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CCLD 303

Outcome: 303.3
Factsheet – Theories of development

Theorist Examples of theories Theories in practice


Jason is learning to do up his zip. His mother
joins it at the bottom and helps him to pull it up.
Children are active in their own learning.
Later he manages to pull it up himself. After
Children develop different ways of
lots of practice and help he manages to do the
thinking at different times in their lives.
Jerome whole thing himself.
The relationship between language and
Bruner You are learning about development so that
thought enables children to think
you have a very good understanding of the
symbolically.
different stages. Once you have observed what
The adult can provide scaffolding for a
a child can do, you can introduce the next step
child’s learning.
and support the child as he or she learns the
new skill.
When Kevin spilt some sand on the floor, 4-
Learning can be affected by rewards
year-old Frances swept it up without being
and punishments. Behaviour can be
asked. A member of staff noticed, praised her
Burrhus changed or shaped by providing
and told everyone else in the room.
Skinner positive reinforcements.
Ruth is 6 years old and steals sweets from the
While punishments may reduce
drawer. Her mother stops her having sweets,
undesirable behaviours, they do not
but Ruth continues to steal and blame her little
replace these with desirable behaviours.
sister.
There are only 28 children at Knowsley Bank
Village School so the children are all in mixed
aged groups. The older children regularly help
Children are active in their learning and the younger.
learn through social interaction. During a weighing activity, the adults in the pre-
Children use language to develop school are actively questioning the children,
Lev
thought process. encouraging them to predict and reason, and
Vygotsky
The Zone of Proximal Development reinforcing the language of weight, mass and
describes what a child can achieve with volume.
help. Sophie has been observing Emma’s social
skills to identify why she appears reluctant to
communicate with other children. She will then
identify ways of supporting her.
Children observe and copy the actions
The childminder is dusting the living room. The
of others.
toddler has a duster and is also wiping the
A child is more likely to copy the actions
Albert furniture.
of someone they respect.
Bandura Jude is 11. He regularly goes out with a group
A child’s response will be affected by
of ‘hard’ boys. They have been sniffing lighter
whether the behaviour is rewarded or
fuel behind the garages.
punished.
In Hollow Bank Nursery, the children complete
Children are actively involved in their maths worksheets, while at Hillside Nursery,
own learning. the children manipulate objects and undertake
Children learn by assimilation and practical activities to develop maths skills. The
accommodation and need the same skill children at Hollow Bank progress more quickly
Jean presented in different ways to support than the children at Hillside. This week, Hollow
Piaget this. Bank has provided the following activities to
Children pass through 4 distinct stages: support children learning primary colours: a
sensory motor; pre-operational; sorting and matching colour activity; painting
concrete operational; formal with red, blue and yellow; a colour collage
operational. activity; a music and dance activity, running to
coloured circles when the music stops.

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