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Laurent Series Example

Laurent Series Example

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1

f (z) = at z0 = 0.

(z i)(z 2)

Specify the region of convergence (solid disc or annulus) of each of

the above series.

61

Solution

The possible circular or annular regions of analyticity are

(i) |z| < 1, (ii) 1 < |z| < 2, (iii) |z| > 2.

! " # $

1 i z zn

= z = i 1 + + + n + for |z| < 1

zi 1 i i i

% & % &' % &n (

1 1 1 1 z z

= z = 1 + + + + for |z| < 2

z2 2 12 2 2 2

% & % &n % &n

1 1 1 1 + z 1 + z

f (z) = = i +

i2 zi z2 i 2 n=0 i 2 n=0 2

!% &n1 $

1 + 1 1

= + n+1 z n.

i 2 n=0 i 2

This is a Taylor series which converges inside the solid disc |z| < 1.

62

(ii) For 1 < |z| < 2

% &n

1 1 1 1 + i

= = valid for |z| > 1

zi z 1 zi z n=0 z

1 + zn

= n+1

valid for |z| < 2

z2 n=0 2

" #

n n

1 + i z

f (z) = n+1

+ n+1 valid for 1 < |z| < 2.

i 2 n=0 z 2

1 + in

= n+1

valid for |z| > 1

zi n=0 z

1 1 1 + 2n

= 2

= n+1

valid for |z| > 2

z2 z1 z n=0 z

1 + 1

f (z) = (in 2n) n+1 valid for |z| > 2.

i 2 n=0 z

63

Example

1

f (z) = at the point = 1.

1 z2

Solution

There exist two annular regions (i) 0 < |z + 1| < 2 and (ii) |z + 1| >

2 where the function is analytic everywhere inside the respective

region.

64

(i) 0 < |z + 1| < 2

1 1

2

= .

z+1

/

1z 2(z + 1) 1 2

1 + (z + 1)k

=

2(z + 1) k=0 2k

1 1 1 1

= + + (z + 1) + (z + 1)2 + .

2(z + 1) 4 8 16

0 0

0 0

0z + 10

The above expansion is valid provided 00 0 < 1 and z + 1 = 0.

0

0 2 0

For any simple closed curve C1 lying completely inside |z +1| < 2

and encircling the point z = 1, we have

1

1 1 1

c1 = dz = .

2i C1 1 z 2 2

65

(ii) |z + 1| > 2

1 1

2

= .

2

/

1z (z + 1)2 1 z+1

0 0

2k

0 0

1 + 0 2 0

= 2 k

since 00 0<1

0

(z + 1) k=0 (z + 1) 0z + 10

! $

1 2 4

= 2

+ 3

+ 4

+ .

(z + 1) (z + 1) (z + 1)

we have

1

1 1

c1 = 2

dz = 0.

2i C2 1 z

66

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