This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Training and teaching
What is the basic difference?
So how do we define the fundamental differences between teaching and training?
Teach has many alternate definitions, including: y To cause to know something y To guide the studies of y To impart the knowledge of y To instruct by precept, example, or experience Definitions for train are: y To form by instruction, discipline, or drill y To make prepared for a test of skill Note that training focuses on skill; the definitions imply a narrower focus than teaching and possibly a shorter timeframe. We might associate training with the notion of exercises that we repeat until we "get" the skills we are trying to acquire - until they become almost second nature. The definitions for teaching, in contrast, imply deeper knowledge and a longer timeframe. We often hear the term "lifelong learning," but I can't recall ever hearing about "lifelong training."
Do teaching and training have different goals? First, let's examine this question from two viewpoints: The people receiving the teaching or training, whom we will call students; and that of the organization to whom the students report. For full-time college students, that organization is usually the "Mom and Dad Company." For professionals in the workforce, the organization is usually their employer. College students' goals What motivates students? As a teacher, I'd like to say that students come to my class with an intense desire to learn. But I'm not that naieve - rarely does a student have such a desire. Most college students have three primary goals with respect to their courses: 1. Getting good grades. Like it or not, in academia, grades are how you are measured. They're not always fair. Some people don't test well and struggle to get good grades. But most instructors assign grades to indicate how well students have grasped the course material in a course. 2. Qualifying for continuing financial aid. With the cost of college education today, financial aid plays an important role for many students. Good grades are a requirement for maintaining financial aid, typically along with other requirements, such as working on campus for a certain number of hours. 3. Finding employment after graduation. This is, by far, the primary motivation for most students. Many of my computer science students are worried about job prospects when the leave school. They know the market for software engineers is not as robust as it was when they began their course of studies. So they work hard to develop enough skills and basic knowledge to make themselves attractive to potential employers. Professionals' goals What about professionals? What is their motivation for additional learning? Surely not grades. Professional courses, seminars, and workshops are typically not graded. You pay your money and walk away with as much knowledge as you can absorb. Nevertheless, I think professionals have three goals that map closely to those of college students. 1. Get a good annual review. Professionals do receive "grades," just not in courses. Instead, they are graded on their job performance. Taking courses might help them get better reviews - first, because it demonstrates their personal motivation and a desire to
help the organization, and second, because it gives them skills to do their work more effectively. 2. Keep your job and get a raise. Just as students must work hard to maintain their financial aid, professionals must perform at a certain level in order to keep their jobs and get salary increases. During the last few years, many people have lost their jobs, both in the software industry and others. This sense of insecurity is something we would never have imagined ten years ago. 3. Learn what is necessary to get a better job. Almost everyone looks toward the next job they want when they consider voluntary training - whether it is a promotion in their current company or a new, exciting position in a different organization.
Balancing training and teaching
Everything we do in our lives requires a balance between two things or more - a compromise. This column talks about the balance between theory and practice, so it is appropriate to consider that balance with respect to training and teaching. In my January 2004 column, I explained how I am seeking the right blend of theory and practice in my software development courses. My primary job is to prepare students for the rest of their working lives and help them succeed in their careers. So I first have to ensure that they learn fundamental principles and then teach them to use specific tools and techniques as time allows. A sample development project Things are a little different in a work environment. Let's say you are managing a new project to develop an enterprise-wide system to manage inventory in multiple, worldwide locations. This will involve Internet technology, database systems, and so on. You add two new members to the project team. Sarah is a new graduate with a computer science degree. She has learned software engineering principles as well as some specific technologies, such as Java programming. Mike has been employed with your organization for a while; he has attended inhouse training courses in programming as well as on other topics that apply to his job. Mike started his career in the military, which he joined right after high school; he never attended college. Both of these people have valuable skills. If you could combine their two skill sets, you would have an ideal team member who could step in and hit the ground running. However, as both of these people are new to the project, they need some orientation. Sarah will have the challenge of learning to understand not only the system itself, but also the culture within your organization and the specific ways people conduct business. And Mike will be challenged as well; your project has decided to adopt tools and processes from IBM Rational Suite,® which is new to your organization. You plan to follow a customized version of IBM Rational Unified Process,® use Rational ClearCase® for configuration management, Rational RequisitePro® for requirements management, and so on. The team might use additional tools as appropriate, some of which you will develop in house. Applying learning and training Now let's see how their respective backgrounds affect the way Sarah and Mike handle learning challenges. First, in order to learn about the system under construction, both of them look at the Software Architecture Document (SAD). This describes some architecturally significant use cases, UML diagrams, plans for development, testing, and so on. Mike is familiar with the format: It's the company standard he's been trained on. He quickly grasps the project's scope and potential business impact. His internal training courses and experience within the company have prepared him to understand both the jargon and companyspecific business issues. Sarah, in contrast, struggles a little over the terminology, application domain, and acronyms; but she quickly grasps the overall architecture. She understands multitier architectures and the technologies used to represent this one. She also understands why certain areas have been identified as architecturally significant and begins to see how the
designer might apply some common design patterns to simplify the architecture and make it more robust. You have assigned Mike and Sarah to the same small team responsible for implementing part of the business logic in the system's middle tier. The team has already decided that they can break up the use cases into user stories, which will help them schedule work and track progress. They have also decided to use JUnit for unit testing as they work. You allow them to hire an instructor to provide a day of training for the team on how to create user stories and apply JUnit. After the training, both Sarah and Mike understand the basic concepts and applications for user stories. When it comes to JUnit, Mike understands the mechanism, but he has trouble deciding what to test. Sarah remembers the principles of testing she learned in her software engineering class and begins to write positive and negative tests, boundary condition tests, and so on. She also takes time to help Mike develop good tests. They meet for several sessions of pairprogramming for the tests. Sarah learns more about the application domain from Mike, and he picks up new techniques and basic principles from Sarah. She suggests to you that using a code coverage tool in conjunction with JUnit would provide rapid feedback about the completeness of the unit tests. When you give her the go-ahead, Sarah reads through the IBM Rational PureCoverage manual and then writes a short document explaining how to use the tool to check the team's Java code. She holds a brown-bag lunch to answer questions about Rational PureCoverage, and then the team starts using the tool to improve their testing. As the project proceeds, the requirements change, and the team has to adapt the code they've already created to changes in the architecture. Luckily, the architecture has been well constructed, so there are clean interfaces for the major modules. However, some of the changes threaten certain interfaces and could have ripple effects through the subsystem the team is building. Sarah thinks about the design patterns she learned in one of her classes and realizes that, instead of refactoring the existing code, the team could make the code much more robust by adding adapters to the code base and applying common patterns, such as decorator, factory method, and so on. Even though she learned these design pattern implementations in C++, she understands the principles behind them and can easily adapt them for Java. Sarah turns to Mike again for help with the mechanics of setting up her environment to take advantage of the advanced features in IBM Rational ClearCase, because he's had extensive training on this tool. Once she is adept at using these features, Sarah becomes much more productive. She also realizes that the team might be able to leverage Rational ClearCase to achievecontinuous integration, a goal discussed in her software engineering class. She reads up on how to script tools for Rational ClearCase and then writes a couple of Perl scripts to make integration tests run continually as the integration builds proceed. When they adopt this change in process, team members find that they can indentify integration problems more quickly and fix them more easily. Mike, meanwhile, uses his knowledge of the organization and how it does business to identify several requirements that simply do not reflect how business is actually conducted. He also knows who to talk to in order to adjust the requirements, so you appoint him the domain expert for the team. You pat yourself on the back for bringing two high-powered people like Mike and Sarah on the team. Each one knows how to apply what he or she has learned and also how to leverage one another's strengths, which are complementary. But in the long haul, who is most likely to get ahead? I'd put my money on Sarah. Sarah's grounding in fundamental principles allows her to quickly find solutions to common problems and think strategically about measures that will increase both coding efficiency and system quality. Mike's practical knowledge has given him a deep understanding of his work environment and business processes that he can use to identify problems and quickly get them resolved. Sarah will acquire these same capabilities as time goes on - that is the nature of onthe-job training. But how could Mike acquire theoretical knowledge like Sarah's? Many people do it by going back to college, but some cannot make that kind of commitment.
Create an ongoing learning environment
Fortunately, there are some healthy organizations that not only offer training but also support opportunities for employees to acquire knowledge about theories and principles relating to their work. By giving people time and funding to pursue knowledge through outside sources, such organizations can give their "Sarahs" the domain knowledge that their "Mikes" have, and also help their "Mikes" learn what their "Sarahs" learned in academia. In other words, they create a learning environment that supports both the short-term and long-term goals of the organization and the employee. In a business setting, managers can act as "teachers" who guide learning for their employees. Managers can also help team members plot their careers, based on what each person wants to learn. And good managers can match the employee's desires with the company's needs. Many successful organizations recognize that this form of teaching (or mentoring) is critical for business success. They make it a condition for managerial promotions and pay increases. But they also give employees time to learn and opportunities to use the knowledge they acquire. On the academic side, we will continue to educate students about basic principles, sprinkled with a little training; we'll give them some practice and a lot of theory. When our graduates join your organization, we hope you will continue to expose them to theory rather than just providing practice in the form of training. You can take advantage of the resources at learning institutions in your area and provide programs that keep employees up to date on issues and ideas about software development. Invest in the future. Training helps people today; teaching guarantees them - and your organization - a bright tomorrow.
Learning about management issues and concepts
The four functions of management are: 1.The base function is to: Plan It is the foundation area of management. It is the base upon which the all the areas of management should be built. Planning requires administration to assess; where the company is presently set, and where it would be in the upcoming. From there an appropriate course of action is determined and implemented to attain the company¶s goals and objectives Planning is unending course of action. There may be sudden strategies where companies have to face. Sometimes they are uncontrollable. You can say that they are external factors that constantly affect a company both optimistically and pessimistically. Depending on the conditions, a company may have to alter its course of action in accomplishing certain goals. This kind of preparation, arrangement is known as strategic planning. In strategic planning, management analyzes inside and outside factors that may affect the company and so objectives and goals. Here they should have a study of strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats. For management to do this efficiently, it has to be very practical and ample. 2.The subsequent function is to: Organize The second function of the management is getting prepared, getting organized. Management must organize all its resources well before in hand to put into practice the course of action to decide that has been planned in the base function. Through this process, manageme will now determine the nt inside directorial configuration; establish and maintain relationships, and also assign required resources. While determining the inside directorial configuration, management ought to look at the different divisions or departments. They also see to the harmonization of staff, and try to find out the best way to handle the important tasks and expenditure of information within the company. Management determines the division of work according to its need. It also has to decide for suitable departments to
hand over authority and responsibilities. 3.The third function is to: Direct Directing is the third function of the management. Working under this function helps the management to control and supervise the actions of the staff. This helps them to assist the staff in achieving the company¶s goals and also accomplishing their personal or career goals which can be powered by motivation, communication, department dynamics, and department leadership. Employees those which are highly provoked generally surpass in their job performance and also play important role in achieving the company¶s goal. And here lies the reason why managers focus on motivating their employees. They come about with prize and incentive programs based on job performance and geared in the direction of the employees requirements. It is very important to maintain a productive working environment, building positive interpersonal relationships, and problem solving. And this can be done only with Effective communication. Understanding the communication process and working on area that need improvement, help managers to become more effective communicators. The finest technique of finding the areas that requires improvement is to ask themselves and others at regular intervals, how well they are doing. This leads to better relationship and helps the managers for better directing plans.
4.The final function is to: Control Control, the last of four functions of management, includes establishing performance standards which are of course based on the company¶s objectives. It also involves evaluating and reporting of actual job performance. When these points are studied by the management then it is necessary to compare both the things. This study on comparision of both decides further corrective and preventive actions. In an effort of solving performance problems, management should higher standards. They should straightforwardly speak to the employee or department having problem. On the contrary, if there are inadequate resources or disallow other external factors standards from being attained, management had to lower their standards as per requirement. The controlling processes as in comparison with other three, is unending process or say continuous process. With this management can make out any probable problems. It helps them in taking necessary preventive measures against the consequences. Management can also recognize any further developing problems that need corrective actions. Effective and efficient management leads to success, the success where it attains the objectives and goals of the organizations. Of course for achieving the ultimate goal and aim management need to work creatively in problem solving in all the four functions. Management not only has to see the needs of accomplishing the goals but also has to look in to the process that their way is feasible for the company.
The Kirkpatrick modelespecially helps you to structure training design. the 'skill-sets' and training needs analysis tools . love element. Good writing techniques help with the design of materials. Revisit model. wonderful for and compassion at understanding work as well as skills. Create 3. Consider evaluation training effectiveness. . This commonly happens in theappraisal process. in pdf format) group. Consider team activities and exercises. not objects. each model is and spirituality. Attach standards or Considerorganizational measures or valuesand aspects parameters to The Erikson ofintegrity and ethics. Consider Bloom's theory too. So Why people leave also tools. processes and tools found in the effective planning and delivery of organizational training. Plan training and evaluation 5. which can be adapted for all sorts of providers and services. So do the principles of advertising . Remember you are dealing with people. Involve the people in identifying and agreeing relevant aligned training.Principles of learning and development basic idea training process ideas and outline process Here is a relatively simple overview of typical reference models. Consider modern innovative methods see the Businessballs Community for lots of providers and ideas. methods and deliver training Conduct some sort oftraining needs analysis. See the self-study program design tipsbelow . There is a usefultraining providers selection template on the sales training page.they can help organize and training elements assessment on a large scale.it's all about meaningful communication. degree Look also at your process and So is the Johari recruitment processes templateand Window model. so that you can understand what sort of development you are actually addressing. See also running meetings andworkshops. 4. The 360 more about this. People have feelings as well as skills and knowledge. does helps identify the Tuckman development needs. Presentation is an important aspect to delivery.there is no point the training people if they simpletraining Consider the are not the right planner (also team and the people to begin with. Assess and agree training needs 2. . Look also atpersonality types. Consider training or learning styles development and personality specification Having identified what you want to train and develop in people. 1. you must break down the training or learning requirement into manageable elements. Adair's are useful theory helps. Another method example of assessing and prioritising training isDIF Analysis. which includes before-and-after measurements.the internet offers more opportunities than ever. Design materials. People's learning styles greatly affect what type of training they will find easiest and most effective.
Skills and knowledge. managers. Attitude includes qualities that require different training and learning methods. innovative. which people see as a chore. inter-personal skills. self-confidence. commitment. emotional maturity. Training is nothing without the motivation to apply it effectively. Many of these methodologies are explained on this website. This is why training and learning must extend far beyond conventional classroom training courses. accredited training and learning. on-the-job coaching. Development isn't restricted to training . in ability. and transfer of knowledge and policy etc.see and download a free training process diagram. techniques. mentoring. informal training. and open-minded. the acquisition of knowledge. Training . whether for yourself. attitudinal training and development. See also thetraining induction checklist and planner tool. and the processes available to people. The leader's ethics and behaviour set the standard for their people's. Be creative. external training courses. confidence. are no great advantage. Training and learning development includes aspects such as: ethics and morality. these are step-by-step processes . skills training. think about what really helps people to change. but remember after this to concentrate most of your 'training' efforts and resources on enabling and facilitating meaningful learning and personal development for people. and knowledge are trained. and training itself. largely determines how well people perform in their jobs.all part of the training menu. and experience. customer satisfaction. raises morale. There is no reason to stop at work-related training. More importantly. Explore them and enjoy them. your team. technicians. leadership and determination. distance learning . be they leaders. A strong capability to plan and manage skills training. to look at it from the trainee's view . On-the-job training. belief system. morale. and the development of motivation and attitude. it improves performance. or indeed by delivering most sorts of conventional business or skills training. management succession. and the productivity of the business. Go further to help people grow and develop as people. productivity. behavioural development training. role-playing and role-play games and exercises. If you want to make a difference.and also enabling learning and personal development . which determines how productively they use their skills and knowledge. training . training assignments and tasks. All supervisors and managers should enable and provide training and development for their peop le training develops people. Attitude stems from a person's mind-set. training and developing people increases the health and effectiveness of the organization. or your organization. Training is also available far beyond and outside the classroom. tolerance.the important qualities which make good performers special are likely to be attitudinal . If you consider the attributes of really effective people. any role at all. and more. technical training.it's anything that helps a person to grow. . More free training tools are available for download at the free training tools and resources page. and there are better ways of achieving this sort of change and development than putting people in a classroom.There are many different training and development methods. which are templates for planning and organising the delivery of job skills training and processes. As regards conventional work-related training planning. classroom training. internal training courses. available to use and apply according to individual training needs and organisational training needs.is essential for the organisation. business development and profitability.or learning. skills. understanding. See for example the training planner and training/lesson plan calculator tool. motivation (see the motivation theory section).is anything offering learning and developmental experience. These are the greatest training and development challenges faced. initiative. and you will discover learning in virtually every new experience. product training. attitude and behaviour. and encourage others to do the same. It helps improve quality. self-control. Use these tools and processes to ensure that essential work-related skills. operators. as well as skills and knowledge. lifecoaching. What makes people effective and valuable to any organization is their attitude.
Induction Training is especially important for new starters. or mentoring. goals and philosophy. where the toilets are. Your aim is to help the other person learn and develop not to create another version of yourself. timescales and expectations. we do need to start with the essentials. which ensures a better result. health and safety rules. It helps you design activities and tasks that the other person will be more be more comfortable doing. subject to organisational policy. where's the canteen. It's important that as a manager you understand yourself well before you coach. as an individual. and then settled in quickly and happily to a productive role. It's about the basics that seasoned employees all take for granted: what the shifts are. If possible 'top-up' this sort of development through the provision of mentoring and facilitative coaching (drawing out . The sooner the better. with clear methods. . during or very soon after the induction process. and how best to help others grow and learn and develop.also need to be assessed. quicker. When you understand yourself. and beyond work requirements. and the way that you see and relate to the person that your are coaching.it's a useful explanation of the importance of open communications and strong mutual understanding among staff in organizations. beyond the job role. or the skill-set that the organisation inevitably defines for the person. However there is great advantage in beginning to address personal development needs.and aims and desires and special talents (current and dormant) . for example induction training for new starters. Good induction training ensures new starters are retained. how best to communicate. so they and everyone else involved can see what's happening and that everything is included. abilities. Various models and tests are available to help understand learning styles . See also the Johari Window model and adapted theory . talent. and managers and supervisors play a key role in helping this process. so as to understand. Look atmultiple intelligences and the VAK learning model and free learning style tests. or train or mentor others: Are your own your own skills adequate? Do you need help or training in any important areas necessary to train. coach. to experience themselves by trial and error? Knowing the other person's preferred learning style helps you deliver the training in the most relevant and helpful way. Managers must ensure induction training is properly planned . coaching or mentoring role. These induction training principles are necessarily focused on the essential skills and knowledge for a new starter to settle in and to begin to do their job. which is very effective in producing excellent people.how they prefer to learn do they like to read and absorb a lot of detail. and for all situations where people work together. you understand how you will be perceived.by a variety of methods . where the notice-board is. and of course the job they're required to do. mentor others? What is your own style? How do you you communicate? How do you approach tasks? What are your motives? These all affect the way you see and perform see the training. wishes. what's the dress code. look to develop each person in a meaningful relevant way that they will enjoy and seek. People's personal strengths and capabilities .and then structure the way that the training and development is to be delivered. sickness. Here's a free induction training checklist. opportunities. and. particular strengths. that the opportunities for their development and achievement in the organisation are not limited by the job role. New employees also need to understand the organisation's mission.. And it's vital you understand the other person's style and personality too .Having said this. personnel practices. You must prepare and provide a suitable induction plan for each new starter. what's the routine for holidays. Induction training is more than skills training. etc. do they prefer to be shown. Mentoring and proper coaching should be used alongside formal structured training anyway. let people know that their job role does not define their potential as a person within or outside the organisation. but this type of support can also greatly assist 'whole-person development'. especially where the mentor or coach is seen as a role-model for the person's own particular aspirations. An organisation needs to assess its people's skills training needs . or training.an induction training plan must be issued to each new employee.not putting in). It's also a useful model for personal awareness and selfdevelopment. and help the person understand.look at the Kolb model. As early as possible.
competency. Task-based analysis is important for organizational development measurement and planning. The Skill-set and TNA tools on this website could.the highest training priorities are obviously the activities (skills. At a simple level. Importance (yes/no) and Frequency (yes/no). Training priority is obviously given to developing essential competencies. here are three other examples of methods for prioritising training: Essential/Desirable . Analysis can become extremely complex. and Frequency. which in most situations is the case. DIF Analysis does not automatically take account of personal preferences and potential capabilities. depending on the situation. so it is sensible to ensure that the level of analysis is appropriate for the situation before starting to build complex analysis systems. return on investment (typically in terms of organizational performance. Analysis and detail should always be a means to an end (to achieve effective training and development). given modest expertise in spreadsheets and logic. Ultimately the best way to prioritise training is can be simply to agree with the trainee what they are most keen to commit to. DIF Analysis can be used in different ways: for example as a flow diagram to consider each activity using a simple yes/no for each of the three factors in sequence of Difficulty (yes/no). and as such consideration to this aspect is wise where trainee commitment is influential upon development. based on three perspectives: Difficulty. but approaching training prioritisation from purely a task perspective ignores the vital personal factor.) In addition to the skill-sets and training needs analysis tools on this website.DIF stands for Difficulty. Weighting (significance of each factor relative to the job purpose/aims) is required in order to optimise the usefulness and relevance of the system. in other words. DIF Analysis is a sophisticated (and potentially very complex) method of assessing performance. Importance. whatever) according to whether it isessential or desirable for the job purpose and organizational performance.simply and quickly define each activity (skill. Importance. which is generally the most powerful force for effective training and development. not an end in themselves. Importance/Competency matrix . be adapted to manage DIF Analysis. Resist the tendency to become overly detailed. whereas an activity that scores high on all three scales is a high priority. Other methods exist for prioritising training. .prioritising training Given the vast range of skills and other competencies which can be developed in people it is useful for some sort of prioritising to take place so that training focuses on the areas which will yield best benefit. Choose or develop a method which is appropriate for your situation. All the analysis and detail in the world will not guarantee trainee commitment. high importance and low competence = high training priority low importance and low competence = low training priority high importance and high competence = low training priority low importance and high competence = zero training priority DIF Analysis . an activity that scores low on all three scales is obviously low priority. For such a potentially detailed system. prioritising training needs and planning training. whatever) which are high importance (of task to organizational performance) and low competence (of trainee skill level). Frequency. If you have one to share please send it. competencies. although the needs of teams and individuals can also be very significant in prioritising training and development. although better dedicated DIF Analysis tools exist. whatever) rather than looking at development from a personal individual perspective. especially if applied to a group or organization. competencies. which generates eight possible combinations. The system looks at tasks and activities (or skills.
developing people and capabilities Many organizations face the challenge of developing greater confidence. or courage. initiative. . This means the rewards must be there too. and problem-solving capabilities among their people. The internet enables self-study learning and development programs to be more useful. interesting and excellent ideas. lack confidence to do what they think is right. The growing businessballs community contains many other different innovative. maturity and attitude. Be creative and innovative. It starts with the person. they automatically become more proactive. It's about attitude and emotional maturity. Organisations need staff at all levels to be more self-sufficient. in fact all of the behaviours that organizations strive to encourage. It's not a particularly conventional one.. integrity. belief. roles and teams. There are many. Try to see things from the person's (your people's) point of view. 'emotional contracting' with the organisation. responsive. greater responsibility. Performance and capability are ultimately dependent on people's attitude and emotional maturity. initiative. So many people at work are simply 'going through the motions'. solutions-finding. Participative workshops work well in beginning this type of attitudinal development. or people have no reason to stick their necks out. and involvement in new successful and interesting projects. and this provides a platform for trust. Johari is a useful model too. while conventional skills training gives people new techniques and methods. emotionally. to take risks. empowering and cost-effective than ever before. This website is effectively a self-study program. which is so essential for the development of managerial and strategic capabilities. or are nervous about being bold. whereas boldness is absolutely required for self-sufficiency. However. designing self-study training and learning programmes The same basic principles apply to designing self-study programs as to any other sort of training design. Again. and to want to take risks. Involve people right from the start. acting in a 'conforming' state. etc. Help them to achieve what they want on a personal level. often because they feel insecure. not the skills. People's efforts produce bigger results. This behaviour enables staff can operate at higher strategic level. methods. Focus on what they want. it won't develop their maturity. More importantly the Herzberg-type motivators . which makes their organizations more productive and competitive. solutions-focused. You could also use a personal development questionnaire to begin to set the scene and provide examples of 'alternative' learning opportunities. development and fulfilment. not the skills. focus on developing the person. The only limits are those you imagine. creative and autonomous. which across a whole team has a cumulative effect. recognition. The Emotional Intelligence principles and methodologies fit very well with modern approaches to developing people's belief. Like any sort of learning it will appeal to some people but not others. resourceful. and technologies. It's what all organizations strive to achieve. This is the fuel of people's growth and change. And not just the prospect of financial reward.people have to experience things which enable them to feel bolder. Look on the web for ideas and selfstudy and self-development resources. When people develop confidence.real extra responsibility. Provide learning and experiences that they'd like for their own personal interest. groups. nor an accredited or measurable one. and free resources. providers. and subsequent skills/process/knowledge development relevant to managing higher responsibilities. You can't 'teach' boldness .
particularly to and between management/subordinate/peer levels. such as Erikson's theory. Involving people from the beginning increases ideas. and direct job and organizational performance improvement. read the training design and evaluation materials on this page and elsewhere on the website. and broadly features: y y y y strategic assessment of organisational and department priorities and 'high-yield' training needs interpreted discussion with line-managers of training delegates and strategic managers of the organisation pre-training skills/behavioural needs-analysis .focused on practical priorities and individual needs (SMART and WIIFM factors) follow-up coaching and mentoring one-to-one support . Well-facilitated 'activity focused mentoring' is consensual.giving high accountability and reliable deliverables ongoing feedback and review with line-managers and strategic managers . the learning styles and multiple intelligence theories. and the ideas of Maslow. MBO's are a 'one-way street'. relevance and commitment.short sessions . Assessment and development are tightly connected. Know yourself as a trainer (and/or encourage this among your trainers). across multiple organizational interfaces. etc. but is more participative. The approach isfacilitative rather than prescriptive. To help you understand yourself read the materials relating to personality and motivation. organizations. but overall systems: ie. voluntary and inclusive.all training delegates . how an organization works). and the Bloom learning domains taxonomy model. Designing a good self-study program should by its nature if possible involve the students.. The group selection recruitment and assessment centre guide is also relevant. attitudinal development. for example the Kirpatrick evaluation and design model. thepersonality styles theories.focused on practical job issues. especially for staff in teams and departments. The approach builds on management by objectives (MBO's) principles. in an open. By comparison. and for developing organizations themselves . isolated and individually separate. To help you structure and design and assess learning. Herzberg. before you design how to achieve it. Then it is easier to decide how and what will help best. and help trainees and learners to know themselves. organic. McGregor. individual personality/learning style and organisational priorities individually agreed tasks and assignments . management and communications. threedimensional way. As ever consider what you seek to achieve. team-orientated. dynamic. Activity focused mentoring methods also help develop systems (not IT and processes. The activity-mentoring approach uses several integrated techniques which produce more reliable and relevant training and learning outputs.practical workshops . in terms of individual skills. mentoring linked to projects and objectives activities Linking mentoring with objectives and project tasks or activities is a highly productive and effective modern method of training and developing people in organizations. prescribed along a single-channel towards a task focus. with a personal development and team building focus.highly participative and situation/solutionbased .and pre-training preparatory work small groups .coaching/task notes for line managers y y y .You will find many other self-development offerings on the internet if you tap into relevant communities and portals.
Mentors need to be facilitators and coaches. number of mentors an number of 'mentorees' . behaviour and job priority areas. The main elements of a mentoring programme that carry quantifiable cost would be: y Training of mentor(s) . task. for instance client or supplier visits. Mentorees need simply to open their minds to the guidance and facilitative methods of the mentor. many of the principles of mentoring are common to those of proper coaching. not tutors or trainers. so this is arguably a credit not a debit. That said. because the process enables so much more for the mentoree in terms of experience of learning.. Say on average a day a month including the associated administration work. where the mentoring is essentially provided by external people.000/head . The mentor should therefore focus mentoring effort and expectations (of the person being mentored especially. as well as being strongly motivational and where necessary resolving conflict and attitudinal issues. Mentoring can be external. there may be occasions when the one-to-one would necessarily involve a whole day out for the mentor.The process works on several different levels: individual. other people who are not ready or able to help others can be beyond any amount of training. ie. up to at most a couple of hours a week one-to-one. Give someone the answers and they learn only the answers. etc. While giving the answers is usually better than giving no help at all. and because mentoring programmes are so varied.if it's a programme involving several mentors an mentorees then estimate an hour per quarter (3 mths) per one-to-one mentoring relationship . Here however are general cost indicators for a program essentially delivered by internally appointed mentors. which are particularly prominent within life coaching. Mentor time away from normal activities .if the mentoring is limited to just a single one-to-one relationship then it's largely self-managing . evaluating and monitoring activity. effectiveness. or an internal activity. statistics as to general costs and returns across industry are not easy to find. helping the mentoree to find the answers for him/herself provides far more effective mentoring.. Overseeing the program. and Sharon Drew Morgen's Facilitative Questioning methodology. Activity focused mentoring also gives strong outputs in skills. You should also refer to aspects of NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming). organisational and strategic. particularly where the mentoring is required to be formalised and recorded. but selection of suitable mentor is absolutely critical . If this person with the overview/monitoring responsibility needs external advice you'd need to add on two or three days external training or consultancy costs. and enhance productivity. mentoring cost analysis and justification Mentoring can be provided in various ways and programmes take a variety of shapes. progress and outputs depends on the size of the program. team. instead mentors need to facilitate the experience of discovery and learning. Accordingly. Due to the relative newness of mentoring as a formal organised process. using mentors within the organisation. and the organisation) on helping and guiding the mentoree to find the answers and develop solutions of his/her own. (Mentoree time away from normal activities .it's not rocket science. the mentor's role should be to help the 'mentoree' find the answers for him/herself.effective mentoring should ideally integrate with the mentoree's normal activities.needs to be a minimum of an hour a month one-toone or nothing can usefully be achieved.) y y y mentoring principles and techniqu es Rather than simply give the answers.good natural mentors need little training. which would be intensive almost to the point of overloading the mentoree. The mentor should not normally .probably the responsibility of an HR or training manager.comfortably achievable for £1.
face-to-face. If a mentor tells a mentoree what to do. tools. knowledge.especially the agreed expectations of the people being mentored . whether within an organization. to develop his/her own natural strengths and potential. methods and thinking upon a child. processes. Here are some questions that you should ask yourself. and the implied values and principles. instead a mentor should ask the right questions (facilitative. then the mentoree becomes like the mentor. which is not right nor sustainable. and for the people being mentored? How might you build these core aims. etc) of communication and feedback are available to you. guiding. We can see parallels in the relationship between a parents and a child. failures and successes. non-judgemental) that guide the mentoree towards finding the answers for him/herself. The true self might never appear.are being met. tips on establishing a mentoring service or programme There are very many ways to design a mentoring programme. not ours. a crisis of confidence and purpose occurs as the person tries to find and liberate his or her true self. email.(unless in the case of emergency) provide the answers for the mentoree. The mentor's role is to help the mentoree to find his/her own true self. or when it begins to. When we mentor people. and what communications methods do your 'customers' need and prefer? What outputs and effects do you want the programme to produce for you. If a parent imposes his or her ways. The answers will move you closer to what you seek to achieve: What parameters and aims have you set for the mentoring activity? What will your mentoring programme or service look and feel like? What must it achieve and for whom? What are your timescales? How will the mentoring programme or activity be resourced and managed and measured? What type of design and planning approach works best for you? (It makes sense to use a design and planning approach that works for you. or as a service or help that you provide personally to others. the child becomes a clone of the parent. into your programme design? How can you best measure and agree that these outputs . or when we raise children. style do you think you will need that you do not currently have? .) What are your main skills and style and how might these influence the programme design? What methods (phone. interpretive. and does not help the mentoree to find his/her own true self. experience. and their own wishes. How can you best help people in matters for which you need to refer them elsewhere? What skills. to experience their own attempts. we should try to help them develop as individuals according to their natural selves. and in some cases then falsifies his or her own true self to please and replicate the model projected by the parent. and by so doing.
but is a more difficult area to assess and develop. have the trainee practice the job . Establishing clear visible parameters enables proper agreement of mutual expectations. keeps things controlled. which are different. prepare the trainee . from a series of elements. monitor progress . It is not sufficient simply to assess against a job description.for the transfer of necessary job. Establishing a 'behaviour set' is also very useful.keep them in mind all the time how many people you are training the methods and format you will use when and how long the training lasts where it happens how you will measure its effectiveness how you will measure the trainees' reaction to it When you you give skills training to someone use this simple five-step approach: 1.discuss the method and why. .if you can't measure it you can't manage it.or work-related skills or knowledge.we all learn best by actually doing it .encourage. and then an entire role. and what parts of those requirements are you naturally best able to meet? Mentoring is potentially an infinite demand upon the mentor so you need to have a clear idea of the extent of your mentoring 'offering'. equipment or systems 3. the more steps . assessing. I do and I understand' .the more complex. provide a demonstration . I see and I remember. explain standards and why. when you can build up each skill. When planning training think about: y y y y y y y your objectives . method and style or mentoring in other words what does your 'target market' need?. These tips do not apply automatically to other forms of enabling personal development and facilitating learning. general training tips These tips apply essentially to traditional work-related training . recording and following up on the person's training.give positive feedback . explain the job/task. and are essential for anything complex . as this does not reflect skills.take care to relax them as lots of people find learning new things stressful 2. measuring.What do your 'customers' indicate that they want in terms of content. etc . It's essential to use other training tools too for planning. project. explain necessary tools. skill. Breaking skills down into easily digestible elements enables you to plan and manage the training activities much more effectively.step-by-step . only responsibilities. which by their nature involve much wider and various development methods and experiences. relaxed and always achievable in the mind of the trainee.people cannot absorb a whole complicated task all in one go .('I hear and I forget.always show the correct way accentuate the positive .break it down . Training people in stages.Confucius) 5.seek feedback and check understanding 4. coach and adapt according to the pace of development Creating and using progress charts are helpful. Establishing a relevant 'skill set' is essential for assessing and prioritising training for any role.
Psychometric tests (and even graphology .if you show you care you can expect your trainee to care too check progress regularly and give feedback invite questions and discussion be patient and keep a sense of humour Induction training tips: y y y y y y assess skill and knowledge level before you start teach the really easy stuff first break it down into small steps and pieces of information encourage pride cover health and safety issues fully and carefully try to identify a mentor or helper for the trainee As a manager. for which more sophisticated questioning. or an organisation. coaching. and be kind and thoughtful . . Some tips to make training (and learning. Your organisation may already use systems of one sort or another. This will not however go beyond the basic work-related job skills and attributes development areas. and assessment and training planning see training evaluation. Do it to your utmost and you will be rewarded many times over through greater productivity. as well as recruitment. which is the more common use.handwriting analysis) are also extremely useful for training and developing people. Make use of it all. and other related linked articles on this site. See the section on psychometrics. and performance appraisals. rather than subjective. so seek advice. and not with more important whole person development. as tends to be with your own personal judgement. knowledge and selfawareness. environment and all-round job-satisfaction. helping your people to develop is the greatest contribution you can make to their well-being.or if you can't then explain them and better still provide a written glossary you must tailor training to the individual. Using Skill-Sets to measure individual's skills and competencies is the first stage in producing a training needs analysis for individuals. Psychometric testing produces reliable assessments which are by their nature objective. mentoring and learning facilitation methods need to be used. supervisor. Remember also to strive for your own personal self-development at all times . a group. You can see and download a free Skill-Set tool and Training Needs Analysis tool the free resources page. and a whole organisation. mentoring) more enjoyable and effective: y y y y y y y y y y keep instructions positive ('do this' rather than 'don't do this') avoid jargon . and treat them as an opportunity for you both to learn from them focus on accomplishment and progress .More information and guidance about working with 'Skill-Sets' and 'Behaviour Sets'.recognition is the fuel of development offer praise generously be enthusiastic . efficiency.be accepting of mistakes. These tools deal merely with basic work training. Some of these systems and tools are extremely useful in facilitating whole-person learning and development.these days we have more opportunity and resource available than ever to increase our skills. so you need to be prepared to adapt the pace according to the performance once training has begun encourage.
Receiving recognition is a powerful motivator and stimulant towards further training and personal development. rather than from extensive note taking and memorization. Exchange ongoing feedback around their experiences In addition. successfully. projects or challenges. Action learning asserts that adults learn best when: 1. Projects. It can make the difference between them wanting to try again or not. or a mention in a company magazine or newsletter is often all that it takes to give people a huge boost. real-world problem 2. which dramatically adds to the power of the recognition. People's valiant failures deserve recognition too. is special. job-swaps. and keep striving to succeed in the future. And yet the opportunity to acknowledge people's achievements is often overlooked. but not nearly so impactful as a letter.letter examples As an employer or manager. sign and send. is based on contemporary views of adult learning. .especially in this age of disposable emails. So. adults often learn best from experience. founded by Reginald Revans about 50 years ago in England. take the time to recognise and thank employees for successfully (or unsuccessfully) completing training and development courses. It's personally signed. Adapt these examples to give encouragement to people when they are striving to improve and achieve. It took time and care to write. It's on official letterheaded paper. They are highly vest in solving the current problem 3. Working to address a current. delegated tasks. 2. Think about it: A letter. ADULT LEARNING Concept of adult learning Some Contemporary Principles of Adult Learning The process of action learning. or even a verbal 'well done' or pat on the back is better than nothing at all. A simple letter of congratulations . and often help the person to keep positive. or encouragement when a brave effort fall short. They actually apply new materials and information and 4. temporary postings and other responsibilities can all be forms of learning and development and are worthy of recognition when carried out well. An email. when some people need a boost more than ever. It's something people tend to keep. and also encouragement for unsuccessful effort. Letters of recognition and congratulations are appropriate from line managers. but a letter is a very powerful indeed. an email is good. and higher up the organisation especially.recognise and acknowledge training and development achievements . An individual signed letter of congratulations from the MD or CEO is a hugely motivational event in most employee's lives. Here's are some short examples of simple sample letters of congratulations or encouragement for completing training and development aims. Remember that training and development is not restricted to training courses. It is likely to be opened so that the partner or family sees it too. sent to the home address.
Scope/Application : Situated learning is a general theory of knowledge acquisition . McLellan (1995) provides a collection of articles that describe various perspectives on the theory. Research on metacognition may be relevant to the study of learning strategies in so far as they are both concerned with control processes. Situated learning has antecedents in the work of Gibson (theory of affordances) and Vygotsky (social learning). Brown. context and culture in which it occurs (i. the method of loci is a classic memory improvement technique. the use of questions before. Social interaction is a critical component of situated learning -.e. and (5) review the material. (2) develop questions about the material. situated learning is usually unintentional rather than deliberate. you simply visualize places and the associated facts.one that emphasizes active perception over concepts and representation. Suchman (1988) explores the situated learning framework in the context of artificial intelligence. It has been applied in the context of technology-based learning activities for schools that focus on problem-solving skills (Cognition & Technology Group at Vanderbilt. they become more active and engaged within the culture and hence assume the role of expert or old-timer.. the theory of Schoenfeld on mathematical problem solving embodies some of the critical elements of situated learning framework. it involves making associations between facts to be remembered and particular locations. A number of learning theories emphasize the importance of learning strategies including: double loop learning ( Argyris ). during or after instruction has been shown to increase the degree of learning (see Ausubel). it is situated). (3) read the material. Furthermore. This ranges from techniques for improved memory to better studying or test-taking strategies.Learning Strategies Learning strategies refer to methods that students use to learn. (4) recall the key ideas. both outside and inside school. conversation theory (Pask). 1970). an important aspect of Situated Learning Theory. also emphasize the need for a new epistemology for learning -. For example. develop and use cognitive tools in authentic domain activity. Some learning strategies involve changes to the design of instruction. Methods that attempt to increase the degree of learning that occurs have been called "mathemagenic" (Ropthkopf. Lave) Overview: Lave argues that learning as it normally occurs is a function of the activity. Weinstein (1991) discusses learning strategies in the context of social interaction. . In addition. In order to remember something. advances through collaborative social interaction and the social construction of knowledge. For example. This contrasts with most classroom learning activities which involve knowledge which is abstract and out of context." Brown et al.learners become involved in a "community of practice" which embodies certain beliefs and behaviors to be acquired. 1993). These ideas are what Lave & Wenger (1991) call the process of "legitimate peripheral participation. As the beginner or newcomer moves from the periphery of this community to its center." Other researchers have further developed the theory of situated learning. and lateral thinking ( DeBono ). Situated Learning (J. Learning. A typical study skill program is SQ3R which suggests 5 steps: (1) survey the material to be learned. Collins & Duguid (1989) emphasize the idea of cognitive apprenticeship: "Cognitive apprenticeship supports learning in a domain by enabling students to acquire.
hostility. Learning requires social interaction and collaboration. 2. Law of Exercise: Things most often repeated are best retained. the learning objective is clear. defeat. and the knowledge or skill being learned is relevant. While motivation is an individual responsibility. their learning needs are unique. there was a gradual acquisition of knowledge and skills as novices learned from experts in the context of everyday activities. and a supportive environment to help the learner gain knowledge and skills and to shape professional values. An adult should be corrected when a mistake has been made. conduct. If adult learners accept the purpose of the learning activity.Example: Lave & Wenger (1991) provide an analysis of situated learning in five different settings: Yucatec midwives. navy quartermasters. one of the pioneers in educational psychology. the preceptor or supervisor should help plan. In all cases. then they approach learning with eagerness. meat cutters and alcoholics. i. the preceptor or supervisor can encourage a readiness to learn. Law of Intensity: The adult learner will gain more from the learning activity if it is structured y y y . People will not learn if they see no reason for learning. y Law of Readiness: Adults learn best when they are ready to learn. and reinforcing. ³Laws´ of learning: Professor Edward L. The preceptor or supervisor can implement the law of exercise by providing opportunities for practice or by repeating learning activities that strengthen skills.. Principles: 1. and attitudes. learning is weakened when associated with an unpleasant feeling. experience-based change takes place in an individual¶s knowledge. These laws represent Thorndike¶s work and its application to the adult learning process in healthcare management. Knowledge needs to be presented in an authentic context. skills. postulated several ³laws´ of learning. Adult learning is facilitated through an innate ability to acquire additional knowledge or skills and through environmental influences. During training in healthcare management. Thorndike. Although training in early and beginning career development should be self-directed. Learning is effective when it is purposeful and when the experiences involve both cognitive and effective skills of the learner. An experience that produces feelings of frustration. Effective learning based on principles of adult learning involves developing objectives and strategies and structuring activities to achieve these objectives. This section acquaints the preceptor or supervisor with principles of adult learning and provides guidance in developing. This law is the basis of all practice and drill in learning activities. settings and applications that would normally involve that knowledge. While the preceptor or supervisor has no control over innate abilities. conducting. and evaluating training experiences. structured activities. This activity is especially effective when accompanied by constructive feedback. native tailors. instructive. As such.e. Effective learning requires evaluation and feedback between the preceptor or supervisor and the adult learner to correct actions and reinforce learning activities. but the correction should be positive. Law of Effect: Learning is strengthened when accompanied by positive feedback that generates a satisfying feeling. and evaluate the training experience. or confusion will hamper learning. Using Adult Lifelong Learning Concepts Fellows and management trainees are adult learners. he or she can influence learning through the design of learning events.
it should be accomplished with the participation of the preceptor or supervisor. Levels of learning: Recognized domains of learning include cognitive (understanding). To illustrate: y y y y y y Knowledge: Remembering previously learned material Comprehension: Ability to grasp the meaning of material Application: Ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations Analysis: Ability to understand both content and structure and perform critical analysis Synthesis: Ability to create new material or ideas for prior learning Evaluation: Combination of other levels of ability so that expert judgment and valuing can be achieved Effective learning begins by giving attention to something and then proceeding to develop a value system. Developing learning objectives: A practical work experience should begin with a professional development plan. valuing). First. A properly written learning objective y y Identifies the terminal behavior desired (i. skills. the preceptor or supervisor and fellow or trainee must decide which knowledge. The preceptor or supervisor is concerned with cognitive and effective skill development. effective (appreciating. Although this plan is the responsibility of the fellow or trainee. Opportunity for direct involvement will produce a greater learning experience than will mere observation. and values are most important and determine the level of proficiency required. An exciting learning experience will be more valuable than a routine or boring experience. To illustrate: y y y y y Receiving: Giving attention Responding: Responding with interest Valuing: Appreciating value of material or concept Organization: Organizing and bringing together different values to form a conceptualization Characterization: Internalizing the values so that they are a characteristic of the individual Learning objectives: Once the subject matter or skill is selected and the level of learning determined. Then they must state the learning objectives to clearly convey the observable learning outcomes. Cognitive levels of learning begin with simple knowledge and proceed through the evaluation of complex materials or events. the observable knowledge base of skills) Describes the conditions under which the terminal behavior will occur .e. The greater the intensity of the experience and personal involvement. The preceptor or supervisor should structure learning activities that incorporate the law of intensity. and psychomotor (physical coordination). there are two major considerations. the more likely it is that the learner will achieve the learning objective.. the preceptor or supervisor and trainee must jointly prepare statements of learning objectives. The professional development plan is a comprehensive statement of what the fellow or trainee intends to accomplish during the training period and should include the following information: y y y y y A biographical sketch of the fellow or trainee A concise statement of the individual¶s career interests and goals A brief description of the individual¶s personal and professional strengths A brief description of the individual¶s attributes and qualities that need to be developed during the training period A list of educational objectives for the training experience In developing learning objectives.as an intense learning experience.
appropriate forms. the individual must perform certain learning activities. A few of the more useful techniques are described below: y y Log diary: The trainee maintains a log of activities and observations used for self-analysis and joint review and critique with the preceptor or supervisor. and statistical data. Behavior is observed and critiqued by the preceptor or supervisor. The preceptor and trainee then jointly critique the trainee¶s actions. Crisis management: The trainee is put under intense pressure by being assigned an existing or hypothetical crisis. or specific subjects. current issues in healthcare management. such as finance or marketing. In-basket exercise: The trainee is routinely assigned items from the preceptor¶s in-basket that require decisions and/or actions. Management audit: The trainee is assigned the task of designing and conducting a management audit of a function or department. Management study: The trainee is assigned responsibility for designing and conducting an applied research investigation of a particular problem to learn systematic analysis of problems or opportunities. the preceptor or supervisor should consider the following guidelines: y Whole-part-whole approach: Broad concepts should be presented first. such as standard. y y Evaluation serves a primary purpose in providing information for making decisions about training. This teaches the trainee how to evaluate efficiency and effectiveness by comparing performance standards with actual performance. For example. the trainee will learn to prepare a departmental operations budget that accurately reflects the department¶s financial need according to criteria in the guidelines Developing learning strategies: To achieve the desired result. A learning strategy is an organized collection or series of tasks that should enable the trainee to achieve the learning objective. . illustrate the total concept through a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the budgeting technique. rather than observing the preceptor or supervisor. Trainee-centered: Trainee-centered learning activities ensure that the trainee actively participates. first explain several budgeting techniques. flexible. Known-to-unknown: Adult learners learn best when they progress in a systematic manner from current knowledge to new knowledge. continuous. Then address the details of each technique. Oral examinations: The preceptor or supervisor periodically conducts an oral examination to determine how effectively the trainee addresses hypothetical or real problems. The trainee makes the decision. Evaluations should be designed to support program improvement. followed with detailed attention to components. while relating each new concept or skill to past experience. y y y Learning activity techniques: Several techniques for conducting learning activities exist. not simply accomplished only at the conclusion of training.y States the criteria for judging acceptable performance The following examples will illustrate these points: y y Poor: Fellow or trainee will gain experience in budgeting Better: Given published budget guidelines.or issue-oriented: Learning will be more effective if the focus is on problems or issues that exercise analytical abilities rather than simple observation. Such learning events are designed for maximum intensity and direct involvement of the trainee. Then all components should again be considered as a whole. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. y y y y Evaluation: Evaluation of both the trainee and the training program is a major responsibility of the preceptor. In determining and structuring learning events. completes the action. and zero-based. Evaluation should be integrated and consistent. or refers it to the preceptor. Problem. Finally. Effective evaluations have several important characteristics.
and strategies. and work unit. as is an understanding of characteristics and ³laws´ of adult learning. hurdles. Evaluations must be conducted in a mutually supportive climate as a collaborative effort between preceptor or supervisor and trainee. and organizational level needs TRAINING NEEDS SURVEY A thorough and accurate assessment of needs must precede the design of a training intervention so that it can assist managers in improving in the areas that need it most.Factors external to the job and the culture surrounding the job are studied. It is categorized as follows: y y y y y Self-evaluation of process and achievement by the trainee Evaluation of the progress and specific achievements of the trainee by the preceptor or supervisor Evaluation of the training program graduate by the first-placement supervisor Evaluation of the overall training by the trainee Evaluation of the training in general by all parties Summary: Basic knowledge of adult learning concepts is essential to a preceptor or supervisor. an understanding of how to develop learning objectives.TRAINING NEEDS Training needs classification. although it is the primary responsibility of the preceptor or supervisor.y y Evaluations should be timely. firm. Effective evaluation is descriptive. 3. DIDNT FOUND ANY THING ON THIS TOPIC. Effective learning does not simply occur. division.The jobs are studied: -level in organization. and heritage that are characteristic of the industry . facilitators. Evaluations should take into account the overall objectives of the training. Evaluation should prove useful to preceptor or supervisor in carrying out this important task. overcoming obstacles. not value-laden. Evaluation must be incorporated into the design of the training and be an integral part of the total experience for both the preceptor or supervisor and trainee. practices. individual. These include the values. Transfer of learning: Mechanics. -role within the organization. department. . occupational. -technical features/ demands.. it must be planned and nurtured by the preceptor or supervisor who understands the adult learner. 1. 2.
-Challenge to and demands that will be made on the individuals as they receive promotions. their skills. in order to enable the departments to meet its obligations for the period.3. dealing with the overall performance and existence of the organization as an entity within its environment or market.Study and assessment of the trainees: their knowledge. skills. namely at the department level. team and individual foci . and changes in assignments.Organizational 2. to identify what skills shortages can be addressed through training and which areas require the recruitment of staff from without. TNS here aims to ensure that the organization is capable of meeting its obligations and following its corporate plan. With a mindset of survival in a competitive environment.2 &3. for example the equipments/software requirements Then there is a third level which reveals the needs of the individual . 5. It would also address some of the environmental issues affecting performance. such as Consultation with individuals in key roles Questionnaires Focus Groups Interviews Steering Groups Surveys . TNS is pitched at the big picture.Individual which clearly has resonance with the organizational. which itself would be produced to cover a particular time period. transfers. TNS method employed are many .Definitions and classifications of the importance of knowledge. and attitudes identified as being relevant by steps 1. -The demands of the job. an HR strategy would typically be developed to support the corporate plan. Training needs in any organization occur at three levels: 1. At the organizational level.Deficient areas are identified and ordered in terms of their importance. The term µlevel¶ suggests a hierarchy which in turn indicates relationships between hierarchical levels. Variances between actual performance and planned performance at this level are commonly manifested as skills gaps. 4. their attitudes. attendance on a formal training course might provide the desired solution. where the knowledge of the individual does not satisfy the requirement of the role.Forecast of changes in: -factors external to the job. 6.Occupational [departments like sales/production/administration /finance etc] 3. In order to obtain that knowledge. The occupational level of needs analysis focuses on specific disciplines within organization.
This enables resources to be focussed more directly on those whose who have a specific need. What current activities require specific training ? What future developments will require specific training? Is a job analysis carried out to identify the skills and knowledge required for tasks in a particular occupation? How are the skills of staff evaluated and compared to the requirements of the department? Does a procedure exist for upgrading the skills of staff ? How often is a staff appraisal carried out and how often is there a follow up meeting? Do members of staff have personal development plans which are designed to enhance their skills? Is a µlicence to practice¶ required for the occupational area? [like heavy equipment use/electricians etc] How do you ensure that you get the qualifying level of continuing professional (education) points? Do you regularly read professional / trade journals ± what are the current issues of concern and which need addressing through learning strategies? Occupational standards are available for most work areas and provide the most comprehensive descriptions of work activities ± are these used to inform decision making? Individual Learning Needs Analysis Checklist Review the performance of those individuals for whom there is responsibility. sales etc. administration.Observation Role competency frameworks Performance indicators Psychometric tests External benchmarks 360° feedback A comprehensive Training/learning Strategy should address the following areas: What are the aims and objectives of the organization? Do you have a policy for dissemination of the organizational vision and objectives? Would all employees be able to describe the objectives of the organization if asked? What opportunity is there for the HR Department to contribute to the development of organizational objectives? What are the aims and objectives of the Human Resource strategy? Are the aims and objectives measurable? Is there a clearly specified description of the organization¶s training/ learning strategy? Is the learning and development strategy linked to the Business Strategy? Does your organization anticipate internal developments and have learning strategies in place to respond to these? Does you organization anticipate external developments and have learning strategies in place to respond to these? Do employees know what their entitlements are regarding training and development? Is a return on investment analysis carried out on learning activities? Identification of training needs Identification of Occupational Training /Learning Needs The identification of training / learning needs may be conducted to address a specific cross-section of employees within an organization such as operators. Below are a number of .
The three areas are usually referred to as Learning Domains. Lecture.. Many times when I am complimented on my teaching techniques. When you look at an average teacher they basically teach knowledge. Training or teaching is one of the most influential careers that has ever been created. practical Skills and Attitude. Many believe that a great instructor needs to possess all three key elements -. but in most cases they were fulfilling the role of teacher. Managing all three well will make great teacher. but they just know how to use them all effectively. However the immediate returns of the teachers efforts is usually long time away. That is a great lesson in itself. They may also be a relative or loved one... great hands on skills and a strong. facts. This notion infers that they must have extensive knowledge. EFFECTIVE LEARNING Trainer s skills DIDNT GOT ANYTHING. I submit that a great trainer does not possess these skills. THE ROLE OF THE TRAINER . teachers don¶t teach students learn. In fact many very smart or knowledgeable teachers are not great trainers because all . They showed me many things and let me learn along the way. What Makes a Great Trainer? Unfortunately there are many teachers and only a few of them become great. Role of trainer as a change agent.. Role of management trainer in transfer of learning DIDNT GOT ANYTHING. I always let people know that my skills are a composite of many before me. points and information.Knowledge. healthy attitude. In emergency response that has been most of my career has been spent there have been several great fire trainers that have influenced my career.MAKING CHANGE ONE DAY AT A TIME Who Has Really Influenced Your Career? Have you ever really thought about who has influenced your career? I can almost guarantee there is always a teacher or trainer who is one of the major influences in your life.areas which need to be considered and which may provide insights into areas of learning needs: Does the person have the ability to successfully achieve work objectives? Does the person have the right attitude for the job? What is the level of energy which is used by the person? Are they lacking specific areas of experience which need to be addressed? Can the person work flexibly? Does the person possess the interpersonal skills to work effectively in their area? Does the person have the specific knowledge required for the post? Do they demonstrate suitable maturity for the post? Does the person possess the people management skills for their position? What is their level of productivity Does the person have the potential for promotion? Does the person have the qualifications necessary for their current or future positions? Does the person have the ability to work in a team? Does the person have the specific technical skills required for this or a future position? 4.
They constantly inspect the students work to keep apprised of success or possible slipping of the in effort. Great instructors blend all three domains. We all have had these and they are not on the top of the list in motivators.. Most lessons do not include an attitude segment because it is difficult to teach emotional issues. creed or color. the trainer makes change happen. The real reason for a trainer's success lies in the fact they genuinely care about the student. or attack based on race. Trainers have the greatest chance for making changes. not because it is was ever politically correct. may not always be liked. Fire fighters or subordinates trying to change lack the credibility of leadership. because they are bored. Great Trainers Exude Credibility Credibility is a by product of great training. Remember careers . Sometimes it takes a strong trainer to change a student.. Another mistaken "attitude impaired" or emotionally weak trainer is the reader." . He knows that fast learners may Ask Too Many Questions. Simply put. but many of us do look at our drill sergeants as the most influential teacher in our life. Never lie. Making the emotional connection is simple. But to develop the credibility necessary we all have to "been there. you are on the way to becoming great. One of most guarded things an instructor can have is credibility. "I never met a student I didn¶t like. They are trusted. My line has always been. Using these differing speeds successfully is an art of orchestration few trainers or teachers have. I sometimes think of them as pure lecturers. ridicule. the great instructor must always be constantly observing. Good Trainers are people who are respected. Done that . When evaluating a student great trainers always can find a good point or two unfortunately bad trainers never do. This close attention breeds success. Always look for the good point in a student. This is not to say great trainers are not found in the rank and file. A good teacher knows that change although necessary. Change Agents are believable. If you want to make changes that stick you must have credibility. To Make a Change Know that Learning Speeds Differ Another important fact is that great trainers know that each student learns at a different speed or rate. Managers who are trainers or know change comes from training will impact any organization more than a totalitarian who thinks power is the answer. The last of the trainers who miss the emotional boat is the screamer. They know information is important. I laugh at the current issue of political correctness. and many times he must also knows that slow Learners never ask enough questions because they¶re timid or embarrassed. Anyone who has experience basic training or recruit training are some examples.they teach have is knowledge. A better trainer can teach both skills and knowledge. But in emergency response it simply means they been there and done it. Good teaching is hard work. I just like some more than others. It is said learning is an observable change of behavior. but because it¶s simply the right thing to do! Students never respect someone who attacks a student. They try to be your buddy. They rise above the rest and are looked up to. skills are necessary to perform well but they also know the most crucial element of making a great education experience is a correct attitude. Great teachers know the value of attitude and teach it because they can make the emotional connection. You don¶t become a great trainer simply from reading the books. Those who know and can do are certainly a better combination. expects and coddles. But even a fire fighter knows that the great change comes from leadership positions. managers make the opportunity for change with good policy. The great trainer who really makes change assures the students that the are successful. A powerful instructor anticipates. ys because they do it so subtly. Screamers think some training is a rite of passage and by making it tough it makes it worthwhile.. Lose it and the chance of changing anyone is greatly reduced. Poor Trainers never make this emotional connection and without the emotional bond of student/teacher you will never make many lasting changes in individuals. never orally assault (physical assault no matter how much provoked is a definite no). They read the knowledge and because they are smart you should become smart by osmosis. Great trainers have practiced political correctness all their lives. People did learn. and pal around. They have alwa been the change agent. How do mediocre trainers differ from great trainers? Poor trainers misunderstand the emotional connection.. they know today him maybe tomorrow me. If you come home tired every night after teaching.
You could be someone who will impact this student with the same power as relatives.. they manipulate this eagerness to learn for their own ends. we would have died out as a species. influences such as people. Anytime they are eager for information. Why . Even as the new age of information dawns some say the teacher will be extinct or at least will make drastic changes. Always be ready to teach. The strongest changes occur early in your career when you are young. They are the difference between a Captain or a couch potato What . Many of my colleagues I consider great instructors carry extra programs to conferences with them in case someone needs a session. Six Key Elements to Great Trainers In closing I choose a literary model about the proverbial six friends or as I like to think six tools to becoming a great trainer. Great Trainers Have Six tools . This motivation for you is translated to the students. Summary I have been fortunate to have been a teacher.do the right thing. Had the young cave children been taught to hunt incorrectly. Who What When Why How Where Who . with the right attitude every time. Credibility and sincerity are what validates the learning. instructor. It no wonder that the negative result of this concept are cults and societies intended for violence.As a teacher recognize the power you have a respect it. trainer. If you don¶t care do something else. I went to college to teach elementary school. Teachers and trainers been changing all throughout history. education. literature and events. Trainers embody all these influential issues. Good training always results in good learning experience. The same caring that makes the "when" right makes the effort simple. ready to learn.Any time.The sooner the better.. . That¶s a drop in the bucket for the family of teachers.A great trainer knows simply that his job is three fold . When .Teaching is not hard when you care. joined the fire service and have taught now for over twenty years.are molded by experience. professor. Empathy. If you strive to succeed remember these six points or tools. How . sympathy are emotions that cement the educational experience. supervisors and others. enthusiasm. they feel you believe in your ability they will succeed. If a student knows you care about their Safety. A great trainer knows one thing intrinsically. Training and education are a powerful force. Impressionable. Training officers can make a substantial change in individuals. That¶s foolish.Because you care. the right way. one day at a time. friends. Where . mentor or any of the thousand words used to describe someone who willing imparts knowledge to others. Anyone. Anyplace. Great trainers Never Pass Up a Chance to Teach. they have to keep making changes in their students. Humanity has had teachers and trainers all their evolutionary lives.Is the simplest issue for a good instructor .
5. it is important to keep the participants aware of the happenings. Secondly. which is the crucial factor to make the training successful. The objectives create an image of the training program in trainee¶s mind that actually helps in gaining attention. While some people think of training objective as a waste of valuable time. Training objective tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of the training program. it helps in increase in concentration. rather than keeping it surprise. Not knowing anything or going to a place which is unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. training objectiveshelps . then the likelihood of achieving those goals is much higher than the situation in which no goal is set. trainer comes in a position to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training.Trainee 3. 1. Also. The counterargument here is that resources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training. if the goal is set to be challenging and motivating. Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholder perspectives. Trainee ± The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Evaluator Trainer ± The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. DESIGN OF A TRAINING PROGRAM AND ITS EXECUTION Training objectives Training objectives are one of the most important parts of training program. Thirdly. Therefore. Therefore. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs.Trainer 2. It helps in adhering to a plan.Designer 4.
without any guidance.Decision Making as an Organizational Issue . This training content is ideal if you want to train your staff or clients on strategic decision making.Body Frame Uncertainty and Risk . the designer will design a training program that will include ways to improve the interpersonal skills.Fundamental Assumptions . This training content will repeatedly deliver endless results for you.Managing Risk .in increasing the probability that the participants will be successful in training.Linked Decisions .Uncertainty and The Organization . Consider an example.Factors that Influence Decision Making .Fault Trees . . such as verbal and non verbal language. planning al ays helps in dealing w effectively in an unexpected situation.PMI . Decision about content of training Strategic Decision Making Learn how you can make better strategic decisions consistently by instituting a strategic decision making process using proven tools and techniques developed and tested by experts. Designer ± The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the designer is aware what is to be achieved in the end then he¶ll buy the training package according to that only. the objective of one training program is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales.Decision Trees . Evaluator ± It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the trainees because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees.What is Decision Making? . when there is a defect in a product or when a customer is angry.Even Swap Method Overcoming Barriers To Effective Decision Making y y y y . Since the objective is known.Disconfirming Questions .Types of Decision Making The Decision Making Process. the training may not be designed appropriately. Therefore. dealing in unexpected situation i. Furthermore.e. Learning Objectives On completion of this training your participants will understand: y Decision Making and The Organization . Training objective is an important to tool to judge the performance of participants.Prospective Hindsight . training equipments. The training designer would then look for the training methods. and training content accordingly to achieve those objectives. Decision Making Techniques.
Word.Additional Free Benefits y Permission To Add Your Own Logos And Deliver The Learning Material As Your Own As Often As Required Unlimited Rights To Use Where. trainers and consultants who want an easy way to save hours of time and have presentations they can customize and call their own. PDF). Some of those methods include: y Role play y Assignment y Case study . Adapt Or Modify To Meet Your Exact Training Requirements Detailed Learning Material Developed And Tested By Experts Instant Download After Placing Your Order Save Time. and provide my clients with a choice of format (Powerpoint. I recommend these products to other coaches. The attachments arrived in a timely fashion and were easy to access. but their effective use is specific to special training situations and will not be discussed in this lecture." Training methods and choice of appropriate aids THE DIFFERENT METHODS OF TRAINING You have a choice of the following methods to prepare for effective training: y Lecture y Lecture/discussion y Skill lesson y On-the-job training (the four -step method) There are other methods of training. What Our Customers Say The sample module I obtained motivated me to purchase the entire set of 52! I immediately saw the value in being able to customize the materials to fit my audience. When And As Often As Required For Your Organization Permission To Customize. Money & Considerable Effort Generate New Income Streams By Increasing The Range Of Training Your Organization Can Offer y y y y y y Personalized Training Oak Training offers over 50 courses which you can use to provide the most relevant training courses to your participants. Oak Training allows you to add your own logos and deliver the learning material as your own and as often as required.
y What is the ability and level of knowledge of the group? y How many trainees are in the group and why are they there? y How much time do you have to prepare your material? y Can you cover your topic fully in the time available? y What aids do you require? y Do you have the experience to use these aids with confidence? y Are you aware of the limitations of aids? Your method of presentation will depend on the answers to these questions. The lecturer's notes need to be designed to facilitate efficient delivery. connecting parts and using illustrations in a conversational way Preparation and lecture notes Preparation is important. Notes may be too brief.say 30 or more y When knowledge or understanding is to be imparted by an expert y When a body of factual information has to be comm unicated in a short time y When information is not readily available to group members Delivery Essentials of good delivery: y Words must all be clear y Words must be spoken at a suitable pace y Pauses should occur at logical places y Variety should be used: emphasizing important points in a deliberate manner. On the other hand. THE LECTURE Use y When the group is large . The lecturer will then read them. and this is undesirable. Distinction is needed between lecture outlines (showing matter only) and lecture notes (showing method and matter). and he or she may be vague or may forget important elements. . and you must therefore have answers to the following questions before you decide how you will present your material. The number and types of training methods you use during any presentation depend on many factors.y Training games y Group exercises y Programmed learning SELECTING THE RIGHT METHOD All the resources at your command must be used to make your instruction real and vital for your trainees. note s may be too extensive. The lecturer may then improvise.
the more spectacular the demonstration should be. They will need to be written on a blackboard. y What precisely should everyone know at the end of the lecture? (This is really a re examination of the outline and a restatement of the important points. prepare the notes by asking these questions: y What is it safe to assume that the listeners know? y What are they likely to find difficult? y Hence.Given an outline of the material. chart or overhead transparency. strongly made (more effective than many steps) y Appropriate use of aids and questions to stimulate student interest and activity y Appropriately spaced summaries of material covered Conclusion: y Summary of lecture material .) y What new terms will be introduced? What unusual names? Mark these in the notes. what will require special care or illustration? y What will the illustrations (in detail) be? Can they be misunderstood or misinterpreted? y What demonstrations will be appropriate? Will everyone see clearly? (Demonstrations are used to illustrate really important points.) Structure Introduction: y Statement of aims y Relation of this lecture to those that came before and are to follow y Establishment of goal (which gives purpose and direction) by linking aims with participant needs y Outline of thoughts that are to be developed Body of lecture: y Step-by-step building up of subject matter y Logical development y A few well-developed steps. The more important the point. whiteboard.
rather than suggest the answer Pitfalls y Repeating the answer (Do not repeat. or when there is some prior knowledge of it Lecture Refer to preceding section.) y Holding a dialogue with a single answerer (Bring in the group.g. at least in part. Discussion The most useful starting point for the discussion is the question. Some uses of questions: y At beginning of lecture: to find out what trainees already know and to discover opinions y During lecture: to find out whether the participants understand and are following the lecture y End of lecture: to recapitulate and test the participants' knowledge and understanding Desirable features of questions: y They should be clear y They should be brief y They should lead to some constructive statement rather than to a nod or a grunt y They should stimulate thinking. e.say 20 or less y When the members know one another well enough to risk making errors y When the material is of a kind that can be assimilated readily. Move on. "Would anyone like to add to that?") y Trampling the incorrect answerer .y Restatement of the relationship of this lecture to others in the series y Reference to additional material that should be read or seen y Setting of any assignments Disadvantages y Lecturer bombards students with considerable information (saturation may occur) y Participants sit passively without interaction THE LECTURE/DISCUSSION Use y When the group is small .
in sequence y Practice of demonstrated j ob skill Conclusion ON-THE-JOB TRAINING (THE FOUR-STEP METHOD OF INSTRUCTION) Step 1 y Prepare the worker y Put the worker at ease y State the job and find out what the worker already knows about it y Stimulate the worker's interest in learning the job y Place the worker in the correct position Step 2 y Present the operations y Tell. completely and patiently.) Structure y Introduction y Body of lecture y Discussion y Conclusion THE SKILL LESSON Aims y To teach correct and safe job methods y To develop confidence in job performance y To achieve accuracy and speed y To encourage conscientious effort Structure Introduction y Development (body of skill lesson) y Demonstration by trainer (complete) y Demonstration and trainee practice of each stage. but teach no more than the worker can master Step 3 . Remember the objective of your discussion. show and illustrate one important point at a time y Stress each key point y Instruct clearly.y Asking too many questions (Adults do not like to be cross -examined.) y Letting the discussion take too long (Guide it carefully.
Unwashed hands transmit microorganisms. The main objective of washing hands is to avoid contaminating the material with organisms from the hands. from the elbow down. The following procedure for washing hands is recommended: y Wet palms and arms. and continue until you are certain of this Step 4 y Follow up y Put the worker on his or her own y Designate to whom he or she should go for help y Check frequently y Encourage questions y Taper off extra coaching and reduce follow -up Example of an on -the-job training session: training workers in the correct metho d of hand washing Workers in fish processing units must maintain a high degree of personal cleanliness. nails and arms from the elbow down y Rinse palms and hands with fresh water y Wipe palms and hands dry using a clean towel Parameters for assessment of training effectiveness The Kirkpatrick Model Level 4 Results What organizational benefits resulted from the training? Level 3 Behavior To what extent did participants change their behavior back in the workplace as a result of the training? Level 2 Learning To what extent did participants improve knowledge and skills and change attitudes as a result of the training? . In order to educate the workers in better hygienic practices. and correct errors y Have the worker explain each key point to you as he or she does the job again y Make sure the worker understands.y Try out the worker's performance y Have the worker do the job. the correct hand washing method is one of the topics demonstrated in fish processing units . It is therefore essential that hands be washed thoroughly. with fresh water y Apply soap y Work lather on and around fingers.
Using the Kirkpatrick Model How do you conduct a training evaluation? Here is a quick guide on some appropriate information sources for each level. So. before starting an evaluation. the Kirkpatrick model explains the usefulness of performing training evaluations at each level.Level 1 Reaction How did participants react to the program? An evaluation at each level answers whether a fundamental requirement of the training program was met. managers. Level 2 evaluations (Learning) for ³hardskills´ programs only.000. be crystal clear about your purpose in conducting the evaluation. Now moving up to the next level. peers and participant¶s manager Level 4 (Results) y y y financial reports quality inspections interview with sales manager When considering what sources of data you will use for your evaluation. Balance this against the accuracy of the source and the accuracy you actually need. Each level provides a diagnostic checkpoint for problems at the succeeding level. Will existing sources suffice or will you need to collect new information? Think broadly about where you can get information. think about the cost and time involved in collecting the data.and post-test scores on-the-job assessments supervisor reports Level 3 (Behavior) y y y completed self-assessment questionnaire on-the-job observation reports from customers. participant reactions gathered at Level 1 (Reaction) will reveal the barriers to learning. you will need to consider carefully what levels of evaluation you will conduct for which programs. In fact. suppliers and regulators . perhaps they did not learn the required skills in the first place (Level 2). if participants did not learn (Level 2). The difficulty and cost of conducting an evaluation increases as you move up the levels. All levels of evaluation are important. It¶s not that conducting an evaluation at one level is more important that another. Above all else. You may decide to conduct Level 1 evaluations (Reaction) for all programs. Sources include: y y y hardcopy and online quantitative reports production and job records interviews with participants. Level 1 (Reaction) y y y completed participant feedback questionnaire informal comments from participants focus group sessions with participants Level 2 (Learning) y y y pre. customers. peers. Level 3 evaluations (Behavior) for strategic programs only and Level 4 evaluations (Results) for programs costing over $50. So. if participants did not use the skills once back in the workplace (Level 3).
6. 2. Power . get fit enough to play in th e Saturday hockey league. run a local 5 km fun run or compete in next year's London Marathon. This could depend upon what the individual wants to get fit for. And of course.y y y y checklists and tests direct observation questionnaires. 4. refer to your previously stated reasons for conducting the evaluation.the ability to perform a series of explosive power movements in rapid succession in opposing directions (ZigZag running or cutting movements) . Gather details about the individual Identify the fitness components to develop Identify appropriate tests to monitor fitness status Conduct a gap analysis Compile the program Monitor progress and adjust program Stage 1 The first stage is to gather details about the individual: y y y y y y y Age Reasons for wanting to get fit Current or recent injuries Health problems The sports they play and how often Their dislikes and likes with regards training What sports facilities they have access to . 3.the extent to which muscles can exert force by contracting against resistance (holding or restraining an object or person) 2. act on them! Steps involved in conducting an effective training program The process of creating a training program to help develop an individual's level of fitness comprises of 6 stages: 1. sports centre etc. The following lists each of the nine elements and an example of how they are used: 1. distribute it to the people who need to read it. Strength . In deciding on your distribution list.gym. This is not an exhaustive list but an example of the sort of information to collect Stage 2 The second stage is to determine which components of fitness they need to improve. if there were lessons learned from the evaluation on how to make your training more effective. This could be to improve general fitness. Exercise scientists have identified nine elements that comprise the definition of fitness. 5. Agility . self-rating and multi-rating Focus Group sessions Once you have completed your evaluation.the ability to exert maximum muscular contraction instantly in an explosive burst of movements (Jumping or sprint starting) 3.
The following is an example of a gap analysis: Test Multistage Fitness Test 30 metre acceleration Test Illinois agility run Test Standing Long Jump Test Fitness Component Aerobic Speed Agility Leg power Current Target Level 12 Shuttle 2 Level 12 Shuttle 5 4. Stage 3 The next stage is to identify appropriate tests that can be used to initially determine the individual's level of fitness and then to monitor progress during the training. Coordination . Identified test should be conducted and the results recorded.e. a gymnastics stunt) 5. objectives and current level of fitness.1 metres 3.a muscle's ability to perform a maximum contracture time after time (Continuous explosive rebounding through an entire basketball game) 9.the ability to control the body's position. Stage 4 We now know the individual's background.a single muscle's ability to perform sustained work (Rowing or cycling) 7. Cardiovascular Endurance .leg power needs to be improved. You will need to consider which of these elements are applicable to the individuals training program based on what it is they want to get fit for. fat or muscle (Executing a leg split) 6.g. Balance .the heart's ability to deliver blood to working muscles and their ability to use it (Running long distances) 8. either stationary (e.9 seconds <16 seconds 2.3 seconds 20 seconds 2.4 metres 16. The results of this process will assist in the design of the training program so that each component of fitness is improved to the desired level.8 metres 16 metres Over head medicine ball throw Arm power Gap analysis . Of all the nine elements of fitness cardiac respiratory qualities are the most important to develop as they enhance all the other components of the conditioning equation.Aerobic fitness and arm power are good and just need to be maintained sprint. Flexibility .the ability to achieve an extended range of motion without being impeded by excess tissue. Strength Endurance .the ability to integrate the above listed components so that effective movements are achieved. g. We now need to conduct a gap analysis of the individual's current fitness levels (from test results at stage 3) and target fitness levels (identified at stage 2). i. agility and leg power tests are below target . a handstand) or while moving (e. Local Muscle Endurance . .4.
Stage 5 The next stage is to prepare a training program using the results of the gap analysis and FITT principles.frequency . Build you up to a level of fitness (3 weeks) recovery and adjustment of the training program (1 week) you up to higher level of fitness (3 weeks) recovery and adjustment of the training program (1 week) you up to an even higher level of fitness (3 weeks) " and so on The tests used to assess the individual's initial level of fitness should be planned into week 4 of the program in order to monitor progr ess and effectiveness of the program. This will ensure the program is enjoyable and convenient to do. Strength work should last 15 to 30 minutes and comprise of 3 sessions a week with 48 hours recovery between sessions. 10% increments.time .training activity . The aim of the four week cycles is to: y y y y y Build Test. Build Test. Aerobic training should last for 20 to 40 minutes.how long should each session last? T . Stage 6 The program has now been agreed and the individual can undertake the program.how hard should the individual exercise? T . intensity and time you should start at an easy level and increase gradually e. Plan the program in four week cycles where the work load in the first three weeks increase each week (easy.intensity . hard) and the fourth week comprises of active recovery and tests to monitor training progress.g.what exercise or training activity will help achieve the individual's fitness goals? For frequency. medium. The test results can be used to adjust the program accordingly. " y y y y F . The program needs to last 12 to 16 weeks in order to see any real benefits and the planning (initial & subsequent adjustments) should be conducted with th e individual so that they feel they own the program.how often should the individual exercise? I . Every 4 weeks meet and discuss with the individual: y y y y how the training has gone the test results progress towards target fitness levels adjustments to the training program .
It is something that we all do everyday and can therefore be readily built into community projects and initiatives. transfer of knowledge at the work place. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces. or to the regular work routines. . and what changes could make the initiative more effective and sustainable in the future. Methods for evaluation The process of examining a training program is called train ing evaluation. Purposes of Training Evaluation The five main purposes of training evaluation are: Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes. EVALUATION OF TRAINING Why evaluate? Why conduct an evaluation? Evaluation is usually defined as assessing the value. better manage the initiative or make it more sustainable) to assess its outcomes or impacts to understand why it does or does not work. Some of the purposes of evaluating a community initiative include: y y y y y y y to find out how well community or participants¶ needs were met to improve the initiative (to better meet community needs. whether the difference was what was intended. project implementers and funding bodies) understand such things as what difference the initiative made (or could make).6. worth or merit of something. Evaluation can help various groups with an interest in an initiative (including participants. Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge. to find out how it is operating to assess whether its objectives were met to assess its efficiency or cost-effectiveness. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. and training.
This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals . Process of Training Evaluation Before Training: The learner's skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program. Once aware. candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. During the start of training. they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style. the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits. Power games: At times. then it can be dealt with accordingly. During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started.Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective. Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes.
and attitudes presented in training? Transfer Did the trainees transfer the principles. techniques. This level of evaluation is the most widely used type of training assessment. techniques. and attitudes presented in training to the workplace? Results Did the training program address the organization·s objectives? The first two levels (reactions and learning) tend to require assessing immediately after training. A survey by the American Society . As shown in Table 1. Techniques of Evaluation The various methods of training evaluation are: Observation Questionnaire Interview Self diaries Self recording of specific incidents y y y y y Criteria for evaluation Effectively evaluating training requires the systematic collection of information from a variety of sources. What Should Be Evaluated? When choosing evaluation criteria. each type of outcome addresses a different evaluation question.After Training: It is the phase when learner¶s skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training. while the second two levels (behavior and results) require assessing after the learners ha ve completed training and have returned to the job (generally one month to one year after training). There are various evaluation techniques for this phase. Table 1. there is no universal approach to evaluating training³each organization must select the criteria that are most relevant to their organizational objectives. Within the training community. As organizations use training to achieve a variety of organizational goals. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels.This white paper will assist organizations in identifying appropriate criteria for assessing their training programs. the dominant approach to training evaluation categorizes criteria into four levels. Each of the four levels is described in more detail on the following pages. it is critical to identify what questions need addressing in the evaluation. Reactions The first criterion for training evaluation is reactions or trainees· perceptions of a course. Training Evaluation Outcomes Level Outcome Reactions What did the trainees think of the training program? Learning Did the trainees learn the principles.
Learning The second level of a training evaluation involves assessing what the students learned in the training. Cognitive outcomes include facts and information presented in training. Tips for Collecting Reaction Data y y y Design the instrument so that results can be tabulated and quantified. Reaction data can provide trainers with valuable diagnostic feedback they can use to modify the courses to meet the needs of trainees and their organizations. the important outcomes of training are not declarative or procedural knowledge. Appendix A contains list of reaction items for each dimension. skillbased. trainers should pull the questions together in a questionnaire (paper or online) and administer it to learners at the conclusion of training. 2005). To obtain more honest opinions. and affective. Technology reactions³assess the trainees· satisfaction with the technology used. but affective changes in learners· attitudes or motivation. three types of outcomes are generally measured: cognitive. Figure 1. Delivery reactions³assess the students· perceptions that the material was presented in an organized and coherent manner. y y y y y Affective reactions³assess whether or not the trainees liked or enjoyed the training. Collecting Reactions Data: After deciding which types of training reaction measures are relevant. and their perceptions that the technology was easy to use and facilitated learning.of Training and Development revealed that 91% of training courses use a reaction measure at the conclusion of training to evaluate the course (Sugrue & Rivera. Assessing reactions allows trainers to measure if trainees are satisfied with the course and if they feel that they are learning from the training. allow surveys to be completed anonymously. In measuring learning. Provide a space for trainees to write in about topics not covered in the survey. Occasionally. The five main categories of training reaction measures are below. trainers should assess the dimensions that are relevant to their courses. while skill-based outcomes include knowledge of how to perform the tasks or skills presented in training. Utility reactions³assess the trainees· perceptions that the skills taught in training were useful and relevant to their jobs. Types of Reactions: As there are multiple aspects of a course that can influence trainee satisfaction. Three Categories of Learning Outcomes . Instructor reactions³assess the learners· perceptions of the instructor·s contributions to learning. Figure 1 outlines the three categories of learning outcomes.
. a multiple-choice test would be appropriate. skill-based. 1976). supervisors. and morale (Goldstein & Ford. it is important to have a comparison point of behaviors before the training in order to quantify improvements. It is important to remember that just because trainees do well on a post-training exam does not mean that they learned the material during training³the students could have pre-existing knowledge or could have learned the material somewhere else (e. Information Sources to Assess On-the-job Behavior y y y Objective measurements of actual job behavior (e. Sample self-efficacy items are included in Appendix B. or with a control group who has not yet attended the training. scoring trainees· performance while performing the skill would be more appropriate. although it is generally the outcome that organizations find most valuable. In order to assess changes in behaviors on the job. 2002). it is important to identify the organization·s objectives and how the training influenced these objectives. there are different formats that are more appropriate for assessing knowledge gains. 2008).Depending on whether the training objectives focus on cognitive. In order to conclude if learning is due to training it is important to have a comparison point. and subordinates Evaluating training programs using on-the-job behavior is more difficult than using reaction or learning data as it requires a more systematic approach to collect pre-training and post-training data.g. Results-level outcomes the most challenging evaluation criteria to assess.. Assessing post-training performance should be delayed at least three months after training to allow the trainees the opportunity to implement the changes in their performance (Kirkpatrick. grievances. If the training objective is for learners to recognize and recall training content. on the job). turnover. For example. or trainees· confidence in their understanding of the training material and their belief in their ability to apply the material they learned in the workplace. number of errors made) Trained observers· assessments of job performance Performance appraisals conducted by the trainee. Results Results refer to the degree to which the training met the organization·s objectives. compare trainees· post-training test scores with pre-training test scores. . but if the training objective is executing a specific skill. or affective outcomes. absenteeism. In assessing results. One example of an affective outcome is self-efficacy. Other results-level indicators that can be examined include costs. if an organization implements a safety training program they could compare organizational records of on-the-job accidents before and after the training.. Transfer Showing that trainees learned the material presented in training does not necessarily mean that the trainees will transfer the learning outcomes back to the workplace. As shown in the box below. trainee·s coworkers. When possible.g. Research has shown that self-efficacy is a strong predictor of training transfer (Sitzmann et al. there are multiple information sources that can be used to assess on-the-job behavior.
purpose of the lecture. notes. A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic. Lecture is telling someone about something. it does not involve any kind of interaction between the trainer and the trainees. or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method. whereas same material in print is restricted to what is printed. attitudes through lecture. The principle of case analysis is invoked in the celebrated remark of Sherlock Holmes. It is difficult to imagine training witho ut lecture format. and priorities and preferences of the order in which the topic will be covered. what remains must be true. body language. The variation here means that some forms of lectures are interactive while some are not.7. goal. Analysing each such case individually may be enough to resolve the initial question. The difference between the straight lecture and the printed material is the trainer¶s intonation. Straight Lecture: Straight lecture method consists of presenting information. INVENTORY OF TRAINING METHODS Lecture It is one of the oldest methods of training. A lecture may also take the form of printed text. There are some variations in Lecture method. This method is used to create understanding of a topic or to influence behavior. etc. the trainer speaks to a group about a topic. such as books. depending only on the division of a problem. and visual image of the trainer. processes. When thetrainer begins the training session by telling the aim. control of speed. However. however unlikely that seems. based on the signals from the trainees. In this method. decision or situation into a sufficient number of separate cases. . which the trainee attempts to absorb. to the effect that when one has eliminated the impossible. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. agenda. A lecture can be in printed or oral form. The trainer in case of straight lecture can decide to vary from the training script. Main Features of Lecture Method Some of the main features of lecture method are: y y y y y Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings Less expensive Can be reached large number of people at once Knowledge building exercise Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity Case analysis Case analysis is one of the most general and applicable methods of analytical thinking.
Then. with each group acting out the role play simultaneously. For instance. etc. such as: Multiple Role Play ± In this type of role play. is given. a general description of the situation. 3.Analyzing the case should take the following steps: 1. objectives. 4. two parties in conflict. Once the participants read their role descriptions. and the problem that each one of them faces. 5. After the interaction of participants. Defining the issue(s) Analyzing the case data Generating alternatives Selecting decision criteria Analyzing and evaluating alternatives Selecting the preferred alternative Developing an action/implementation plan Role plays Role play is a simulation in which each participant is given a role to play. emotions. 6. 7. Role Rotation ± It starts as a single role play. situation could be strike in factory. concerns. all trainees are in groups. Role Plays helps in y Developing interpersonal skills and communication skills y Conflict resolution y Group decision making y Developing insight into one¶s own behavior and its impact on others There are various types of role plays. each group analyzes the interactions and identifies the learning points. Traineesare given with some information related to description of the role. responsibilities. scheduling vacation days. Single Role Play ± One group of participants plays the role for the rest. managing conflict. the trainer will stop the role play and discuss what happened so far. they act out their roles by interacting with one another. Then the participants are asked to exchange . etc. providing demonstrations of situation. analyze their interactions with one another and learn from the play. Other participants observe the role play. After the role play. 2.
real-time and turn-based. single-player and multiplayer.Theme Park World can be called a business simulation because the goal of the game is to attract customers and make profits. one of the trainees plays herself while the other trainees play people with whom the first participant interacted before. as well as the close tying of players' actions to expected or plausible consequences and outcomes. Or.Besides Capitalism.are games that focus on the management of economic processes. another notable pure business simulation is Hollywood Mogul. There are many varieties of online business simulations . it isn't anymore.An important facet of economic simulations is the emergence of artificial systems. Active development of Internet technologies and the growth of the Internet audience in recent years gave a powerful impetus to the development of the industry of online games. Among the most notable online business simulations such as Virtonomics. It isn't group hugs. . Trevor Chan is a notable developer of business simulation games. but try to hold the player's attention by using creative graphics. including outdoors Experiential Learning Comes of Age It's easier to define what experiential learning isn't than what it is. Business / management games & simulations Business simulation games.This genre also includes many of the "Tycoon" games such as Railroad Tycoon and Big Biz Tycoon Other notable business simulation games include Air Bucks and The Movies. and in particular.browser-based and downloadable. This method allows a variety of ways to approach the roles. "Pure" business simulations have been described as construction and management simulations without a construction element. at least. They are essentially numeric.having developed the 1995 game Capitalism which has been described as the "best business simulation game". online business simulations. micromanagement is often emphasized in these kinds of games.usually in the form of a business.and can thus be called management simulations. It isn't singing "Kumbaya" around a campfire.Indeed. gameplay and structures. but the game also involves a building aspect that makes it a construction and management simulation.The interest in these games lies in accurate simulation of realworld events using algorithms. It isn't festive all-organizational pow wows.or economic simulation games. IndustryPlayer and Tycoononline Experiential learning. Spontaneous Role Play ± In this kind of role play. There are many games in this genre which have been designed around numerous different enterprises.characters.
We learned not to focus on the activity as the process for learning.S. and teamwork." Operating more than 57 schools in 32 countries. A new incarnation Carl Rogers. Outward Bound's beginnings harken back to World War II when a British educator. and cultural and strategic change. a ropes course. Outward Bound works collaboratively with its clients on areas such as team building. there are three types: 1) outdoor experiences in which the activity itself is unrelated to a business environment. The great outdoors One of the oldest and largest providers of experiential learning is Outward Bound. such as a game. As the industry evolved. leadership. can often be accomplished in a few hours. "What have I experienced and learned and how can I apply it. He discovered it was lack of confidence rather than a shortage of skills or equipment and he developed a program to teach internal fortitude and confidence. is connected back to the workplace. any positive changes were fleeting. learned why the survival rate of young British seamen was much lower than older seamen. though. leadership. what might take a person or group weeks or months to learn. As the years have gone by. there is a debriefing after every event that illu minates and "anchors" how an experiential activity relates to an organization's mission or challenge. but. Founded in the United Kingdom in the early 1940s and established in the U. explains: "In the beginning. and 3) classroom-based experiences that simulate a "true-to-life" work situation. in the late 1960s." then experiential learning has taken place. which evolved into the Outward Bound school. For organizations. The format for the actual experiential learning experience. Regardless of the format. For example. though. The trouble was that after many thousands of organizations had spent many tens of thousands of dollars on such programs... Tim Bonnett. But instead of leaving a group. it became painfully obvious that when employees returned to work after a weekend of bonding. which is a frequently used experiential learning activity. And a key benefit of using experiential learning is that the learning curve can be accelerated. 2) indoor experiences in which a nonwork-related activity. experiential learning has become a sophisticated training tool that when used properly can effect enormous change within an organization. when a person introspectively asks. provides an experience where a group can work together to learn trust.. those kinds of team building exercises were common. In a quality experiential educational program. This "link back" is a key ingredient to effecting change. director of Outward Bound Professional. experiential providers got better at connecting the experience back to the workplace.ahh.. to use it as a tool for learning. Basically.hanging after the ropes course is over. In other words. The company uses three approaches to . That's when participants acquire insights of how to apply what they have just learned to life. when experiential learning was in its infancy. rather. defined it as any experience where there is personal involvement that is initiated and evaluated by the learner. Outward Bound has become much more than outdoor challenge courses. experiential learning facilitators now follow up the activity with skilled debriefing and discussion. but the team building and leadership skills learned can be connected back to work. all experiential learning provides metaphorical experiences that are applicable to life. In the past 10 years. the missing step in the early years was linking the experience back to the workplace. Kurt Hahn. experiential learning was perceived as an event rather than a solution. who has been called the father of experiential education. varies from provider to provider.Back in the 1970s.
but they could also be illustrated posters or booklets. This package can consist of all the materials that a trainer or organisation needs to run the training course.. It aims to help the trainer run the training course and use the other material in the pack. Bob Root." Root is a forner high-tech CEO and is familiar with the processes needed to run a business and bui ld teams. They can be professionally designed and produced in a form that can be used in the training. "Our mission at Orion is to help create teams that work together toward a common cause.and threeday programs combine a sport (selected for its particular attributes that match up with an organization's business challenge) with "power tools" that teach people communication and rapport. aids Training Packages Training media and materials can be reproduced and used by more than one trainer." The two . which all sophisticated experiential learning companies provide. Their function of taking the message of the training back to the village enables the trainees to explain what the training was all about to their community or group. which can make their production comparatively cheap. role plays. conflict resolution. etc. cofounder and partner of Orion Learning Inc. can create the kind of exuberance that the participants can then take back to work to innovate and not to fear change. therefore. Small versions could be provided in the trainers' guide which could be copied on to flip charts or OHP. It can also help remind the trainees to implement the training after their return home. They c be an used in different parts of an organisation or by several organisations or training institutes who are all doing the same training. and wilderness programs. These can make the training session more participatory. the "added value" that makes an outdoor adventure much more than just floating down a river: "A sports or adventure program can provide a challenge that. can be copied in whatever numbers are needed. Flip charts can be printed and audio-visual aids. If the package is to be reproduced. Originals of these materials should be included in the package so copies can be made when running the particular course. but as aids for the trainees to see in the session itself. Visual aids are included in the pack to be used in the training session itself. Organizing / preparing training material. questionnaires.such as team building a software program).experiential learning: initiatives (which can range from outdoor experiences to real work projects. have to include materials for the trainers. These can make use of the same pictures as the visual aids. In the training session the trainees will need other sorts of materials to work on. Materials can be produced using several different forms and media which together form a training `package'. The package will. may be needed for each trainee. when met. and so forth. A package helps the message reach further than conventional training and makes it more likely to be implemented where it is intended. sharing costs between many trainers can help these visual aids to be quite sophisticated. calls the link back.V. This can be in the form of trainers' guides or manuals. . such as ropes courses. These materials can be simple notes or handouts. Many copies can be printed. such as slides or videos. The visual aids are not meant for the trainer to read as a prompt. The trainees need training materials to help them take home and implement the training. including A. Exercise sheets. challenge events.
drama. etc. Their use needs to be linked so that they become more effective as a concerted effort rather than individual materials. It can also include folk media such as singers. Working out how one topic should be put over and what the package would consist of can be a useful exercise. topics could be developed into a training materials package that would be useful for their work. however. designed and produced. A training materials network. then it can be part of a process of sharing effective training experience. the particular messages or information and the proposed media for the elements in the package. In a workshop the trainers can work out what overall. Each proposal should be discussed with other trainers as to the long term viability of the idea. Involving the trainers The trainers need to be involved in the development. A workshop could be arranged where selected trainers could work on the development of the package. but for lots of other trainers who will use the package once it is produced. Even if these specialists are not available. They may also be required to develop the courses and produce the information for which the materials will be developed. Media and training can be organised into campaigns which can reach large numbers of people. To do this requires not just materials packages but organisation or a network to enable this to happen. An orientation session may be needed to show them how to use the package in training. By linking media to on-going training a demand can be created and training can be re-enforced. They could formulate what they could use and what the whole organisation. They have a vital role in identifying the needs for course development and requesting appropriate materials. Work on the development of training packages can be difficult if most training is seen as an isolated individual activity. Trainers can work together and benefit from each others work. Organisation can enable far more developed materials to be produced and used than one trainer could make for themselves. This media element needs including in the training package so that trainers are clear what the media is doing and how they can use it to make their work more effective. group or institute could benefit from. The trainer should also have to spend less time in the preparation of the course as most of this should have been done for them and made available in the package. This work of developing materials is not just for the first trainers. this work in the production of training packages will be still needed. Your training could involve media support to help get it to those who need it and to help trained people implement what they have been trained to do. However once the package has been developed. Once one topic and one package has been planned. All these training materials need to be designed and illustrated with the same images. This could be done with any appropriate mass media. it is seen as a basic function of a whole group. subject specialists and designers working together. teams can be put together to start on the development process. If. This should include listing who the target group for the training is to be. It can require trainers. such as broadcast radio or TV. basic. organisation or set of organisations. Try to list down as ambitious suggestions as possible. it will enable the training to be done more effectively. The best trainer should be able to influence the other trainers and they should be able to learn from each others' . tested.Another element in the package could be mass media programmes. Developing packages Developing materials and good packages can take a lot of time. story tellers. production and use of atraining materials package. Training packages can become a means of spreading the training expertise as well as the training message itself.
These ideas underlie most of this book which. o provide a training with a trained trainer. therefore. Such a system implies a level of agreement that can be difficult to generate if you are working with many independent small organisations. The next step in the research involves a careful search for resources in the network area. Pooling resources enables the production and the wider use of media which can be expensively and professionally designed and produced. With a network many points are linked. is helping people realise they have something to offer. Points on the network may produce different elements of the training material or do different work on the development process. The only way to encourage the sharing that is necessary to make it mutually beneficial. for example. It can be more effective than the normal vertical connections between manager and managed. as well as the media. tried out and widely used. therefore. Such a network also needs access to resources so that many copies of successful and tested training materials can be produced cheaply. Other research is necessary to see what potential exists for both producing and using any material. o with a designer and a funder who will pay for everyone to receive the materials. not just a top down organisation. design and training skills. Identifying who they are and what they have to offer or what they need can be the starting point. The initial costs will be greater but by sharing them out to many users they will be less.work though such a network. This needs to be explained and the potential researched. If it is good you can buy sets of it rather than producing it yourself. If it is written down it can be copied. The first step. If a trainer has had a good response to a role play. A network can be such an organisation. o the trainer with a materials producer with a o specialist on the subject. as it can help people immediately to see what they can use and what needs to be developed. requires creating an effective network. who will test material. It requires a good two way flow for both the network and the material to be well developed. Find out what training is being done and what needs there are for new material and new training methods. These connections are needed to develop materials that meet the needs of the trainees. This can enable many horizontal connections between all trainers to be developed. o with a video with a VCP and TV. Finding out what materials already exist is another necessary step. To implement many of these ideas. and give general feed back. If another organisation has produced material on a similar topic you can learn a lot from what they have done. o with a training classroom. which can be written down. has organisational implications as well as technical ones. They should mutually assist each other to develop their work and the capability of the organisation. A network can o link a trainer and trainees. he or she may not realise that it could be useful to an other trainer with the same problem in another area. What equipment. Organising the network The network has to pull together the producers and users of training materials. It requires. space and other facilities do the trainers and members of the potential network have for training? It can be difficult to produce tape slide shows if the trainers do not have any working slide . but a complex network where the trainers and field workers and potential users of training are connected with skilled specialists of various sorts.
and money in communicating with their internal customers ² their employees. alliances. MARKETING OF TRAINING ACTIVITY Marketing in house (internal customer) internal customer :Employee who receives goods or services produced elsewhere in the firm as inputs to his or her work in the firm. as well as personnel policies and procedures. Extra resources for equipment may be necessary if the training materials are to be widely used. What to DoUnderstand the Need for Internal Marketing Internal marketing is becoming increasingly important as the pace of change accelerates. few make the same investment in time. materials and other resources that exist already. external marketing becomes more effective. mission and vision statements. The workshop and research should be able to produce lists of trainers' needs for the network to meet. These documents should be the backbone of a training material network or organisation. They will enable considerable development and improve the quality of work. but it's essential to recognize the importance of marketing to internal customers.projectors. Ideas and methods of working can be developed with the members or trainers of the network or organisation. Each member of the network should find it easier to draw on the other members for support and assistance. This can be done at a meeting or workshop and can be supplemented by training newsletters to keep everyone informed about developments and training. What is the scope of internal marketing? Internal marketing includes the communication of corporate culture and goals. There will be a need for a list or directory of the members and elements in the network or organisation. Internal communications is traditionally viewed as the sole province of the Human Resources department. This should include details of who does what and who has what so that others can gain access to any available resources. energy. Once the initial research has been collated it should show who. When employees understand and commit to the value proposition of the company and its brands. 8. The need for communication is stronger in these circumstances. It can also involve initiatives such as informing staff about new product introductions or new acquisitions. because the employees become product champions. It should also include details of courses. y Many companies are undergoing some form of transformation through mergers. . While most companies allocate resources to understanding and communicating with their external customers. What You Need to KnowWhy is internal marketing important? Although external marketing remains the most important business development task. it is essential to sell inwardly toward a company¶s people. or downsizing. The includes lists of resources and training materials that the network should produce. what and how your network can work.
and understanding. they too are impacted by the company·s brand and its future plans. These are intranets.Is the market place for the securities. Press Releases. They are called the internal customers as they interact within the organisation internally to generate long term value. newsletters. Trade Shows. or their values. commitment. It is very important that internal staffs· perception of the organisation ² your internal brand ² matches the external brand positioning for optimum results. that are not part of or under any of the jurisdictions of any single country worldwide. internal marketing under pins the drive for greater involvement. stocks. their name. delivers better customer care while strengthening the corporate brand in the market place. you'll have the analysis in hand to determine which to drop and which to now integrate into your custom designed campaign. or simply don't deliver. y y Marketing to external customers External Market. Internal marketing helps the process of knowledge development by building understanding and commitment to personal development. posters and pamphlets informing about new initiatives. minimises turnover costs. it is essential to communicate the change to all stakeholders including employees. andmutual funds in a global perspective. They are offered all over the world and have multiple investors and multiple countries they are working out of at any given time simultaneously. For many companies. An information-armed. company stores. to maximize your return. . Like external customers. An organization thrives on the abilities of its constituents. namely its employees and business partners as they define the company·s ability in optimizing resources and competencies to convert opportunities into revenues.y When companies also change their brand. However if your internal customers are not sufficiently aware of your marketing plans. However. Internal marketing can bring the parties together with shared goals and values. Constant organizational change can loosen the ties between employer and employee. and do not participate effectively in the promises to external clients. extranets (partner communication on the web). They are sometimes called the Euro Market as that is where most of they investors come from or operate there corporations from. futures. better systems. and User Events may be some of the activities that have been a part of your annual marketing mix. internal rules and procedures. With history on your side. these programs have proven too valuable to be omitted and will continue to be a part of any campaign for years to come. enthusiastic work force boosts productivity. creates profitable customer relationships. They have manyoptions in them such as bonds. y As companies empower staff to build stronger customer relationship. There are various techniques and tools that help organisations implement effective internal brand building and marketing communications. each activity should be scrutinized to determine if they complement. the external brand equity is negatively affected. They are normally issued outside all jurisdictions of that country or any country worldwide. overlap. Media Outreach. company events.
To ensure that it delivers consistently. Internal marketing is an ongoing process that needs constant top management support and the process innovations to make it as viable as external marketing.Internal Marketing Approach To be effective. it could target 'supporters' with a customised video on relocation benefits like low cost of living and better amenities. identifying with the changes which organisations plan to implement. if the company wanted to relocate closer to new emerging markets. i. internal marketing should: · · · · · · · Function as a continual internal 'up-skilling' process Align the organisation·s purpose with employee behaviour Internalise core values of the organisation by all employees Motivate.whereby it aligns. anywhere Smart . ¶opposers·. Broadly speaking there are three segments .e. reframe and empower employee attitude Facilitate an ¶inside-out· management approach Retain a positive customer experience across all business objectives Provide role-specific and user-focused information. including best practices around various organisational policies and processes · Increase the peoples· connections with the external / internal customer service division·s roadmap by articulating investments.supporters. they too have their own ¶buyer· behaviour. neutral. tactics. and objectives. motivates and empowers people at all management levels to consistently deliver a satisfying internal and external customer experience. The 'neutral' internal customers could be targeted with incentives like a pay raise. internal marketing needs to accurately segment internal customers. Like external customers. Internal marketing is a dedicated effort across the organization. while the 'opposers' could be effectively coerced / forced to accept the re -location regardless of their objection (in the larger interests of the company). For example. · Be available in a self service / portable format that is accessible anytime. Each segment requires a different internal ¶marketing mix· to deliver on internal marketing goals.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.