residential land is already
Zone 8 (available excess of 93,564) which is con- limited in accommodating future population.
sidered as a development promotion area. This is In this assumption, a FAR of 2.0 was used.
denoted as Scenario 1 (where possible apartment Any transfer of population only shifts traffic
housing and commercial strips may be located). volumes within KMC; hence, while some roads
Considering the carrying capacity of Zone 1, are relieved partly of congestion, other roads are
about 5 percent of its estimated 2015 popula- taking up these increases. This similarly shifts
tion needs to be relocated. In terms of traffic, the risks of the population caused by blockages,
this may involve the transfer of about 10 percent damaged roads and its implications on emer-
of the total trip production and attraction from gency operations need to be studied. Look-
Zone 1. In 2015, the estimated trip production/ ing at it from a Valley-wide perspective, with
attraction for car trips is around 62,000. On the decongestion achieved by shifting population
other hand, the estimated trip production/attrac- outside KMC up until 2020 or so, changes in
tion for Zone 8 under the BAU case is around through traffic conditions from outside the Val-
50,000. Thus, around 6,000 car trips will be ley need to be studied to determine exactly the
added to Zone 8. strategic roads to be developed with the emerg-
ing patterns of risks considered and managed.
Another strategy might be to transfer some of the
population base of Zone 1 to land pooled areas The analysis for 2020 should be subject to
in Zone 6 which corresponds to Ward 15 in the further discussions with KMC and concerned
northwest section of KMC. This is denoted as national government agencies as it is expected
Scenario 2. that the carrying capacities of these zones will
be reached. On the other hand, new expan-
Table 5.8 and 5.9 present the changes in Vol- sion areas outside of Kathmandu City can be
ume/Capacity (V/C) ratio for Scenario 1 and explored. However, this should be worked out
Scenario 2 comparing it with the BAU scenario. in coordination with relevant agencies.
Scenario 1 would be much effective in improv-
ing road traffic conditions along Durbar Marg A risk-sensitive transportation planning






methodology can provide insights on the other plans comes mainly from the incorpo-
the transport implications of possible ration of the risk assessment results from JICAs
redevelopment strategies for KMC. However, 2002 Kathmandu Valley Earthquake Study into
there is also a need to conduct detailed land use the decision process of the land use planning
and transport inventory for Kathmandu City activities and the eventual articulation of such
and adjacent areas to ascertain the existing land results in the land use plan and maps.
utilization rates in terms of FAR and Built-up The preferred plan serves as the basis for the
Ratio. physical development and land use within
Kathmandu City. By identifying areas prone
A full-scale land use and transport planning to seismic hazards and their attendant risks, it
project needs to be conducted to develop an is intended to guide the actions, programs and
updated planning database for the entire Valley projects to consider the seismic hazards and their
as the last comprehensive study was undertaken risks aimed at reducing vulnerabilities and ad-
in 1993. It is also recommended that the trans- dressing risk through the following key land use
portation model developed be further developed approaches:
and institutionalized in Kathmandu City. As
such, appropriate capacity-building activities Reduction of intensity of use in the core ar-
should be pursued. eas using building controls (FAR, open space
requirements) and following the Kathmandu
For this current RSLUP, the scenario of transfer- Valley Land Use Plan of 2007;
ring residential populations from the core and Improvements of emergency management
some commercial functions to the Eastern sec- capabilities and reinforcement of critical
tor is taken as a possible development scenario. facilities
However, this scenario is limited in addressing Selection of evacuation or development sites
the housing and service functions for future for disaster management; and
population of KMC. Hence, the recommended Identification of potential sites for develop-
results of Table 5.3 and the possibilities of devel- ment within and outside of Kathmandu
oping Kathmandu City as part of a Valley-wide City.
plan are likely directions within and beyond the Restrict or discourage new structures in high
ten-year frame of this plan. hazard prone areas;
Allow some improvements or activities in
5.2. A Risk-Sensitive Plan high-risk areas but disallow residency in the
Sieve mapping, the process of overlaying several Set in place mechanisms that would discour-
thematic maps to determine the location of ar- age people to acquire or encroach hazard-
eas suitable for urban expansion, was performed prone areas for redevelopment;
with hazard and risk maps placed on top of each
other. The thematic maps overlaid and com- 5.3. The Preferred Urban Form
pared are the following:
Given the economic and social importance of
(a) Population density maps (2001) roads, bridges, water and other public utilities
(b) Land use maps (2001) in achieving Kathmandu Citys vision, there is
(c) KMC infrastructure maps (2001) an immediate need to protect new and existing
(d) Hazard and risk maps (2002) infrastructure against seismic risk. The risk to
(e) KVTDC land use zone maps (2007) damage is still present, mostly from old building
stock. The immediate concerns center on reduc-
This RSLUP uses the current land use map ing the risks to building damage and minimizing
(2006) and the KVTDC land use plan (2007) further loss of life, especially in core areas and in
as references. The difference of this plan with dense residential sub-zones. Future populations


will benefit by being located in safe and planned in the Valley, possibly forming a multi-centered
locations within and outside KMC. Figure 5.6 development, supported by a properly planned
provides the different areas for disaster mitiga- transport system, which is similarly sensitive to
tion as suggested in the 2002 JICA study. Figures disaster risks. This may hold the most prom-
5.7 and 5.8 refer, respectively, to the old city core ising prospect towards the realization of the
and its vicinity, where many old buildings were KMC vision within the Valley. Within a plan-
estimated to be damaged. Open spaces (E) and ning period of ten years, the chosen urban form
green belts, or possible new towns (G), were pro- will serve as a guide for improving KMCs in-
posed at that time; however, some of these areas frastructure, as well as maintaining a reasonable
are already occupied and may no longer accom- and achievable balance between the natural and
modate such proposed uses. built-up areas, resulting in improved livability
conditions for KMC. This mission of achiev-
The strategy proposed at this time focuses on ing full potential use of the land, subject to the
protecting assets and locating future structures limitations and constraints of geology, existing
in safe and planned areas. At the same time, the land use and physical arrangements, and the
strategy also considers future planned expansion corresponding costs and benefits tied up with






renewal, is a worthwhile endeavor in view of the are considered incompatible with the neighbor-
greater potential losses, monetary and otherwise, ing historical buildings. The paving materials
from a very damaging earthquake. will similarly be selected for compatibility with
respect to authenticity and structural quality.
In a wider context, a similar dilemma may be
faced by other urbanizing municipalities and The use and function of public spaces shall be
VDCs, and a common study may be needed (e.g. continued, but based on the understanding and
seismic vulnerability assessments, transportation) appreciation of the heritage values of the site.
to integrate these concerns. With this in mind, This requirement is essential so that the site can
the proposed strategies point to a possible phased be used sustainably, prolonging the value and
approach of developing sites in KMC through economic life of the structures. The PWC has
urban renewal within the next five to seven years suggested that the streets and square be restored
and locating future populations for residential to allow for their exclusive use by pedestrians.
purposes outside of the city towards the end of Mercantile operations shall also be regulated;
this planning period. Suggested future expansion hence, private buildings shall be used only for
areas outside of KMC are given in Figures 5.9, traditional and compatible activities. Historic
5.10 and 5.11. buildings which are no longer in use shall be
conserved for adaptive re-use such as convert-
5.4. The Growth Areas and Corridors within ing them into museums.
Kathmandu City
Boundaries and buffer zones identified and ap-
5.4.1. The Core and Central Sector Growth proved by the World Heritage Committee shall
Area be enforced. In the Hanuman Dhoka Dur-
bar Square, the boundary encompasses main
As the traditional city core, this functions as the monuments and their surrounding squares and
nerve center of the social, economic and political open spaces, thereby preserving the identity of
life of KMC. The heritage site in the core will the monument zone. The buffer zone includes
be restored close to its original design and form a strip of urban fabric surrounding the monu-
as envisioned in the Integrated Management ment zone, covering an area of 6.4 hectares.
Framework (2007) for managing World Heritage
Sites in Kathmandu Valley. With the cultural Today, the Central area is heavily built up and
and heritage value of the monuments in mind, congested with mixed uses. Population densities
the structural integrity of the monuments and re- in these wards range from 200 to 500 persons/
maining structures shall be reviewed for possible hectare. The circulation network that serves
retrofitting against ground shaking and related the wards in this area is the Ring Road, which
hazards. This may require specialized assessment will be improved with the widening of its con-
and techniques for design and construction, nection with the Madan Bhandari Path. At
since the restoration of structures will make use the southern portion of the Central area lies a
of construction materials very closely linked to buffer strip of commercial development radiat-
the structural system of the monuments (e.g. ing from Madan Bhandari Path. Medium to
load-bearing brick or adobe masonry with high density commercial and institutional uses
mortar comprising of earth, lime, brick dust and are concentrated along this road, while dense
sand). The high degree of ornamentation con- mixed residential uses dominate the interior of
sisting of wood, stucco and stone elements may the blocks. In time, urban development will
necessitate additional considerations in their re- radiate outwards from the road. The indicative
design. Recent buildings in the area may need to location of this commercial strip is shown in
be rectified (Integrated Management Framework, Figures 5.12 and 5.13.
Kathmandu Valley World Heritage Site, 2007)
if the materials used, location, height and form This new growth corridor extends towards the
Eastern sector that defines the Business Growth


Corridor shown in red. The boundaries of this of each growth corridor and its immediate areas
growth corridor lie within other residence zones. will be located in this corridor.
Strong land use policies will have to be insti-
tuted to maintain the buffer and to implement The dominant land use within the Central area
densification of these areas to its carrying capac- will be high density residential areas with alloca-
ity (i.e. FAR of 2-3). The eastern side of this tions for the tertiary sector such as wholesale
growth corridor merges with the Outer Ring and retail trade, banking and finance, personal
Road as shown in Figure 5.12. and community services, transportation and
telecommunications, and tourism-related uses.
The Central sector will maintain its function Educational institutions will be allowed to re-
as the financial and business district of the city, main. A similar policy will be applied to existing
while the traditional role for worship, pilgrim- hospitals in the area.
age and other related mercantile functions will
remain in the Core. The center of social and On the other hand, medium-density housing
political life will continue in the Central area (e.g. row houses, townhouses) will be encour-
but commercial functions will be slowly distrib- aged in wards outside the CBD (central business
uted to the designated growth corridors in the district) area. The circulation network in these
East sector. The public markets shall remain in wards will have to be improved and upgraded
the periphery to avoid further congestion in the in order to introduce some order and rationality
Central area. Future markets to serve the needs into the present road hierarchy.


Future development within KMC will see greater To create open space and encourage ef-
use of such limited approaches in-filling of ficient use of land, the right to develop
vacant lands and densification, creation of open from land owners must be transferred to
spaces, road widening, and improvement of the government, with owners receiving just
riversides. The building by-laws shall guide these compensation and/or becoming partners in
developments. Other important points may be developing the site.
Strategies may be devised to discourage
Different plots could be integrated as a single new building constructions, such as taxa-
plot and the ownership provision would tion, close monitoring, etc.
be the same as in the Apartment Act. The
Apartment Act in Nepal concerns the owner- As most of the open spaces in the category
ship of different people over a single plot. other residential area are private lands and
But there is no clear ruling about integrating continuously being occupied by buildings
different plots into one under the ownership at the rate of 3,000 new houses per year,
of the same group of people. There are some introduction of development right trans-
examples that a group would agree to build fer becomes important. By introducing a
a building in a plot integrated from different development right transfer system, the FAR
plots owned by different people; but due to of some vacant lands could be transferred
lack of relevant laws, this kind of integration to already built-up areas.
is very rare. So the introduction of relevant
laws necessary for integration of highly frag- Some criteria need to be defined before
mented plots may need to be looked into. pursuing the development of business strips

along the Ring Road and other roads, such competitive regionally, in the short to medium
as having a minimum requirement of three term include the following:
ropani plot (1,017 sqm), 6m wide access
road, and underground parking. Improve the flow of vehicular traffic and
enhance pedestrian safety and convenience
Wards in outer areas (other residential area) by a combination of measures such as:
should be further divided into small zones
so that the availability of critical facilities Conducting a Valley-wide study of the
such as school and hospitals, recreational transport demand and supply, with a
facilities, and open space could be further view of the development needs, poten-
analyzed. Based on this, the building of tials and constraints (i.e. natural hazard
the minimum number of required facilities risks);
should be encouraged. Providing off-street parking or vertical
parking and strictly prohibiting curbside
In order to increase the citys inventory of parking along major roads. A vacant lot
parks and open spaces within the Central within the area can be converted into a
sector, a number of government-owned public pay parking area;
lands may need to be converted into linear Prohibiting tricycles from operating
city parks. along main arteries as they slow down
traffic flow;
Government-owned lands that could be Defining the function of existing streets
immediately developed into a city park in and providing the necessary directional
the short to medium term are portions of signs;
the Baghmati River, which could enhance Recovering the sidewalks for the pedes-
the image and livability of the Central area trians by clearing away illegal encroach-
growth corridors. ments, covering open side drainage ca-
nals, and requiring owners of permanent
In line with the citys desire to specialize in structures that had encroached on the
information and telecommunications tech- road lots to provide arcaded walks;
nology, a Science and Technology Park may Constructing pedestrian overpasses at
be integrated into the master plan of the very busy intersections and properly
Central area. The availability of information designed crosswalks at strategic locations,
technology (IT) schools, IT-related busi- as well as facilities for the handicapped
nesses and Internet service providers makes and elderly such as access ramps in all
the city a competitive site for the establish- public and private institutions and com-
ment of projects focused on IT services. mercial establishments; and
Such activities may include the following: Limiting the use of a number of city
streets within the CBD strictly to pedes-
Software development and application trians.
for business, e-commerce, education and Developing emergency access roads
entertainment; with designated and restricted access to
Knowledge-based IT services, i.e. data vehicles and priority for emergency
encoding and conversion;
Backroom activities; and Enforcing an anti-littering ordinance and
IT-related service activities, i.e. internet encouraging every resident to maintain
service providers. cleanliness in their premises;
Improving the overall image of the city by
Other measures to strengthen the role of the acquiring land to be developed into pocket
Central sector as the financial and business and linear parks;
district of KMC, as well as to make KMC more Enhancing historical landmarks (heritage

sites) and developing potential tourism sites term. If designated as an expansion area with a
through public-private partnerships; and proposed buffer strip of 100m through possible
Improving water and sanitation facilities by land pooling, it has the capacity to absorb a sig-
providing any needed expansion as well as nificant portion of urban expansion away from
protecting them from natural hazard risks. the Core and Central areas. Further south,
the Bagmati River development will provide
5.4.2. East Sector Growth Corridors another visual corridor to this strip.

Development of the eastern and southeastern The East sector, in general, will be promoted
sections of the city is influenced by airport loca- as a tourism and residential area, incorporating
tion. Providing vital link from this airport to into its master plan two major developments
inner areas is the same Madan Bhandari Path. -- one for road commercial strips and another
This highway which links the eastern, southern for apartment housing. These two features will
and southwestern wards has contributed to the serve as the focal points of this growth corridor.
rapid transformation of this section of the city, Vegetable markets here will be expanded and
albeit into an unplanned and unregulated type of modernized in order to cater to the growing
strip development along the said highway. (See population.
Figure 5.14)
In line with the citys aim to further strengthen
Because of its close proximity to the Central and its role as the premiere center of education and
Core areas, and the availability of undeveloped health services, the possible use of vacant lands
land, the East sector growth corridor is a prior- still available in the fringes of the East area
ity area to be developed in the short to medium (near land pooled areas) will allow for provid-


ing a park-like setting that is conducive to learn- 5.4.3. North Sector Residential Growth Area
ing and healing.
This area, dominated by the other residential
Between these areas will be mixed uses compat- area category and institutional uses, shall be
ible with dominant use including retail shops, maintained as a tourist destination area. The
dormitories, restaurants, private clinics, miscel- highways oriented toward the north can serve as
laneous services, and the like. A network of visual corridors leading to the forest areas of the
parks and open spaces, tree-lined roads, and North Mountains, therefore the construction of
pedestrian pathways will serve as the unifying high-rise structures in this area shall be regulat-
elements that will link all these features into a ed. The presence of schools and hospitals lining
cohesive whole. this road has resulted in traffic jams especially
during peak hours; hence, road widening or traf-
The construction of roads and other support fic management may be pursued.
infrastructure is crucial to the realization of the
long-term spatial development proposed for This growth corridor (25m commercial strip)
the growth center. Therefore, necessary surveys along the Ring Road is characterized by a strip
and studies shall be conducted to firm up the development on both sides of the road (Figure
proposed plan. Opportunities for public-private 5.15). Priority measures to improve the form
partnerships in the implementation of the plan and function of this corridor include the follow-
will be explored. ing:

Two new growth corridors outside the core were Demolition of all structures encroaching
identified namely a) Apartment Housing Strip into the road right-of-way;
and Group Housing within the Eastern Sec- Creation of open spaces such as pocket
tor Growth Corridor intersecting the Devkota parks to break the monotony of continuous
Sadak, and b) the 25m to 100 m highway cor- buildings along this road and to improve its
ridor along the Ring Road. image;
Widening of the road, to include loading
Each growth corridor is envisaged to play a spe- and unloading bays at strategic locations
cialized function based on its existing, emerging along the strip;
and potential contribution to the realization of Introduction of traffic management schemes
the long-term vision of the city. This ensures to reduce congestion; and
complementation and sustainability among the Rationalization of the circulation network in
different centers while giving each center its the interior lots beyond the growth corridor
unique identity. Each growth corridor is also en- to eliminate dead-end effects and improve
visioned to be a mixed-use development, hence, traffic flow.
residential, commercial, and institutional land
uses will be integrated in support of the distinct 5.4.4. West Sector Growth Corridor
role each center has to play.
The proposed RSLUP identifies Urban Rede-
Each growth corridor is likewise envisioned to velopment Zones (along the Outer Ring Road)
serve its own area of influence. The influence within the commercial buffer strips aimed to
area of each center is expected to be modified promoting further development of the city. The
from that of the present to one with a better cir- development of the Bagmati and Bishnumati
culation network consisting of fully developed Rivers will be pursued in this sector. The West
arterial, collector and distributor roads. sector will remain largely a residential area com-
prised of other residential area categories and
land pooled areas (Figure 5.16).


5.5. Built-up Areas outside the Growth Cen- 5.6. Protected Areas
In order to ensure sustainable development
The preceding section describes the proposed for KMC, the proposed RSLUP also strongly
development for the various growth centers and promotes the conservation and maintenance
corridors. This section describes the built-up of identified protected areas and life-support
areas that are not located within the designated systems. The following areas will be the subject
growth centers and corridors. of protection and conservation policies:

The overall strategy for these areas is to maintain 5.6.1. Heritage Areas
them as low density and low impact develop-
ments while improving the support infrastruc- Kathmandu City will likely absorb the increas-
ture and protecting environmentally-sensitive ing number of visitors and migrants from the
sites from encroachment. Zoning measures will Valley. Heritage sites must be protected and
be strictly enforced to regulate ribbon develop- the citys image as a Living Cultural Heri-
ments and to direct development away from tage must be maintained. This translates to
environmentally-sensitive locations such as the following: a) conservation of the heritage
danger zones (e.g. potential liquefaction areas, buildings and monuments, street routes and
flood-prone areas), river easements, urban forests squares, and riverside heritage; b) preserva-
and the like. tion of cultural activities such as festivals and
rituals; c) prevention of further loss of heritage


from private development; d) establishment of tion and evacuation in times of emergency. One
museums; e) removal of incompatible uses; and of the programs that can be pursued is to have a
f ) diversion of mercantile economic develop- Network of Parks and Open Spaces. This pro-
ment to outside the heritage areas of the core to gram should identify and develop a hierarchy of
aid in prolonging the replacement period of the parks and open spaces from the city level down
structures. to the ward level.

5.6.2. City Square (Durbar Square/Temple) 5.6.4. River Easements

Owing to its historical significance, the square As required by law, the 25-meter easements
located right at the core of KMC has functioned along the citys seven main rivers and tributar-
over the centuries as the nerve center of the ies will be recovered and strictly enforced. A
social, economic and political life of the city, program to develop linear parks along river
influencing the citys evolution into what it is easements will help protect them from illegal
today. structures. Illegal settlements lining the rivers
will be resettled to safer grounds. More informa-
5.6.3. Other Parks tion can be obtained from the River Develop-
ment Plan of 2007 particularly for the Bagmati
Parks and open spaces will serve as additions river segment crossing Kathmandu City.
to the physical infrastructure in the form of
recreational grounds, as well as sites for reloca-

5.6.5. Environmentally-Critical Areas transport and urban utilities. Social infrastruc-
ture sustains settlements by providing facilities
As discussed in Chapter 3, the vulnerability of for education, health, sports and recreation,
most of KMC to liquefaction and ground shak- and the like. Markets, slaughterhouses, and
ing, as well as to floods and storm surges, makes warehouses are examples of economic infra-
it an environmentally-critical area. More pro- structure. Administrative support infrastructure
active approaches in dealing with such inherent refers to facilities provided by government
constraints must be pursued including requiring to facilitate provision of services. Examples
geo-technical studies for building construction, include the city hall, peace and order facili-
recovering natural waterways, de-silting and ties, fire protection facilities, ecological waste
dredging waterways, conducting information dis- management facilities, among others. Transport
semination campaigns, and carrying out disaster infrastructure provides the vital link to differ-
preparedness initiatives, among others. ent activity areas, while urban utilities serve the
need for water supply and distribution, power
5.6.6. Emergency Routes in Core Areas supply and distribution, drainage and sewerage,
and telecommunications. (Serote, 2004)
In case of a major earthquake disaster, among the
expected main problems are related to the block- The strategy encompassing the infrastructure
age of road from debris of damaged buildings support systems should be consistent with the
affecting search and rescue, lack of open spaces preferred urban form. Therefore, each growth
for shelter, and insufficient facilities for drinking center and corridor will be provided with
water, treating injured people, and cremating ca- adequate and appropriate infrastructure to sup-
sualties. The strategies identified in this RSLUP port its functions. In view of the seismic risks,
are intended to minimize such problems. strategies for safer and more resilient buildings
and infrastructures shall be pursued. Among
Figures from 5.17 to 5.19 provide a picture of them are the following:
possible evacuation routes in the Core and near-
by areas, as suggested in the 2002 JICA study. Reduce building and infrastructure vulner-
The arrows indicate safe routes and open spaces. ability to earthquakes by pursuing appro-
Many of these open areas are parks, playgrounds, priate modifications and reinforcement
public squares and large privately owned lands. on highly vulnerable buildings; ensuring
Access to these areas within 100meter to 500 earthquake loads are included in the design
meter stretches may still be possible, but a new of new buildings and other structures;
inventory should be made considering that built- regulating structural modifications done to
up areas continue to proliferate over the years, buildings (permitting), and enforcing strict
and that taller buildings along narrow streets building occupancy.
pose dangers from sudden collapse.
Protect critical facilities, such as hospitals,
5.7. Infrastructure Support Systems police stations and emergency shelters (e.g.,
pursue vulnerability assessment and appro-
Infrastructure systems play the same role as pro- priate mitigation), Vulnerability assessment
tected areas in that both serve as support for should consider the structural, non-struc-
settlements and production areas, ensuring their tural and functional aspects
livability, efficiency and sustainability. While
protected areas are best left in a relatively natural Reduce or possibly eliminate damage to
state, infrastructure support systems necessar- infrastructure (i.e. lifelines) mainly water,
ily form part of the built environment. These wastewater and sanitation, drainage, trans-
support systems are categorized into five groups, portation system (including airport and
namely, social, economic, administrative support, main bridges), power, communication, fuel
supply and food supply systems




Reduce possible disruption of critical ser- Figure 5.20. The evaluation of spatial strategies
vices. is anchored on important requirements for the
Reduce high potential for fire and potential built and natural environment aimed at ensur-
for hazardous material release that could fol- ing that KMC citizens:
low an earthquake due to mix uses of resi-
dential, commercial and industrial functions, Enjoy clean air, safe water, and a built
through better enforcement of fire safety environment that is relatively free and safe
and hazardous material regulation, as well as from risks emanating from natural and
basic safety requirements; man-made hazards;
Strengthen supporting structures related Benefit from easy access to urban facilities
to staging relief operations, for organizing and services;
emergency response functions, for providing Preserve the heritage areas;
emergency shelter, and temporary housing Engage in livelihood activities and earn
due to the lack of open space in the city. adequate income to support a decent and
Prepare post-event recovery and reconstruc- dignified lifestyle; and
tion plans for the Valley; Afforded the opportunity to develop and
realize their full human potentials.
5.8. Evaluating the Preferred Urban Form
A short comparison between the current land
This next step in the process entails an inspection use trends and the preferred land use is pre-
of the potential areas suitable for urban develop- sented below.
ment as identified in the land use map shown in

5.8.1. Trend Extension disasters.
Depending on the intensity and source of
A. General Description the earthquake, circulation and access may
be difficult when linear roads are damaged.
Trend extension shows the future urban de- The strategic road network discussed in the
velopment as a continuation of the pattern of Sectoral Profile reveals areas that are poten-
growth the city has followed over the years. It tially at risk.
is the result of individuals building anywhere Some areas eyed for expansion are develop-
according to their own preferences and conve- ing sprawl, except in land pooled areas near
nience with minimal government intervention. the fringes.
Some people build on environmentally critical Seismic retrofitting of structures and re-en-
areas thus contributing to the degradation of gineering approaches are most likely needed.
the natural environment and exposing them to Given the current estimates of the damage
environmental hazards. and losses to buildings and infrastructure
from a mid-Nepal earthquake, retrofitting
B. What are the existing problematic situations will be costly.
in this existing urban form in KMC?
3) Preservation of protected croplands
1) Difficult to expand new roads and other
infrastructure Encroachment on environmentally critical areas
continues to threaten the natural environment,
To relieve traffic congestion, low-cost non-struc- especially in the fringes, riversides and urban
tural measures like improved traffic manage- forests. Thus, strong land use policies and IEC
ment are applied. campaigns will be required.

Increased road capacity, road widening, multi- Existing agricultural areas will be easier to con-
level highways would entail higher capital costs vert for urban expansion, thus requiring strong
due to possible clearance. government and community interventions.

Vertical parking may be eyed in existing ar- 4) On government enforcement of regulations

eas; horizontal parking in new areas. However
fragmented lands are need to be pooled. Public Existing laws (e.g., water, air, environment, sani-
transport terminals are most likely located in tation, and building codes) and local ordinances
urban expansion areas. are difficult to enforce in already built up-areas.
In new developments (i.e. new construction, re-
2) Community adjustments to disaster risks is habilitation, repairs), it is easier to enforce build-
low ing bylaws and other codal provisions. However,
such sites for new development may no longer
As most of the city functions are found in the be found within Kathmandu City.
Core and Central areas, exposure to earthquake
risks remains high in those areas. 5) Peoples compliance with regulations desired
New developments occur in the North,
West and East areas where exposure to liq- Compliance with regulations is already difficult,
uefaction is small. especially in the Core and Central areas.
Compliance with seismic code provisions is If better informed, future developers are ex-
better in the new areas; disaster prepared- pected to comply with regulations more easily in
ness measures are necessary in old built-up new expansion areas.
Open spaces are planned to be used as 6) No more open space in Kathmandu City for
evacuation sites during earthquake-induced new developments

KMC has to review the expansion of urban 5) Overall attractiveness of the city
areas outside of Kathmandu City and such new
sites in the Valley must similarly be subject to Without effective building density and design
risk assessments. A properly designed transport restrictions/controls, coupled with a mix of
system that will promote efficiency by providing non-compatible uses, the attractiveness of the
appropriate capacities and efficiencies among old city will be low, negatively impacting the image
and new centers for development should link of heritage areas.
KMC, the municipalities and VDCs.
6) Potential for increased KMC revenue
C. Implications when this urban form is real-
ized New developments will continue to generate
moderate incomes/revenues for the city. The
1) Access of people to city-wide services rehabilitation of existing infrastructure will
reduce said incomes.
Access to goods and services will be difficult for
areas far from the city center and in unplanned 7) Prospects for more jobs and higher income
interior areas, while the Core will continue to
provide the widest range of goods. Other growth New jobs and higher incomes may result from
areas may assume a similar central function new businesses operating in urban expansion
towards the later development stage depending areas because these areas may be better planned.
on the type and magnitude of investment located
in these areas. 8) Kathmandu Citys leading role in Tourism,
Education and Health Services maintained
2) Amount of air and water pollution produced
City functions in the Core and Central areas
Trend extension will continue to aggravate may be affected by man-made and natural haz-
air and water pollution. Traffic management ards. More investments for improving educa-
schemes will help reduce air pollution. In the tion and health services may be needed in the
absence of an improved wastewater treatment face of limited space for expansion.
facility and utilizing the present form of
treatment and disposal, river water pollution will 5.8.2. Preferred Land Use Plan
A. General Description
3) Sustainable use of natural resources
The preferred land use plan will re-direct
Areas already encroached upon may be difficult development away from the city center toward
to rehabilitate. identified urban growth areas. It is character-
ized by clusters of development, with each
4) Traffic problems cluster having its own service function

Circulation within the city and movement in Under this alternative, four additional mixed-
and out of Kathmandu City are rendered increas- use growth areas will be developed outside the
ingly difficult as traffic builds up along already core area, namely: (1) Central Growth Cor-
congested routes. Traffic management schemes ridor, specializing in business, high density
alone without structural measures and strict land residences and institutional services; (2) East
use regulation may not be sufficient to deal with Sector Growth Corridor, which is an extension
traffic problems. of the present business strip; this commercial
area is nearest the airport and specializes in
commercial and institutional developments,


and is surrounded by medium to low density integration among city inhabitants will be
residences directed outwards; (3) Ring Road needed.
Commercial Strips and the adjoining buffered
rivers surrounded by medium to low density resi- 5) Peoples compliance with regulations desired
dences; and (4) Apartment Housing Corridor,
which is a residential strip. The preferred form Political will and support by the Ministries
will improve the riverside and possibly look into and local chief executives to implement the
a more comprehensive transport system allowing proposed changes must be strong. Full peoples
better linkages with surrounding municipalities compliance with regulations is necessary if
and VDCs within the Valley. densification, relocation, or land pooling is
B. What it takes to realize this urban form
C. Implications when this urban form is real-
1) Cost of new roads and other infrastructure ized

Ways to overcome the high cost of public invest- 1) Access of people to city-wide services
ment on roads, especially those identified as
strategic, and other infrastructures (e.g. bridges, There will be greater access of people to city-
drainage systems) must be developed, as there wide services due to decentralized front-line
is a need to link the identified growth centers offices of city hall, public markets, shopping
within and outside of Kathmandu City. centers, tertiary schools and hospitals

2) Community adjustment to risks 2) Air and water pollution

Future inhabitants are relatively safe from natural The areas of concentration of air and water
and man-made disasters as a result of the transfer pollution will be easily identified and therefore
of service functions, and the reduction in high mitigation measures can focus on these areas.
intensity densities from the core towards the
peripheral areas, which are assumed to be safer. 3) Sustainable use of natural resources
In the selection of areas for redevelopment, en-
ticements or incentives must be made to achieve More open space and forest habitats can be
reduction of densities, such as the provision of recovered and rehabilitated.
affordable housing, land pooling, and modifi-
cation of rental cost structures, among others. 4) Traffic problems
Further risk assessment studies must be pursued
to reduce vulnerabilities and disaster risks in the New urban nodes will intercept inbound traf-
Valley. fic from the north, southeast and southwest,
relieving traffic in the city center. The city core
3) Preservation of protected areas will serve more for tourism, worship, and small
scale commerce.
Heritage sites (e.g. temples, squares, monu-
ments), tourism areas, rivers and urban forests, 5) Overall attractiveness of the city
and remaining productive agricultural lands are
taken as sensitive areas and will be preserved. Large open spaces and visual breaks along cer-
tain road sections, riverside development will
4) Strict enforcement of regulation contribute to the overall attractiveness of the
City-wide programs and activities (e.g. IEC) to
foster acceptance of plans, social cohesion and

6) Potential for increased Kathmandu City

Decentralized city services will help intensify

local revenue collection. The diversion of some
city functions will help make the city more at-
tractive to business, as services will be situated
nearer the periphery, reducing travel time and

7) Prospects for more jobs and higher income

More jobs will be generated, resulting in higher

household income due to increased investments
in new urban nodes.

8) Risk reduced

Proper planning will lead to the reduction of

risks, as programming, approval and budgeting
of the same will be ensured. New developments
will be safer, compared to those without inter-

9) Kathmandu Citys leading role maintained

Heritage sites will be preserved. The new growth

centers with specialized functions and more
expansion areas for universities, hospitals, shop-
ping centers, non-pollutive industrial estate,
and residential subdivisions will contribute to
maintaining Kathmandu Citys leading role in
the Valley.


This chapter pulls together the outputs of all opportunities. Much of the material is drawn
preceding steps in the planning process, the data from the KVTDC Building Bylaws of 2007.
gathered and analyzed, the issues debated and
addressed in the workshops, the impressions of The desired intervention for each policy area was
participants as against their realization of the further classified into two categories: programs,
actual conditions of the city, using the cho- projects, and activities (PPAs) and policy/legisla-
sen spatial strategy as the organizing concept, tion (see tables at the end of this chapter). The
and translates these lessons and insights into a policy/legislation category indicates possible gov-
composite picture called the draft Risk-Sensitive ernmental measures, in addition to the zoning
Land Use Plan or RSLUP. ordinance, that need to be enacted to support
the implementation of the RSLUP. The identi-
As introduced in Chapter 1, the RSLUP shall fied PPAs, on the other hand, serve as source
serve as the long-term guide for shaping the fu- materials for KMC to use in preparing its annual
ture physical growth of the city. It is the policy public investment program.
framework to be used by KMC in exercising
its authority to prescribe reasonable limits and 6.1. Proposed Land Use Distribution in
restraints on the use of property within its ter- KMC
ritorial jurisdiction, as allowed by the LSGA of
1999. Moreover, as one of its major uses, the The proposed RSLUP classifies land in the
RSLUP shall be the basis for the enactment of following manner: protected land uses, produc-
a revised zoning ordinance for the regulation of tion land uses, settlements, and infrastructure.
subdivision developments. Where the land use plan is realized as envi-
sioned, the resulting mix of the four general
The RSLUP consists of four components cor- land use types and their respective sub-types
responding to the major land use policy areas of are described below. Guidance into this clas-
settlements, production, protection, and infra- sification and descriptions may be referred from
structure. These four policy areas put together Dagupan City Land Use Plan of 2001 or from
shall cover KMCs entire territorial jurisdiction. Serote, 2004.
The RSLUP is also aligned with the higher-level
physical framework plans such as those crafted 6.1.1. Protected Areas
by the KTDVC and MoPPW.
Protected areas consist of resources and areas in
A discussion of the policy areas in terms of the city that (1) enhance the proper functioning
policy/legislation is presented in this chapter, of its natural environment, (2) protect human
with the indicative location of each policy area settlements from any form of natural hazards,
identified down to the ward level. Due to time (3) promote biodiversity, natural beauty and
constraints, and limited resources to conduct physical endowments of the area, (4) promote
detailed surveys, an indicative zoning ordinance sustainable ecotourism development, and (5)
has been made until a more detailed delineation create an aesthetically-pleasing environment in
of each policy area can be completed in future the city.

the following infrastructure types: economic,
In terms of the KVTDC groupings, the citys social, administrative, utilities and transport.
protected land uses include the Old City zone Facilities that comprise this category include
(Cultural Heritage Conservation Zone, Preserved roads, institutional facilities, cemeteries, road-
Monument Subzone, Preserved Cultural Heri- side developments, terminals, and the ecologi-
tage Subzone, Mixed Old Residential Subzone, cal waste management center. This land use
Protected zone/Recreational zone ( e.g. park, for- category occupies the Institutional Zone, City
est, greenery, open space, historical, cultural and Expansion Zone, Transport Zone and Airport
religious areas, etc.). Zone.
It is confronted with the following major issues: In this land use planning exercise, the process
(a) disaster risk reduction and (b) use of resourc- for defining the land use policy areas began
es and its impact on protection areas with a description and understanding of the
development directions and the resulting urban
6.1.2. Production Areas fabric of the city. As a series of steps, they are
outlined as follows:
Production areas are those related to industries,
commerce, tourism and recreation, food produc- Step 1. Define, describe terminologies, ap-
tion or the extraction of natural resources for proaches for land use and urban planning
their economic value. specific to KMC.

In the context of Kathmandu City, land uses Step 2. Identify, describe, analyze and inter-
that comprise the production areas consist of the pret the development situation (population/
Industrial Zone, Sports Zone and Commercial settlements, economy, resources/environment
Sub-zone. and incomes/services, transport) and relate to
the current spatial form (e.g., arrangements,
6.1.3. Settlement Areas urban fabric) and to trends in land use.

The citys settlement areas encompass primarily Step 3. Interpret implications of risk (e.g.
the residential portion of the built-up environ- earthquake) to population or settlement, to
ment. These include all private subdivisions, service functions, to building stock, revenues
self-built housing sites, public housing areas, and and the desired development strategies.
transient housing facilities. This land use catego-
ry occupies the Residential Zone, Dense Mixed Step 4. List/organize the priority development
Residential Sub-zone, Other Residential Sub- issues (with risk management as a develop-
zones, and the Planned Residential Sub-zone. ment concern) in the different sectors to be
It is mainly concerned with the following: (a) addressed within 10 years.
Integration of activities within and among settle-
ments and the efficient production and move- Step 5. Identify and describe the appropri-
ment of people and commodities, and (b) Access ate risk reduction policies (initial list against
of population to housing, education, health care, earthquake) which support development goals
recreation, transportation and communication, and objectives (based on the desired vision).
sanitation and basic utilities such as water, power, Step 6. Identify and describe the initial land
waste disposal and other services. use policy framework.

6.1.4. Infrastructure Areas The total area for the proposed land use based
on GIS estimates is shown in Table 6.1
Under this functional category are all areas of the
city that are devoted to major infrastructure and
utility systems. Under this broad category are

2%1) 'SYRX ,IGXEVIW 6.2.1. Policies on Protected Areas
>SRI In this RSLUP, open space is recognized as a
*%6,MKL[E]&YWMRIWW>SRI   vital component of an orderly urban environ-
6SEH&YWMRIWW>SRIQ   ment that serves many irreplaceable functions.
&YJJIV In establishing and expanding the citys network
&EPENY-RHYWXVMEP%VIE   of open spaces, KMC will have to adopt the fol-
&EPENY4EVO   lowing measures:
'LEQEXM 0ERH4SSPMRK   Conduct comprehensive inventory of exist-
'SVI (IRWI%VIE   ing and potential open spaces covering both
public and private lands;
Develop planning parameters with emphasis
on linkage and continuity;
+SZX-RWXMXYXMSRW   Consolidate past policies, plans and pro-
,IVMXEKI   grams that are still relevant to the formu-
/YPIWL[SV%[EW   lation and adoption of a city open space
1ERSLEVE 0ERH4SSPMRK   development program;
2EXMSREP7TSVXW'SYRGMP   Improve public support for open space
2E]E&E^EV 0ERH4SSPMRK   preservation;
3TIR7TEGI   Review the building code to find ways of
providing and maintaining the open space
Integrate open spaces into the citys pro-
6ERMFER 4VSXIGXIH%VIE   posed road system (e.g. linear parks);
6MZIVERH6MZIVFERO   Adopt a policy of cooperation and collabo-
6SEH2IX[SVO   ration with concerned land owners to moni-
8-RXP%MVTSVX   tor and guide future action or decision to
;SVPH,IVMXEKI &SYHLE   protect, conserve or develop these resources;
'SQQIVGMEP7YF>SRI Q   Acquire open spaces for public recreational
FYJJIV purposes; and
FYJJIV Refocus preservation on the following open
 spaces: natural drainage corridors and wa-
463437)('311)6'-%0 terways, existing parks and playgrounds.
&LEKQEXM6MZIV Q&YJJIV   Kathmandu City recognizes the importance
4VSTSWIH,MKL6MWI%TEVXQIRX   of open space both as an essential and life-
&YMPHMRKW sustaining resource and land use that enhances
and improves the overall quality of the urban

environment. Through this RSLUP, it recognizes To provide a basis for appropriate policy inter-
that urban and open space development must vention, Local Area Plans or Master Plans (such
be interwoven through the formulation and as for heritage sites) shall be prepared to guide
adoption of an appropriate policy on open space human activities within each sub-zone cover-
recovery and improvement. ing the entire area and, to a reasonable extent,
its adjacent areas. Through a participatory and
In KMC, protected areas are those areas requir- consultative process, the formulation of the Lo-
ing local legislation and/or community action cal Area Plan will include the following activi-
as well as those covered by specific laws and ties:
administrative issuances. They include identified
environmentally constrained areas that are prone Detailed technical survey, mapping and
to ground shaking, liquefaction, and floods. monumenting;
Other areas shall also include all road easements, Inventory of existing uses;
historical buildings, monuments and heritage Development planning; and
sites. Plan implementation, to include enforce-
ment, social preparation, monitoring and
To preserve its functional character as a recre- evaluation.
ational public open space, policy intervention
will include restrictions on the following activi- The plan will be implemented in consonance
ties: with this RSLUP.

Dumping of any form of waste products, Easements of Public Use

leaving in refuse in exposed or unsanitary
conditions, or depositing them in the ground The banks of rivers and streams throughout
or in bodies of water; their entire length and within a zone of 25
Mutilating, defacing or destroying objects meters in urban areas, agricultural areas, and in
of natural beauty, or objects of interest that forest areas along their margins, are subject to
enhance the areas scenic value; the easement of public use. No person shall be
Damaging and leaving roads, trails and foot- allowed to stay in this zone longer than what is
paths in a damaged condition; necessary or to build structures of any kind.
Squatting, or otherwise occupying any land;
and To prevent destructive developments along the
Constructing or maintaining any kind of river system, all legal easements will form part
structure, fence or enclosures, establishing of the citys open spaces that will have equal
any business enterprise without a permit. status with other land uses. The above provision
of the law is hereby adopted in this RSLUP and
To effectively regulate all land using activities all non-conforming uses shall be subject to the
within the protection area, it will be grouped mitigating measures to be provided in the zon-
further into management zones based on physi- ing ordinance.
cal or environmental considerations, among oth-
ers. A strict protection zone shall be established In line with the citys thrust to recover and
(e.g. being off-limits to all forms of building rehabilitate its legal easements, policy and legis-
development and certain human activities). In lative intervention will focus on the following:
areas where permanent buildings already exist,
any expansion will be regulated by enforcement Enforcement of the Nepal Water Code to
of performance standards on building height and recover legal easements;
bulk, density, open space ratio, traffic impact, Reclamation of riverbanks that have been
among others, to be established by local legisla- destroyed or built upon;
tion. Prohibition on the construction of perma-
nent structures along the riverbank;

Redevelopment of portions of the bank into National Road Easements
public open spaces such as linear parks;
Protection of the riverbank through tree National roads customarily function as arterial
planting and riverside vegetative protection; roads. However, this function is often jeopar-
Ensuring construction along riverside roads dized by the popular practice of building too
should be at the side, away from the river close to the road, even to the extent of encroach-
and not on the river; and ing on the road right-of-way (ROW).
Preservation of visual corridors in line with
the citys open space program. To allow national roads to continue to function
effectively, a 14-25 meter regulatory setback as
Environmentally-Constrained Areas specified in the Building By-laws from the edge
of the ROW shall be enforced. This will prevent
These are areas prone to natural hazards either encroachments along both sides of the road and
hydrologic or geologic in nature. Although contribute to the preservation of the citys open
settlement development has occurred and space.
continues to occur in these locations, this can
be prevented in the future through the adoption Heritage and Historic Preservation
and implementation of a city open space devel-
opment program, as well as improved building Kathmandu City has many historic buildings
bylaws that will restrict certain developments or and structures that reflect the heritage of the
human activities in areas that pose environmen- people. To preserve the history of the city as re-
tal hazards or risks to human settlements. flected through its old buildings and structures,
guidelines for the preservation and rehabilitation
In the city, areas exposed to seismic hazards will of heritage sites and historical buildings shall
be surveyed and delineated on the ground. As be formulated. Such guidelines will be focused
much as possible, these areas will be zoned if on such aspects as adaptive re-use methods and
built upon and restricted to approved density design controls. KMC can tap the expertise
developments by KMC and other approving of the Commission on World Heritage and
agencies (e.g. KTDVC, MoPPW). Historic Preservation for the formulation of ap-
propriate heritage conservation guidelines. A list
A measure to minimize destruction and loss of of heritage sites is provided in the Annex of the
lives resulting from ground shaking is for KMC Sectoral Profile.
to come up with a local building code. This
code will be based on a review of the Nepal 6.2.2. Policies on Production Areas
Building Code and on consideration of the
unique geo-physical characteristics of KMC. In Proper management practices must accompany
the future, building developers shall be required the utilization of production areas at all times so
to undertake a geo-technical study as a prerequi- that their resources may continue to provide so-
site to securing a building permit. cially desired outcomes without getting degraded
or depleted. The production areas in the city
In flood-prone areas, all constructions along the include the commercial area or CBD, agricul-
river or river easement will be considered as ille- tural croplands, tourism and recreational areas,
gal and therefore subject to demolition proceed- and industrial area.
ings. Also, the dumping of solid waste into the
citys rivers will not be tolerated. Local legisla- Commercial Areas/Strips
tion will focus on establishing stiffer sanctions
and penalties to discourage these activities. The commercial sub-zones identified in the
Building Bylaws of 2007 under the mixed zone
will have the following development controls


as shown in Table 6.2. Commercial Sub-zones premises;

are plots adjacent to major roads, highways (e.g. Creation of a more favorable investment
Ring Road) or roads having width 14m or higher climate for development ; and
up to the depth of 25m from road edge. Certain Substantial increases to the tax base of
roads have been defined as Commercial Zones the city through the appreciation of the
which are shown in the KVTDC Land use map. assessed value of properties as a result of
urban renewal.
Central Sector Growth Area and Corridor Public intervention to modify or influence ap-
propriate land uses within the CBD may also
This area encompasses the traditional CBD include a range of policy or legislative activities
of the Central area and encompasses the citys on the following:
financial and business district. Land uses within
the CBD will be comprised of dense residential Land pooling to correct inappropriate
mixed uses such as retail trade, banking and developments;
finance, personal and community services, trans- Integration of open spaces into the design
portation and telecommunication, and tourism- of the built-form to enhance urban aesthet-
related uses. ics and thus maintain property values;
Investment in economic development
The policy agenda for this area will focus on its activities to create new or maintain existing
urban renewal, not only to revitalize the local employment opportunities;
economy but also to improve the quality of life Circulation system to serve different seg-
within the urban fabric. The following policy ments of the population;
objectives are proposed to strengthen the Central Improvement in the quality of city services;
sector through inner city regeneration: Historical preservation designed to restore,
or make useful, facilities of aesthetic or
Removal of blight in or near the CBD which historical merit; and
depresses property values; Design or development guidelines on
Identification and acquisition of sites on outdoor signages; street furniture; traf-
which new developments such as office fic management schemes; building height
buildings and other public structures could limit based on geotechnical studies; thresh-
be undertaken; old capacity of utilities, traffic generation
Stronger participation of private developers potential, among others.
or property owners within or near the CBD
to invest in the redevelopment of rundown

Other Growth Centers and Corridors Stricter implementation of building codes/
by laws;
For the other growth centers and corridors, Awareness campaigns for owners (old and
specific policy interventions have already been new) and builders on hazards and risks;
emphasized in the previous chapter. Consideration of routes for evacuation; and
New locations for residential living outside
Industrial Area of KMC.
Public action will focus primarily on the formu-
lation of environmental and sanitation policies Relevant development controls obtained from
and enabling ordinances. the Building By-laws (translated portions) ap-
plicable to residential areas are as follows:
Tourism and Outdoor Recreation Areas
Policy action towards developing the citys Dense Mixed Residential Sub-zone
tourism and recreational potential involves the
formulation of a city-wide tourism plan that This is an area where settlement expanded be-
will lay down the necessary guidelines for the yond the core city zone. It lies in the middle of
use and development of certain areas for tour- Kathmandu City. Its eastern boundary is Dhobi
ism and recreational purposes. In line with the Khola River, the western boundary is Bishnuma-
development of a Tourism Promotion Program, ti River and the southern boundary is Bagmati
such guidelines will be used especially to influ- River. The development control for dense mixed
ence tourism-related developments in KMC. residential subzone is shown in Table 6.3.

6.2.3. Policies on Settlement Areas Other Residential Subzone

Policies on producing safer communities from The development control for residential sub-
natural hazards may involve several or all of the zone is shown in Table 6.4 below.
following approaches:
Mixed Old Residential Sub-zone
Enforcement of residential zoning identified
in the 2007 Nepali building by-laws, sup- This is a densely populated area located in
ported by ground verification; the Central Core. It surrounds the Hanuman
Micro zoning of KMC and the Kathmandu Dhokha Durbar Square. Its urban pattern has
Valley; developed since the Malla Period, with a trade
Vulnerability and risk assessments; centre located in Ason, which is connected by
Land pooling in areas of highest risk; roads from six different directions. Old houses




lie along the roads. Many bahals and bahils In consonance with the citys shelter program,
(open courts and courtyards) are also connected there is a need to formulate development guide-
to the roads. The development controls for lines in housing and site development on the
mixed old residential sub-zone is shown in Table following aspects: permitted uses, conditional
6.5. uses, open space ratio, firewalls, setbacks, fenc-
ing, building height/bulk limits, safety require-
Development controls for buildings with com- ments, access, architectural style, drainage and
mercial use such as halls, theatres, and supermar- sanitation systems, and parking, among others.
kets are different than for residential buildings. These development guidelines will direct future
Table 6.6 shows the development controls for shelter/building developments.
commercial use in the Core sector.
c. Transient Housing
a. Self-built Houses
This type of housing caters to the citys popula-
For self-built houses, public action will focus tion of students, sales representatives, national
on the enforcement of relevant provisions of government functionaries, corporate executives,
the Nepal Building Code and Building By-laws. and other transients who seek accommodation
The zoning ordinance will provide supplemental for a limited period in the city. Guidelines
guidelines on such requirements as setbacks, fire- will cover such aspects as minimum room size,
walls, open space, building height and bulk, etc. maximum occupancy, lighting and ventilation,
fire exits and safety equipment, parking and
b. Public Housing open space, gender-sensitive facilities, among
others to ensure the comfort, convenience and

safety of these transients. growth centers within the city. These new
sites will be planned and developed in accor-
6.2.4. Policies on Infrastructure Areas dance with a supplemental local ordinance
to the National Building Code containing
Economic Infrastructure campus planning and design standards.

1. Public Markets - In line with KMCs thrust 3. Non-Formal Educational Facilities - Legisla-
to disperse economic activities from the tive action will take the form of a request for
traditional urban center, public action will the establishment of a proposed secondary
focus on the selection of appropriate sites trade school with the objective to prepare
for public markets in the different growth the graduates to engage in income-gener-
centers. ation activities. This trade school will be
2. Slaughterhouse - This facility will be used established in any of the growth centers.
for the local market and will be planned in
accordance with the ordinance requirements 4. Health Centers - Additional units of these
of KMC and standards set by the National community facilities will be made available
Building Code. to make health care and medical services and
facilities accessible to all the local residents.
Social Infrastructure Likewise, new sites will be planned and
developed in accordance with a supplemen-
1. Public Schools - Public action will require tal local ordinance to the National Build-
land acquisition, preferably of adjacent lots, ing Code containing planning and design
to accommodate future expansion activities standards for safe hospitals.
in preparation for the integration of pre-
schools into the formal educational system, 5. Day Care Centers - Public action will focus
and to accommodate additional increases in on land acquisition or rental of space for
student population. The growth centers will such a service. Policy agenda will encourage
also provide new sites for proposed second- the private sector and other public offices to
ary school campuses. Local legislation will set up a child-minding facility within their
ensure that planning guidelines for school premises.
building construction include the following:
6. Public Libraries and Archives - The estab-
Location should be away from all major lishment of such facilities in the growth
roads. areas will be a priority. A program to put up
Buildings should be earthquake proofed and modernize existing public libraries in
Vertical development and expansion the city will be adopted.
should be encouraged.
There should be enough space to ac- 7. Reading Centers - These will be established
commodate projected student popula- in all wards.
8. Sports and Recreational Facilities - This
Public action will ensure that budget alloca- community facility will be established in
tion from the Ministry of Education and all growth centers through public-private
KMC will augment the Special Education partnership. They can be managed by KMC.
Fund (SEF) for the development of the new Public action will require public schools to
sites. open their sports facilities for use by the
residents outside of school hours.
2. Private Schools - The expansion of private
schools will be redirected towards identified 9. Public Assembly Areas and Open Areas-Pub-
lic action will focus on rationalizing their

utilization so that they could be used for 3. Sewerage System - Legislative action will
various purposes. They should be integrated entail the enactment of a local sanitation
into a network of open spaces. ordinance and increase penalties for viola-
tors. It will also include the creation of an
10. Memorial Parks and Cemeteries -Legislative office position for a sanitary engineer who
action will generate development guidelines will serve as a member of the staff of the
for the establishment and maintenance of building official.
cemeteries and memorial parks. Electric
crematorium sites are suggested. 4. Water Supply and Distribution System -
Public action will entail joint regulation
11. Public Order and Safety Offices - These will with the National agencies of the develop-
include fire protection and peace and order ment of public and private wells.
facilities to support the disaster management
and traffic management systems. Also as 5. Arterial Roads - Public action will focus
important is the enactment of an ordinance on the recovery of road rights-of-way and
prohibiting the obstruction of identified fire to develop them into additional lanes. To
truck access lanes, and requiring new build- minimize traffic congestion within the
ings to be designed and constructed based on city, the no on-street parking policy will
environmental considerations unique to the be strictly enforced especially within the
city. central business district. A minimum lateral
access to arterial roads shall be determined
12. Ecological Waste Management System and will also be enforced.
Facility - Legislative action will require the
enactment of an ordinance requiring seg- 6. Collector Roads -A minimum lateral ac-
regation and composting at the household cess along proposed collector roads of not
level and the setting up of such a system that less than 250 meters will be enforced and
will include the following: Ecological Waste only collector roads will connect to arterial
Management Center, with a sanitary land- roads.
fill, Materials Recovery Facility (MRF) and
composting areas. In this connection, legisla- 7. Distributor Roads - The development of
tive action will look into the prohibition of dead-end roads will be discouraged and all
backyard burning anywhere in the city. roads must form part of a loop or series of
Utilities and Transportation
8. Subdivision Roads -Subdivision developers
1. Power Supply and Distribution - Legisla- will be compelled to connect their main
tive intervention will focus on restoring the subdivision road only to collector and
power generation, to ensure reliable and distributor roads. The KMC Road design
uninterrupted power supply throughout standards will be used as a basis for improv-
the city. It will also formulate regulations ing existing local roads. These standards
(based on industry standards) on joint use and guidelines will be imposed on new
of distribution facilities and explore alterna- road construction and will include provi-
tive sources of power supply such as bio-gas, sions on sidewalks, ramps, planting strips,
solar, and wind. street lighting, waiting sheds, and others.

2. Telecommunication - Regulation will focus 9. Street Furniture - Standards for street

on ensuring that public health and safety furniture, traffic signages, and overpass
aspects are considered in determining the design will be formulated. Traffic signals
location of cell sites. on on-grade pedestrian crossings will also
be put up.

10. Parking Facilities - KMC will formulate
its own local standards on the provision
of parking and open space requirements.
These will be made part of the Local Build-
ing Code.

11. Bus Terminals - Appropriate sites within the

growth center for multi-modal bus termi-
nals will be identified.

12. The following table provides details on pro-

posed land use interventions, policies and
possible legislations

Following the development issues and problems

that involved subjecting the disaster manage-
ment issues identified in the DRA to a problem-
solving process resulted in the proposed pro-
grams, projects, and actions as discussed below.
Table 6.7 shows the proposed PPAs linked with
the risk-sensitive land use planning goals. The
reduction of disaster risk is an explicit goal of
the proposed interventions. At the same time,
they also meet the goals set at land use policy
areas i.e., protection, production, infrastructure,
transport, and economic. Implementing these
PPAs promises improvement in the quality of
life of the residents in terms of access to better
and disaster-resilient living spaces and economic

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7.1. Kathmandu Metropolitan City: An Or- following principles and policies for the develop-
dinance Adopting a Risk-Sensitive Land Use ment of local self-governance system:
Plan, Zoning and Building By-Laws
a. Devolution of such powers, responsibilities
INTRODUCTION and means and resources and are required to
make the local bodies capable and efficient
The Local Self-Governance Act, 2055 (1999), in in local self-governance.
its Preamble, has stated that: b. Building and development of institutional
mechanism and functional structure in Lo- is expedient to: cal Bodies capable of considering for local
people and bearing responsibilities.
Make provisions conducive to the enjoyment c. Devolution of powers to collect and mobi-
of the fruits of democracy through the utmost lize such means and resources as are required
participation of the sovereign people in the pro- to discharge the functions, duties, respon-
cess of governance by way of decentralization. sibility and accountability conferred to the
Local Bodies.
Institutionalize the process of development by d. Having the Local Bodies oriented towards
enhancing the participation of all the people establishing the civil society based on demo-
including the ethnic communities, indigenous cratic process, transparent practice, public
people and down-trodden as well as socially accountability and peoples participation
and economically backward groups in bringing in carrying out the functions devolved on
out social equality in mobilizing and allocating them.
means for the development of their own region e. For the purpose of developing local leader-
and in the balanced and equal distribution of ship, arrangement of effective mechanism
the fruits of development. to make the local body accountable to the
people in its own areas.
Have institutional development of local bodies f. Encouraging the private sector to participate
capable of bearing responsibility, by providing in local self-governance in the task of provid-
such responsibility and power at the local level ing basic services for sustainable develop-
as in necessary to formulate and carry out plans, ment.
The LSGA, in Section 96, then goes on to out-
Constitute local bodies for the development line the mandatory functions and duties to be
of the local self-governance system in a manner performed by the Municipality as follows:
that they are able to make decisions on the mat-
ters affecting the day-to-day needs and lives of 1. (b) Relating to Physical Development:
the people by developing local leadership
(1) To frame land use map of the Municipal-
The LSGA in strengthening the role of the ity area and specify and implement or cause
Municipality has, in Section 3, set to pursue the to be implemented, the industrial, residential

agricultural, recreational areas etc. (1) and (2), the Municipality may, as per neces-
(2) To prepare housing plan in the area of sity, obtain external consultancy service.
Municipality and implement or cause to be
implemented the same. (4) In formulating the plans, Municipality shall
(3) To carry out plans on drinking water and have to give priority to the following projects:
drainage in the areas of Municipality and oper-
ate, maintain and repair or cause to be oper- (a) Projects which are income-generating and
ated, maintained and repaired the same. from which consideration may be obtained
(4) To develop, or cause to be developed, green sooner.
zones, parks and recreational areas in various (b) Projects raising living standard, income
places in the Municipality area. and employment of, and giving direct ben-
(5) To approved or cause to be approved de- efits to, the people of the Municipality, and
signs of houses, buildings etc. to be construct- contributing to poverty alleviation.
ed in the areas of the Municipality. (c) Projects which can be operated with low
cost and larger peoples participation.
2. ...the Municipality may also perform the (d) Project to be operated through local
following optional functions in the Municipality means, resources and skills.
area: (e) Projects providing direct benefits to the
women as well as backward class and chil-
(a) To control unplanned settlement within dren.
the Municipality area. (f ) Projects that can contribute to protect
(b) To make the structure and development of and promote the environment.
the town well-planned through the functions
such as guided land development and land use. (7) In formulating annual plans, the following
(c) To arrange for the supply of electricity and matters have to be taken as the basis.
communications facilities.
(d) To arrange for recreational parks, play- (a) Directives received from the National
ing grounds, museums, zoos, parks etc. in the Planning Commission and the District De-
Municipality area. velopment Committee on national develop-
(e) In order to reduce unemployment, to col- ment policy.
lect the data of unemployed person and launch (b) Overall necessities indicated by periodical
employment generating programmes. plans.
(f ) To carry out preventive and relief works to (c) Suggestions received from the Ward Com-
lessen the loss of life and properly caused from mittee.
natural calamity.
The LSGA likewise provided for the Process of
Section 3 of the LSGA further mandates munici- Implementation as embodied in the following
palities to formulate their own plans, viz: Sections:

(1) Each Municipality shall have to formulate Section 112. Preparation of Resource Map
periodical and annual development plans for the
development of the municipal area. Section 113. Feasibility Study of the Projects to
be Carried Out
(2) In formulating the plans, the Municipal-
ity shall, as per necessity, have to launch plans Section 114. Selection of the Project
such as land-use, land-pulling, and guided land
development for making the development of the Section 115. Coordination among Municipal-
municipal area balanced and planned. ity, Governmental and Non=governmental
(3) In formulating plans pursuant to sub-sections

Section 116. Operation of Municipal to add a storey or to alter the faade, or to con-
Level Project struct a window, door verandah, attic, porch, shed,
stable or garage or erecting a compound wall in
Section 117. Implementation and alternation of the existing design.
Management of Project
Section 150. Application for Approval: Any
Section 118. Appraisal and Evaluation of person or governmental office desiring to con-
Projects struct a building shall have to make an applica-
tion, in the prescribed format, along with the
Section 119. Consumers Group to be Formed design of the building to the Municipality for
the approval to construct the building.
Section 121. Non-Governmental Organization
to be Encouraged Explanation: In this section, governmental office
means and includes all governmental offices and
Section 122. Directives to be abided by: The courts as well including the offices of the Supreme
Municipality shall have to abide by the direc- Court, Parliament, Raj Parishad (Royal Council),
tives given by the National Planning Commis- commission for the Investigation of the Abuse of
sion, His Majestys Government of Nepal and Authority, Auditor General, Public Service Com-
the District Development Committee in respect mission and other constitutional bodies, and Royal
of the formulation and operation of the town Nepal Army as well as Nepal Police.
development plan.
(2) Notwithstanding anything contained in sub-
Section 124. Repair, Maintenance and Manage- section (1), in making application for approval
ment of the Project: to construct a building, if any public body is
not allowed to submit the design of the building
(1) The Municipality may collect service on account of national security, it may mention
charge from the beneficiaries of a project for only the length, breadth, height and storey of
the repair and maintenance of the project. the building and its total area in the application.
(2) The repair, maintenance and necessary
management of the project shall be dome Section 152. Submission of Document of Own-
with the amount of the service charge col- ership and Possession or Deed of Consent: In
lected pursuant to sub-section (1). making application pursuant to Section 150 for
(3) The Municipality shall have to maintain approval to construct a building, if construction
an up-to-date account of incomes and expen- is to be done in the land of ones own owner-
ditures as referred to in sub-sections (1) and ship and possession, the document showing the
(2). ownership and possession of the land, and if the
construction is to be done in the land of any
In the matter of Building Constitution, the other persons ownership and possession, the
LSGA has provided the following pertinent document showing the ownership and posses-
provisions: sion of such person as well as a deed of consent
shall have to be submitted.
Section 149. Prohibition on Construction of
Building without Obtaining Approval: No Section 156. Approval of Design:
person shall, without obtaining construction
approval from the Mayor, do construction of a (1) In giving the approval to construct any
building in the municipal area. building pursuant to Section 155, the Mayor
shall also have to approve the design of such a
Explanation: In this section, construction of building.
building means the act to construct a new build-
ing, to reconstruct by demolishing the old building, (2) In approving the design of any building

pursuant to sub-section (1), the Mayor may Ordinance and in accordance therewith and in
approve it by making necessary alteration in the support thereof.
design in a manner to be conformity with the
physical development plan and the standards set RISK SENSITIVE LAND USE PLAN
pursuant to the prevailing law AND BUILDING REGULATION, 2009

Section 157. Alteration in Design: If any This section describes the Zoning Ordinance
alteration has to be made subsequently in the of the KMC made under the provision of the
design approved pursuant to Section 156, the Local Self-Governance Act of 1999, specifically,
Mayor may permit for such alteration in the Sections 96- Functions, Duties and Power of
design, without being prejudicial to the standards Municipality, and Section 111- Formulation of
set under the prevailing law, to do other acts Plans of Municipality, among others.
expecting the addition of storey, change of
faade of increasing its length, breadth. PART I: GENERAL GUIDELINES/
Section 160. Period of Construction of Building:
1.1 Introduction
(1) If the approval to construct a building
has been given according to this Act, such a 1. This Ordinance may be cited as the
building shall have to construct within two Kathmandu Metropolitan City Land Use,
years from the date of such approval. Zoning and Building Ordinance. (This may
alternatively be cited as the Kathmandu Risk-
(2) In the event of failure to construct the Sensitive Land Use Plan and Policies and its
building within the time-limit specified under Implementing Zoning Ordinance and Building
sub-section (1), an application shall have to be Regulations.)
made to the Municipality for extension of the
time-limit. It is applicable to the physical area located
(3) If any application is made pursuant to within the geographical and administrative
sub-section (2), the Mayor may extend the boundaries of the Kathmandu Metropolitan
time-limit for up to two years by collecting an City, pursuant to Section 76 of the LSGA.
additional fee at the rate of five percent of the
previously paid fee. 2. This Ordinance includes the following
Section 161. Inquiry and Proceedings:
a. The Risk-Sensitive Land Use Plan of KMC;
(4) In case it is held, as per the report b. The Land Use Policies Framework in relation
submitted pursuant to sub-section (2), that to the Land Use Plan;
anyone has constructed or is constructing a c. The Zoning Ordinance that would serve as
building without obtaining approval pursuant the Implementing Guidelines for the Land Use
to this Act or by encroaching upon any public Plan and its underlying policies; and
land, road, temple, courtyard sewerage, canal, d. The Building Regulations for the permissible
pond, etc,. Mayor shall have to order to uses designated in the Land Use Plan;
demolish the building or any portion thereof.
All of these documents have statutory status
Section 163. Demolition of Building and and the same legally binding power.
Recovery of Expenditures Incurred
3. This ordinance shall take effect upon its
The above provisions having been provided for approval by the KMC Council and publication
in the LSGA, the Kathmandu Metropolitan City in the official Gazette and shall be implemented
hereby adopts and promulgates the following

by KMC itself in coordination with other 1.3 Basic Principles Addressed
appropriate agencies of Government as may be
appropriate. Where required, KMC must abide - Natural hazards are causing greater harm to
with the by-laws that require prior approval communities, existing facilities, and socio-
by higher authorities such as KVTDC and economic institutions and are threatening the
concerned Ministries - Local Development, future of sustainable development. Major
Planning and Physical Works, among others. disaster can wipe out any progress in physical
development and economic growth.
1.2 Purpose and coverage of the Ordinance
- Disasters are largely preventable. The city
4. The provisions of this Ordinance aim to assist and its communities that recognize the causes
KMC, its Council, and its various instrumen- and processes of natural disasters and provide
talities, offices and staff, in realizing a Risk-Sen- mitigation measures and regulations can best
sitive Land Use Plan that fully integrates DRR protect themselves.
provisions in the spatial and physical develop-
ment strategies, regulatory planning tools, and - The key to risk-sensitive land use planning
related by-laws and procedures, with the full is the involvement and commitment of all
vision of transforming KMC into A tour- individuals and organizations accepting clearly-
ism center based on heritage and culture with defined responsibilities and duties in the
healthy responsible and economically active citi- implementation of this Ordinance.
zens, living in a clean, safe and disaster resilient
environment. (KMC Vision statement) 1.4 Denitions (Taken in full from KMC
Urban Planning and Building Ordinance, Final
5. This Ordinance, likewise, intends to provide Draft 2001, Sec.1.2)
implementing guidelines in order to achieve an
orderly, efficient and environmentally sustain- For the purpose of this Ordinance the words,
able development for KMC by prescribing a names and acronyms listed below and wherever
general policy framework plan, norms and stan- occurring in any text of this ordinance, Planning
dards for land use planning and control, and Permit, Building Permit or any other planning
regulatory devices for building and structure or building instructions given by KMC, are
design and construction. explicitly defined to mean the following (in
alphabetical order):
6. This Ordinance shall cover four general land
use areas, namely, protected areas, settlements, Accessory building: a subordinate building
production areas and infrastructure support located on the same plot with the main building,
areas; with disaster risks in mind in order to occupied by or devoted to an accessory use.
develop safe forms and patterns of land uses that Where an accessory building is attached to the
will integrate the built into the un-built space in main building in a substantial manner, as by a
order to fulfill the right of every constituent to a wall or roof, such accessory building shall be
clean, safe and disaster resilient place to live in. considered part of the main building.

7. This Ordinance shall, as judged to be fea- Accessory use: a use customarily incidental
sible, address the concepts of DRM and DRR and subordinate to the principal land use or
through appropriate risk assessments and to the main building(s) located on the same
commitment to enforce the provisions of this plot herewith. In no case shall such accessory
ordinance and considering the benefits and costs use substitute or dominate in area, extent or
for a safe place and sustainable environment to purpose, the principal lawful land use or main
live in. building(s).

Alteration: any change made, or proposed to be or enclosure of people or animals, the growing
made, to the use, size, form, structural elements or storage of plants or the production,
and external appearance of a building or struc- processing, storage or protection of any kind of
ture. movable property; when a building is divided
into separate parts by one or more un-pierced
Apartment: a dwelling unit within an apartment walls, extending from the ground up, each such
building. part shall be deemed to be a separate building.

Apartment building: a building containing two Building main-: the building, or group of
(2) or more apartments and designed or used, buildings, on a plot, not being any accessory
with or without accessory use, for occupancy by building, serving the principal and actual use of
two (2) or more households living independently that plot.
of each other.
Buildings attached: two or more buildings
Apartment hotel: a residential building, or part which are mutually connected by each sharing
thereof, designed or arranged and used as a hotel one or two party walls wither in part or in full,
but differing from a hotel in that no food maybe with another building.
offered and all guest rooms are rented out for
generally longer period and have facilities for self Building detached: two or more adjoining free
cooking by the guests. standing buildings not having any mutual con-
Arcade: a continuously covered parts of a
ground floor area of a building which opens onto Building, semi-detached: two adjoining build-
a road or other public way. ings sideways attached.

Attic: a habitable space between the roof and Building height: the vertical distance measured
the top floor of a building with an average room from the highest level of the ROW adjoining a
height of min. 2.4m. building to the highest external part of its roof:
in case of a sloping roof the highest part of the
Authorized person/organization: any official roof shall be the mean height level between the
or organization to whom a specific task in the eaves and ridge of such roof; provided that,
execution of this Ordinance is delegated by the where a building is set back more than one (1)
KMC. meter from the plot front boundary, the height
of such building shall be measured from the
Authority: if not described otherwise, KMC. average elevation of the finished ground level
along the front wall of the building; structures
Basement semi-: any accessible and usable part on the roof of a building such as water tanks,
of a building of which, at least, half of its room lift overruns, solar panels and antennas are not
height is located below finished ground level. taken into account in determining the highest
point of a building.
Block: a tract of land bounded by Collector
roads and/or ROWs of higher order. Building line: generally used in closed front-
age development, a line in which the faade of
Block sub-: a tract of land being part of a block, a building shall be placed as prescribed on the
only bounded, and not further subdivided by Development Control Map and/or in a Local
Access roads or roads of a higher order. Area Plan.

Building: a man-made construction, Building, residential: a building being either

permanently fixed in or on the ground, enclosed a dwelling or an apartment building that is
by one or more walls and a roof, for the housing arranged, designed, used, and intended or built

to be used for residential occupancy by one or Easement: linear tract of land for the existing
more households or lodgers. or future installation and use of public utility
services, such as drains, water mains, sewers and
Construction: the act of either erecting a new cables, regardless of ownership of the land and of
building or structure, with or without the these utility services.
wholly or partly prior destruction of an existing
buildings or structures in the same location, or Facade: the exterior wall of a building abutting
adding a storey to, or altering the facades and a ROW.
roof of a building, and constructing a window,
door, veranda, attic, porch, shed, garage, or Floor area: the sum of the gross horizontal areas
other, similar additions to, or modifications of of all floors, except floors entirely located below
the present building or structure. ground level, of any building, measured from
the exterior faces of the external walls or from
Closed frontage: the sideways attached con- the centre line of common walls separating two
struction of facades of adjoining buildings in buildings. The floor area of a building shall ex-
one vertical plane. clude elevator shafts and stairwells at each floor,
floor space used for mechanical equipment -, but
Density: the number of buildings, dwellings, shall include attics, interior balconies, enclosed
households, people or the amount of floor space porches and floor area devoted to accessory uses.
per unit of land area (e.g. per hectare) as the However, any area constructed and used for
case may be and expressed as a numerical value. vehicle parking or loading of vehicles shall not
be included as floor area.
Designated area: a united part of a use zone
bounded by other use zones. Floor area ratio (FAR): the quotient of the total
built or planned floor area on a plot or parcel
Development: the process of changing or and the total area of that plot or panel expressed
intensifying the use of land through means of in the formula below:
earthworks and/or construction works in, on, or
above land or water. FAR = Total floor area in m2______
Total plot or parcel area in m2
Development comprehensive: a project
planned, designed and implemented for inte- Front: that side of plot or wall of the main
grated, mixed use development of a single tract building(s) on that plot facing a ROW.
of land or a number of contiguous plots, such as
land pooling project. Garage, private: a building or a section of a
building uniquely designed, built and used
Development Control Map: the map being primarily for the overnight parking of private
an appurtenant document of this Ordinance as automobiles.
prescribed in Part I, Section 2?
Garage, public: a building or a section of a
District: one of KMCs five (5) urban plan- building, uniquely designed, built and used
ning areas into which Kathmandu city has been primarily for temporary, daytime parking of
divided. automobiles, regardless whether these are parked
for remuneration or not.
Drainage: the natural or artificial evacuation of
excess water from a tract of land. Hotel: a building designed and used as a tem-
porary residing place for individuals with a per-
Dwelling: one or more rooms in a building for manently staffed reception desk, offering meals
the permanent habitation by a single family or and having at least six (6) guest rooms without
household. provision for cooking.

Housing: dwelling units of any type, mixture du and to some extent that of Kathman-
and density. du Valley and Nepal,
Satisfying occasional needs for a wide
HMG: His Majestys Government of Nepal? variety of unique or specialty goods and
Industry: facilities for the manufacturing, Requiring a central location in the city,
processing, production, assembly, disassembly, Requiring in general large and/or presti-
recycling, repair, storage or distribution of goods. gious establishments and plots,
Generating large volumes of vehicular
KMC: Kathmandu Metropolitan City, the local and pedestrian traffic and the need for
government body responsible for governing the wider roads and parking facilities.
city of Kathmandu.
Level, district: denotes urban facilities and
KMC area: the area of land within boundaries services:
prescribed by the Ministry of Local Government Serving a district population of 150,000
and administered by KMC. to 250,000.
Satisfying frequent needs for a wide vari-
KMC Board: The executive board of the KMC ety of household goods and services,
Council pursuant to Section 80 of the LSG Act. requiring good access, and a desirably a
central location in the district,
KMC Council: The elected governing body of Generating relative large volumes of traf-
KMC pursuant to Section 76 of the Local Self- fic, primarily pedestrian and motorcycles
Governance Act. and trucks, the latter for the supply of
food commodities and other goods.
KMC Oce: The executive office of the KMC
Council pursuant to Section 248 of the Local Level, local: denotes urban facilities and ser-
Self-Governance Act. vices:
Serving a resident population of 2,500 a
KMC Secretary: pursuant to Art. 253 of the 50,000 households,
LSGA, the Secretary of KMC, appointed by Satisfying basic, daily needs for food
HMG for carrying out the day-to-day functions commodities and household services,
of the KMC office. preferably requiring a central location
with good access,
KUPBR: the Kathmandu Urban Planning and Requiring only small size establishments
Building Regulations, being the regulations con- and plots,
tained in this Ordinance. Generating primarily pedestrian traffic.

Land Use Map: the map being an appurtnenant Local area plan: a statutory plan, at least
document of this Ordinance as prescribed in Part including a detailed land use plan and regula-
1, Section 2? tions, for a part of the KMC area, either being
a district, ward, city centre, conservation,
Land use: see use, land- industry or land pooling area, prepared on the
basis of, and complementing the provisions and
LSG Act: the Local Self-Governance Act, 1999 regulations of this Ordinance.

LSG Regulations: the Local Self-Governance Mayor: the Mayor of KMC

Regulations, 2000
Mayor, Deputy: the Deputy Mayor of KMC
Level city-: denotes urban facilities and services:
Serving the entire population of Kathman- Parcel: tract of land to be either subdivided

into plots, or to be comprehensively developed. Plot line, side-: any remaining boundary of a
plot that is not a front plot boundary or a rear
Physical Planning Committee: the committee plot boundary.
to be established as prescribed in Part 1 of this
Ordinance Plot width: the horizontal distance between the
side plot boundaries, measured at right angles to
Plinth: the section of the perimeter wall of a the plot depth at a point midway between the
building between the ground level and the first front and rear plot boundaries.
floor of a building located above the ground.
Plot, corner-: a plot situated at the intersection
Plinth area: the total area covered by the of two or more roads having an angle of inter-
ground floor of a building, including its perim- section of less than 135 degrees.
eter wall. Plinth area is also commonly referred
to as footprint. Pollution: contamination (make impure or un-
clean), especially by gaseous, organic or chemical
Plot: a surveyed and demarcated tract of land wastes that contaminate air, water or soil.
resulting from the subdivision of a parcel, duly
registered by ownership and under single title Porch: the part of a building projecting at
in the Cadaster and the Revenue Department ground level built and roofed so as to provide
of KMC, not containing any part that is leased cover to the entrance of such building.
by the land owner to or from a third party and
developed or intended to be developed for the Project: the planned and budgeted undertaking
land use designated in the area. of the development of a tract of land or of any
kind of construction on that land.
Plot area: the total area, measured in a horizon-
tal plane, within the plot boundaries. Property: a unified piece of land in public or
private ownership.
Plot boundary, front: the boundary of a plot
fronting an existing or planned access road or ROW (right-of-way): a land corridor designated
any other ROW. In case of a corner plot, both or constructed for the use of public access, vehic-
plot boundaries adjoining a ROW are consid- ular traffic circulation and the location of public
ered front plot boundaries. utilities, such as pathways, easements, roads,
and highways, regardless of the ownership of the
Plot boundary, rear: the boundary of a plot that land and utilities in the ROW.
is most distant from and most nearly parallel to
the front plot boundary. Road, access-or Marg: a ROW serving the
pedestrian and vehicular access to one or more
Plot Coverage Ratio (PCR): the percentage plots and having a width as prescribed in this
of the area of a plot or parcel covered by all Ordinance.
building(s), including accessory buildings on
that plot or parcel, but excluding private ga- Road, Collector-or Sadak: a ROW of greater
rages, as expressed in the formula below. width and capacity than an access road, having
a footpath on both sides, providing the interme-
PCR (%) = Built-up area of a plot at ground diate linkage between access roads and higher
level in m2 x 100/Total plot or parcel area in order roads and having a width as prescribed in
m2 this Ordinance.

Plot depth: the mean horizontal distance be- Road, arterial-or Path: a ROW of greater
tween front and rear plot boundaries. width and capacity than a collector road that
provides an intermediate linkage between collec-

tor roads and a Ring road/Highway and having a d. Signs within a private area that cannot be
width as prescribed in this Ordinance. seen from a road or adjacent properties,
e. Flags or emblems of a civic, philanthropic,
Road, Ring/Highway: a ROW with, at least, educational or religious organization,
four traffic lanes, serving intra-and inter city traf- f. Small signs displayed for the direction of
fic and having a width prescribed in this Ordi- public or convenience of the public, includ-
nance. ing signs that identify rest rooms, location
of public telephones, freight entrances, or
Room height: the distance between the finished the like, with a total sign area not exceeding
surface of the floor of a room and the lowest part 2 square meter per sign,
of the ceiling or lowest surface of exposed floor g. Signs attached to and showing the use of a
beams or, in case of a sloping ceiling, the average building,
height between the highest and lowest part of the h. Any temporary sign: constructed of paper,
ceiling or such beams. light fabric, plastic, or other light material,
with or without frames, when such signs
Row housing: residential buildings sideways at- are intended to be displayed for a short
tached. period of time only, in no event for longer
than 35 days.
Setback: the minimum distance that the outside
wall of any building shall be located inside from Sign are: the net geometric area of a sign
a plot boundary; for calculating his minimum computed as including the entire area within
distance, the outside wall shall be measured from one or more parallelograms, triangles, circles, or
the outer face of any structure, such as roof over- semi-circles comprising all the display, includ-
hangs, eaves, balconies, that is projecting most ing boarders and solid background. One face
outward from this wall. of a double faced sign shall be considered in
determining the sign area, provided both faces
Sign: any writing (including letter, word, or nu- are parallel and of the same size.
meral), pictorial presentation (including illustra-
tion or decoration), emblem (including devices, Storey: the spatial portion of a building located
symbol, or trademark), flag (including banner or between the surface of any floor above ground
pennant), or any other device, figure or similar level and the surface of the floor next above it
character, including its structure and compo- or, in case there is no floor above it, than the
nent parts, which is used or intended to be used space between such floor and the ceiling next
to announce or direct attention for advertising above it.
purposes that is visible from the outside of a
building or structure and includes subject matter Structural alterations: any change in the sup-
attached to, painted on, or in any other manner porting members of a building or structure
represented on a building or other structure or such as bearing walls, columns, beams or gird-
device. However, except as otherwise specified ers.
in these regulations and subject to regulations
for the location of signs with reference to roads, Structure: anything else constructed or erected
the following shall not be deemed to be included than a building which requires permanent
within the definition of Sign location on the ground, or an attachment to
a. Signs or flags of a governmental agency, something having such location.
including traffic or similar regulatory or legal
devices, Subdivision plan: a map showing the detailed
b. Memorial tablets or signs, and measured division of a tract of land, either
c. Signs required to be maintained by law or into two or more parcels and/or plots, serv-
governmental order, rule, or regulation, and ing as the basic layout for a proposed single or
street names and address numbers, multiple plot development.

Use, land: the purpose for which a tract of land, nent members, all other members of the PPC
and any building or structure located thereon, is shall be appointed for a term of two years but
occupied and used, or is intended to be devel- can be re-appointed.
oped, occupied and used.
10. The PPC shall meet every two weeks but at
UDD: The Urban Development Department of least once a month. The agenda for the meet-
KMC Office. ings shall be prepared jointly by the Chairman
and Secretary and communicated to the mem-
Utilities: the technical and logistical provisions bers, together with the minutes of the previous
for the supply and distribution of water, elec- meeting, at least one week in advance of each
tricity, gas, telephone, radio and TV signals, etc. meeting. The Secretary will prepare the minutes
and for the drainage, collection and disposal of of the meetings.
rain water and fluid and solid waste.
11. Decisions shall be made by open voting and
Yard, court: an uncovered space that is, apart simple majority. For taking a vote on major
from one or more access ways, fully enclosed by planning decisions a quorum of four (4) Com-
one or more buildings. mittee members shall be present at the meeting.
When the votes ties, the Chairmans vote shall be
Yard: the open-air part of a plot not occupied decisive.
by buildings and structures
12. In the absence of the Chairman, the Council
Zone, land use: an area designated for one or representative shall replace and represent him/
more land uses. her during and outside PPC meetings. In the
absence of the Secretary, the Deputy Head of
Zone, mixed use: an area designated for two or UDD shall act in his or her place.
more land uses.
13. The physical Planning Committee shall be
1.5 THE PHYSICAL PLANNING COM- responsible for initiating all necessary actions for
MITTEE (PPC) the due implementation of the provisions of this
Ordinance. Its tasks include, but are not limited
8. The KMC Board shall constitute a Physical to,
Planning Committee to advise the Board on all
aspects related to the issue of Planning Permits Advising the Mayor on all matters related to
and Building Permits, and appoint its members. the physical conditions and development of
The seven (7) members of the PPC will com- the City.
prise: Initiating, supervising and approving
amendments and revisions of the Ordinance,
the Deputy Mayor of KMC, Chairman subject to endorsement by the Council,
the KMC Secretary as representative of Considering planning applications and is-
HMG? suing Planning Permits for all development
the Head of the UDD, acting as secretary projects, except residential projects - not
of the Committee, hereinafter referred to as located in conservation areas - having an
the Secretary assessed total construction value of less than
one (1) representative of the KMC Council five million Rupees (Rs 5,000,000).
one (1) representative of Kathmandus busi- Initiating and identifying the most appropri-
ness community, and ate city location and sites for proposed major
two (2) professional advisors. new developments such as government
buildings, hospitals, schools, shopping malls,
9. Apart from the Deputy Mayor, the KMC new roads and bridges, power plants and
Secretary and the PPC Secretary being perma- other major utility plants and city parks,

Supervising the operations, performance and reasons why objections from the general public
staffing of KMCs UDD and the selection were accepted or rejected as ground for altering
and appointment of the Departments senior or adjusting the draft documents.
20. Upon their completion, the PPC shall sub-
1.6 Amendments and Revision of the KUPBR mit and present the final documents, together
with the above review report, to the Mayor for
14. The KUPBR shall be amended whenever formal KMC Board approval, gazettal and pub-
deemed necessary but shall be reviewed and lication of the revised KUPBR or its amend-
revised, at least, once every five years. ments.

15. Amendments and revision of the KUPBR 21. Before approving a full revision of the
shall be initiated by the PPC and, after consul- KUPBR, the KMC Board may decide for a
tation of the KMC Board, it shall instruct the second public viewing to allow any person or
UDD to undertake the necessary tasks for their organization to raise objections to any aspect
preparation within a time period to be specified of the revision as contained in the final docu-
by the PPC. ments. The procedure shall then be repeated as
described in Section 15 to 20.
16. Upon completion, the PPC shall consider
the draft amendments or revision of the KUPBR 1.7 Planning Districts
and may invite for advice during its meetings any
person or organization it considers useful. After 22. For the purpose of giving adequate response
its approval in principal (principle) of the draft to the provisions of the Local Self Governance
proposals, the PPC shall release all relevant docu- Law with regard to the effective execution of
ments for inspection by the general public. urban planning, the KMC are shall be divided
in five urban Planning District. They are
17. To inform the general public about proposed named and encompass the following ward:
amendments or revisions of KUPBR, KMC shall
make appropriate and timely announcement on City Core District, ward nos. 12, 17, 18,
its public boards, bulletins, local newspapers and 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 30
other usual media channels. The information in Central City District, wards nos. 1, 5, 1,
the announcement shall, at least comprise: 21, 32, 33
District West, wards nos. 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 34,
a. The location and period where the docu- 35
ments can be viewed and inspected District North, wards nos. 2, 3, 4, 29
b. The period during which eligible persons can District East, wards nos. 13, 14, 15, 16.
submit their reasoned objections in writing,
which period should not be less than four (4) 23. In the event of an extension of the KMC
weeks for any amendments and six (6) weeks boundary, the formation of new wards, or the
for revisions of the KUPBR. redistribution of existing wards, the KMC
Council shall decide on the revision of the
18. After the closing date of public inspection, boundaries of the Planning Districts concerned.
the PPC shall consider all written objections
received and arrange for those alterations to be 1.8 The District Planning Committee
made to the draft documents as it sees fit and (DPC)
24. For each of the Planning Districts, KMC
19. The PPC shall document the preparation will establish a District Planning Committee,
and review process in a report, clearly stating its consisting of the Ward Chairmen of all the

wards constituting the District A representative User Group having expressed its intent to im-
of KMC will attend the meetings of this com- prove these conditions with a maximum of their
mittee as advisor and non-voting advisor own means and organization, shall be encour-
aged by KMC in this initiative and, fulfilling
25. The principal task of the DPC is to assist certain requirements to be prescribed by special
KMC with the preparation of, and to formally order, shall be technically and/or financially sup-
endorse Local Area Plans as referred to in Sec- ported by KMC.
tion 27, and to give appropriate guidance and
support to KMC for the effective implemen- 30. Annual Investment Plan (IAP) will be en-
tation of these plans in manner and with the couraged by KMC in terms of financial support
instruments as prescribed by KMC order. and implementation priority depending on the
26. Detailed instructions about the function- overall structural and sustainable improvement
ing and procedures to be followed for decision of the area being proposed.
making by the DPCs will be prescribed by the
KMC Board in a special order. 31. AIPs will qualify for support by KMC if the
basic principle of equity sharing is accepted and
1.9 Local Area Plans adhered to. This means that the User Group
shall invest in the project, at least, to the extent
27. Local Area Plans shall be prepared for all of the assessed improved land value that will
such parts of the KMC area that require an accrue from the AIP. Investment would include
integrated planning approach to ensure that such cost as the compensation for any private
the aims set and agreed for the type and extent land and property to be acquired for imple-
of development for these areas can be more mentation of the project, for instance, in the
securely and effectively attained. case of creating a right of way or for the neces-
sary widening of a road. After deduction of the
28. A Local Area plan that is disaster risk resil- agreed share to be paid by the collective owners,
ient shall be prepared by KMC, at least, for the the remainder of the project cost will be borne
following types of areas: by KMC.

for each of the five Districts a District 1.11 The Planning Permit
Development Plan, at least containing a
land use development map at a scale of min. 32. Before implementing comprehensive devel-
1:5,000, appurtenant land use and develop- opment projects, parcels or plots, either in pub-
ment regulations and a 5-year investment lic or private ownership, shall not be subdivided
programme. or assembled without a Planning Permit issued
for areas designated as a conservation zone by KMC.
on the Development Control Map
for areas designated as a Land Pooling or 33. Existing buildings or structures, either in
Guided Land Development Project, public or private ownership, comprising a total
for any other designated or proposed to be floor area of more than 660 sq m (7,500 sq
developed as a comprehensive land develop- ft), shall not be redeveloped, changed of use,
ment project. enlarged, such as raised in height, or otherwise
structurally modified without the issue of a Plan-
1.10 Area Improvement Projects (AIPs) ning Permit by KMC.

29. Any group of legal persons being land and/ 34. For requesting KMC to issue a Planning
or building owners in an area that is already Permit, the applicant shall submit the following
substantially developed but lacking adequate documents:
provision of technical infrastructure, and such

A. For the subdivision or assembly of land with proposed to be constructed, if any, and the
the intent of land development. method proposed to dispose of the septic
a. A complete application form tanks effluent.
b. Receipt of payment of the Planning Permit (8) An indicative landscape design for inte-
fee, grated development projects.
c. Proof of his ownership of the subject land or
a letter from the owner of the land stating his g. A letter of no objection, addressed to
agreement to surrender land to the applicant, KMC and signed by those owners of the
conditional upon the issue of a Planning parcels and/or plots who can reasonably
Permit for the intended development. expected to be affected by the project, con-
d. Certificate of KMC Revenue section con- firming their agreement with the develop-
firming that all land an property tax and ment proposed to be realized on the subject
other local taxes due by the owner have been plot(s). If one or more of the above owners
remitted. do not agree and make any objections to
e. A certified copy of the cadastral map show- the proposed development that could not
ing the plots and/or parcels proposed to be be resolved in plan modification or by
subdivided or assembled, as well as the ad- amicable settlement, the reasons for these
joining parcels and/or plots with description objections shall be stated in a letter for
of their actual land uses. consideration by KMC prior to approval of
f. One or more drawings, at appropriate scale the Building Permit.
within the range of 1:1000 to 1:100, show-
ing: B. For structural alteration of buildings and
structures, change of land use or redevelopment
(1) The proposed land assembly and/or subdi- of a site.
vision and the development layout with result-
ing plot(s) and giving all relevant dimensions a. The completed application form.
shown in meters, b. Receipt of payment of the Planning Permit
(2) Height variations of land by 0.5 m contour fee.
lines and a detailed indication of the measures c. Proof of his ownership of the subject plot(s)
proposed for draining the land and disposal of and/or building(s), or a letter by the owner
drain water. of the land and/or building(s) stating his
(3) The vertical projection and the height agreement with the development or the
of buildings) and structures proposed to be works for which the Planning Permit is
constructed on the plot(s) and indicating the requested.
proposed use of (each of ) the building(s) by d. Certificate of KMC Revenue Section stat-
area of floor space in square meters. ing that all land and property tax and other
(4) The surveyed or otherwise certified docu- local taxes due by the owner have been
mentation of the vertical projection on the remitted.
ground and the height of all buildings and e. A certified copy of the cadastral map show-
structures located on the abutting parcels and ing the subject plot and all abutting parcels
plots. and/or plots and their actual land uses,
(5) The location and width of the ROW(s), f. The (latest) Building Permit issued for the
either existing, or firmly committed to be con- existing development
structed to serve access to the plot(s), g. One or more drawings, at appropriate scale
(6) The location and connection points of within the range of 1;500 and 1;50, show-
water mains and sewers and other standard ing:
utilities as mains and cables, and of any ease-
ments required for their installation beyond (1) The layout of development showing loca-
the boundaries of the subject plot(s), tion and height of all buildings and struc-
(7) The location and capacity of septic tanks tures on the subject plot and those on the

abutting plots, all as existing at the time the 38. The Planning Permit does not entitle the ap-
application for the Planning Permit is made. plicant, or any other person through this order,
(2) All changes and modifications proposed to commence or carry out any development or
to be made to the existing land use, buildings, construction activity until a Building Permit for
structures and plot layout, and any new, ad- the same project has been applied for, and been
ditional or substituting buildings proposed to issued by KMC.
be constructed on the plot(s),
(3) If applicable, any variation to the exist- 39. The Planning Permit is valid for one (1) year
ing vehicular access to the plot(s) and to the from the date of issue and expires at the date and
number of vehicles proposed to be parked on for that part of the project for which a Building
the plot(s). Permit has been issued. In case of particular and
unforeseen circumstances and upon the owner(s)
8. A letter of no objection as described in written request, KMC may, conditionally, ex-
Section 34A, g above. tend the validity of the Planning Permit by one
(1) more year.
35. Upon receipt of the application for a Plan-
ning Permit, KMC shall verify if the proposed 1.12 The Building Permit
development and/or construction agree with
the provisions and standards laid down in this 40. No building or structure, either in private
Ordinance and will submit the application for or in public ownership, shall be constructed,
approval to the Physical Planning Commit- extended, altered or demolished, nor any con-
tee. For projects located in areas of particular struction or site works commenced, without a
concern such as cultural and heritage sites and Building Permit.
buildings, roads, water and sewerage and solid
waste among others advice may be sought 41. Upon application of a Building Permit
from other agencies such as the Department for the construction of any new building or
of Archaeology, Ministry of Environment, the structure with a total amount of floor space in
Traffic Department. Where deemed appropriate excess 660 sq m (7500 sq ft), such application
and necessary the applicant may be required to shall first be submitted to the Physical Planning
present a feasibility study showing among others Committee for planning approval. No Build-
things how the proposed project would affect ing Permit shall be issued before this Committee
the immediate surrounding area in terms of has considered the implication of the proposed
inducing or causing hazard risk into a disaster. building or structure for the surrounding areas
and/or the city as a whole, and, based on its
36. A decision by KMC on the application of a findings, has approved the project.
Planning Permit shall be made and confirmed in
writing to the applicant within two (2) months 42. For requesting KMC to issue a Building
from the date of registration of the applica- Permit, an application shall be made by the
tion. KMC may extend this period by one (1) owner(s) of the land concerned by submitting
month. When no decision is made within three the following documents:
(3) months, approval is automatically granted
and the Planning Permit shall be issued accord- a. The completed application form,
ingly. b. Receipt of payment of the Building Permit
37. When a Planning Permit is refused, KMC c. Proof of his ownership of the subject land
shall give the reasons for its refusal in writing. and/or building or a letter by the owner(s) of
After having made the appropriate modifica- the land/and or building stating his agree-
tions to the project design, the applicant shall be ment with the development and/or works
entitled to make a second request for a Planning for which the Building Permit is applied for,
Permit at no further cost.

d. Certificate of KMC Revenue Section stating impose such restrictions.
that all land and property tax and other local 45. A decision on the application of a Building
taxes due by the owner have been remitted, Permit shall be made by KMC and confirmed
e. A certified copy of the cadastral map show- to the applicant in writing within two (2)
ing the subject plot(s) and all abutting par- months from the date of registration of the ap-
cels and/or plots, also indicating their actual plication. KMC may extend this period by one
uses, (1) month. When no decision is made within
f. The Building Permit(s) previously issued for three (3) months from the date of applica-
any buildings existing on the plot(s) at pres- tion, approval is automatically granted and the
ent or that existed in the past, Building Permit shall be issued accordingly.
g. The Planning Permit, if applicable and is-
sued, 46. When a Building Permit is refused, KMC
h. A letter of no objection as described in Sec- shall give the reasons for its refusal in writing.
tion 34 A.g. After having made the appropriate modifica-
i. Drawings, appropriate scale within the range tions to the project design, the applicant shall
of 1:500 and 1:50 and other documents be entitled to make a second request for a
presenting: Building Permit at no further cost.

(1) The layout of development, including all 47. The Building Permit requires the applicant
buildings and structures and their height on to execute the approved works in such stages
the subject plot(s) and on the abutting plots, as shall be written as a condition of approval
as existing at the time the application for the in the Building Permit. No subsequent stage
Building Permit is made, shall commence before the works executed in
(2) Architectural and structural design and the previous stage have been inspected and ap-
technical specifications for all new construc- proved by KMC.
tion works proposed and for all changes and
modifications to be made to existing buildings 48. Execution of the Construction works shall
and structures, commence within one (1) year from the date of
(3) Any variation to the existing vehicular ac- issue of a Building Permit. In case of particu-
cess and to the number and location of ve- lar and unforeseen circumstances, upon the
hicles proposed to be parked on the plot(s), owner(s) written request, KMC may, condi-
(4) A cost estimate of all works of the project tionally, extend the validity of the Building
prepared and signed by a KMC licensed build- Permit by one (1) more year.
ing engineer or registered building contractor
49. In the event construction works are inter-
43. Upon receipt of the application for a Build- rupted for more than 6 months, the Building
ing Permit, KMC shall verify if the proposed Permit issued for such works automatically
development and all constructions agree with the expires. The works shall not be resumed before
provisions and standards laid down in: a new Building Permit has been applied for and
a. this ordinance, been issued, or the existing Permit has been
b. the Nepal Building Code, extended at the discretion of KMC.
c. any previously issued Building Permit(s)
d. the Planning Permit, if applicable and issued, 1.13 The Completion Certicate
for the development or construction for
which the Building Permit is requested. 50. Upon request by the applicant, KMC shall
issue a Completion Certificate only after its
44. For projects located in areas where particular inspectors have inspected all works after their
development restrictions apply, before issuing a completion and have found these to have been
Building Permit KMC shall seek advice from the executed in full conformity with the conditions
competent agencies that have the lawful right to of the Building Permit.

51. No building or structure shall be occupied Ordinance.
or used by the owner, or by any other persons, c. a misrepresentation of facts in any of the
before a Completion Certificate for such build- application forms, plans or other documents
ing or structure has been issued by KMC. submitted by the applicant when applying
for a Planning or a Building Permit,
52. The owner of a building or structure will d. failure to submit structural plans, design,
not be permitted to sell the appurtenant land or calculations and other particulars as request-
to make any future change in the use or physical ed by KMC to demonstrate full compliance
form and contents of such buildings or structure with the provisions of the Building Code.
before a Completion Certificate for the erection
or any subsequent modification of that building 55. Any person that takes, without permission
or structure has been issued by KMC. of KMC any action of development or construc-
tion that is contravening the provisions of this
1.14 Transition Rule Ordinance or the Building Permit, KMC may
impose on such person a penalty or imprison-
53. Land, developed and permanently used at ment, or both, not exceeding:
the time of promulgation of this Ordinance, a. penalty of Rs 100,000 and/or imprisonment
but since then in contravention of any of the for a term of one(1) year of for any develop-
regulations of this Ordinance, shall be allowed ment or the construction of any building
to continue to be used for existing and ongoing without a valid Planning Permit or Building
activities under the following restrictions: Permit,
a. non-compliant use of land or buildings shall b. a penalty of Rs 100,000 and/or imprison-
not in any way be expanded, intensified or ment for a term of one (1) year for exceed-
changed into other non-compliant use, ing the maximum permitted FAR, PCR, and
b. existing buildings and structures shall not building height.
be changed or expanded and no works shall c. a penalty of Rs 50, 000 and/or imprison-
be executed other than serving their upkeep ment for a term of six (6) months for using
and regular maintenance. land or a building for a non-permitted land
c. no new buildings or structures shall be con- use,
structed for non-compliant uses, d. a penalty of Rs 100,000 and/or imprison-
d. non-compliant use(s) will become illegal ment for a term of one year for infringing
and shall be terminated upon deceased of the Building Code,
the owner or tenant of the land or upon the e. a penalty of Rs 50,000 and/or imprisonment
change of ownership of the legal or physical for a term of six (6) months for obstructing
person making non-compliant use of the action taken by KMC to undo or rectify any
subject land, building or structures, illegal development or construction.
e. from the date a non-compliant use has f. a penalty of Rs 50,000 and/or imprisonment
become illegal, for whatever reason, such for a term of six (6) months for infringing
use shall be terminated within maximum any other provisions of this Ordinance.
6 months, upon which all those measures
shall be taken necessary to convert the land, 56. The owner of any building or structure that
buildings and structures to legal use. is being constructed or altered, or has been con-
structed or altered without a Building Permit or
1.15 Sanctions and Penalties in contravention of the provisions of this Permit
or this Ordinance, may be instructed by order
54. The Building Permit may be revoked by of KMC to demolish part or the whole of that
KMC if there is: building or structure at his/her own expense, to
a. a breach of a term or condition of the Plan- be commenced within 35 days. By defaulting
ning Permit or the Building Permit, to obey this order, KMC will have this order
b. a contravention of the provision of this executed by its Public Works Department on

behalf of, and at the expense of the owner. west thereby relieving traffic in the city
57. Any building or structure that is found to be
in a condition or being used for an activity not c. Sustainable use of natural resources as more
in compliance with the Building Permit issued open spaces forest habitats and production
for that building or structure, or is in the opin- areas are recovered and preserved.
ion of KMCs building experts unsafe for public
use, may be ordered: d. Reduced air and water pollution as mitiga-
tion measures through land use regulation
to be disconnected from public water and takes effect
electricity supply or
no longer to be used or inhabited and be e. Enhancement of the overall physical and
closed up until such date that return to the aesthetic attractiveness of the city to the
approved use or alterations and/or repairs residents and visitors because of orderly
have been carried out to the satisfaction of defined land uses and the integration of
KMC, or disaster risk management, reduction and
to be demolished if such buildings or struc- mitigation measures resulting to personal
ture is found to be in state beyond repair. safety and protection of property from the
risk posed by natural hazards that may oc-
1.16 Appeal (As outlined in the draft KUPBR, curs.
Sec. 1.14)
f. Acceptance, strengthening and mainte-
58. An appeal to an order issued by KMC nance of KMCs leading role in the Kath-
regarding any sanctions imposed under Section mandu Valley area and in the national
55, 56 and 57, shall be filed with the Appellate scene and as the focal point of global atten-
Committee as prescribed in Section 20 of the tion.
Town Planning Act, 1998, within 35 days from
the date of receiving such order. g. Increased investments, from local and
foreign investors as they see and follow the
PART 2: RISK-SENSITIVE LAND USE orderly physical growth within Kathman-
PLAN du, which would result in more job oppor-
tunities generated.
Note: With Reference to Chapter 5 of the RS-
LUP report h. Increased revenue for KMC, as more eco-
nomic, social, cultural and physical growth
2.1 Expected Impact of the Land Use Plan is induced thereby creating more oppor-
tunities to provide adequate services and
This Ordinance aims to realize a risk-sensitive facilities for the KMC communities and its
land use plan that can provide among others: constituents.

a. Access of people to city-wide services due to i. Capability and capacity to be resilient in

decentralized front-line offices of city hall, the face of risk and events brought about
public markets, shopping centers, tertiary by natural hazards.
schools and hospitals, police and fire protec-
tion offices. 2.2 The Risk-Sensitive Land Use Map
The Risk-Sensitive Land Use Map, herein at-
b. Reduced traffic congestion in the Core Area tached as Figure 2.1, is hereby formally adopted
as the new urban nodes intercept inbound by the City Council to guide KMCs growth
traffic from the north, south east and south- and development over the next ten years (2010-
2020). The same map may be reviewed and

updated every three or five years) in accordance mitigate or reduce the effects of disasters.
with the provisions of the LSGA and this Ordi-
nance. 3.2.3 That in its disaster risk management
program and action plans, the involvement and
PART 3: RISK-SENSITIVE LAND USE commitment of all in the community -- indi-
POLICY FRAMEWORK viduals, families, neighborhood, ward, institu-
tions and non-government organizations-- is
Note: With Reference to Chapter 5 of the RS- a must for risk reduction and mitigation, and
LUP report therefore, every effort shall be made to encour-
age participation and require compliance for the
3.1 Introduction fulfillment of the provisions of this Ordinance in
order to prevent hazards, natural or otherwise,
3.1.1 This Ordinance recognizes the need from causing emergencies and ultimately disas-
to chart a course of action for the sustainable ters.
growth of KMC in pursuit of its vision as a A
tourism center based on heritage and culture 3.2.4 That this Risk-Sensitive Land Use Plan
with healthy, responsible and economically and its accompanying zoning ordinance and
active citizens living in a clean safe and disaster- regulations on the use of land and construction
resilient environment. To this end, the KMC of buildings are to be disseminated to all sectors
has decided to manage and take public control of the KMC through trainings and workshop,
over the direction and pattern of development and to the communities and wards through
in the city through the Risk-Sensitive Land Use information and education campaign, and that
Plan that has been adopted and approved by the these disaster risk reduction measures are to be
City Council. regularly monitored, evaluated, and modified
as the need arises to lessen the likely effects of
3.2 Policy Statements emergencies.

3.2.1 That within the territorial jurisdiction PART 4: LAND SUBDIVISION AND
of KMC, the city has the authority to prescribe ASSEMBLY REGULATIONS
and that the citizens have the duty to follow
reasonable limits and restrain on the use of land Introduction
and appurtenant structures built upon such land
so that: This part of the Ordinance contains general
regulations for the subdivision of land into
Protected areas are respected and preserved two or more plots, and for the amalgamation
for the benefit of all. of land of different owners into a single hold-
Production areas are used sustainably so that ing (land pooling), both action with the intent
the needs of the present and future genera- of subsequent development of such land. The
tions will continue to be adequately met; land subdivision regulations as contained in the
Settlement areas are made livable and wor- existing Building Bylaws have been completely
thy of human dignity, and revised and updated. The need for land assem-
Infrastructure is adequate, efficient and bly regulations only emerged after a number of
befitting of a modern city. experimental land pooling projects in Kathman-
du Valley were successfully implemented. The
3.2.2 That it is the responsibility of KMC to 3rd Amendment of 17 April 1998 of the Town
ensure the safety and security of its citizenry, Planning Act, once published in the gazette,
its resources and the environment against the provides the legal framework for land assembly
effects of natural hazards and, by all means, projects. Similarly, the Apartment Ownership
shall prepare the necessary measures to prevent, Act of 1997 deals with joint ownership of real

estate and is a helpful instrument for disallowing future plots uniquely served by this ROW.
further subdivision and fragmentation of land
and existing buildings. 4.1.3 For reasons of vehicular access and cir-
culation and public convenience and security,
PART 4: LAND USUBDIVISION AND AS- the minimum width and maximum length
SEMBLY REGULATIONS to which an access road shall be constructed
depends on:
Note: With reference to PART 5 (4): LAND
SUBDIVISION AND ASSEMBLY REGULA- a. the type of land use served
TIONS b. the type of road: dead-end, single-way or
two-way road
As outlined in the draft KUPBR, Part 4. c. the number of plots or dwellings served by
a single access road.
4.1 Means and Standards of Plot Access
The minimum standards that shall be adhered
4.1.1 No land shall be subdivided or developed to for ROWs serving access to residential and
without each plot having access provided by a non-residential plots are prescribed in Table 4.1
public or private ROW of prescribed minimum and 4.2 and Sections 85 to 88.
4.1.4 For the siting of building which will at-
4.1.2 No building or structure shall be construct- tract large numbers of people and vehicles, such
ed on any plot in such a manner and location as schools, hospitals, cinemas, theaters, confer-
as to obstruct or foreclose the construction and ence halls, exhibitions centres and shopping
effective use of an existing or future ROW of re- centres, KMC may require, particularly de-
quired standards to provide access to existing and pending on local traffic and parking conditions,
higher or additional standards of access than
4EXL[E]  1E\Q Q

63; 63;



prescribed in Table 4.2 while the adjoining setback line should be

splayed as a straight line over the full length
4.1.5 For the purpose of drainage, a dead-end of the arc as shown in Figure 4.2
road shall be designed and constructed so that
the road surface at the dead end is at higher 4.2 Plot Development
level than that of the intersection with the
drainage of the area served by such road, subject 4.2.1 No land shall be subdivided and devel-
to approval by KMC. oped:

4.1.6 Dead-end roads with a length of more a. in areas subject to flooding

than 25m shall at the end be provided with a b. on slopes steeper than thirty (30) degrees,
turning circle with a diameter of min. 9m, or c. of which surface water cannot be naturally
with a hammer head of minimum 12m wide drained to an existing drain, to the ROW
as shown in the Figure 4.1. giving access to such plot, or when this
water will, or can be expected to flow into
4.1.7 Access roads shall further meet the follow- neighboring plots,
ing design requirements: d. if the soil is unsuitable for building con-
struction due to contamination, insufficient
a. at intersection with other roads, both the bearing capacity or other pertinent reason as
edges of the access road and the adjoining determined by KMC experts.
from setback lines shall be played using the
prescribed angle and dimension as shown 4.2.2 Minimum plot size. No development is
in Figure 4.2. Only the curve of the road permitted of plots with a size of less than 80
may be rounded, instead of splayed, not the square meters for whatever land use, except with
setback line. special permission by KMC for low-cost housing
b. Curves in the alignment of an access road realized through a comprehensive development
shall have a radius, measured from the in- project.
side edge of the ROW, of not less than 6 m,

4.2.3 Any plot that has been developed, with or provided the owner(s) of the plot(s) abutting
without a Building Permit, shall not be further such building(s) agree to such building(s) and
subdivided and changed of ownership unless all have stated their consent in writing addressed
development conditions and standards as ap- to KMC.
plicable for the original plot can also be met and
maintained for each of the plots resulting from 4.3 Boundary walls
this subdivision.
4.3.1 Unless otherwise prescribed by KMC
4.2.4 When through inheritance, or for any any boundary wall facing a public road shall be
other reason, the ownership of a developed plot constructed of brick, stone or plastered con-
needs to be transferred and shared by more than crete and not exceed a height of 2 m. All other
one owner and, as a result, any part of the land boundary walls may be constructed to a height
to be owned is becoming smaller than the mini- of max. 3 m of which the lower part shall be
mum permissible size for plot development, such constructed in brick, stone or plastered con-
plot can be legally subdivided and shall, pursuant crete from the ground upwards to a height of
to the provisions of the Apartment Ownership min. 0.8 m while the upper part may e made as
Act, be registered as land and building(s) held an open fence, exclusively constructed of metal.
and managed as undivided estate in multiple To maintain adequate sight distance, KMC
ownership. may require for corner plots that only an open
wire fence be constructed from a height of 0.8
4.2.5 Plot width. The minimum width of the m above the adjoining road level.
front of a plot shall not be less than five (6) me-
ter for closed frontage development and eight (9) 4.4 On-site parking requirements
meter for detached buildings. KMC may grant
permission for lesser widths in comprehensive 4.4.1 Unless otherwise instructed on the De-
development project. velopment Control Map for specific areas, the
uniform minimum standard for car parking on
4.2.6 Plot depth. For small plots, within the any plot is 1 car space per 250 sq m plot area.
range of 80 to 125 sq m, the depth of the plot
should not be less than 1.5 times the width of 4.5 Comprehensive development
the front of such plot, while for any plot the
depth should not exceed three (3) times the front 4.5.1 When properly and serving multiple
width. land owner or users, comprehensive develop-
ment projects, either initiated and developed
4.2.7 No plots shall be permitted to discharge by the private sector or the public sector, are
surface water or sewerage into a public sewer or favored and shall be encouraged by KMC
public drain without permission of KMC. through providing as much technical, admin-
istrative and financial support as such projects
4.2.8 In areas for which closed frontage devel- may reasonably require.
opment exists or is prescribed, the external face
of the side wall(s) of a building to be attached 4.5.2 Whenever a comprehensive develop-
to the side wall(s) of the adjoining building(s) ment project results in simultaneous develop-
shall be placed on the plot side boundary and be ment of ten (10) or more plots, or the simul-
constructed in one plane without containing any taneous construction of at least 10 dwellings,
windows or other permanent openings. while maintaining the prescribed minimum
standards of access, parking and open space,
4.2.9 Accessory buildings, such as private garages KMC shall encourage such a project by favor-
and garden sheds of a height not exceeding three ably considering an increase in the FAR, PCR,
(3) meters, shall be allowed to be constructed and/or building height of maximum 30%
up to the side and rear boundaries of the plot,


whatever desired, provided the conditions of the showing the road, drainage and utility networks,
area and exiting development adjoining such plot subdivision, proposed land use for each land
project do permit so. unit, architectural designs or guidelines and a
landscaping concept. This plan, to be submitted
4.5.3 In projects for comprehensive residen- to KMC for approval, should be associated with
tial development land should be set aside for a report that provides:
landscaped open space and community services,
primarily benefiting the residents of such proj- a. relevant planning information and develop-
ect area, at the following rates: ment standards (i.e. density, min. plot size,
plot coverage and floor area ratios, building
Open space: Community uses: heights, parking standards, etc.) and design
Up to 5 ha 5.0% principles for buildings and open spaces,
more than 5 ha 1.5% b. information on the cost, financing, manage-
More than 5 ha 3.5% ment and staging of implementation of the
These community services and open space, for c. a programme and time schedule of works to
which land will be provided at no cost, shall be carried out by the project and those to
be selected and approved by the beneficiaries be carried out by public agencies, i.e. KMC,
of the project area in consultation with KMC. line agencies, utility boards, etc.
These shall comprise facilities and services such d. justification of any proposed deviation in
as kindergarten, primary school, temple, pati, the project from prevailing development
children playground or community centre. conditions and standards applicable for the
4.5.4 For each comprehensive development project area.
project a planning study will be carried out
that will result in a development plan (on one 4.5.4 No legal land transaction shall take place
or more maps) at a scale of not less than 1:500 for the purpose of subdivision or assembly of

land and with the aim of undertaking a compre- 5.2 National Building Code
hensive development project before KMC has
issued a Planning Permit for such a project. 5.2.1 Every building to be constructed by an
individual, body or governmental agency shall
PART 5(5): BUILDING REGULATIONS be designed and executed in accordance with
the regulations and standards prescribed in the
Introduction Building Code with particular regard to struc-
tural stability, earthquake resistance and fire
Each type of construction should be in com- safety
pliance with the Building Regulations and, in
principle, requires a Building Permit before any 5.2.2 Pursuant to Section 5.2.1 above, for
construction can be undertaken. A number of Group A and Group B buildings as defined in
standards in the existing Building Bylaws have Article 8 of the Buildings Act, no Building Per-
been maintained while others have been altered mit will be issued before the structural design
and new ones added. The Building Regulations calculations and drawings have been approved
do not substitute but complement the Building by the Building Construction Arrangements
Code. Consolidation Committee, or by the authority
to which the power to grant such approval has
5.1 General been delegated.

5.1.1 In these Building Regulations the word 5.2.3 Pursuant to Section 5.2.1 above, for
building shall also mean to include any structure, Group C and Group D buildings as defined
unless otherwise stated. in Article 8 of the Buildings Act, no Build-
ing Permit will be issued unless the applicant
5.1.2 Notwithstanding the provisions of Section has demonstrated to KMC that the structural
40, no building shall be constructed, expanded, design of the building(s) proposed to be con-
structurally altered or any changes made to its structed meets the standards and requirements
faade(s) and roof without a Building Permit or of the Building Code.
be constructed in defiance thereof.
5.2.4 Pursuant to Section 5.2.1 above, struc-
5.1.3 Buildings should be designed, constructed tures such temples, chimneys, water towers,
and used in conformity with the Land Use Regu- viewing and clock towers, bridges and pedes-
lations of this Ordinance. trian overpasses shall be designed in conformity
with the provisions of the Building Code, or, if
5.1.4 Buildings shall be located, designed and no adequate standards exist, in conformity with
constructed in conformity with the Develop- international standards regarding earthquake
ment Regulations of Part 3 and the Land Sub- resistance and fire safety.
division and Assembly Regulations of Part 4 of
this Ordinance. 5.3 Suitability and land for Construction

5.1.5 Notwithstanding the provisions of these 5.3.1 No development shall be undertaken

Building Regulation, for any Listed Building on land that has been filled with any material
or buildings located in a Protected Monument that contains organic (fecal matter, animal or
Zone or a Conservation Area as referred to in vegetable) matter unless such substance has
Section 68 to 70 additional development condi- been removed and the plot or site cleared com-
tions apply as contained in the KMC Develop- pletely, or the whole ground surface has been
ment Controls and Design Standards for Conser- rendered innocuous and covered with a layer of
vation Areas and Listed Buildings. earth or any other suitable material which is at
least thirty (30) centimeters thick.

5.4 Foundations 5.6 Drainage

5.4.1 Buildings to be constructed on land that 5.6.1 Paved areas of a plot or parcel and paved
has been filled in the past, with whatever mate- courtyards should be graded so as to drain
rial, shall have their foundations placed at or surface water towards the nearest ROW. To
below the level of the original, undisturbed soil. ensure natural drainage at all times, hard paving
of these areas should be constructed at a level of
5.4.2 The foundations of any building shall not minimum 15 cm above the level of the centre
extend beyond the boundary lines of the build- line of that ROW
ing site except in the case of the foundation of a
party wall which is being built with the mutual 5.6.2 Every building shall be provided with
consent of the owners of the sites on which such adequate drainage facilities to drain off and
party wall stands. convey the rain water from the roof to a street
drain or other approved outlet without causing
5.4.3 Every building shall be supported by dampness or damage to the walls or foundation
foundations that safety sustain and transmit to of the building or those of adjacent buildings.
the ground to combined dead load and imposed In no case water shall be permitted to drop
load of the building in such a manner so as not directly from the roof, or from any other part of
to cause any settlement or other movement the building, on any area other than the plot on
which may impair the stability of, or cause dam- which this building stands.
age to the whole or any part of the building or
to any adjoining building or structure. 5.6.3 No rain water from any plot shall be dis-
charged into the public sewerage system without
5.4.4 If the ground adjacent to any proposed permission from the complete sewerage author-
building exerts pressure upon or causes the ity.
application of an undue load to any part of the
building, that building or part thereof shall be 5.6.4 The finished floor level of the ground floor
so constructed as to be capable of safety sus- of any main building should be elevated a mini-
taining and transmitting the pressure or load mum of 30 cm above the highest point of the
without exceeding the appropriate limitations of finished ground level along the outside perimeter
permissible stresses. wall of such building, or above the centerline of
ROW adjoining the plot at the point of access
5.4.5 Where appropriate and necessary, the ap- to the plot, whichever of the two measurements
plicant must provide a structural analysis of the requires the higher floor level.
building and the result of geotechnical studies
done or required to be done. 5.7 Water supply

5.5. Damp proong 5.7.1 Every building shall be provided with a

piped water distribution system based on public
5.5.1 To protect any building from absorbing supply of water. The connection of any building
moist from the soil, all walls rising from the to the public water supply system shall, upon
foundation shall be provided with a damp proof request and approval, be exclusively made by the
layer of polythene or tarfelt, bitumen panting competent water authority.
or any other protective treatment of approved
quality and application. This damp proof layer 5.7.2 In the event that a building cannot be
shall be placed at a height between the finished connected to the public water supply system or
ground level of the site and the lowest surface of its connection is delayed, the sustained supply
the ground level floor structure. of water may be secured from a private source
at standards to be approved by the competent

water authority as a condition of issue of a Build- tent sewerage authority.
ing Permit.
5.9 Waste Disposal
5.7.3 No any well for the collection of ground
water shall be dug or drilled without permission 5.9.1 Waste generated within any building or
from the competent water authority. No well on any plot or parcel shall be collected and dis-
used for the supply of drinking water shall be posed off in a manner as prescribed by KMCs
closer than fifteen (15) meter from a latrine, sep- Solid Waste Department.
tic tank, soak pit, refuse dump or from any other
place that may cause pollution of the drinking 5.10 Building Material
5.10.1 For the construction of buildings only
5.7.4 Wells used for the supply of drinking water those materials shall be used that meet the
should be constructed and maintained in such norms and standards as laid down by the Nepal
a manner that the well water is not polluted by Bureau of Standards and Metrology.
the inflow of surface water or any other potential
pollutant. 5.11 Size and Height of Rooms

5.7.5 Every building shall be provided with water 5.11.1 The minimum area and height of rooms
shortage tanks and pumps of such capacity as and other enclosed spaces for human occupa-
prescribed by the competent water authority. tion or use shall not be less than the dimension
shown in Table 5.1.
5.8 Sanitary Provisions
5.12 Light and Ventilation
5.8.1 Every dwelling shall have at least one water
closet. Buildings for public assembly shall be 5.12.1 No any basement shall be designed,
provided with toilets and wash basins at a ratio constructed and used as a dwelling.
of one each for men and women for every
5.12.2 Every room in a building, except sore
25 seats in cinemas, theatres and auditoriums, rooms, shall be provided with natural light and
50 seats in restaurants, cafes and clubs, ventilation by means of windows, doors or any
200 sq m or part thereof in offices. other approved openings that shall face and
open upon uninterrupted air space.
5.8.2 All waste water shall be discharged into the
existing public sewerage system. The connec- 5.12.3 To secure adequate access of day light,
tion of any waste water outlet to the public sewer the maximum distance of a window or glass
shall, upon request and approval, be undertaken paneled door to the opposite wall and to any
exclusively by the competent sewerage authority. side wall of a room should not be more than
7.5m and 3.0m respectively. The maximum
5.8.3 Where no public sewerage system exists, depth of a such room shall include the depth of
or in other cases where the competent author- a covered balcony, veranda or porch as shown
ity is of the opinion that the outlets cannot be in Fig. 5.1 below.
connected to the public sewerage system. Sewage
shall be disposed of through a septic tank and 5.12.4 The total area of glass or other trans-
household water through a soakpit. lucent material for the provision of day light
to any room, either in a dwelling, office, shop,
5.8.4 Septic tanks and other on-site waste water industrial building and any other room used
disposal structures shall be designed in accor- predominantly during day time, shall not be
dance with standards as laid down by the compe- less than 15 percent of the net floor area of



such room.
5.12.7 Toilets and bathrooms of which win-
5.12.5 For the purpose of ventilation, in any dows do not open out to external open space
room - except kitchens, toilets and bathrooms - may open out to a ventilation shaft of such in-
the total area of openings to external air provid- ternal dimensions as to permit adequate air flow.
ed by windows, doors and vents shall not be less The appropriate dimensions shall be calculated,
than 3 percent of the volume of such room ex- fully taking into account such factors as the
pressed in cubic meter and the resulting valued height of the building, the number of toilets and
expressed in square meter, with the exception bathrooms served by the shaft and the number
of industrial buildings of which this ventilation and capacity of exhaust fans to be installed, if
ratio should not be less than 5 percent. any.

5.12.6 The minimum natural ventilation area 5.13 Staircases and Balustrades
provided by openings to external air for a toilet
and/or bedroom shall not be less than 0.3 5.13.1 The minimum width of stairs and the
square meter and for kitchen 0.5 square meter. minimum dimensions of treads and risers of
stairs shall be as prescribed in Table 5.2. In case

of curved or circular stairs the width of the treads 5.15 Fire and Lighting Safety
measuring at the middle shall not less than the
widths specified in Table 5.2. Riser height and 5.15.1 Every building shall conform to the
tread width shall be constant in any flight of safety requirements applicable to the area or
stairs from story to storey. The minimum head- type of building as specified by KMC or the
room of any stair, measured from the front edge Chief Officer of the KMC Fire Brigade with a
of the risers, shall not be less than two meters view to providing a greater measure of safety
and ten centimeters (2.1m). to the inhabitants of such building and/or its
adjoining building(s)
5.13.2 Every staircase, staircase landing, balcony,
veranda and any other place overlooking an 5.15.2 All buildings of more than three storeys,
internal or external void below shall be protected public assembly buildings, factories, warehouses
by a handrail, balustrade or parapet with a height and workshops with more than 400 sq m of
of not less than 0.9 m and shall be suitable de- floor area conform to additional fire and light-
sign and safe construction. ing safety requirements, such
5.14 Electrical Installation and Plumbing
Work 5.15.3 With regard to earthquake safety, KMC
and other public agencies may impose spe-
5.14.1 All buildings shall be provide with elec- cific conditions and designs standards for the
tricity to be exclusively supplied by the compe- installation on buildings and structures of water
tanks, solar panels, antennas, billboards and
SJWXEMV 5.16 Public Safety and Limiting Nuisance
7XEMVWMRFYMPHMRKYWIHF]    5.16.1 The entire construction site, including
KIRIVEPTYFPMG foundation excavation and temporary retaining
%PPSXLIVWXEMVWMRXIVREP    works, shall be separated from any adjoining
ERHI\XIVREP road or property by a suitable fence or enclo-
sure as to be approved by KMC.
tent electricity authority. In particular circum-
stances this authority may grant approval, upon 5.16.2 The owner of the land on which a
certain conditions, the supply of electricity from building is being constructed or modified shall
other sources at all times, during and after construction, and
at his/her own expense, take all necessary mea-
5.14.2No building or premises shall be connect- sures to prevent any damage to any adjoining
ed to the public electricity network other than by building or property.
the competent electricity authority. Electricity
connection to any building shall only be made 5.17 Unsafe Buildings
and maintained by this authority when the
owner of such building is in possession of a valid 5.17.1 KMC may direct the owner of any
Completion Certificate for that building. building that may constitute a danger to its oc-
cupants or to public safety to repair, demolish
5.14.3 All electrical and plumbing work in or deal with the building otherwise to remove
any building or premises shall be carried out by such danger.
competent technicians and these works shall con-
form to such standards and specifications as the
competent authorities may require.

7.2 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL from the PWC. The Steering Committee can
ARRANGEMENTS also review and recommend on the proposed
future work and liaise with various development
For the Review, Approval and Implementation partners and other stakeholders, under the prem-
of a Kathmandu Risk-Sensitive Land Use Plan, ise of participation and collective contribution.
Zoning and Building Bylaws
A validation of the RSLUP with national agen-
Introduction cies should be made to ensure consistency with
This section discusses possible activities and re- national developmental and environmental
quired legal steps to lead KMC towards adopt- strategies and regulations. This shall include
ing a Comprehensive Risk-Sensitive Land Use consultations and workshops. The output of this
Plan, as well as the Zoning and Building Ordi- activity shall be the identification and develop-
nance that will implement it. Part of the activi- ment of integrated policies (existing and pro-
ties overlap with tasks and activities indicated in posed) that shall be consistent with national
Section 6 of the main report (Conclusions and and valley-wide development goals and with a
Future Work). physical framework supportive of the sustain-
able development in KMC and the Kathmandu
Adoption, Implementation, Enforcement Valley.
For the preliminary RSLUP to be useful at this
point, KMC needs to endorse it and take the Together with the development of comprehen-
appropriate steps for its adoption and imple- sive plans and supporting development policies
mentation. While refinements, updates and ad- and frameworks, related regulation, ordinances
ditional studies are warranted as mentioned in and by-laws in conformity with national laws,
the core of the report (refer to Section 6), KMC regulation and practices shall similarly be pre-
can initiate actions that will seek endorsement pared. This necessarily includes the development
from GoN through the various agencies (i.e. of inter-institutional coordination procedures
KVTDC, MOLD, MOHA and MoPPW) and and protocols. These procedures and protocols
continue with its advocacy (e.g. IEC) for accep- for example may include the following: data
tance, support and implementation with stake- management and information system, protocols
holders. While various programs, projects and for preparation of resource maps for hazard as-
activities are implemented by different agencies, sessment and risk assessment, monitoring and
the role of KMC, MOHA and MoPPW in evaluation among others.
the project development and implementation
should be explicitly clarified along with the role Once the plans, programs, policies and support-
of donors. The latter is necessary so that KMC ing implementation strategies are developed,
and the higher authorities/ministries within a legal adoption of the plan within KMC (or
the GoN establish a clearer role and function, possibly within the Valley) and by the relevant
thereby enhancing synergy and accountability in national agencies should be included. Op-
the succeeding planning and project implemen- erationalization of the plan within KMC shall
tation. include trainings and competency building.

The KMC, KVTDC and various Ministry agen- The results of these activities can serve as a basis
cies, and other relevant groups can review and for establishing a risk sensitive physical frame-
discuss internally the current provisions of the work planning or land use planning model
plan, future refinements, proposals and recom- for the country. This shall allow for a possible
mended strategies provided in this RSLUP. An replication in other cities, municipalities, wards
inter-institutional Steering Committee may be VDCs of Nepal
formed to structure such a review and evalua-
tion, with technical support and membership


The RSLUP represents a sensible and rational do not stop at the Kathmandu boundary, and
framework for KMCs sustainable and disaster- thus approaches for disaster risk reduction and
resilient development. It is based on solid plan- for effective emergency management must take
ning parameters which took a significant effort a Valley-wide perspective. Thus, the compre-
to collect, analyze and integrate. The Sectoral hensiveness and completeness of a risk-sensitive
Profile assembles the relevant planning data in land use plan is only possible in the context of
a structured document that can serve as a useful the entire Valley. Finally, this RSLUP has dealt
reference to planners and policy-makers. The only with earthquake hazards. Other hazards
hazard, vulnerability and risk information are including the long-term effects of climate change
fully integrated in the RSLUP, serving as driv- need to be incorporated. Emergency manage-
ing parameters in building the vision, strate- ment approaches must be framed in the con-
gies, programs, project and activities contained text of the Valley in order to organize essential
therein. Moving forward with the adoption, emergency management elements such as fire
implementation and enforcement of the RSLUP fighting, search and rescue, evacuation, shelter,
will undoubtedly curb the risk to Kathmandu water, health, sanitation, etc. At the same time,
and build the discipline in development deci- the efforts to extend the RSLUP to the Kath-
sions and approaches that has been lacking to mandu Valley will lend themselves to improving
date. It is a benchmark document that hopes to and completing the current Kathmandu City
fill an important gap in directing and control- RSLUP.
ling sensible development within Kathmandu.
In view of the above, an initial scope of future
It must be emphasized that this preliminary RS- work can be structured in the following tasks:
LUP should be treated as a working document.
Some underlying data needs to be qualified, Task 1: Adoption, Implementation and En-
completed and refined. Its biggest limitation is forcement of Kathmandu City RSLUP
that it is limited geographically to Kathmandu
City. Kathmandu City is physically, socially, (a) Legal and Institutional Framework - For
politically and economically fully enclosed this RSLUP to be useful at this point, KMC
within the Kathmandu Valley. The link between needs to endorse and formally introduce it to
Kathmandu City and Kathmandu Valley are the relevant agencies of the government for
vital in terms of its demographics, economy, adoption and implementation. This action does
living and livelihood conditions. The RSLUP not need to wait for the RSLUP to be fully
for Kathmandu City leads to the realization that refined. Engaging into the process of adoption,
proposed strategies and approaches for future implementation and enforcement is crucial as it
development are dependent on looking beyond would constitute the mechanism to strengthen
the boundaries of Kathmandu City proper. Key the legal and institutional frameworks, which
elements such as transport and housing require are currently weak in certain governance areas.
a Valley-wide analysis in order to be under- Much could be learned and significant progress
stood, assessed and incorporated adequately. can be made by looking at these critical com-
Further, the hazards and their consequences ponents in the immediate terms. KMC can

initiate actions that will seek endorsement from tools, urban housing development, heritage
GoN through the various agencies (i.e. KVTDC, conservation, heritage and cultural site, as well
MOLD, MOHA and MoPPW). This task can be as data on infrastructure, transport, traffic,
structured around a special inter-governmental utilities, water, drainage, and critical facilities.
committee that involved relevant agencies with Further, information on environmental param-
support from the PWC. While various pro- eters such as waste management and pollution,
grams, projects and activities are implemented by and administrative management of land and
different agencies, the role of KMC, KVTDC, governance structures, would be needed.
MOHA and MoPPW in the project develop- (b) Collection and Updating of Resource Maps.
ment, implementation and enforcement would These include maps representing geologic
be explicitly clarified along with the roles of hazards, climate and metrological hazards, soil
donors and development partners. and geotechnical, natural drainage, elevation,
(b) Advocacy Campaign - KMC, with the sup- and other. The collection and possible update
port of the national agencies and other relevant of these maps at the Valley level should provide
stakeholders, should continue its advocacy for a strong basis for the identification of protected
acceptance, support to and implementation areas, areas of high risk, areas suitable for post-
of the strategies and provisions of the RSLUP. event shelter, areas fit for building structures,
Unless the value of the RSLUP is collectively dis- and gross carrying capacity for development.
cussed, understood and accepted, its implemen- (c) Collection of On-Going and Planned De-
tation will be difficult. The advocacy campaign velopment Activities. This activity will collect
should be based on a participatory approach and analyze the implications of the current and
where the interests of the relevant stakeholders planned development projects on the RSLUP.
can be merged into a consensus and ownership is These can be undertaken by various national or
adequately shared. international agencies as well as the private sec-
(c) Capacity Building - Training of profession- tor. Such data will help complete the RSLUP.
als, including planners, engineers, architects, (d) Completion of Kathmandu City RSLUP.
developers and others should be carried out to The data collected in the three activities above
build the skilled resources for ownership and will be segregated into a subset that is relevant
competent implementation of the RSLUP, and to the RSLUP and will be analyzed to complete
for future refinements and updates. and refine the current RSLUP into a compre-
(d) Development of Performance Indicators - To hensive one. This plan can serve as a basis for
benchmark current status and measure perfor- other cities within the Valley to develop their
mance in implementation of the RSLUP, perfor- own RSLUP.
mance indicators should be developed and pilot
tested in KMC. Task 3: Valley-wide Multi-Hazard Analysis and
Emergency Management
Task 2: Valley-Wide Data Collection and
Completion of the Kathmandu City RSLUP (a) Multi-Hazards Extension: - The elements of
hazards, vulnerability and risks, as well as ele-
This task will involve four core activities: ments of emergency response and management,
should be reviewed in the context of the entire
(a) Extension and Synthesis of the Sectoral Valley. Further studies must be undertaken to
Profile to the entire Kathmandu Valley - Data improve resolution of the earthquake hazard
that need to be collected include geography, land (e.g., through microzonation), update building
area, topography, geology, climate, demography, inventories, and bring the risk assessment of the
distribution and density of population, house- Kathmandu Valley up to date. Other hazards
hold characteristics, migration, special needs, such as floods, landslides, and the effects of
education, health, nutrition, family planning, climate change should be evaluated and inte-
and others. It also includes land use characteris- grated.
tics (existing and trends), land use practices and

(b) Emergency Management Considerations ity models.
- As a support to emergency management, (d) Consultation Workshops and stakeholder
this RSLUP only indicates possible evacuation meetings shall be held to validate the informa-
routes and open areas. Their suitability and tion and traffic scenarios generated and identify,
availability must be ascertained by observa- understand the implications of the outputs
tions on the ground and further developed to generated.
cover the entire Valley. Other elements related (e) Development of Strategies for an integrated
to emergency management such as fire fight- transport and land use plan will ensure that
ing, shelter, critical facilities will also need to be transport systems are sustainable for the Valley
addressed. in the future.
(f ) The latter activities shall include the formula-
Task 4. Valley-Wide Risk Sensitive Transport tion and evaluation of the valley wide risk sensi-
Analysis tive transport master plan.
(g) Investment programming of road develop-
The future development of an RSLUP for KMC ment projects and the preparation of feasibility
and the Kathmandu Valley should be integrated studies shall complete the RSTMP. This activity
with the development of an efficient and simi- shall identify priority road projects for feasibility
larly risk-sensitive public transportation system. studies and determine their sources of funding.
Since the JICA study conducted in 1993, no
other systematic study on vehicular traffic in the Task 5. Special Studies
Valley has been carried out. However, ground
realities have changed significantly since 1991, Various special studies will need to be under-
as many dramatic changes in urban transporta- taken to confirm some key considerations of the
tion have taken place within the last decade. It RSLUP. These include, but are not limited to,
is therefore recommended that a strategic public the following:
transportation plan be developed for the Valley
that will provide a roadmap in the development (a) To address the housing shortage, especially
of an efficient public transportation system. for families with lower incomes, it is suggested
Such a study will constitute the backbone of a that the government pursue the recommenda-
Valley-wide RSLUP. Various studies and activi- tions for multi-storey housing for KMC. Given
ties will need to be undertaken to formulate a the limited amount of areas for residential
risk-sensitive transport master plan (RSTMP). development expansion in KMC, the RSLUP
suggests pursuing socialized housing. Possible
(a) The initial activities would include a review locations and arrangements for these housing
of existing studies, compiling data and prelimi- sites should be reflected in the RSLUP.
nary field investigations to assess gaps in infor- (b) On-going river development plans (e.g.
mation to provide a situational analysis. Dobikhola, Bishnumati, Bagmati) should be
(b) The conduct of land use and inventory reviewed and incorporated as they provide for
surveys shall complete the information on the visual corridors as well as vital links to the net-
character, condition, and capacity, importance work of parks and open spaces in KMC. These
of the elements of the road network and the river areas can serve as possible evacuation sites
needed information for understanding the inter- or routes during emergencies.
action between land use and transport system. (c) Historical and Cultural Heritage Preserva-
This shall include the inclusion of the hazard tion. Initially this study will focus on the core
and risk information into the traffic scenarios to area to determine the constraints and parameters
be developed later. of the historical and cultural heritage in order to
(c) Detailed Traffic Surveys (e.g. home interview refine the RSLUP.
surveys, roadside OD surveys, traffic counts, (d) There is a need to review and refine building
public transportation surveys) for calibrating codes and by-laws in order that urban forms and
existing or proposed traffic demand and capac- structures are fully supportive of increased safety.

Local area plans or master plans should follow ing priority, followed by the completion of the
zoning and land use policies, and future devel- Kathmandu-City RSLUP and its transforma-
opment should be guided by these plans and tion into a Comprehensive RSLUP.
ordinances. Implementation and enforcement
are weak governance functions in Nepal. A full It has to be emphasized that the mainstreaming
effort to develop the structures and capacity for process should continue towards further refin-
enforcement should be undertaken. Without en- ing and updating this land use plan up until the
forcement, the plan will just remain a document implementation stages. Hence, other stages of
that sits on the shelves and makes no impact. planning such as local financial planning, proj-
ect programming and budgeting, monitoring
Task 6. Development of the Kathmandu Val- and evaluation programs need to be included in
ley Risk-Sensitive Planning Framework Plan succeeding planning activities.
Concluding Statements
The development of the Kathmandu Valley-Risk
Sensitive Physical Framework Plan shall follow The decision to manage the city according to
a similar process as the risk-sensitive land use the mandates of the LSGA provides local gov-
planning conducted in Kathmandu City. How- ernments such as KMC the authority to take
ever, the difference is that the basic elements of public control over the direction and pattern of
planning analysis shall be the municipalities and development in their territories. Through a rig-
VDCs of the Valley. It shall provide for the syn- orous risk-sensitive planning process, the local
chronization and harmonization of development governments such as KMC can be proactive in
programs and projects proposed from within prescribing the use of land, with the guidance
municipalities up to the higher level agencies, and support of higher government offices to
and shall guide the overall physical development achieve the following results:
and land use planning of the municipalities and
VDCs in Kathmandu Valley. It shall reinforce Hazards such as earthquakes, floods and
the current KVTDC land use plan and zoning others are accounted for and their impacts
by making the land uses risk sensitive to inher- reduced with time;
ent hazards such as earthquakes, floods and
other emerging challenges like climate change. Settlement areas are made livable and safe;
The RSPFP shall integrate the outputs of the
proposed RSTMP, along with other spatial plans Communities and institutions are pre-
from various sectors such as production, infra- pared for disasters as they understand what
structure, and environment in a single physical they should do before, during and after a
framework. Towards the end of the planning disaster
process, the experiences learned, the framework
developed and methodologies used shall be Protected areas are respected and preserved
documented and guidelines shall be prepared for for the benefit of all;
planning the development and land use plans for
municipalities, as well as the development and Infrastructure support is adequately and
physical framework for the Valley. These guide- efficiently provided to help a modern city
lines shall supplement existing planning process become a model in the management of
in the Valley and may be used for the next cycle planned change; and
of planning.
Production areas are used sustainably so
The proposed sequencing for the six tasks above that the needs of the present and future
is presented in Table 8. A three-year project is generations will continue to be adequately
proposed. However, the proposed work can met.
also be undertaken in phases, with task 1 tak-

Performance indicators of accomplishments in similarly be used to guide development and al-
DRM by KMC and other national agencies re- location of land. The replication of the approach
sponsible for land use planning, urban develop- towards the Kathmandu Valley can provide
ment and DRM should be used to benchmark lessons in managing risks common to cities and
the current situation and measure future prog- municipalities arising from natural hazards and
ress. While being a first step, the framework for from climate change-related effects in Nepal and
mainstreaming introduced in this RSLUP could beyond.



City Diagnostic Report for City Development Strategy, A World Bank Report, KMC, Nepal, ,
Interviews conducted with the responsible officials and designated authorities by Dr. Marqueza
Reyes and Marino Deocariza)
1. Surendra Rajkarnikar ( Section Engineer of the Urban Development Department, KMC)
2. Indra Man Suwal (Insert Official Positions and Offices connected with
3. Bijaya Subedi ,Section Officer of the Ministry of Local Development (MOLD)
4. DEPARTMENT OF ROADS (MoPPW ) By Dr, Noriel TIglao

Director General Tulasi Sitaula, Senior Divisional Engineer Bal Ram Mishra, Roads and Traffic
Unit, Sunip Poudyal, Senior Div. Engineer, Saroj Kumari Pradhan, Unit Chief

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Kathmandu, capital of Nepal.

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Megacity Indicator System (Mega-Index), May 2006

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Megacities Disaster Risk Reduction. Quezon City, Philippines.

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19. Pradhan and Perera. 2005. Urban Growth and Its Impact on the Livelihoods of Kathmandu
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Development Department. 2005

27. Weimer, A.M and H.Hoyt.1966. Principles of Real Estate. 5th Edition.New York. Ronald Press

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tan City, Nepal.

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Annex A. Peer Review (i) Review the evaluation and selection process
in determining the preferred spatial strategy
Mainstreaming Disaster Risk Reduction in (j) Review KMC Risk Sensitive Land Use Plan
Megacities: A Pilot Application in Kathmandu, document and corresponding model zoning
Nepal, Phase 2 Report ordinance to:

Dec 2009 Draft i. Evaluate the overall relevancy of the data used,
methodology applied, and conceptual frame
Kenneth C. Topping, FAICP work implemented.
Topping Associates International ii. Review the applicability in term of the docu-
December 6, 2009 ments ease of use by KMC planners.
iii. Review the overall content to insure that
Introduction and Approach the content is in line [with] acceptable land use
planning practice.
This is one of several external review reports on
the second phase of the project titled Main- Overview
streaming Disaster Risk Reduction in Mega-
cities: A Pilot Application in Metro Manila, The Phase 2 Report generally continues the same
Philippines and Kathmandu, Nepal, to under- general level of excellence established in the
take specific disaster reduction endeavors and to Phase 1 report in 2008. It provides an insightful
strengthen their disaster management capabili- overview of governmental land use planning in
ties. Under a contract executed in July 2009, Kathmandu Municipal City (KMC) under the
Section 2.1-A2 of the contract scope of services Local Self Government Act (LSGA) of 1999,
calls for the following task requirements regard- By-Laws for Construction in Kathmandu Valley
ing external review of Kathmandu- Develop- of 2007, and Kathmandu Valley Town Develop-
ment of Risk-sensitive physical land-use plan: ment Act of 1976.

(f ) Review the conceptual frame on Risk sensi- General Comments

tive land use planning process and provide
comments to operationalize the framework in Overall, this is a very professional planning
context of KMC based on the situational analy- report with substantial depth of thought, given
sis done by the team. inherent limitations in the situation (see Phase
1 External Review, dated February 24, 2008). It
(g) Review the KMC updated profile in order lays a useful foundation for continued risk sensi-
to identify the gaps in the data that may have tive land use planning, regulation, and commu-
significant impact on the land use planning of nity improvement by KMC, and establishes a
the KMC. potential model for use by other jurisdictions in
the Kathmandu Valley, including KVTDC and
(h) Review the goals and objectives of the KMC the VDCs. The following general comments and
risk sensitive land use planning vis--vis alterna- recommendations are related to the preceding
tive spatial strategies to check if the strategies contract task requirements.
are align[ed] with goals and objectives of the

1. The conceptual framework on risk sensitive 4. The selection process in determining the
land use planning process is sound. However, preferred spatial strategy appears to be
the situational analysis raises questions about sound.
the adequacy of available data by which
to operationalize risk reduction strategies 5. A review of the KMC draft Risk Sensitive
within this framework because of the general Land Use Plan document generally reveals
absence of adequate mapping of seismic, that: the overall data used, methodology
flood, landslide, mudslide, and fire hazards applied, and conceptual frame work imple-
mapping, (a.k.a. microzonation). The report mented are relevant and sound; the docu-
mentions but does not include a Resource ment appears to be generally applicable and
Map showing natural hazards information. useful for KMC planner; and the content
is in line with acceptable land use plan-
Recommendation: The Phase 2 RSLUP Re- ning practice. However, its utility could
port should make clear the need for various be enhanced by inclusion of the following
levels of government, including KMC, to changes: a) Maps and map legends should
undertake systematic natural hazards map- be made more legible within this report
ping in order to strengthen risk sensitive land through enlargement to full page size in
use planning over time. landscape mode. b) Layout of Tables 3.5 -
3.9 risk reduction strategies and Table 5.7,
2. The KMC updated profile helps to clarify Proposed Land Use Interventions, should
many elements of the Kathmandu social, be reformatted for greater utility. c) Also
economic, physical, environment, and gov- needed is a thorough edit to correct small
ernance treated more generally in the Phase grammatical and spelling errors.
1 Report. Data gaps impacting risk sensitive
land use planning include need for bet- Chapter 1 Comments
ter hazard mapping, mentioned previously.
Additionally, informal building and poor Chapter 1, Planning Mandates and Approach,
construction practices are mentioned, and provides an introduction to the RSLUP and
attention is given to the risk reduction strate- other related plans. It contains a helpful sum-
gies and land use interventions dealing with mary of overlapping national, regional and
proper enforcement of building by-laws. municipal planning authorities, and emphasizes
the KMC responsibility to include top-down
Recommendation: Although reference is directives from various ministries and indepen-
made in Chapter 5 to the need for adoption dent development authorities and bottom-up
of a KMC land use and building by-law suggestions from the wards. Chapter 1 notes
system, particularly in relation to seismic that risk sensitive land use planning can be ef-
risk, consideration should be given to also fective when local authorities mainstream disas-
placing greater emphasis on this need in ter risk reduction into ongoing activity, noting
other chapters of the report. The report also, however, that this is a working document
should generally emphasize the importance and not a detailed and comprehensive plan.
of modernization of land use, building, and
construction regulations and administration Chapter 1 includes a description of the overall
as an essential element supporting risk process for mainstreaming disaster risk reduc-
sensitive land use planning. tion concepts into the land use planning (espe-
cially Figures 1.4 and 1.5) through integration
3. Alternative spatial strategies of the KMC risk of available risk information with formulation
sensitive land use planning appear to be well of a vision, goals, objectives, targets, and strate-
aligned with the goals and objectives of the gies, including alternate spatial strategies and
plan. approaches to selection of a preferred strategy.

These products are subject to public consulta- ably taking decades to attain.
tion to gain consensus for the final RSLUP

A major difficulty is the need to rely largely on Chapter 3 Comments

the JICA seismic risk assessment of 2001 which
focused on earthquakes. Data on flood and fire Chapter 3, Development Issues and Problems,
hazards appears to be minimal. Another difficul- summarizes the constraints which must be
ty is absence of information regarding potential overcome and opportunities for bringing KMC
sources of funding for various projects. How- closer to realization of its vision. Constraints
ever, this is less of an impediment in a docu- include unplanned land use, inadequate hous-
ment of such broad scope and long duration (10 ing and urban facilities, industrial and residen-
years), because cost estimates can be added over tial expansion, sprawling development due to
time. the influx of population, increased incomes,
and ethnic concentrations in the core area and
Recommendation 1.1: Boundaries of KMC and its surroundings (Figure 3.6. Social Issues and
other subunits of government in the Kathman- Concerns).
du Valley should be made clear in Chapter 1.
A major hazard emphasized in Chapter 3 is seis-
Chapter 2 Comments micity, represented by a potential M8.0 Mid-Ne-
pal Earthquake which would produce MMI VII
Chapter 2, Vision, contains a brief vision state- damages in Kathmandu Valley. Such an event is
ment prepared by various groups during the expected to heavily damage 53,000 buildings,
visioning exercise held in July 2009, together and result in 18,000 deaths and 53,000 injured
with descriptions of ideal measures of success persons. More common and frequent hazards are
for various vision elements. The vision state- flooding, landslides and debris flows associated
ment emphasizes beauty, safety, tourism, health, with the many rivers and streams in the KMC
green living, robust economy, and resilient local area, along with fires occurring largely in hilly
governance. Elaborating the vision statement regions where poor people tend to live. Also of
are a series of vision elements and indicators concern is insufficient water supply and quality.
of success for evaluating progress, consisting
of a series of ideal social, economic, and physi- Figure 3.7 Environmental Issues and Concerns
cal development and environmental protec- and the accompanying text succinctly summa-
tion conditions against which progress can be rizes factors including shortage of habitable land,
measured. Notable among these are conditions continuing loss of public open space, increasing
of a self-sustaining KMC empowered to become demand for urban land, conversion of agricul-
a self-reliant, effective partner in attainment tural lands, fragmentation of land parcel arising
of national goals, using effective management, from inheritance, backlogs in infrastructure
citizen involvement, and land use planning and development, water supply and distribution
other modern tools of local governance to build problems, poor wastewater collection and treat-
and sustain disaster resilience. ment, tourism and environmental deterioration,
air pollution, electrical power shortages, and
Recommendation 2.1: Vision statements are duping of solid wastes, perennial traffic conges-
useful in identifying ideal values by which tion, risks to building and infrastructure from
progress can be assessed over the long term in natural hazards.
relation to pursuit of intermediate activities. Al-
though it is implied, it might be helpful to state Figure 3.1.1, Critical Facilities Map, identifies
more clearly that conditions envisioned are well the overall configuration of structures, natural
beyond the plans 10-year time horizon, prob- features, and infrastructure for KMC. Other

concerns include loss of cultural heritage, inef- of a preferred spatial strategy. Although the
fective education policy, decreasing performance procedure involved consideration of alternative
of industries, and weak institutional capacities. urban forms, basic land use planning references
Approaches considered include urban rehabilita- were the current KMC land us map (2008) and
tion, conservation, redevelopment, preservation, KVTDC (2007) land use plan.
re-blocking, and land readjustment, in combi- The difference of the preferred urban form with
nation with several broad urban form strategies the other plans stems primarily from incorpora-
dealing with land supply, demand management, tion of results of the 2002 Kathmandu Valley
and control of sprawl. Earthquake Study results into the land use
planning process. Immediate concerns include
This chapter concludes with a series of mutu- reducing risk of building damage and reduc-
ally reinforcing risk reduction and development ing loss of life in the core and dense residential
strategies such as restricting or discouraging new areas of KMC. The strategy focuses on protect-
structures in high risk areas, economic incentives ing assets, limiting further densification of the
to discourage development in high risk areas, core areas, locating future structures in safe
relocation of occupants in high risk buildings, and planned areas in a multi-centered series
protection of critical facilities, and encourage- of growth satellites supported by a properly
ment of acquisition and buying out of properties. planned transport system.
These strategies are further linked to particular
issues/problems, goals, objectives, and strategies Chapter 4 also notes that similar issues may
in Tables 3.6 - 3.10. be faced by other urbanizing municipalities
and VDCs. Common seismic vulnerability
Recommendation 3.1: Although seismicity is assessments and transportation studies may
properly emphasized, threats arising from climate be required to integrate these concerns across
change deserve additional attention. Primary jurisdictional boundaries. Proposed strategies
among these is flooding. The International Panel suggest the possibility of a phased approach
on Climate Change has identified a variety of emphasizing development in KMC in the next
effects of climate change, including earlier snow 5-7 years and location of future large-scale
melt, heavy spring flooding, increased heat, and developments outside the city toward the end
decreased water supply, leading to hazards such of the planning period. Given the vulnerabil-
as such as flooding, landslides, debris flows, and ity of existing building stock within the core
fires. and opportunities for meeting higher building
standards in new centers, limitation of further
Recommendation 3.2: Chapter 3 should directly densification within the KMC core and estab-
address the need for various levels of govern- lishment of a multi-core satellite pattern within
ment, including KMC, to undertake systematic and outside city boundaries is logical from a
natural hazards mapping to strengthen risk sensi- risk reduction perspective.
tive land use planning over time, as suggested in
the Phase 1 External Review. However, the preferred urban form intensifies
challenges of providing substantive policy and
Chapter 4 Comments best practices guidance to staffs of KMC, KVT-
DC, and the VDCs for integrating disaster risk
Chapter 4, Towards a Preferred Urban Form, dis- reduction with land use planning and coordi-
cusses the preferred urban form as the organizing nation across jurisdictional boundaries. It also
concept for guiding the physical growth of the requires a transport system extending beyond
city. The process of generating alternative spatial current limitations. Although bus systems are
strategies for KMC involved balancing urban mentioned, no suggestion is made of the long-
land demand and supply, overlay analysis taking term potential of developing a mass rail transit
into account seismic risk analysis, and selection system for the Kathmandu Valley.

Recommendation 4.1: To improve the chances scribing each policy area down to the ward level.
of success for this strategy, consideration should Time and other resource constraints for Phase
be given to KMC adoption of new regula- 2 have precluded the detailed surveys needed to
tions, protocols and practices needed to assure prepare detailed zoning prescriptions. Therefore
adequate levels of land use and building regula- only tentative and generally indicative zoning
tion as well as coordination across jurisdictional recommendations are made in this chapter until
boundaries. a more detailed delineation of each policy area
can be made in the future.
Recommendation 4.2: Consideration should
also be given to the long-term possibility of de- Desired interventions for each policy area are
velopment of a rail mass transit system to sup- classified into two categories: programs/projects/
port this multi-nodal growth pattern connecting activities and policy/legislation in Table 5.2, Pro-
the core, the airport, satellite centers and other posed Land Use Interventions. The recommen-
parts of the Valley. dations for intervention indicate policy/legisla-
tive measures needed to support implementation
Chapter 5 Comments of the RSLUP without spelling out all the details
of such actions.
Chapter 5, KMC Risk Sensitive Land Use Plan,
presents the land use plan and the policy frame- In this sense the draft RSLUP actually represents
work for regulation of future land-using activi- what would be known in some jurisdictions as
ties consistent with the chosen spatial strategy, a Specific Plan which can serve as legislative
with national and other higher level policies, guide to further detailed action by providing
and with the vision for their city. specific direction subject to further detailed
Chapter 5 integrates outputs of the planning articulation. Table 5.2, Proposed Land Use In-
process, data gathered and analyzed, issues terventions, provides a broader planning frame-
addressed in workshops, expressions of par- work than represented by an ordinary zoning
ticipants, conditions of the city, and, using the ordinance, constituting a specific policy frame-
preferred spatial strategy coordinates these into work leading to future action on more detailed
the draft RSLUP. instruments, such as a zoning ordinance. Specific
Plans carry a stronger legislative commitment
The draft RSLUP is to serve as the long-term than an ordinary land use plan and are adopted
guide for shaping the future physical growth by ordinance, thus having the force of law.
of the city, and a policy framework for use by Recommendation 5.1: Following relatively mi-
KMC in exercising authority in prescribing nor adjustments to its format to make it easier to
reasonable restraints on use of property within use (e.g., inclusion of headings at the top of each
its boundaries. The RSLUP is to be the basis column on each page), the RSLUP should be
for the enactment of a revised zoning ordinance, reviewed for detailed content by the public and
for the regulation of subdivision developments, the KMC legislative body, after which it should
among its major applications. The RSLUP is be put considered for adoption by the legislative
comprised of four component parts correspond- body as a Risk Sensitive Land Use Specific Plan
ing to the major land use policy areas of settle- (RSLUSP) for KMC.
ments, production, protection, and infrastruc-
ture areas. These four policy areas cover all areas
of KMC territory, and align the RSLUP with
physical framework plans of higher governmen-
tal authorities.

Chapter 5 presents detailed discussion of policy

areas in terms of needed policy/legislation, de-

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Annex B. Data Collected for the Sectoral Profile /EXLQERHY:EPPI]1ET
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