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British Journal of Education, Society &

Behavioural Science
18(2): 1-18, 2016, Article no.BJESBS.29057
ISSN: 2278-0998

SCIENCEDOMAIN international
www.sciencedomain.org

Effects of Concept Mapping and Brainstorming


Instructional Strategies on Junior Secondary School
Students Achievement in Social Studies in Mubi
Educational Zone, Nigeria
Jacob Filgona1,2*, Joel Filgona3, Linus K. Sababa2
and Lazarus G. Ndatuwong4
1
Government Day Secondary School Monduva, Mubi South LGA, Nigeria.
2
Department of Science Education, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria.
3
Department of Biological Science, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria.
4
Department of Physics, Adamawa State University, Mubi, Nigeria.

Authors contributions

This work was carried out in collaboration between all authors. Authors LKS and Jacob Filgona
contributed to conception and designing of study. Author Jacob Filgona managed the literature
searches and data collection. Authors Jacob Filgona, Joel Filgona and LGN contributed in developing
statistics, analyses of data and drafting of manuscript. All authors reviewed and approved the final
manuscript.

Article Information

DOI: 10.9734/BJESBS/2016/29057
Editor(s):
(1) Tsung Hung Lee, Graduate School of Leisure and Exercise Studies, National Yunlin University of
Science & Technology, Taiwan.
Reviewers:
(1) A. F. Ayo-Vaughan, Federal College of Education (Technical) Asaba, Nigeria.
(2) B. A. Adeyemi, Institute of Education, Obafemi Awolowo University, Ile-Ife, Osun State, Nigeria.
Complete Peer review History: http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/16394

th
Received 20 August 2016
th
Accepted 24 September 2016
Original Research Article th
Published 30 September 2016

ABSTRACT

Background: The thrust behind this study was the poor academic achievement of students
recorded in Basic Education Certificate Examination (BECE) in social studies.
Aim: This study examined the Effects of Concept Mapping and Brainstorming Instructional
Strategies on Junior Secondary School Students Achievement in Social Studies in Mubi
Educational Zone, Nigeria. Six null hypotheses were formulated and tested in the study.
_____________________________________________________________________________________________________

*Corresponding author: E-mail: filgonajeff@gmail.com;


Filgona et al.; BJESBS, 18(2): 1-18, 2016; Article no.BJESBS.29057

Study Design: The quasi-experimental non-randomized pre-test, post test control group design was
used. The study also employed the multi-stage sampling technique at four levels.
Methods: The study comprised 397 junior secondary (JS II) students offering Social Studies from
six intact classes in public junior secondary schools in three Local Government Areas of Mubi
Educational Zone. A 45-item Social Studies Achievement Test (SSAT) constructed by the
researcher and structured in line with BECE standardized test items in Social Studies was used to
obtain data. The instrument was validated by three experts in Social Studies and Test and
Measurement in the Department of Science Education, Adamawa State University, Mubi. After pilot
testing the instrument using 80 students from two intact classes, the data obtained was analyzed
using Kendall tau b statistic. A reliability index of 0.81 was obtained. Hypotheses one and six were
tested using Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used
to test hypotheses two and three; and the Hochbergs GT2 Post Hoc Mean Comparisons Test was
used to establish the effect sizes. The independent samples t-Test statistic was used to test
hypotheses four and five.
Results: The findings from this study revealed that there was a statistically significant difference in
the mean scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping strategy, brainstorming
strategy and conventional teaching method. There was a significant difference in the retention
scores of students taught social studies using concept mapping strategy, brainstorming strategy and
conventional teaching method. The study also revealed no significant effect of gender on students
achievement in social studies.
Conclusion: Based on the findings of this study, it was recommended that social studies teachers
teaching in schools should be encouraged to incorporate these instructional techniques with other
teaching methods in their daily instructions in order to improve the learning outcomes of students in
social studies.

Keywords: Achievement in social studies; brainstorming; concept mapping; concept mapping and
brainstorming instructional strategies; gender; social studies achievement test.

1. INTRODUCTION chances that students will adhere to ethical and


moral values in life. The study of social sciences
Social Studies can simply be defined as the is necessary, if we want a brighter future for our
study of man and his physical and social society. The vital task of preparing students to
environment. Social Studies is one of the become citizens in a democratic society is
compulsory subjects studied in junior secondary complex. The social studies disciplines are
schools in Nigeria and in Mubi Educational Zone diverse, encompassing an expansive range of
in particular. It makes the best attempt at potential content. This content engages students
answering what makes us humans, and this in a comprehensive process of confronting
subject includes a breadth of disciplines covering multiple dilemmas, and encourages students to
various aspects of living. The inclusion of social speculate, think critically, and make personal and
studies in education helps students grow up into civic decisions based on information from
informed citizens. Knowledge of the socio- multiple perspectives.
political and economic conditions of their country
and the world, and the knowledge of one's rights The importance of social studies as a subject in
and duties as an individual in society helps the Nigerian curriculum cannot be
students become responsible citizens. Through overemphasized. Dania stated that the focus of
social studies, learners gain knowledge of human social studies is to extricate the Nigerian child
behaviour and cultural differences that separate from the apron strings of colonial education
individuals from one another. Learners develop which merely propagated foreign values and
increased levels of acceptance for differences therefore acquaint him with his own cultural
between people, be they social, economic or life values and traditions [1]. The teaching of Social
style-related. Social studies aim at creating Studies is directed towards building a virile
educated individuals who can be responsible Nigerian Nation, irrespective of ethnic diversity. It
citizens of their nation. Teaching children social is also directed towards promoting citizenship
studies increases the possibility of their and values education in addition to skills
becoming more aware, more responsible as development [2]. Several efforts have been put in
human beings. Teaching social studies increases place by all stakeholders in the educational

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sector to promote the effective teaching of social secondary school students academic
studies in secondary schools of Mubi Educational achievement in Yola Educational Zone,
Zone. However, it was observed that students Adamawa State, Nigeria and found out that the
continue to record poor performance in both methods used by teachers in teaching social
internal and external examinations. The results studies was not capable of arousing and
collated from ten junior secondary schools sustaining students interest in the subject. This
randomly sampled from the five Local finding is also in the line with that of Dania [1]
Government Areas in Mubi Educational Zone which showed that most Social Studies teachers
from 2013 to 2016 academic years, showed that still rely mostly on the lecture method of
students still performed below average in Basic imparting knowledge. The author further stated
Education Certificate Examinations in social that while the manner of presentation is
studies. The data obtained from the exams and supposed to be activity-based, most Nigerian
records departments of the various sampled secondary school teachers still rely on the lecture
schools indicated that the percentages of method. This teaching method is theoretical and
students with credit passes (A1-C6) in social teacher-directed, instead of being constructive or
studies were 50.94%, 36.25%, 27.08% and student-centred. This study focuses on one of
24.26% for the year 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2016 the teacher-related factors, which is the
respectively. Corroborating this view, a study instructional strategy adopted by social studies
observes that in spite of the immense benefits to teachers in teaching social studies. This is so
be derived from the introduction of Social Studies because, in spite of the myriads of problems
in the school curriculum, there seems to be a bedeviling the educational system in Nigeria, the
poor handling of the subject in the junior teacher is found at the pinnacle of any curriculum
secondary schools which may lead to low implementation process, therefore, the
achievement of students [3,4]. Considering the instructional strategy he adopts can promote or
importance of social studies education to distort effective teaching learning outcomes of
secondary school students and in nation building students [5]. The choice of instructional strategy
at large; this on-going trend if left unchecked may by social studies teachers in Mubi Educational
spell doom for the future of social studies in this Zone may or may not be a striking reason
region and the survival of the Nigerian nation at attributed to the poor performance of students in
large. social studies examinations. But empirical
evidence are lacking in the study area.
The teaching of social studies in Nigerian Therefore, there is the need to adopt newer and
schools and in Mubi Educational Zone is not effective instructional strategies that could help
without its problem. These problems are hydra- remediate the difficulties of abstraction
headed. The reasons for poor performance in experience by secondary school students in
social studies as identified in the study area social studies. Concept mapping and
could be as a result of poor choice of brainstorming instructional strategies are some of
instructional strategies, abstract nature of the student-centred strategies that have been
teaching social studies concepts, lack of qualified shown to improve students achievement in
teachers, poor infrastructure facilities, previous studies. But, what is concept mapping
overcrowded classroom and non-availability and and brainstorming instructional strategies?
utilization of instructional materials. On the other
hand, students have often complained Concept maps are forms of graphical organizers
particularly about the way in which the subject is which allow students to perceive the
been taught by social studies teachers. From the relationships between concepts through
little interaction that the researcher had with diagrammatic representation of concepts using
students in the study area, also heard students keywords. It helps students to organize concepts
complained of the methods used in teaching into hierarchies. It is a pedagogical and meta-
them. The methods used by teachers according cognitive tool designed to help students learn
to these students were not capable of arousing how to learn. Concept maps are means of
and sustaining their interest in the subject which developing logical thinking and study skills by
often reflect in their external examinations revealing connections and helping learners see
(BECE). However, these are complains that the how individual ideas or concepts form a larger
students cannot substantiate. It may or may not whole. According to Singh and Moono [6], there
be true. Nevertheless, Filgona, Sababa, and are two features of concept maps that are
Iyasco [4] conducted a study on the effect of important in the facilitation of creative thinking:
brainstorming learning strategy on junior the hierarchical structure that is represented in a

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good map and the ability to search for and powerful and rigorous social studies curriculum
characterize new cross-links. Concepts are provides strategies and activities that engage
usually enclosed in circles or boxes and the students with significant ideas, and encourages
relationship between and among concepts are them to connect what they are learning to their
indicated using cross links or connecting lines prior knowledge and to current issues, to think
that link them. When relationships between the critically and creatively about what they are
concepts in social studies are articulated in learning, and to apply that learning to authentic
linking phrases or words on the connecting situations. Brainstorming strategy if used in
lines, for instance, Marriage---Man---Woman teaching could provide social studies students
Husband-----Wife-----Father----Mother---- with ample opportunity to be creative, to
Children----Grand Children etc., there is the generate a large number of ideas by explanation,
possibility that learners may understand it better clarification and persuasion, and could allow the
and their learning could improve. Ausubel [7] students to participate in discussions to develop
asserted that students learn meaningfully by their ability to think critically through training and
building knowledge on the basis of what they encouragement. Questions are posed that make
already know. In other words, new knowledge (or students test hypotheses to reach to inferences
new concepts) acquires their meanings through and conclusion to develop students ability to
relationships with existing concepts and induction and conclusion. When students
meaningful learning occurs when new knowledge brainstorm on a given topic in social studies, a
is consciously related to relevant concepts which wider spectrum of ideas could be attained and
the student already have. Most researchers on the best among these ideas would be used which
concept mapping ascribe it to having the would give the students a broader sense of
potential of making learners to remember reasoning and the ability to generate a variety of
information longer and to be able to use it more such ideas when confronted with similar or
effectively because the information was moved different real life problems. This is what
into the long-term memory. Studies have shown brainstorming instructional technique could do to
that students taught by concept mapping improve students learning outcomes in social
strategies performed significant than their studies. On the basis of the tenets of Osborns
counterpart taught by lecture approach [8-10]. brainstorming theory; one may likely infer that
Will the use of concept mapping instructional when social studies students in Mubi Educational
strategy in teaching improve students academic Zone are taught by lecture method, the expected
achievement in social studies? In an attempt to learning outcomes may not be achieved. This is
answer this question, it becomes imperative to so because studies have shown that students
find out the effect of concept mapping on exposed to treatment using brainstorming
students achievement in social studies in Mubi strategy achieved remarkable results than those
Educational Zone. taught by the lecture approach [4,13,14].
Therefore the study determines the effect of
Brainstorming instructional strategy has been brainstorming instructional strategy on students
shown to improve students achievement in achievement in Social Studies.
diverse fields of human endeavour [11].
Brainstorming is an activity that stimulates the The use of concept mapping and brainstorming
mind and produces multiple ideas around the instructional strategies has also been shown to
topic. It is a strategy used to generate a number promote greater material retention of students
of ideas to help solve a particular problem. The [4,8]. This is so because learning that is activity
technique has been around for long and still in based could develop in students a good
use to engage students in solving a wide range understanding of the material to be learnt.
of problems. It is a technique, generally used in Consequently, the use of concept mapping and
an individual or group setting, to quickly generate brainstorming instructional strategies in teaching
a large number of ideas about a specific problem social studies is expected to enhance greater
or topic [12]. It can help to encourage creative material retention of students. This study
thinking and generate enthusiasm in learners, therefore examines the retention rate of students
encourage participation and building on the ideas taught social studies using concept mapping and
of others. Avoid the "paralysis of analysis" by not brainstorming instructional strategies.
evaluating ideas. Students interaction is an
important part of developing the cognitive skills Furtherance to these instructional strategies
involved in generating ideas. Brainstorming was discussed, a recent study found out that gender
found to be an effective way of achieving this. A could be another factor that could be implicated

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in students achievement [5]. The studies on the Mapping Strategy, Brainstorming Strategy
effect of gender on students academic and Conventional Teaching Method;
achievement are numerous. A study reported (iii) Examine the retention rate of students
that gender composition has a significant taught social studies using Concept
relationship with students academic Mapping Strategy, Brainstorming Strategy
performance and that gender composition has a and Conventional Teaching Method; and
significant influence on secondary school (iv) Determine the influence of gender on the
students academic performance [15]. Findings achievement of students taught social
on gender and students achievement are studies using Concept Mapping Strategy,
inconclusive. It is worthy to note that while some Brainstorming Strategy and Conventional
researchers argued that gender cannot be Teaching Method.
factored in students achievement [1,5] others
are of the view that gender could play a 1.2 Research Hypotheses
significant role in students achievement [2,16].
On the basis of these inconsistencies in previous The following research hypotheses were
studies, it becomes necessary to find out how formulated and tested at 0.05 alpha level of
male and female students would perform when significance:
exposed to treatment in social studies using
concept mapping and brainstorming instructional
HO1: There is no significant main effect of
strategies.
treatment on mean achievement scores
of students in social studies.
From the foregoing, attempt has been made to
explain the meaning of social studies, concept HO2: There is no significant difference in the
mapping and brainstorming instructional mean achievement scores of students
strategies, trace their origin, discussed the areas taught social studies using Concept
where it is used and gave a highlight of research Mapping Strategy, Brainstorming
findings on its use under different situations and Strategy and Conventional Teaching
conditions. Questions were posed but they still Method.
remain unanswered. This is so because HO3: There is no significant difference in the
empirical evidence on the use of concept retention scores of students taught social
mapping and brainstorming instructional studies using Concept Mapping
strategies in teaching social studies in Mubi Strategy, Brainstorming Strategy and
Educational Zone has been very scanty. This has Conventional Teaching Method.
therefore created an imbalance in research HO4: There is no significant difference in the
efforts on the extent it can go in influencing mean achievement scores of male and
learning of social studies as a school subject. female students taught social studies
Therefore, it becomes imperative to provide using Concept Mapping Strategy.
cogent answers backed by empirical evidence HO5: There is no significant difference in the
confirming or disproving the efficacy of concept mean achievement scores of male and
mapping and brainstorming instructional female students taught social studies
strategies in promoting effective teaching using Brainstorming Strategy.
learning outcomes of students in social studies in HO6: There is no significant interaction effect
Mubi Educational Zone. of treatment and gender on academic
achievement of students in social
1.1 Purpose of the Study studies.

The purpose of this study was to find out the 2. MATERIALS AND METHODS
Effects of Concept Mapping and Brainstorming
Instructional Strategies on Junior Secondary The study employed the quasi-experimental
School Students Achievement in Social Studies design of the non-equivalent pre-test, post test
in Mubi Educational Zone, Nigeria. Specifically, control group. The reason for the adoption of this
the objectives of this study were to: design was hinged on the fact that intact classes
were randomly assigned to experimental and
(i) Examine the main effect of treatment on control groups respectively. The students used
students achievement in social studies; for the study were in these intact classes. The
(ii) Determine the achievement of students present study compared the effects of the
taught social studies using Concept independent variables of the study (Concept

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Mapping and Brainstorming Instructional study. In each Local Government Area, there
Strategies used in the experimental groups and were two intact classes used. The students in
the Conventional Teaching Method for the these intact classes constitute the sample size
control group) and gender (Male and Female) on for the study. Therefore, the sample size for this
the dependent variable (student achievement). study was 397 (Male = 206, Female = 191)
The research design layout is thus represented students offering social studies. Two of these
as follows: intact classes made up of 123 (Male = 63,
Female = 60) students were clustered and
O1 X1 O2 assigned to Experimental group one. These
O3 X2 O4 students were taught concepts in social studies
using Concept Mapping Strategy. The next two
O5 X3 O6
classes made up of 133 (Male = 69, Female =
64) students were merged and assigned to
where: Experimental group two. These students were
exposed to learning concepts in social studies
O1, O3 and O5 are Pre-test Observations for using the Brainstorming Strategy, while the last
the three groups two classes made up of 141 (Male = 74, Female
O2, O4 and O6 are Post Test Observations for = 67) students were merged and assigned to the
the three groups conventional teaching method group. The
X1 = Experimental treatment using Concept students in this group were taught concepts in
Mapping Strategy social studies through talk and chalk approach.
X2 = Experimental treatment using The simple random sampling technique involving
Brainstorming Strategy the use of balloting without replacement was
X3 = Placebo (Control) treatment using used to select schools to be assign what
Conventional Teaching Method treatment (either experimental or control groups).
The JS II students offering social studies were
This research design layout was patterned in line chosen specifically for the study because they
with studies documented in various educational have been exposed to social studies in their JS I
researches [5,17]. class. Furthermore, it was done to prepare the
JS II students as they proceed to JS III in
preparation for their upcoming BECE in Social
2.1 Sample and Sampling Technique studies.
The multi-stage sampling technique at four levels 2.2 Research Instrument
was used in this study. The simple random
sampling technique involving the use of balloting The instrument used for data collection was a 45-
without replacement was used in selecting three item Social Studies Achievement Test (SSAT).
out of five Local Government Areas in Mubi The SSAT was constructed using a table of
Educational Zone. The researcher used balloting specifications of learning objectives based on the
without replacement because the first three local Junior Secondary Social Studies Curriculum and
governments that were picked were used for the BECE Social studies standardized test items.
study. The five Local Government Areas were The table of specifications was employed in
code named A, B, C, D and E for Madagali, drawing the items so that each content area is
Michika, Mubi North, Mubi South and Maiha given its appropriate proportion of items based
Local Government Areas respectively. These on the number of period(s) spent to teach it and
letters (A-E) were written on a piece paper the behavioural objectives for lesson delivery.
separately, folded and dropped in box; after The SSAT had two sections, A and B. Section A
which three persons were asked to pick. After the consisted of 40 objective items (40 marks) to
first person picked, the researcher shook the box answer all while Section B contained 5 essay
and asked the next person to pick and the items (60 marks) to answer three. The test lasted
process continues until three Local Government for 1 hour 30 minutes. The instrument covered
Areas were selected. These Local Government the following topics as spelt out in Nigerias
Areas were Mubi North, Mubi South and Maiha. Social studies Curriculum for Junior Secondary
In order to obtain the sample for the study, six School II. The topics are: family and types of
schools (two each) in these Local Government family, marriage and culture, social issues and
Areas were further selected using balloting with problems, transport and communication and
replacement. Six intact classes were used in the cultism. The SSAT was administered to the

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students in the experimental and control groups corresponding value for approximation must be
at the pre-treatment stage (pre-test, to determine greater than or equal to .5. For instance,
their entry behaviour) and at the post treatment knowledge is 20%, so 20/100 x 9 = 1.8. Similarly,
stage (post test). In order to reduce the effect of to correspond the number of item in the first cell
the pre-test on the post test, the study was with that of knowledge would be, Family and
conducted over a period of six weeks and the types of family = 20/100 x 10 = 2. Therefore,
items in the instrument reshuffled and re- since the value obtained for the topic family and
administered. Two lesson plans were used in the types of family was 2, the tester rounded up the
study. The lesson plan designed for the value of 1.8 to 2 items at the knowledge level so
application of Concept Mapping and as to meet up with the column total of 10. This
Brainstorming instructional strategies in teaching also goes for comprehension, application and
concepts in social studies and the lesson plan thinking. But on the other hand, the tester did not
designed for the application of Conventional round up the number of items at the evaluation
Teaching Method. Students in the experimental level because, Evaluation = 20%, so 20/100 x 9 =
and control groups were treated using these 1.8. But when corresponding evaluation with the
lesson plans. The following table (Table 1) percentage of the topic i.e. marriage and culture
represents the item specification for the to obtain 5 items in the column total, the tester
instrument measuring five cognitive domains in could not round up the value obtained because,
the Blooms taxonomy of behavioural objectives 20/100 x 5 = 1. This is so because the
namely: knowledge, comprehension, application, corresponding percentage for the topics when
analyses and evaluation. multiplied by the column total (5) did not provide
the ground for that.
Table 1 shows the specification of topics taught
and the learning objectives of the instrument 2.3 Validity of the Instrument
measuring five cognitive objectives namely
knowledge, comprehension, application thinking The SSAT was face and content validated
and evaluation. It should however be noted here by three experts in Social Studies and
that the formula used to derive the number of Test and Measurement in the Department of
items in each cell is percentage of cognitive Science Education, Adamawa State University,
objective divided by 100 and multiplied by the Mubi. Initially a total of forty items made up the
row total; and corresponding the number of items SSAT, but was later increased to 45 as
in each cell with the percentage of the topic suggested by the validators. The criticisms and
would be, percentage of topic divided by 100 and vetting by these experts helped in modifying and
multiplied by the column total. But it should be replacing some items. All necessary criticisms
clear that the tester can choose to approximate and corrections proffered by the validators
or not to in some cells so as to meet up with guided the production of the final draft of the
the row and column total. However, the instrument.

Table 1. Specification of learning objectives of the topics in the test instrument

Topic Knowledge Comprehension Application Thinking Evaluation Total


(20%) (20%) (20%) (20%) (20%) (100)
Family and 2 2 2 2 1 09
types of family
(20%)
Marriage and 2 2 2 2 1 09
culture (20%)
Social issues 2 1 09
and problems 2 2 2
(20%)
Transport and 2 2 2 2 1 09
communication
(20%)
Cultism (20%) 2 2 2 2 1 09
Total (100) 10 10 10 10 05 45

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2.4 Reliability of the Instrument was used for the training and orientation of two
social studies teachers who served as research
To establish the co-efficient of internal assistants in the study. The cooperation and
consistency of the instrument used for this study, understanding of the principals and those
a pilot test was carried out using 80 students teachers were also solicited for. Students in the
offering Social studies in two public junior schools used for the study were also assigned to
secondary school; who were not part of the their groups viz: experimental and control groups
population of the study. The reliability co-efficient respectively. These research assistants were
of the internal consistency of the SSAT was given lesson plans for the period that the study
established using Kendall tau statistic. The will last and given instruction on how to use the
statistic produced a reliability index of 0.81. This lesson plans to teach students in the selected
reliability index suggests that the internal schools. Teachers performing experimental
consistency of the instrument was adequate for treatment used lesson plans designed for
the study. concept mapping and brainstorming instructional
strategies. The teachers in the control groups
2.5 Experimental Procedure used lesson plans prepared for conventional
method. The research assistants were also
Social Studies teachers in the secondary schools drilled on how to administer the pre and post
used for this study were contacted through the tests. The training lasted for three days.
principals of the schools, after the researcher
tendered the introductory letter and gained 2.5.2 Pre-treatment stage
permission from the principals to use the schools
for the study. Two Social Studies teachers were During the first week, the administration of the
trained by the researcher as research assistants SSAT as pre-test was also conducted in the
to facilitate the use of concept mapping, schools selected with the help of the research
brainstorming strategies and conventional assistants. The instrument contains 40 multiple
teaching method. The training exercise was choice items and 5 essay items to which
based on the purpose of the study, the topics to students were given 1 hour 30 minutes to
be taught, the strategies/method to be used, the attempt. Verbal explanation was given to
use of the lesson plans, the administration of respondents on how to answer questions in
SSAT as well as general conduct of the study. It addition to the written instruction on the question
was ensured that all the teachers used equal papers distributed to them.
length of time (six weeks) to facilitate learning of
the topics. Throughout the exercise, the 2.5.3 Treatment stage
researcher went round to supervise and ensure
smooth learning in all classes. Two tests (pre The second to fifth weeks were for the treatment
and post tests) were used to obtain data from the in the experimental and control groups. The 256
participants of the study. Pre-test was students in the schools assigned to experimental
administered to students at the pre-treatment groups one and two were exposed to learning
stage in the first week before instruction. Post concepts in social studies using concept
test was later administered after treatment was mapping and brainstorming instructional
given to the Experimental and Control groups. strategies, while the 141 students in the control
The researcher collected all test scripts after the group were taught social studies by conventional
administration and scored students over teaching method (talk and chalk). The topics
hundred. For the purpose of clarity, the taught were family and types of family, marriage
procedure for data collection for this study was and culture, social issues and problems,
made up of five stages, namely: preliminary transport and communication and cultism. In
stage, pre-treatment stage, treatment stage, concepts mapping, concepts in social studies
post-treatment stage and post test stage. were represented using smaller boxes with links.
Students were assisted to make meaning out of
2.5.1 Preliminary stage the links in the diagrammes that was presented.
Similarly, students were also given a white sheet
The researcher sought for permission from of paper with writing materials and asked to
authorities of the sampled schools whose make many links as much as possible to the
students will be involved in the study. This was to concepts being discussed. For instance, the
enable the researcher use intact classes for concept marriage was presented in the following
treatment and test administration. The first week diagramme.

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Marriage

Man Woman

Husband and Wife

Father Mother

Children

Brothers and Sisters

Grand Father Got Married

Grand Mother
Children

Fig. 1. A concept map showing possible links to the concept marriage

During brainstorming sessions in the classroom, participated, even those students who tend
the following steps were observed: not to contribute in class discussions. All
voices were heard and everyone
The teacher stated the topic to be contributed ideas. No one student was
brainstormed in the form of a question. made to dominate the brainstorming
Write it down and paste it on the board session by shouting over the others.
where everyone can refer to it. The Students were cautioned against pre-
teachers also ensured that everyone informed judgments of others opinions.
understands it. For instance, what is Due to the time limit, students were
Marriage? What are the types of marriage encouraged to contribute ideas
commonly practiced in your community? spontaneously and not dwell on one idea
The class was divided in half and each half for too long.
was assigned these questions. Writing A time limit for brainstorming session was
materials were also given to students. set and a time keeper was assigned.
Groups consisted of students who vary in Brainstorming should be a rapid generation
experiences, backgrounds, knowledge and of ideas, so it took 5-10 minutes for each
academic achievement. A varied group of brainstorming session for a particular topic
students will suggest more varied and posed in form of question to last. However,
unique ideas and suggestions. It was in cases where the time limit has expired
stressed that all ideas are welcome and and ideas are still being generated,
even ideas which are perceived as out teachers were asked to extend the time by
there, funny or silly, or weird can lead 5 minutes. Students were given time to
to creative solutions. During the session, individually brainstorm solutions to the new
there was no criticism or evaluation of questions.
ideas which could inhibit contributions. In the groups, students then discussed
Students were encouraged to relax and be their ideas together and prepared a list. It
enthusiastic about the process. Everyone was ensured that the teachers keep

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brainstorming sessions going until all listened and take notes. Teachers were carefully
participants have participated or the tutored and admonished to use the lesson plans
allotted time has expired. A recorder from as a guide to teaching the students.
each group feeds back to the whole class
the ideas of their group which are then 2.5.4 Revision stage
organised collectively into a logical
framework. The teachers collected At this stage, the research assistants were asked
everyones ideas. The ideas were recorded to revise the topics treated with the students to
on the board where everyone can see prepare students for the post test. All the topics
them. Having the ideas visible to everyone taught during the course of the study were
at the same time avoids misinterpretation carefully revised. This was also done at the fifth
and duplication and helps stimulate week.
creative thinking by other team members.
The generated ideas and suggestions 2.5.5 Post test stage
were ranked. After the designated time
frame was over, students were asked to The sixth week was characterized by the
evaluate and rank all of the ideas administration of SSAT again as post test,
generated during the brainstorming concurrently in the schools used for the study.
sessions. Students were assisted by the Both the experimental and control groups were
teacher to create a list of criteria used to given the same test. The test scripts were
evaluate the ideas. For instance, for collected after the administration of post test and
marriage to take place as defined by the marked over 100.
students, there must be a man and a
woman agreed to become husband and 2.6 Method of Data Analysis
wife. Therefore, a union between a man
and a man or a woman and a woman The six null hypotheses formulated in the study
could not be captured within this contextual were tested using different statistical tools.
definition of the word Marriage. So, ideas Hypotheses one and six were tested using
generated along this line of thought were Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA). Hypotheses
given high ranks, while ideas generated two and three were tested using Analysis of
that varied from this line of thought were Variance (ANOVA); and the effect size was
also ranked with values that befits them. established using Hochberges GT2 post hoc
Criteria were given scores for 5 being a mean comparisons test. The Hochberges GT2
perfect score to 0 which would indicate that post hoc test was used because samples were
the idea does not meet any of the criteria unequal. Independent samples t-test statistic was
generated for answering a particular used to test hypotheses four and five. Statistical
question. package for social sciences version 20 (SPSS
Duplicated ideas were eliminated. Before Inc. Chicago, IL, USA) was used for analysis and
eliminating duplicated ideas, teachers were probability level of P < 0.05 was considered
to ensure that all of those who contributed statistically significant.
the similar ideas must agree that they
mean the same thing. Otherwise, they 3. RESULTS
remain as separate items. The most
relevant ideas to the topic or the questions HO1: There is no significant main effect of
posed at the beginning of the treatment on mean achievement scores of
brainstorming sessions were later used students in social studies.
to make a final and elaborate conclusion
of the lesson (feedback). The ideas Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) was used to
that were not relevant to the topic of test this hypothesis in which the pretest scores
discussion were discarded at the end of were the covariates; post test scores were the
the lesson. dependent variable and the treatments at three
levels (concept mapping strategy, brainstorming
In Lecture Method Group (Conventional strategy and conventional teaching method) were
Teaching Method), students were exposed to the independent variables. This was also done in
learning concepts in social studies through the order to ascertain the students entry behaviour
chalk and talk approach. Here the teacher directs at the onset of the treatment. The result is
the teaching learning process and the students presented in Table 2.

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Table 2. Summary of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) of main effect of treatment on


achievement of students in social studies

Source Type III sum of df Mean square F Sig.


squares (2-tailed)
Corrected model 65563.374a 3 21854.458 65.538 .000*
Intercept 230514.137 1 230514.137 691.277 .000*
Pre-test 5.024 1 5.024 .015 .902
Treatment 65497.592 2 32748.796 98.209 .000*
Error 131050.203 393 333.461
Total 857998.000 397
Corrected total 196613.577 396
*Significant; p < .05

Table 2 shows the results of students students taught social studies using
achievement in social studies at the pre-test concept mapping strategy, brainstorming
level; and the main effect of the treatments strategy and conventional teaching method
administered. From the table, it could be seen (F (2, 394) =115.132, p = 0.000). This implies
that there is no significant difference in the mean that students in the experimental groups taught
achievement scores of students taught social social studies by concept mapping and
studies using concept mapping strategy, brainstorming instructional strategies performed
brainstorming strategy and conventional teaching significant than those taught by conventional
method (F (1, 393) = 0.015; p = 0.902). This teaching method. But to know which groups
shows that the students in the three groups had mean statistically significantly differ from the
equivalent entry behaviour before the treatment. other, the post test scores of students were
However, comparing the pre-test with the further subjected to post hoc mean comparisons
treatments, the table further reveals a statistically test using the Hochbergs GT2 post hoc test. The
significant main effect of treatment on students result is presented in Table 4.
achievement in social studies when the covariate
effect (pre-test) was statistically controlled. This Table 4 shows the results are significant at one
result implies that the treatment administered to level and not significant in the other. It could be
the three groups using concept mapping seen that there is a significant difference in the
strategy, brainstorming strategy and conventional mean achievement scores of students taught
teaching method was effective (F (2, 393) = social studies using concept mapping strategy
98.209, p = 0.000). To determine the value of and those taught using conventional teaching
differences in the means between the three method (p = 0.000). Similarly, there is a
groups, the post test mean scores were further significant difference in the mean achievement
analyzed after eliminating the effect of scores of students taught social studies using
achievement on pre-test. Table 3 and 4 shows brainstorming strategy and those taught using
the ANOVA and the post hoc results. conventional teaching method (p = 0.000).
However, there is no significant difference in the
HO2: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught
mean achievement scores of students social studies using concept mapping and
taught social studies using Concept brainstorming instructional strategies (p = 0.121).
Mapping Strategy, Brainstorming Strategy This connotes that students in the experimental
and Conventional Teaching Method. groups performed significant than their
counterpart in the control group.
To test this hypothesis, the post test scores of
students in the three groups were analyzed using HO3: There is no significant difference in the
One Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The retention scores of students taught social
result is hereby presented in Table 3. studies using Concept Mapping Strategy,
Brainstorming Strategy and Conventional
Table 3 shows the ANOVA analysis of Teaching Method.
students post test scores in the experimental
and control groups. It could be deduced from the Hypothesis three sought to find out if a significant
table that there is a statistically significant difference exists in the retention scores of
difference in the mean achievement scores of students in social studies in the three groups.

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The retention scores of students in the 20 using concept mapping strategy, brainstorming
structured knowledge and comprehension items strategy and conventional teaching method (F (2,
of the test instrument were obtained and 394) = 28.740, p = 0.000). This is to say that
analyzed using one way analysis of variance. students in the experimental group achieved
The result is in Table 5. greater material retention than students in the
control group. But to determine the effect size,
From the ANOVA analysis in Table 5 it is clear the retention scores of students were subjected
that there is a significant difference in the to Hochbergs GT2 pairwise comparisons test
retention scores of students taught social studies (see Table 6).

Table 3. Summary of one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of students post test scores in
the two experimental and control groups

Source of variation Sum of df Mean square F Sig.


squares (2-tailed)
Between groups 71028.048 2 35514.024 115.132 .000*
Within groups 121534.425 394 308.463
Total 192562.474 396
*Significant; p < .05

Table 4. Hochbergs GT2 post hoc multiple comparisons test results based on students post
test scores in the two experimental and control groups

Independent variable Independent variable Mean Sig.


(I) teaching strategy (J) teaching strategy difference (I-J) (2-tailed)
Concept mapping strategy Brainstorming strategy 4.478 .121
Conventional teaching 30.023 .000*
method
Brainstorming strategy Concept mapping strategy -4.478 .121
Conventional teaching 25.545 .000*
method
Conventional teaching Concept mapping strategy -30.023 .000*
method Brainstorming strategy -25.545 .000*
*Significant; p < .05

Table 5. Summary of one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) of students retention scores in
the two experimental and control groups

Source of variation Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig.


(2-tailed)
Between groups 10196.465 2 5098.232 28.740 .000*
Within groups 69892.680 394 177.393
Total 80089.145 396
*Significant; p < .05

Table 6. Hochbergs GT2 pairwise comparisons test results based on students retention
scores in the two experimental and control groups

Independent variable Independent variable Mean difference Sig.


(I) teaching strategy (J) teaching strategy (I-J) (2-tailed)
Concept mapping Brainstorming strategy -1.975 .554
strategy Conventional teaching method 9.433 .000*
Brainstorming strategy Concept mapping strategy 1.975 .554
Conventional teaching method 11.409 .000*
Conventional teaching Concept mapping strategy -9.433 .000*
method Brainstorming strategy -11.409 .000*
*Significant; p < .05

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The Hochbergs GT2 pairwise comparisons test scores of male and female students in the
results in Table 6 indicate as follows: Students concept mapping strategy group. The post test
taught social studies through concept mapping scores of students in the group were subjected to
strategy had greater material retention than inferential analysis using t-test statistical
those taught by the conventional teaching technique (see Table 8).
method (p = 0.000). Also, students taught social
studies by brainstorming strategy achieved The result in Table 8 connotes that there is no
greater material retention than those exposed significant difference in the mean achievement
through the conventional teaching method (p = scores of male and female students taught social
0.000). However, the table further shows that studies using brainstorming strategy (t = 0.103,
students in the experimental group did not differ df = 131, p = 0.918). This indicates that
significantly in their retention rates (p = 0.554). brainstorming strategy improved the
achievement of students irrespective of gender.
HO4: There is no significant difference in the
mean achievement scores of Male and HO6: There is no significant interaction effect of
Female students taught social studies treatment and gender on students
using Concept Mapping Strategy. achievement in social studies.

To test the fourth hypothesis, the post test scores The hypothesis sought to find out whether there
of students taught social studies using concept is a significant interaction effect between the
mapping strategy were analyzed using the treatment variables of the study (concept
independent samples t-test statistic. The result is mapping, brainstorming strategy and
hereby presented. conventional teaching method) and the
organismic variable (gender) on students
Data in Table 7 shows that there is no significant achievement in social studies. Analysis of
difference in the mean achievement scores of covariance (ANCOVA) was carried out to test
male and female students taught social studies this hypothesis. The result is hereby presented in
using concept mapping strategy (t = 1.384, df = Table 9.
121; p = 0.169). This implies that the
achievement of students is not been influenced Table 9 presents the result of ANCOVA. After
by being a male or female. adjusting the pre-test scores, there is no
significant interaction effect of treatment and
HO5: There is no significant difference in the gender on students achievement in social
mean achievement scores of Male and studies (F (1, 394) = 0.947, p = 0.332). By
Female students taught social studies implication, this means that the treatments
using Brainstorming Strategy. administered using concept mapping strategy,
brainstorming strategy and conventional teaching
This hypothesis sought to find out if a significant method to teach social studies was not sensitive
difference exists in the mean achievement to students gender.

Table 7. Summary of t-test analysis of students post test scores in experimental group one
based on gender

Source N Mean Mean SD df t Sig.


difference (2-tailed)
Male 63 56.238 4.955 18.354 121 1.384 .169
Female 60 51.283 21.292
Not significant; p > .05

Table 8. Summary of t-test analysis of students post test scores in experimental group two
based on gender

Source N Mean Mean difference SD df t Sig.


(2-tailed)
Male 69 46.855 .355 19.242 131 .103 .918
Female 64 46.5 20.524
Not significant; p > .05

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Table 9. Summary of analysis of covariance of interaction effect of treatment and gender on


students achievements in social studies

Source Type III Sum df Mean square F Sig.


of squares (2-tailed)
Corrected model 534.657a 2 267.328 .537 .585
Intercept 227188.483 1 227188.483 456.511 .000
Pre-test 37.924 1 37.924 .076 .783
Treatment*Gender 468.876 1 468.876 .942 .332
Error 196078.920 394 497.662
Total 857998.000 397
Corrected total 196613.577 396
Not significant; p > .05.

4. DISCUSSION (F (2, 394) =115.132, p = 0.000). This result


could mean that students in the experimental
Concept mapping and brainstorming instructional groups taught social studies using concept
strategies are increasingly becoming popular as mapping and brainstorming instructional
effective strategies used in the field of sciences strategies achieved significant results than the
and education in particular. The study students in the control group. Similarly, results of
investigated the effects of concept mapping and the Hochbergs GT2 post hoc mean comparisons
brainstorming instructional strategies on junior test reveals a statistically significant difference
secondary school students achievement in between the means of students taught social
social studies in Mubi Educational Zone. The studies using concept mapping strategy and
pre-test result of the students provided a ground those taught using conventional teaching
for which it could be established that students in method; and between the means of students
the three groups had homogenous entry taught social studies using brainstorming
behaviour prior to treatment. strategy and conventional method. But students
taught using concept mapping and brainstorming
instructional strategies did not differ in
Hypothesis one revealed that there was a
achievement. The finding of this study gives
significant main effect of treatment on
further credence to the outcome of similar works
achievement of students in social studies (F (2,
that reported that students exposed to concept
393) = 98.209, p = 0.000). The results imply that
mapping demonstrated a greater and in-depth
the method of instruction produced a significant
understanding of concepts than those exposed to
effect on the post-test achievement scores of
lecture method [20-25]. This result is
students when the covariate effect (pre-test) was
contradictory to the reports of Boujaound and
controlled. The result indicated that the treatment
Attieh [26] and Stensvon and Wilson [27] who
using concept mapping strategy, brainstorming
noted that the mean scores of students in post-
strategy and conventional teaching method
test for the experimental and control groups
probably accounted for the difference in post-test
taught using concept mapping and conventional
achievement scores of the students. The finding
teaching method showed statistical insignificant
concurs with reports of other studies that found a
difference. The result of this study also agrees
significant main effect of treatment on students
with some studies which showed that there were
academic achievement [9,18,19]. These authors
statistically significant differences between the
found out that even the performance of the
means of the experimental and control groups on
students in the controlled group improved as a
the test administered, in the favour of the
result of the intervention (lecture method). The
experimental groups that studied through
improved performance of students in the three
brainstorming strategy [28-32].
groups as observed in their post test scores
might be due to the intervention. The results of analysis of variance of hypothesis
three revealed that there was a significant
The result of analysis of hypothesis two revealed difference in the retention scores of students
a significant difference in the mean achievement taught social studies using concept mapping
scores of students taught social studies using strategy, brainstorming strategy and
concept mapping strategy, brainstorming conventional teaching method (F (2, 394) =
strategy and conventional teaching method 28.740, p = 0.000). The Hochbergs GT2

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pairwise comparisons test revealed a statistically significant difference in the achievement of male
significant result in favour of students in the and female students taught using brainstorming
experimental groups. This stand is justified by strategy [30,41]. Similar studies that analysis the
conclusions of some authors who indicated that effect of Hands-On learning on students
to remember information longer and to be able to achievements reported no significant differences
use it more effectively, one need to move that in male and female students achievement in
information into ones long-term memory and that geography [5,42]. Contrary to this finding, some
concept mapping can help do this [33,34]. This studies have shown that significant effect of
finding buttresses recent reports indicating that gender exists in students achievement [2,16].
students who were taught through the use of
other instructional techniques (concept mapping Hypothesis six tested for a significant interaction
and brainstorming instructional strategies) other effect of treatment and gender on achievement of
than the lecture method could achieve greater students in social studies. The results indicated
material retention [5,8], and that there are that there was no significant interaction effect of
inherent setbacks of lecturing method because it treatment and gender on students achievement
does not promote meaningful learning as it in social studies (F (1, 394) = 0.947, p = 0.332).
appeals only to the sense of hearing [35]. This implies that after adjusting the effect of pre-
Although, a study has reported lower retention of test, the treatment administered to the students
biological knowledge in students taught with using the three instructional strategies was not
concept mapping strategy [36]. The use of sensitive to gender. The finding agrees with
concept mapping and brainstorming instructional those of some authors who reported no
strategies in teaching social studies in this study significant treatment-gender interaction effect on
might be the reason for learners improved students achievement [43-45]. However, it
material retention which reflected on their disagrees with the finding of others who found a
retention scores. significant treatment-gender interaction effect on
students achievement [1,8,46].
Hypothesis four revealed that there was no
statistically significant difference in the mean 5. CONCLUSION
achievement scores of male and female students
taught social studies using concept mapping The study has shown that students exposed to
strategy (t = 1.384, df = 121; p = 0.169). This concept mapping and brainstorming instructional
connotes that the students in this experimental strategies performed significant in their
group performed better irrespective of gender. achievement in Social Studies than their
This result is consistent with previous reports that counterparts exposed through the conventional
found no significant difference in the mean teaching method of instruction. However the
scores of male and female students in the study did not show that students exposed to
treatment groups [1,5,9]. However it contradicts Social Studies using concept mapping and
other reports which found a significant difference brainstorming instructional strategies differed in
in favour of boys and vice versa [37-40]. achievement. Concept mapping and
brainstorming instructional strategies were found
Hypothesis five tested for a significant difference to promote higher material retention of concepts
in the mean scores of male and female students in social studies. This was shown in the retention
taught social studies using brainstorming scores of students in the experimental groups.
learning strategy. The result revealed no The study further revealed that gender (male or
statistically significant difference in the mean female) could not play a significant role in
scores of students taught social studies by students achievement in social studies. It can
gender (t = 0.103, df = 131, p = 0.918). This therefore be concluded that gender of the
implies that male and female students taught students, whether male or female, does not
social studies did not differ significantly in seem to have any effect on the effectiveness of
achievement. The null hypothesis was therefore any of the treatment employed in the study. This
rejected. The improved achievement of male and is an indication that if both treatment/strategies
female students in the class could lie in the use are used effectively for male and female, they
of the instructional technique. This emphasized are likely to produce the same results. The use of
that the use of brainstorming strategy in teaching concept mapping and brainstorming instructional
social studies has no male or female dichotomy strategies made the students to participate
in achievement. This finding is in concomitance actively in the learning process being able to
with similar studies that reported no statistically organize their learning experience in order to

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Based on the finding of this study, it was secondary school students academic
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Since concept mapping and brainstorming Nigeria. International Journal of
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2016 Filgona et al.; This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License
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