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Example

Find all the possible Taylor and Laurent series expansions of


1
f (z) = at z0 = 0.
(z i)(z 2)
Specify the region of convergence (solid disc or annulus) of each of
the above series.

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Solution

There are two isolated singularities, namely, at z = i and z = 2.


The possible circular or annular regions of analyticity are

(i) |z| < 1, (ii) 1 < |z| < 2, (iii) |z| > 2.

(i) For |z| < 1


! " # $
1 i z zn
= z = i 1 + + + n + for |z| < 1
zi 1 i i i
% & % &' % &n (
1 1 1 1 z z
= z = 1 + + + + for |z| < 2
z2 2 12 2 2 2

% & % &n % &n
1 1 1 1 + z 1 + z
f (z) = = i +
i2 zi z2 i 2 n=0 i 2 n=0 2
!% &n1 $
1 + 1 1
= + n+1 z n.
i 2 n=0 i 2
This is a Taylor series which converges inside the solid disc |z| < 1.

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(ii) For 1 < |z| < 2
% &n
1 1 1 1 + i
= = valid for |z| > 1
zi z 1 zi z n=0 z

1 + zn
= n+1
valid for |z| < 2
z2 n=0 2
" #
n n
1 + i z
f (z) = n+1
+ n+1 valid for 1 < |z| < 2.
i 2 n=0 z 2

(iii) For |z| > 2



1 + in
= n+1
valid for |z| > 1
zi n=0 z

1 1 1 + 2n
= 2
= n+1
valid for |z| > 2
z2 z1 z n=0 z


1 + 1
f (z) = (in 2n) n+1 valid for |z| > 2.
i 2 n=0 z

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Example

Find all possible Laurent series of


1
f (z) = at the point = 1.
1 z2

Solution

The function has two isolated singular points at z = 1 and z = 1.


There exist two annular regions (i) 0 < |z + 1| < 2 and (ii) |z + 1| >
2 where the function is analytic everywhere inside the respective
region.

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(i) 0 < |z + 1| < 2
1 1
2
= .
z+1
/
1z 2(z + 1) 1 2

1 + (z + 1)k
=
2(z + 1) k=0 2k
1 1 1 1
= + + (z + 1) + (z + 1)2 + .
2(z + 1) 4 8 16
0 0
0 0
0z + 10
The above expansion is valid provided 00 0 < 1 and z + 1 = 0.
0
0 2 0

Given that 0 < |z + 1| < 2, the above requirement is satisfied.

For any simple closed curve C1 lying completely inside |z +1| < 2
and encircling the point z = 1, we have
1
1 1 1
c1 = dz = .
2i C1 1 z 2 2

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(ii) |z + 1| > 2
1 1
2
= .
2
/
1z (z + 1)2 1 z+1
0 0

2k
0 0
1 + 0 2 0
= 2 k
since 00 0<1
0
(z + 1) k=0 (z + 1) 0z + 10
! $
1 2 4
= 2
+ 3
+ 4
+ .
(z + 1) (z + 1) (z + 1)

For any simple closed curve C2 encircling the circle: |z + 1| = 2,


we have
1
1 1
c1 = 2
dz = 0.
2i C2 1 z

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