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The process of action learning, founded by Reginald Revans about 50 years ago in
England, is based on contemporary views of adult learning. Action learning asserts that
adults learn best when:

c  aorking to address a current, real-world problem ?


2. They are highly vest in solving the current problem
3. They actually apply new materials and information and
4. Exchange ongoing feedback around their experiences

In addition, adults often learn best from experience, rather than from extensive note
taking and memorization.
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access. I ecommend mhese p oducms mo omhe coaches, m aine s and consulmanms who wanm an easy
way mo save hou s of mime and have p esenmamions mhey can cusmomize and call mhei own." 

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?

An evaluation at each level answers whether a fundamental requirement of the training program was
met. It¶s not that conducting an evaluation at one level is more important that another. All levels of
evaluation are important. In fact, the Kirkpatrick model explains the usefulness of performing training
evaluations at each level. Each level provides a diagnostic checkpoint for problems at the succeeding
level. So, if participants did not learn (Level 2), participant reactions gathered at Level 1 (Reaction) will
reveal the barriers to learning. Now moving up to the next level, if participants did not use the skills
once back in the workplace (Level 3), perhaps they did not learn the required skills in the first place
(Level 2). ?

The difficulty and cost of conducting an evaluation increases as you move up the levels. So, you will
need to consider carefully what levels of evaluation you will conduct for which programs. You may decide
to conduct Level 1 evaluations (Reaction) for all programs, Level 2 evaluations (Learning) for ³hard-
skills´ programs only, Level 3 evaluations (Behavior) for strategic programs only and Level 4 evaluations
(Results) for programs costing over $50,000. Above all else, before starting an evaluation, be crystal
clear about your purpose in conducting the evaluation.

å ?  ? 
? ?

 ow do you conduct a training evaluation?  ere is a quick guide on some appropriate information
sources for each level.

Π  


{ completed participant feedback questionnaire


{ informal comments from participants
{ focus group sessions with participants

Π Π
 

{ pre- and post-test scores


{ on-the-job assessments
{ supervisor reports

Π  
 

{ completed self-assessment questionnaire


{ on-the-job observation
{ reports from customers, peers and participant¶s manager

Π    

{ financial reports
{ quality inspections
{ interview with sales manager

ahen considering what sources of data you will use for your evaluation, think about the cost and time
involved in collecting the data. Balance this against the accuracy of the source and the accuracy you
actually need. aill existing sources suffice or will you need to collect new information?

Think broadly about where you can get information. Sources include:

{ hardcopy and online quantitative reports


{ production and job records
{ interviews with participants, managers, peers, customers, suppliers and regulators
{ checklists and tests
{ direct observation
{ questionnaires, self-rating and multi-rating
{ ëocus Group sessions

Once you have completed your evaluation, distribute it to the people who need to read it. In deciding on
your distribution list, refer to your previously stated reasons for conducting the evaluation. And of
course, if there were lessons learned from the evaluation on how to make your training more effective,
act on them!

?
?
"

 ! 


   


The process of creating a training program to help develop an individual's level of fitness
comprises of 6 stages:

1. Gather details about the individual


2. Identify the fitness components to develop
3. Identify appropriate tests to monitor fitness status
4. Conduct a gap analysis
5. Compile the program
6. Monitor progress and adjust program

Ú  ?#?

The first stage is to gather details about the individual:

{ Age
{ Reasons for wanting to get fit
{ Current or recent injuries
{  ealth problems
{ The sports they play and how often
{ Their dislikes and likes with regards training
{ ahat sports facilities they have access to - gym, sports centre etc.

This is not an exhaustive list but an example of the sort of information to collect

Ú  ?"?

The second stage is to determine which components of fitness they need to improve.
This could depend upon what the individual wants to get fit for. This could be to improve
general fitness, get fit enough to play in th e Saturday hockey league, run a local 5 km
fun run or compete in next year's London Marathon. Exercise scientists have identified
nine elements that comprise the definition of fitness. The following lists each of the nine
elements and an example of how they are used:

1. Strength - the extent to which muscles can exert force by contracting against
resistance (holding or restraining an object or person)
2. Power - the ability to exert maximum muscular contraction instantly in an
explosive burst of movements (Jumping or sprint starting)
3. Agility - the ability to perform a series of explosive power movements in rapid
succession in opposing directions (ZigZag running or cutting movements)
4. Balance - the ability to control the body's position, either stationary (e. g. a
handstand) or while moving (e.g. a gymnastics stunt)
5. ëlexibility - the ability to achieve an extended range of motion without being
impeded by excess tissue, i.e. fat or muscle (Executing a leg split)
6. Local Muscle Endurance - a single muscle's ability to perform sustained work
(Rowing or cycling)
7. Cardiovascular Endurance - the heart's ability to deliver blood to working muscles
and their ability to use it (Running long distances)
8. Strength Endurance - a muscle's ability to perform a maximum contracture time
after time (Continuous explosive rebounding through an entire basketball game)
9. Coordination - the ability to integrate the above listed components so that
effective movements are achieved.

Of all the nine elements of fitness cardiac respiratory qualities are the most important to
develop as they enhance all the other components of the conditioning equation. You will
need to consider which of these elements are applicable to the individuals training
program based on what it is they want to get fit for.

Ú  ??

The next stage is to identify appropriate tests that can be used to initially determine the
individual's level of fitness and then to monitor progress during the training. Identified
test should be conducted and the results recorded.

Ú  ??

ae now know the individual's background, objectives and current level of fitness. ae
now need to conduct a gap analysis of the individual's current fitness levels (from test
results at stage 3) and target fitness levels (identified at stage 2). The results of this
process will assist in the design of the training program so that each component of
fitness is improved to the desired level.

The following is an example of a gap analysis:

Test ëitness Component Current Target

Multistage ëitness Test Aerobic Level 12 Shuttle 2 Level 12 Shuttle 5

30 metre acceleration Test Speed 4.3 seconds 3.9 seconds

Illinois agility run Test Agility 20 seconds <16 seconds

Standing Long Jump Test Leg power 2.4 metres 2.8 metres

Over head medicine ball throw Arm power 16.1 metres 16 metres

Gap analysis - Aerobic fitness and arm power are good and just need to be maintained -
sprint, agility and leg power tests are below target - leg power needs to be improved.
Ú  ?%?

The next stage is to prepare a training program using the results of the gap analysis and
ëITT principles. "

{ ë - frequency - how often should the individual exercise?


{ I - intensity - how hard should the individual exercise?
{ T - time - how long should each session last?
{ T - training activity - what exercise or training activity will help achieve the
individual's fitness goals?

ëor frequency, intensity and time you should start at an easy level and increase
gradually e.g. 10% increments. Aerobic training should last for 20 to 40 minutes.
Strength work should last 15 to 30 minutes and comprise of 3 sessions a week with 48
hours recovery between sessions.

Plan the program in four week cycles where the work load in the first three weeks
increase each week (easy, medium, hard) and the fourth week comprises of active
recovery and tests to monitor training progress. The aim of the four week cycles is to:

{ Build you up to a level of fitness (3 weeks)


{ Test, recovery and adjustment of the training program (1 week)
{ Build you up to higher level of fitness (3 weeks)
{ Test, recovery and adjustment of the training program (1 week)
{ Build you up to an even higher level of fitness (3 weeks) " and so on

The tests used to assess the individual's initial level of fitness should be planned into
week 4 of the program in order to monitor progr ess and effectiveness of the program.
The test results can be used to adjust the program accordingly.

The program needs to last 12 to 16 weeks in order to see any real benefits and the
planning (initial & subsequent adjustments) should be conducted with th e individual so
that they feel they own the program. This will ensure the program is enjoyable and
convenient to do.

Ú  ?&?

The program has now been agreed and the individual can undertake the program. Every
4 weeks meet and discuss with the individual:

{ how the training has gone


{ the test results
{ progress towards target fitness levels
{ adjustments to the training program

?
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?

The process of examining a training program is called training evaluation. ?


  checks whether training has had the desired effect. Training evaluation ensures that
whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces, or to the
regular work routines.

' ?? ?(  

The five main purposes of training evaluation are:

) 
* It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to
learning outcomes.

 
* It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge, transfer of
knowledge at the work place, and training.
0 * It helps in controlling the ?  because if the training is not effective, then it
can be dealt with accordingly.

' ?  * At times, the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative
data to manipulate it for their own benefits.

+   * It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the
expected outcomes.

'
?? ?(  ?

  ? * The learner's skills and knowledge are assessed before the ? .
During the start of training, candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at
most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program.
Once aware, they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods
confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style.

,? : It is the phase at which instruction is started. This phase usually consist of short
tests at regular intervals
?

- ? * It is the phase when learner¶s  ? ?    are assessed again to
measure the effectiveness of the training. This phase is designed to determine whether training has
had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. There are various
evaluation techniques for this phase.


. ??(  ?

The various methods of training evaluation are:

{ Observation
{ ºuestionnaire
{ Interview
{ Self diaries
{ Self recording of specific incidents




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It is one of the oldest methods of training. This method is used to create


understanding of a topic or to influence behavior, attitudes through lecture. A
lecture can be in printed or oral form. 
 is telling someone about something.
Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical
aspect of a topic. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. ahen
thetrainer begins the training session by telling the aim, goal, agenda, processes,
or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture
method. It is difficult to imagine training witho ut lecture format. There are some
variations in Lecture method. The variation here means that some forms of lectures
are interactive while some are not.

Ú  ?
 * Straight lecture method consists of presenting information, which
the trainee attempts to absorb. In this method, the trainer speaks to a group about a
topic.  owever, it does not involve any kind of interaction between the  ? ?
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etc. The difference between the straight lecture and the printed material is the
trainer¶s intonation, control of speed, body language, and visual image of the trainer.
The trainer in case of straight lecture can decide to vary from the training script,
based on the signals from the trainees, whereas same material in print is restricted
to what is printed.

A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic, purpose of the lecture, and
priorities and preferences of the order in which the topic will be covered.

?)   ??
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Some of the main features of lecture method are:

{ Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings


{ Less expensive
{ Can be reached large number of people at once
{ Knowledge building exercise
{ Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity



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{ Developing interpersonal skills and communication skills

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     ? In this type of role play, all trainees are in groups, with each group acting out
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the learning points.

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and learn from the play.

    
? It starts as a single role play. After the interaction of participants, the trainer will
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characters. This method allows a variety of ways to approach the roles.

Ú    ?w In this kind of role play, one of the trainees plays herself while the other
trainees play people with whom the first participant interacted before.

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Press Releases, Media Outreach, Trade Shows, and User Events may be some of
the activities that have been a part of your annual marketing mix. ëor many
companies, these programs have proven too valuable to be omitted and will
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your return, each activity should be scrutinized to determine if they complement,
overlap, or simply don't deliver. aith history on your side, you'll have the
analysis in hand to determine which to drop and which to now integrate into
your custom designed campaign.

                
     

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