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Training and teaching
What is the basic difference?
So how do we define the fundamental differences between teaching and training?
Teach has many alternate definitions, including: y To cause to know something y To guide the studies of y To impart the knowledge of y To instruct by precept, example, or experience Definitions for train are: y To form by instruction, discipline, or drill y To make prepared for a test of skill Note that training focuses on skill; the definitions imply a narrower focus than teaching and possibly a shorter timeframe. We might associate training with the notion of exercises that we repeat until we "get" the skills we are trying to acquire - until they become almost second nature. The definitions for teaching, in contrast, imply deeper knowledge and a longer timeframe. We often hear the term "lifelong learning," but I can't recall ever hearing about "lifelong training."
Do teaching and training have different goals? First, let's examine this question from two viewpoints: The people receiving the teaching or training, whom we will call students; and that of the organization to whom the students report. For full-time college students, that organization is usually the "Mom and Dad Company." For professionals in the workforce, the organization is usually their employer. College students' goals What motivates students? As a teacher, I'd like to say that students come to my class with an intense desire to learn. But I'm not that naieve - rarely does a student have such a desire. Most college students have three primary goals with respect to their courses: 1. Getting good grades. Like it or not, in academia, grades are how you are measured. They're not always fair. Some people don't test well and struggle to get good grades. But most instructors assign grades to indicate how well students have grasped the course material in a course. 2. Qualifying for continuing financial aid. With the cost of college education today, financial aid plays an important role for many students. Good grades are a requirement for maintaining financial aid, typically along with other requirements, such as working on campus for a certain number of hours. 3. Finding employment after graduation. This is, by far, the primary motivation for most students. Many of my computer science students are worried about job prospects when the leave school. They know the market for software engineers is not as robust as it was when they began their course of studies. So they work hard to develop enough skills and basic knowledge to make themselves attractive to potential employers. Professionals' goals What about professionals? What is their motivation for additional learning? Surely not grades. Professional courses, seminars, and workshops are typically not graded. You pay your money and walk away with as much knowledge as you can absorb. Nevertheless, I think professionals have three goals that map closely to those of college students. 1. Get a good annual review. Professionals do receive "grades," just not in courses. Instead, they are graded on their job performance. Taking courses might help them get better reviews - first, because it demonstrates their personal motivation and a desire to
help the organization, and second, because it gives them skills to do their work more effectively. 2. Keep your job and get a raise. Just as students must work hard to maintain their financial aid, professionals must perform at a certain level in order to keep their jobs and get salary increases. During the last few years, many people have lost their jobs, both in the software industry and others. This sense of insecurity is something we would never have imagined ten years ago. 3. Learn what is necessary to get a better job. Almost everyone looks toward the next job they want when they consider voluntary training - whether it is a promotion in their current company or a new, exciting position in a different organization.
Balancing training and teaching
Everything we do in our lives requires a balance between two things or more - a compromise. This column talks about the balance between theory and practice, so it is appropriate to consider that balance with respect to training and teaching. In my January 2004 column, I explained how I am seeking the right blend of theory and practice in my software development courses. My primary job is to prepare students for the rest of their working lives and help them succeed in their careers. So I first have to ensure that they learn fundamental principles and then teach them to use specific tools and techniques as time allows. A sample development project Things are a little different in a work environment. Let's say you are managing a new project to develop an enterprise-wide system to manage inventory in multiple, worldwide locations. This will involve Internet technology, database systems, and so on. You add two new members to the project team. Sarah is a new graduate with a computer science degree. She has learned software engineering principles as well as some specific technologies, such as Java programming. Mike has been employed with your organization for a while; he has attended inhouse training courses in programming as well as on other topics that apply to his job. Mike started his career in the military, which he joined right after high school; he never attended college. Both of these people have valuable skills. If you could combine their two skill sets, you would have an ideal team member who could step in and hit the ground running. However, as both of these people are new to the project, they need some orientation. Sarah will have the challenge of learning to understand not only the system itself, but also the culture within your organization and the specific ways people conduct business. And Mike will be challenged as well; your project has decided to adopt tools and processes from IBM Rational Suite,® which is new to your organization. You plan to follow a customized version of IBM Rational Unified Process,® use Rational ClearCase® for configuration management, Rational RequisitePro® for requirements management, and so on. The team might use additional tools as appropriate, some of which you will develop in house. Applying learning and training Now let's see how their respective backgrounds affect the way Sarah and Mike handle learning challenges. First, in order to learn about the system under construction, both of them look at the Software Architecture Document (SAD). This describes some architecturally significant use cases, UML diagrams, plans for development, testing, and so on. Mike is familiar with the format: It's the company standard he's been trained on. He quickly grasps the project's scope and potential business impact. His internal training courses and experience within the company have prepared him to understand both the jargon and companyspecific business issues. Sarah, in contrast, struggles a little over the terminology, application domain, and acronyms; but she quickly grasps the overall architecture. She understands multitier architectures and the technologies used to represent this one. She also understands why certain areas have been identified as architecturally significant and begins to see how the
designer might apply some common design patterns to simplify the architecture and make it more robust. You have assigned Mike and Sarah to the same small team responsible for implementing part of the business logic in the system's middle tier. The team has already decided that they can break up the use cases into user stories, which will help them schedule work and track progress. They have also decided to use JUnit for unit testing as they work. You allow them to hire an instructor to provide a day of training for the team on how to create user stories and apply JUnit. After the training, both Sarah and Mike understand the basic concepts and applications for user stories. When it comes to JUnit, Mike understands the mechanism, but he has trouble deciding what to test. Sarah remembers the principles of testing she learned in her software engineering class and begins to write positive and negative tests, boundary condition tests, and so on. She also takes time to help Mike develop good tests. They meet for several sessions of pairprogramming for the tests. Sarah learns more about the application domain from Mike, and he picks up new techniques and basic principles from Sarah. She suggests to you that using a code coverage tool in conjunction with JUnit would provide rapid feedback about the completeness of the unit tests. When you give her the go-ahead, Sarah reads through the IBM Rational PureCoverage manual and then writes a short document explaining how to use the tool to check the team's Java code. She holds a brown-bag lunch to answer questions about Rational PureCoverage, and then the team starts using the tool to improve their testing. As the project proceeds, the requirements change, and the team has to adapt the code they've already created to changes in the architecture. Luckily, the architecture has been well constructed, so there are clean interfaces for the major modules. However, some of the changes threaten certain interfaces and could have ripple effects through the subsystem the team is building. Sarah thinks about the design patterns she learned in one of her classes and realizes that, instead of refactoring the existing code, the team could make the code much more robust by adding adapters to the code base and applying common patterns, such as decorator, factory method, and so on. Even though she learned these design pattern implementations in C++, she understands the principles behind them and can easily adapt them for Java. Sarah turns to Mike again for help with the mechanics of setting up her environment to take advantage of the advanced features in IBM Rational ClearCase, because he's had extensive training on this tool. Once she is adept at using these features, Sarah becomes much more productive. She also realizes that the team might be able to leverage Rational ClearCase to achievecontinuous integration, a goal discussed in her software engineering class. She reads up on how to script tools for Rational ClearCase and then writes a couple of Perl scripts to make integration tests run continually as the integration builds proceed. When they adopt this change in process, team members find that they can indentify integration problems more quickly and fix them more easily. Mike, meanwhile, uses his knowledge of the organization and how it does business to identify several requirements that simply do not reflect how business is actually conducted. He also knows who to talk to in order to adjust the requirements, so you appoint him the domain expert for the team. You pat yourself on the back for bringing two high-powered people like Mike and Sarah on the team. Each one knows how to apply what he or she has learned and also how to leverage one another's strengths, which are complementary. But in the long haul, who is most likely to get ahead? I'd put my money on Sarah. Sarah's grounding in fundamental principles allows her to quickly find solutions to common problems and think strategically about measures that will increase both coding efficiency and system quality. Mike's practical knowledge has given him a deep understanding of his work environment and business processes that he can use to identify problems and quickly get them resolved. Sarah will acquire these same capabilities as time goes on - that is the nature of onthe-job training. But how could Mike acquire theoretical knowledge like Sarah's? Many people do it by going back to college, but some cannot make that kind of commitment.
Create an ongoing learning environment
Fortunately, there are some healthy organizations that not only offer training but also support opportunities for employees to acquire knowledge about theories and principles relating to their work. By giving people time and funding to pursue knowledge through outside sources, such organizations can give their "Sarahs" the domain knowledge that their "Mikes" have, and also help their "Mikes" learn what their "Sarahs" learned in academia. In other words, they create a learning environment that supports both the short-term and long-term goals of the organization and the employee. In a business setting, managers can act as "teachers" who guide learning for their employees. Managers can also help team members plot their careers, based on what each person wants to learn. And good managers can match the employee's desires with the company's needs. Many successful organizations recognize that this form of teaching (or mentoring) is critical for business success. They make it a condition for managerial promotions and pay increases. But they also give employees time to learn and opportunities to use the knowledge they acquire. On the academic side, we will continue to educate students about basic principles, sprinkled with a little training; we'll give them some practice and a lot of theory. When our graduates join your organization, we hope you will continue to expose them to theory rather than just providing practice in the form of training. You can take advantage of the resources at learning institutions in your area and provide programs that keep employees up to date on issues and ideas about software development. Invest in the future. Training helps people today; teaching guarantees them - and your organization - a bright tomorrow.
Learning about management issues and concepts
The four functions of management are: 1.The base function is to: Plan It is the foundation area of management. It is the base upon which the all the areas of management should be built. Planning requires administration to assess; where the company is presently set, and where it would be in the upcoming. From there an appropriate course of action is determined and implemented to attain the company¶s goals and objectives Planning is unending course of action. There may be sudden strategies where companies have to face. Sometimes they are uncontrollable. You can say that they are external factors that constantly affect a company both optimistically and pessimistically. Depending on the conditions, a company may have to alter its course of action in accomplishing certain goals. This kind of preparation, arrangement is known as strategic planning. In strategic planning, management analyzes inside and outside factors that may affect the company and so objectives and goals. Here they should have a study of strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats. For management to do this efficiently, it has to be very practical and ample. 2.The subsequent function is to: Organize The second function of the management is getting prepared, getting organized. Management must organize all its resources well before in hand to put into practice the course of action to decide that has been planned in the base function. Through this process, manageme will now determine the nt inside directorial configuration; establish and maintain relationships, and also assign required resources. While determining the inside directorial configuration, management ought to look at the different divisions or departments. They also see to the harmonization of staff, and try to find out the best way to handle the important tasks and expenditure of information within the company. Management determines the division of work according to its need. It also has to decide for suitable departments to
hand over authority and responsibilities. 3.The third function is to: Direct Directing is the third function of the management. Working under this function helps the management to control and supervise the actions of the staff. This helps them to assist the staff in achieving the company¶s goals and also accomplishing their personal or career goals which can be powered by motivation, communication, department dynamics, and department leadership. Employees those which are highly provoked generally surpass in their job performance and also play important role in achieving the company¶s goal. And here lies the reason why managers focus on motivating their employees. They come about with prize and incentive programs based on job performance and geared in the direction of the employees requirements. It is very important to maintain a productive working environment, building positive interpersonal relationships, and problem solving. And this can be done only with Effective communication. Understanding the communication process and working on area that need improvement, help managers to become more effective communicators. The finest technique of finding the areas that requires improvement is to ask themselves and others at regular intervals, how well they are doing. This leads to better relationship and helps the managers for better directing plans.
4.The final function is to: Control Control, the last of four functions of management, includes establishing performance standards which are of course based on the company¶s objectives. It also involves evaluating and reporting of actual job performance. When these points are studied by the management then it is necessary to compare both the things. This study on comparision of both decides further corrective and preventive actions. In an effort of solving performance problems, management should higher standards. They should straightforwardly speak to the employee or department having problem. On the contrary, if there are inadequate resources or disallow other external factors standards from being attained, management had to lower their standards as per requirement. The controlling processes as in comparison with other three, is unending process or say continuous process. With this management can make out any probable problems. It helps them in taking necessary preventive measures against the consequences. Management can also recognize any further developing problems that need corrective actions. Effective and efficient management leads to success, the success where it attains the objectives and goals of the organizations. Of course for achieving the ultimate goal and aim management need to work creatively in problem solving in all the four functions. Management not only has to see the needs of accomplishing the goals but also has to look in to the process that their way is feasible for the company.
you must break down the training or learning requirement into manageable elements. This commonly happens in theappraisal process. Consider modern innovative methods see the Businessballs Community for lots of providers and ideas. Involve the people in identifying and agreeing relevant aligned training. methods and deliver training Conduct some sort oftraining needs analysis.the internet offers more opportunities than ever. Good writing techniques help with the design of materials.Principles of learning and development basic idea training process ideas and outline process Here is a relatively simple overview of typical reference models. does helps identify the Tuckman development needs.it's all about meaningful communication. which can be adapted for all sorts of providers and services. love element. Consider evaluation training effectiveness. 1. each model is and spirituality. So do the principles of advertising . See also running meetings andworkshops. The 360 more about this. Adair's are useful theory helps. so that you can understand what sort of development you are actually addressing. Another method example of assessing and prioritising training isDIF Analysis. processes and tools found in the effective planning and delivery of organizational training. Consider team activities and exercises. which includes before-and-after measurements. Plan training and evaluation 5.there is no point the training people if they simpletraining Consider the are not the right planner (also team and the people to begin with. Design materials. Presentation is an important aspect to delivery. Remember you are dealing with people. Consider Bloom's theory too. not objects. Revisit model. Consider training or learning styles development and personality specification Having identified what you want to train and develop in people. Create 3.they can help organize and training elements assessment on a large scale. Assess and agree training needs 2. the 'skill-sets' and training needs analysis tools . People have feelings as well as skills and knowledge. So Why people leave also tools. 4. Look also atpersonality types. . People's learning styles greatly affect what type of training they will find easiest and most effective. There is a usefultraining providers selection template on the sales training page. wonderful for and compassion at understanding work as well as skills. See the self-study program design tipsbelow . Attach standards or Considerorganizational measures or valuesand aspects parameters to The Erikson ofintegrity and ethics. degree Look also at your process and So is the Johari recruitment processes templateand Window model. in pdf format) group. The Kirkpatrick modelespecially helps you to structure training design. .
All supervisors and managers should enable and provide training and development for their peop le training develops people. any role at all. self-control. as well as skills and knowledge. emotional maturity. attitude and behaviour. Attitude stems from a person's mind-set. on-the-job coaching. Many of these methodologies are explained on this website. If you consider the attributes of really effective people. product training. role-playing and role-play games and exercises. leadership and determination. Development isn't restricted to training . behavioural development training. Training is also available far beyond and outside the classroom. . commitment. classroom training. There is no reason to stop at work-related training. available to use and apply according to individual training needs and organisational training needs. tolerance. and experience. and open-minded. techniques. A strong capability to plan and manage skills training. these are step-by-step processes . Skills and knowledge. whether for yourself. Explore them and enjoy them.it's anything that helps a person to grow. and more. attitudinal training and development. raises morale. Training . As regards conventional work-related training planning. it improves performance. management succession. or your organization. Use these tools and processes to ensure that essential work-related skills. managers. and the productivity of the business.and also enabling learning and personal development . morale. Training is nothing without the motivation to apply it effectively. What makes people effective and valuable to any organization is their attitude. See for example the training planner and training/lesson plan calculator tool. Attitude includes qualities that require different training and learning methods. productivity.all part of the training menu. or indeed by delivering most sorts of conventional business or skills training. to look at it from the trainee's view . More free training tools are available for download at the free training tools and resources page. operators. Be creative. motivation (see the motivation theory section). See also thetraining induction checklist and planner tool. training assignments and tasks. distance learning . training . and transfer of knowledge and policy etc.is anything offering learning and developmental experience. self-confidence. Go further to help people grow and develop as people. informal training. and you will discover learning in virtually every new experience. and knowledge are trained. but remember after this to concentrate most of your 'training' efforts and resources on enabling and facilitating meaningful learning and personal development for people. skills. understanding. The leader's ethics and behaviour set the standard for their people's. These are the greatest training and development challenges faced. lifecoaching. technical training.the important qualities which make good performers special are likely to be attitudinal . On-the-job training. and encourage others to do the same. which determines how productively they use their skills and knowledge. skills training. inter-personal skills.or learning. be they leaders. which are templates for planning and organising the delivery of job skills training and processes. technicians. It helps improve quality. confidence. initiative. mentoring. external training courses. and the processes available to people.see and download a free training process diagram. the acquisition of knowledge. business development and profitability. and the development of motivation and attitude. belief system. and training itself. Training and learning development includes aspects such as: ethics and morality.There are many different training and development methods. If you want to make a difference. are no great advantage. and there are better ways of achieving this sort of change and development than putting people in a classroom. More importantly. your team. innovative. in ability. internal training courses. largely determines how well people perform in their jobs. customer satisfaction. which people see as a chore. This is why training and learning must extend far beyond conventional classroom training courses.is essential for the organisation. accredited training and learning. think about what really helps people to change. training and developing people increases the health and effectiveness of the organization.
where the toilets are. as an individual. which ensures a better result. which is very effective in producing excellent people. New employees also need to understand the organisation's mission. People's personal strengths and capabilities . and managers and supervisors play a key role in helping this process. Various models and tests are available to help understand learning styles . talent. what's the routine for holidays. And it's vital you understand the other person's style and personality too . especially where the mentor or coach is seen as a role-model for the person's own particular aspirations. An organisation needs to assess its people's skills training needs . but this type of support can also greatly assist 'whole-person development'.Having said this. It's important that as a manager you understand yourself well before you coach.how they prefer to learn do they like to read and absorb a lot of detail. so as to understand. and then settled in quickly and happily to a productive role. you understand how you will be perceived. and of course the job they're required to do. etc. The sooner the better. Managers must ensure induction training is properly planned . that the opportunities for their development and achievement in the organisation are not limited by the job role. where's the canteen. do they prefer to be shown. what's the dress code. or mentoring. let people know that their job role does not define their potential as a person within or outside the organisation. sickness.not putting in). abilities. beyond the job role. or train or mentor others: Are your own your own skills adequate? Do you need help or training in any important areas necessary to train. It's about the basics that seasoned employees all take for granted: what the shifts are. goals and philosophy. how best to communicate. If possible 'top-up' this sort of development through the provision of mentoring and facilitative coaching (drawing out .by a variety of methods . where the notice-board is. Here's a free induction training checklist. mentor others? What is your own style? How do you you communicate? How do you approach tasks? What are your motives? These all affect the way you see and perform see the training. and for all situations where people work together.and then structure the way that the training and development is to be delivered.and aims and desires and special talents (current and dormant) .an induction training plan must be issued to each new employee. and the way that you see and relate to the person that your are coaching. subject to organisational policy. to experience themselves by trial and error? Knowing the other person's preferred learning style helps you deliver the training in the most relevant and helpful way. Good induction training ensures new starters are retained.look at the Kolb model. we do need to start with the essentials. for example induction training for new starters. and. timescales and expectations. so they and everyone else involved can see what's happening and that everything is included. or the skill-set that the organisation inevitably defines for the person. with clear methods. during or very soon after the induction process. and beyond work requirements. Induction training is more than skills training. Your aim is to help the other person learn and develop not to create another version of yourself.it's a useful explanation of the importance of open communications and strong mutual understanding among staff in organizations. These induction training principles are necessarily focused on the essential skills and knowledge for a new starter to settle in and to begin to do their job. and how best to help others grow and learn and develop. coaching or mentoring role..also need to be assessed. Look atmultiple intelligences and the VAK learning model and free learning style tests. Mentoring and proper coaching should be used alongside formal structured training anyway. and help the person understand. opportunities. particular strengths. quicker. When you understand yourself. You must prepare and provide a suitable induction plan for each new starter. See also the Johari Window model and adapted theory . It's also a useful model for personal awareness and selfdevelopment. It helps you design activities and tasks that the other person will be more be more comfortable doing. or training. Induction Training is especially important for new starters. look to develop each person in a meaningful relevant way that they will enjoy and seek. . health and safety rules. However there is great advantage in beginning to address personal development needs. wishes. personnel practices. coach. As early as possible.
which in most situations is the case. whatever) according to whether it isessential or desirable for the job purpose and organizational performance. although better dedicated DIF Analysis tools exist. Weighting (significance of each factor relative to the job purpose/aims) is required in order to optimise the usefulness and relevance of the system. DIF Analysis does not automatically take account of personal preferences and potential capabilities.simply and quickly define each activity (skill. Importance (yes/no) and Frequency (yes/no). not an end in themselves. in other words. return on investment (typically in terms of organizational performance. All the analysis and detail in the world will not guarantee trainee commitment. . be adapted to manage DIF Analysis. Importance/Competency matrix . competencies. Frequency. The Skill-set and TNA tools on this website could. Importance. DIF Analysis is a sophisticated (and potentially very complex) method of assessing performance. The system looks at tasks and activities (or skills. here are three other examples of methods for prioritising training: Essential/Desirable . Analysis can become extremely complex. If you have one to share please send it. but approaching training prioritisation from purely a task perspective ignores the vital personal factor. high importance and low competence = high training priority low importance and low competence = low training priority high importance and high competence = low training priority low importance and high competence = zero training priority DIF Analysis . given modest expertise in spreadsheets and logic. so it is sensible to ensure that the level of analysis is appropriate for the situation before starting to build complex analysis systems. Training priority is obviously given to developing essential competencies. although the needs of teams and individuals can also be very significant in prioritising training and development. an activity that scores low on all three scales is obviously low priority. competencies. especially if applied to a group or organization. competency.) In addition to the skill-sets and training needs analysis tools on this website. whatever) which are high importance (of task to organizational performance) and low competence (of trainee skill level). DIF Analysis can be used in different ways: for example as a flow diagram to consider each activity using a simple yes/no for each of the three factors in sequence of Difficulty (yes/no). Analysis and detail should always be a means to an end (to achieve effective training and development). For such a potentially detailed system. depending on the situation. based on three perspectives: Difficulty. Ultimately the best way to prioritise training is can be simply to agree with the trainee what they are most keen to commit to. whereas an activity that scores high on all three scales is a high priority. which is generally the most powerful force for effective training and development. and as such consideration to this aspect is wise where trainee commitment is influential upon development.DIF stands for Difficulty. and Frequency.the highest training priorities are obviously the activities (skills. whatever) rather than looking at development from a personal individual perspective. Task-based analysis is important for organizational development measurement and planning. Importance. Resist the tendency to become overly detailed. At a simple level. which generates eight possible combinations.prioritising training Given the vast range of skills and other competencies which can be developed in people it is useful for some sort of prioritising to take place so that training focuses on the areas which will yield best benefit. prioritising training needs and planning training. Other methods exist for prioritising training. Choose or develop a method which is appropriate for your situation.
empowering and cost-effective than ever before. or people have no reason to stick their necks out. nor an accredited or measurable one. Involve people right from the start. emotionally. This means the rewards must be there too. integrity. which across a whole team has a cumulative effect. Again. There are many. The growing businessballs community contains many other different innovative. initiative. often because they feel insecure. greater responsibility. responsive. and involvement in new successful and interesting projects. The only limits are those you imagine.people have to experience things which enable them to feel bolder. Help them to achieve what they want on a personal level. People's efforts produce bigger results. which is so essential for the development of managerial and strategic capabilities. You can't 'teach' boldness . it won't develop their maturity. providers. When people develop confidence. It's what all organizations strive to achieve. groups. 'emotional contracting' with the organisation. and technologies. It's about attitude and emotional maturity. designing self-study training and learning programmes The same basic principles apply to designing self-study programs as to any other sort of training design. And not just the prospect of financial reward. and this provides a platform for trust. interesting and excellent ideas. Participative workshops work well in beginning this type of attitudinal development. Performance and capability are ultimately dependent on people's attitude and emotional maturity. or are nervous about being bold. they automatically become more proactive. not the skills. Like any sort of learning it will appeal to some people but not others. It's not a particularly conventional one. recognition. focus on developing the person. This website is effectively a self-study program. Focus on what they want. development and fulfilment. etc. or courage. However. solutions-focused. to take risks. The Emotional Intelligence principles and methodologies fit very well with modern approaches to developing people's belief.. and free resources. The internet enables self-study learning and development programs to be more useful. So many people at work are simply 'going through the motions'. Organisations need staff at all levels to be more self-sufficient. Provide learning and experiences that they'd like for their own personal interest. Be creative and innovative. It starts with the person. Try to see things from the person's (your people's) point of view. creative and autonomous. acting in a 'conforming' state. and problem-solving capabilities among their people. solutions-finding.real extra responsibility. Johari is a useful model too. in fact all of the behaviours that organizations strive to encourage. while conventional skills training gives people new techniques and methods. Look on the web for ideas and selfstudy and self-development resources. methods. This behaviour enables staff can operate at higher strategic level. whereas boldness is absolutely required for self-sufficiency. and subsequent skills/process/knowledge development relevant to managing higher responsibilities. not the skills. maturity and attitude. You could also use a personal development questionnaire to begin to set the scene and provide examples of 'alternative' learning opportunities. resourceful. . This is the fuel of people's growth and change. roles and teams. belief. which makes their organizations more productive and competitive. initiative. and to want to take risks.developing people and capabilities Many organizations face the challenge of developing greater confidence. lack confidence to do what they think is right. More importantly the Herzberg-type motivators .
relevance and commitment. and for developing organizations themselves .giving high accountability and reliable deliverables ongoing feedback and review with line-managers and strategic managers .focused on practical priorities and individual needs (SMART and WIIFM factors) follow-up coaching and mentoring one-to-one support . etc. To help you structure and design and assess learning. across multiple organizational interfaces. Then it is easier to decide how and what will help best. and direct job and organizational performance improvement. The approach builds on management by objectives (MBO's) principles. for example the Kirpatrick evaluation and design model. read the training design and evaluation materials on this page and elsewhere on the website.and pre-training preparatory work small groups .. Assessment and development are tightly connected. but overall systems: ie. and the ideas of Maslow. The activity-mentoring approach uses several integrated techniques which produce more reliable and relevant training and learning outputs.You will find many other self-development offerings on the internet if you tap into relevant communities and portals. and help trainees and learners to know themselves. Know yourself as a trainer (and/or encourage this among your trainers). threedimensional way. McGregor. Involving people from the beginning increases ideas. in an open. the learning styles and multiple intelligence theories. and the Bloom learning domains taxonomy model. especially for staff in teams and departments. but is more participative. organic. with a personal development and team building focus. thepersonality styles theories. The approach isfacilitative rather than prescriptive.all training delegates . attitudinal development. individual personality/learning style and organisational priorities individually agreed tasks and assignments . prescribed along a single-channel towards a task focus.highly participative and situation/solutionbased . how an organization works). By comparison. The group selection recruitment and assessment centre guide is also relevant. such as Erikson's theory. Activity focused mentoring methods also help develop systems (not IT and processes. and broadly features: y y y y strategic assessment of organisational and department priorities and 'high-yield' training needs interpreted discussion with line-managers of training delegates and strategic managers of the organisation pre-training skills/behavioural needs-analysis . As ever consider what you seek to achieve. in terms of individual skills. dynamic.focused on practical job issues.practical workshops . before you design how to achieve it. Designing a good self-study program should by its nature if possible involve the students. management and communications. particularly to and between management/subordinate/peer levels.coaching/task notes for line managers y y y . Herzberg. team-orientated. mentoring linked to projects and objectives activities Linking mentoring with objectives and project tasks or activities is a highly productive and effective modern method of training and developing people in organizations. organizations. Well-facilitated 'activity focused mentoring' is consensual. isolated and individually separate. To help you understand yourself read the materials relating to personality and motivation. MBO's are a 'one-way street'. voluntary and inclusive.short sessions .
000/head . evaluating and monitoring activity. The mentor should not normally . effectiveness. up to at most a couple of hours a week one-to-one. other people who are not ready or able to help others can be beyond any amount of training. and the organisation) on helping and guiding the mentoree to find the answers and develop solutions of his/her own. helping the mentoree to find the answers for him/herself provides far more effective mentoring. so this is arguably a credit not a debit. number of mentors an number of 'mentorees' . behaviour and job priority areas. While giving the answers is usually better than giving no help at all. and because mentoring programmes are so varied.probably the responsibility of an HR or training manager.. Due to the relative newness of mentoring as a formal organised process. Overseeing the program. You should also refer to aspects of NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming). That said.. ie. not tutors or trainers. which are particularly prominent within life coaching. the mentor's role should be to help the 'mentoree' find the answers for him/herself. Activity focused mentoring also gives strong outputs in skills. If this person with the overview/monitoring responsibility needs external advice you'd need to add on two or three days external training or consultancy costs. Mentors need to be facilitators and coaches. because the process enables so much more for the mentoree in terms of experience of learning.needs to be a minimum of an hour a month one-toone or nothing can usefully be achieved. statistics as to general costs and returns across industry are not easy to find. Give someone the answers and they learn only the answers. which would be intensive almost to the point of overloading the mentoree. Say on average a day a month including the associated administration work.if it's a programme involving several mentors an mentorees then estimate an hour per quarter (3 mths) per one-to-one mentoring relationship . Accordingly. (Mentoree time away from normal activities . using mentors within the organisation.effective mentoring should ideally integrate with the mentoree's normal activities. Mentor time away from normal activities .The process works on several different levels: individual. there may be occasions when the one-to-one would necessarily involve a whole day out for the mentor. task. Here however are general cost indicators for a program essentially delivered by internally appointed mentors.if the mentoring is limited to just a single one-to-one relationship then it's largely self-managing . The mentor should therefore focus mentoring effort and expectations (of the person being mentored especially. etc.good natural mentors need little training. and Sharon Drew Morgen's Facilitative Questioning methodology. mentoring cost analysis and justification Mentoring can be provided in various ways and programmes take a variety of shapes. for instance client or supplier visits. progress and outputs depends on the size of the program.) y y y mentoring principles and techniqu es Rather than simply give the answers. but selection of suitable mentor is absolutely critical . or an internal activity.it's not rocket science. as well as being strongly motivational and where necessary resolving conflict and attitudinal issues. instead mentors need to facilitate the experience of discovery and learning. organisational and strategic. Mentoring can be external. where the mentoring is essentially provided by external people.comfortably achievable for £1. team. particularly where the mentoring is required to be formalised and recorded. many of the principles of mentoring are common to those of proper coaching. The main elements of a mentoring programme that carry quantifiable cost would be: y Training of mentor(s) . Mentorees need simply to open their minds to the guidance and facilitative methods of the mentor. and enhance productivity.
non-judgemental) that guide the mentoree towards finding the answers for him/herself. and by so doing. and their own wishes. guiding. or when we raise children. or when it begins to.(unless in the case of emergency) provide the answers for the mentoree. tools. and what communications methods do your 'customers' need and prefer? What outputs and effects do you want the programme to produce for you. failures and successes. tips on establishing a mentoring service or programme There are very many ways to design a mentoring programme. and the implied values and principles. When we mentor people. interpretive. and for the people being mentored? How might you build these core aims. and does not help the mentoree to find his/her own true self. and in some cases then falsifies his or her own true self to please and replicate the model projected by the parent. The mentor's role is to help the mentoree to find his/her own true self. methods and thinking upon a child.especially the agreed expectations of the people being mentored . which is not right nor sustainable. into your programme design? How can you best measure and agree that these outputs . How can you best help people in matters for which you need to refer them elsewhere? What skills. If a parent imposes his or her ways. We can see parallels in the relationship between a parents and a child. The answers will move you closer to what you seek to achieve: What parameters and aims have you set for the mentoring activity? What will your mentoring programme or service look and feel like? What must it achieve and for whom? What are your timescales? How will the mentoring programme or activity be resourced and managed and measured? What type of design and planning approach works best for you? (It makes sense to use a design and planning approach that works for you. etc) of communication and feedback are available to you. Here are some questions that you should ask yourself. to develop his/her own natural strengths and potential. or as a service or help that you provide personally to others. experience. then the mentoree becomes like the mentor. a crisis of confidence and purpose occurs as the person tries to find and liberate his or her true self. style do you think you will need that you do not currently have? . email. whether within an organization. The true self might never appear.are being met. instead a mentor should ask the right questions (facilitative. If a mentor tells a mentoree what to do.) What are your main skills and style and how might these influence the programme design? What methods (phone. we should try to help them develop as individuals according to their natural selves. processes. to experience their own attempts. face-to-face. the child becomes a clone of the parent. knowledge. not ours.
step-by-step . assessing. keeps things controlled. Establishing a relevant 'skill set' is essential for assessing and prioritising training for any role.take care to relax them as lots of people find learning new things stressful 2. Establishing clear visible parameters enables proper agreement of mutual expectations.('I hear and I forget.people cannot absorb a whole complicated task all in one go .give positive feedback . only responsibilities. Breaking skills down into easily digestible elements enables you to plan and manage the training activities much more effectively.if you can't measure it you can't manage it. equipment or systems 3. I do and I understand' . have the trainee practice the job . I see and I remember. prepare the trainee . as this does not reflect skills. when you can build up each skill. Training people in stages.break it down .for the transfer of necessary job. It's essential to use other training tools too for planning. recording and following up on the person's training. method and style or mentoring in other words what does your 'target market' need?. skill. These tips do not apply automatically to other forms of enabling personal development and facilitating learning. but is a more difficult area to assess and develop. relaxed and always achievable in the mind of the trainee. the more steps . which by their nature involve much wider and various development methods and experiences.always show the correct way accentuate the positive . monitor progress . provide a demonstration . .seek feedback and check understanding 4. and are essential for anything complex . which are different. Establishing a 'behaviour set' is also very useful. and what parts of those requirements are you naturally best able to meet? Mentoring is potentially an infinite demand upon the mentor so you need to have a clear idea of the extent of your mentoring 'offering'. project. measuring. and then an entire role. explain the job/task.keep them in mind all the time how many people you are training the methods and format you will use when and how long the training lasts where it happens how you will measure its effectiveness how you will measure the trainees' reaction to it When you you give skills training to someone use this simple five-step approach: 1.we all learn best by actually doing it .discuss the method and why.the more complex. explain standards and why. general training tips These tips apply essentially to traditional work-related training .or work-related skills or knowledge. coach and adapt according to the pace of development Creating and using progress charts are helpful. It is not sufficient simply to assess against a job description. explain necessary tools.encourage. When planning training think about: y y y y y y y your objectives . from a series of elements.What do your 'customers' indicate that they want in terms of content.Confucius) 5. etc .
These tools deal merely with basic work training. and be kind and thoughtful . as well as recruitment. rather than subjective.if you show you care you can expect your trainee to care too check progress regularly and give feedback invite questions and discussion be patient and keep a sense of humour Induction training tips: y y y y y y assess skill and knowledge level before you start teach the really easy stuff first break it down into small steps and pieces of information encourage pride cover health and safety issues fully and carefully try to identify a mentor or helper for the trainee As a manager. and treat them as an opportunity for you both to learn from them focus on accomplishment and progress . and performance appraisals.recognition is the fuel of development offer praise generously be enthusiastic . environment and all-round job-satisfaction.or if you can't then explain them and better still provide a written glossary you must tailor training to the individual. and other related linked articles on this site.handwriting analysis) are also extremely useful for training and developing people. See the section on psychometrics. helping your people to develop is the greatest contribution you can make to their well-being. Remember also to strive for your own personal self-development at all times . as tends to be with your own personal judgement. efficiency. knowledge and selfawareness. Some of these systems and tools are extremely useful in facilitating whole-person learning and development. mentoring and learning facilitation methods need to be used. Psychometric tests (and even graphology . Some tips to make training (and learning. Do it to your utmost and you will be rewarded many times over through greater productivity. and a whole organisation. for which more sophisticated questioning. so seek advice. You can see and download a free Skill-Set tool and Training Needs Analysis tool the free resources page. . supervisor. coaching.More information and guidance about working with 'Skill-Sets' and 'Behaviour Sets'. Using Skill-Sets to measure individual's skills and competencies is the first stage in producing a training needs analysis for individuals. mentoring) more enjoyable and effective: y y y y y y y y y y keep instructions positive ('do this' rather than 'don't do this') avoid jargon . a group.these days we have more opportunity and resource available than ever to increase our skills. so you need to be prepared to adapt the pace according to the performance once training has begun encourage. Psychometric testing produces reliable assessments which are by their nature objective. Make use of it all. which is the more common use. and not with more important whole person development.be accepting of mistakes. This will not however go beyond the basic work-related job skills and attributes development areas. and assessment and training planning see training evaluation. or an organisation. Your organisation may already use systems of one sort or another.
but a letter is a very powerful indeed. It can make the difference between them wanting to try again or not. adults often learn best from experience. temporary postings and other responsibilities can all be forms of learning and development and are worthy of recognition when carried out well. They actually apply new materials and information and 4. It took time and care to write. Here's are some short examples of simple sample letters of congratulations or encouragement for completing training and development aims. and higher up the organisation especially.especially in this age of disposable emails. but not nearly so impactful as a letter. founded by Reginald Revans about 50 years ago in England. It is likely to be opened so that the partner or family sees it too. Working to address a current. and keep striving to succeed in the future. sign and send. and often help the person to keep positive. Receiving recognition is a powerful motivator and stimulant towards further training and personal development. An email. is special. when some people need a boost more than ever. and also encouragement for unsuccessful effort. So. is based on contemporary views of adult learning. Exchange ongoing feedback around their experiences In addition. An individual signed letter of congratulations from the MD or CEO is a hugely motivational event in most employee's lives. Projects. They are highly vest in solving the current problem 3. Think about it: A letter. an email is good.recognise and acknowledge training and development achievements .letter examples As an employer or manager. which dramatically adds to the power of the recognition. projects or challenges. or even a verbal 'well done' or pat on the back is better than nothing at all. It's personally signed. Action learning asserts that adults learn best when: 1. or a mention in a company magazine or newsletter is often all that it takes to give people a huge boost. delegated tasks. . Adapt these examples to give encouragement to people when they are striving to improve and achieve. It's on official letterheaded paper. successfully. real-world problem 2. sent to the home address. take the time to recognise and thank employees for successfully (or unsuccessfully) completing training and development courses. job-swaps. 2. And yet the opportunity to acknowledge people's achievements is often overlooked. or encouragement when a brave effort fall short. rather than from extensive note taking and memorization. Remember that training and development is not restricted to training courses. A simple letter of congratulations . Letters of recognition and congratulations are appropriate from line managers. It's something people tend to keep. ADULT LEARNING Concept of adult learning Some Contemporary Principles of Adult Learning The process of action learning. People's valiant failures deserve recognition too.
Suchman (1988) explores the situated learning framework in the context of artificial intelligence. It has been applied in the context of technology-based learning activities for schools that focus on problem-solving skills (Cognition & Technology Group at Vanderbilt. also emphasize the need for a new epistemology for learning -. context and culture in which it occurs (i. McLellan (1995) provides a collection of articles that describe various perspectives on the theory. Situated Learning (J. 1970). (2) develop questions about the material. you simply visualize places and the associated facts. (3) read the material. Learning. A number of learning theories emphasize the importance of learning strategies including: double loop learning ( Argyris ).Learning Strategies Learning strategies refer to methods that students use to learn. Weinstein (1991) discusses learning strategies in the context of social interaction. For example.learners become involved in a "community of practice" which embodies certain beliefs and behaviors to be acquired. the method of loci is a classic memory improvement technique. the theory of Schoenfeld on mathematical problem solving embodies some of the critical elements of situated learning framework. the use of questions before. both outside and inside school. Methods that attempt to increase the degree of learning that occurs have been called "mathemagenic" (Ropthkopf.e. For example. conversation theory (Pask). Social interaction is a critical component of situated learning -." Brown et al. Collins & Duguid (1989) emphasize the idea of cognitive apprenticeship: "Cognitive apprenticeship supports learning in a domain by enabling students to acquire. In order to remember something. Furthermore. Research on metacognition may be relevant to the study of learning strategies in so far as they are both concerned with control processes. they become more active and engaged within the culture and hence assume the role of expert or old-timer. it involves making associations between facts to be remembered and particular locations. Situated learning has antecedents in the work of Gibson (theory of affordances) and Vygotsky (social learning). it is situated). and (5) review the material. Lave) Overview: Lave argues that learning as it normally occurs is a function of the activity. and lateral thinking ( DeBono ). develop and use cognitive tools in authentic domain activity. Brown. Some learning strategies involve changes to the design of instruction. This contrasts with most classroom learning activities which involve knowledge which is abstract and out of context. during or after instruction has been shown to increase the degree of learning (see Ausubel)..one that emphasizes active perception over concepts and representation. 1993). These ideas are what Lave & Wenger (1991) call the process of "legitimate peripheral participation. Scope/Application : Situated learning is a general theory of knowledge acquisition ." Other researchers have further developed the theory of situated learning. In addition. situated learning is usually unintentional rather than deliberate. an important aspect of Situated Learning Theory. advances through collaborative social interaction and the social construction of knowledge. As the beginner or newcomer moves from the periphery of this community to its center. A typical study skill program is SQ3R which suggests 5 steps: (1) survey the material to be learned. (4) recall the key ideas. This ranges from techniques for improved memory to better studying or test-taking strategies. .
the preceptor or supervisor should help plan. Effective learning requires evaluation and feedback between the preceptor or supervisor and the adult learner to correct actions and reinforce learning activities. instructive. and evaluating training experiences. or confusion will hamper learning. Adult learning is facilitated through an innate ability to acquire additional knowledge or skills and through environmental influences. meat cutters and alcoholics. the preceptor or supervisor can encourage a readiness to learn. there was a gradual acquisition of knowledge and skills as novices learned from experts in the context of everyday activities. and evaluate the training experience. and a supportive environment to help the learner gain knowledge and skills and to shape professional values. While the preceptor or supervisor has no control over innate abilities. conducting. While motivation is an individual responsibility. Law of Effect: Learning is strengthened when accompanied by positive feedback that generates a satisfying feeling. he or she can influence learning through the design of learning events. Learning requires social interaction and collaboration. experience-based change takes place in an individual¶s knowledge. Effective learning based on principles of adult learning involves developing objectives and strategies and structuring activities to achieve these objectives.. but the correction should be positive. In all cases. the learning objective is clear. During training in healthcare management. and reinforcing. one of the pioneers in educational psychology. Knowledge needs to be presented in an authentic context. native tailors. As such. postulated several ³laws´ of learning. This law is the basis of all practice and drill in learning activities. i. Learning is effective when it is purposeful and when the experiences involve both cognitive and effective skills of the learner. settings and applications that would normally involve that knowledge. 2. Thorndike. y Law of Readiness: Adults learn best when they are ready to learn. Law of Exercise: Things most often repeated are best retained. People will not learn if they see no reason for learning. and the knowledge or skill being learned is relevant. An adult should be corrected when a mistake has been made. structured activities. navy quartermasters. Law of Intensity: The adult learner will gain more from the learning activity if it is structured y y y . ³Laws´ of learning: Professor Edward L. Although training in early and beginning career development should be self-directed. These laws represent Thorndike¶s work and its application to the adult learning process in healthcare management. If adult learners accept the purpose of the learning activity. defeat. Using Adult Lifelong Learning Concepts Fellows and management trainees are adult learners.e. their learning needs are unique. learning is weakened when associated with an unpleasant feeling. An experience that produces feelings of frustration. skills. The preceptor or supervisor can implement the law of exercise by providing opportunities for practice or by repeating learning activities that strengthen skills. and attitudes. Principles: 1.Example: Lave & Wenger (1991) provide an analysis of situated learning in five different settings: Yucatec midwives. This section acquaints the preceptor or supervisor with principles of adult learning and provides guidance in developing. hostility. then they approach learning with eagerness. conduct. This activity is especially effective when accompanied by constructive feedback.
Cognitive levels of learning begin with simple knowledge and proceed through the evaluation of complex materials or events. The preceptor or supervisor should structure learning activities that incorporate the law of intensity. Although this plan is the responsibility of the fellow or trainee. the preceptor or supervisor and trainee must jointly prepare statements of learning objectives. Levels of learning: Recognized domains of learning include cognitive (understanding). the preceptor or supervisor and fellow or trainee must decide which knowledge. A properly written learning objective y y Identifies the terminal behavior desired (i. skills. To illustrate: y y y y y Receiving: Giving attention Responding: Responding with interest Valuing: Appreciating value of material or concept Organization: Organizing and bringing together different values to form a conceptualization Characterization: Internalizing the values so that they are a characteristic of the individual Learning objectives: Once the subject matter or skill is selected and the level of learning determined. First.as an intense learning experience. An exciting learning experience will be more valuable than a routine or boring experience. the more likely it is that the learner will achieve the learning objective. the observable knowledge base of skills) Describes the conditions under which the terminal behavior will occur .. Opportunity for direct involvement will produce a greater learning experience than will mere observation. there are two major considerations. The greater the intensity of the experience and personal involvement. valuing). To illustrate: y y y y y y Knowledge: Remembering previously learned material Comprehension: Ability to grasp the meaning of material Application: Ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations Analysis: Ability to understand both content and structure and perform critical analysis Synthesis: Ability to create new material or ideas for prior learning Evaluation: Combination of other levels of ability so that expert judgment and valuing can be achieved Effective learning begins by giving attention to something and then proceeding to develop a value system. it should be accomplished with the participation of the preceptor or supervisor. effective (appreciating.e. Then they must state the learning objectives to clearly convey the observable learning outcomes. The preceptor or supervisor is concerned with cognitive and effective skill development. The professional development plan is a comprehensive statement of what the fellow or trainee intends to accomplish during the training period and should include the following information: y y y y y A biographical sketch of the fellow or trainee A concise statement of the individual¶s career interests and goals A brief description of the individual¶s personal and professional strengths A brief description of the individual¶s attributes and qualities that need to be developed during the training period A list of educational objectives for the training experience In developing learning objectives. and psychomotor (physical coordination). Developing learning objectives: A practical work experience should begin with a professional development plan. and values are most important and determine the level of proficiency required.
Evaluations should be designed to support program improvement. current issues in healthcare management.y States the criteria for judging acceptable performance The following examples will illustrate these points: y y Poor: Fellow or trainee will gain experience in budgeting Better: Given published budget guidelines. the preceptor or supervisor should consider the following guidelines: y Whole-part-whole approach: Broad concepts should be presented first. rather than observing the preceptor or supervisor. For example. . the individual must perform certain learning activities. Then all components should again be considered as a whole. Management study: The trainee is assigned responsibility for designing and conducting an applied research investigation of a particular problem to learn systematic analysis of problems or opportunities. The trainee makes the decision. A few of the more useful techniques are described below: y y Log diary: The trainee maintains a log of activities and observations used for self-analysis and joint review and critique with the preceptor or supervisor. In determining and structuring learning events. and zero-based. Finally. In-basket exercise: The trainee is routinely assigned items from the preceptor¶s in-basket that require decisions and/or actions. and statistical data. Behavior is observed and critiqued by the preceptor or supervisor. not simply accomplished only at the conclusion of training. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. Trainee-centered: Trainee-centered learning activities ensure that the trainee actively participates. the trainee will learn to prepare a departmental operations budget that accurately reflects the department¶s financial need according to criteria in the guidelines Developing learning strategies: To achieve the desired result. Crisis management: The trainee is put under intense pressure by being assigned an existing or hypothetical crisis. Problem. such as finance or marketing. This teaches the trainee how to evaluate efficiency and effectiveness by comparing performance standards with actual performance. while relating each new concept or skill to past experience. y y y y Evaluation: Evaluation of both the trainee and the training program is a major responsibility of the preceptor. The preceptor and trainee then jointly critique the trainee¶s actions. y y Evaluation serves a primary purpose in providing information for making decisions about training. Management audit: The trainee is assigned the task of designing and conducting a management audit of a function or department. followed with detailed attention to components. illustrate the total concept through a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the budgeting technique. A learning strategy is an organized collection or series of tasks that should enable the trainee to achieve the learning objective. flexible. Then address the details of each technique. continuous. Known-to-unknown: Adult learners learn best when they progress in a systematic manner from current knowledge to new knowledge. Evaluation should be integrated and consistent. Effective evaluations have several important characteristics. or refers it to the preceptor. completes the action. first explain several budgeting techniques.or issue-oriented: Learning will be more effective if the focus is on problems or issues that exercise analytical abilities rather than simple observation. or specific subjects. y y y Learning activity techniques: Several techniques for conducting learning activities exist. such as standard. Such learning events are designed for maximum intensity and direct involvement of the trainee. Oral examinations: The preceptor or supervisor periodically conducts an oral examination to determine how effectively the trainee addresses hypothetical or real problems. appropriate forms.
Evaluations must be conducted in a mutually supportive climate as a collaborative effort between preceptor or supervisor and trainee. as is an understanding of characteristics and ³laws´ of adult learning. although it is the primary responsibility of the preceptor or supervisor. . facilitators. division. It is categorized as follows: y y y y y Self-evaluation of process and achievement by the trainee Evaluation of the progress and specific achievements of the trainee by the preceptor or supervisor Evaluation of the training program graduate by the first-placement supervisor Evaluation of the overall training by the trainee Evaluation of the training in general by all parties Summary: Basic knowledge of adult learning concepts is essential to a preceptor or supervisor. -role within the organization. not value-laden. Transfer of learning: Mechanics. and work unit. 1. firm. Evaluation should prove useful to preceptor or supervisor in carrying out this important task. DIDNT FOUND ANY THING ON THIS TOPIC.Factors external to the job and the culture surrounding the job are studied. it must be planned and nurtured by the preceptor or supervisor who understands the adult learner. individual.TRAINING NEEDS Training needs classification. and heritage that are characteristic of the industry . Effective evaluation is descriptive. Evaluation must be incorporated into the design of the training and be an integral part of the total experience for both the preceptor or supervisor and trainee. Evaluations should take into account the overall objectives of the training.y y Evaluations should be timely.The jobs are studied: -level in organization. 3. 2. hurdles. These include the values. Effective learning does not simply occur. practices. overcoming obstacles. and strategies. and organizational level needs TRAINING NEEDS SURVEY A thorough and accurate assessment of needs must precede the design of a training intervention so that it can assist managers in improving in the areas that need it most. department.. occupational. an understanding of how to develop learning objectives. -technical features/ demands.
-Challenge to and demands that will be made on the individuals as they receive promotions.Forecast of changes in: -factors external to the job.Definitions and classifications of the importance of knowledge. which itself would be produced to cover a particular time period. Training needs in any organization occur at three levels: 1. TNS here aims to ensure that the organization is capable of meeting its obligations and following its corporate plan.Study and assessment of the trainees: their knowledge. their skills. in order to enable the departments to meet its obligations for the period. Variances between actual performance and planned performance at this level are commonly manifested as skills gaps.Occupational [departments like sales/production/administration /finance etc] 3. team and individual foci . TNS is pitched at the big picture. The occupational level of needs analysis focuses on specific disciplines within organization. their attitudes.Individual which clearly has resonance with the organizational. skills.Deficient areas are identified and ordered in terms of their importance. to identify what skills shortages can be addressed through training and which areas require the recruitment of staff from without. namely at the department level.3. -The demands of the job. and attitudes identified as being relevant by steps 1. transfers. At the organizational level.2 &3. The term µlevel¶ suggests a hierarchy which in turn indicates relationships between hierarchical levels. such as Consultation with individuals in key roles Questionnaires Focus Groups Interviews Steering Groups Surveys . 5. TNS method employed are many . 6. With a mindset of survival in a competitive environment. dealing with the overall performance and existence of the organization as an entity within its environment or market. and changes in assignments. It would also address some of the environmental issues affecting performance. In order to obtain that knowledge. an HR strategy would typically be developed to support the corporate plan.Organizational 2. for example the equipments/software requirements Then there is a third level which reveals the needs of the individual . where the knowledge of the individual does not satisfy the requirement of the role. attendance on a formal training course might provide the desired solution. 4.
Below are a number of . This enables resources to be focussed more directly on those whose who have a specific need. administration. sales etc.Observation Role competency frameworks Performance indicators Psychometric tests External benchmarks 360° feedback A comprehensive Training/learning Strategy should address the following areas: What are the aims and objectives of the organization? Do you have a policy for dissemination of the organizational vision and objectives? Would all employees be able to describe the objectives of the organization if asked? What opportunity is there for the HR Department to contribute to the development of organizational objectives? What are the aims and objectives of the Human Resource strategy? Are the aims and objectives measurable? Is there a clearly specified description of the organization¶s training/ learning strategy? Is the learning and development strategy linked to the Business Strategy? Does your organization anticipate internal developments and have learning strategies in place to respond to these? Does you organization anticipate external developments and have learning strategies in place to respond to these? Do employees know what their entitlements are regarding training and development? Is a return on investment analysis carried out on learning activities? Identification of training needs Identification of Occupational Training /Learning Needs The identification of training / learning needs may be conducted to address a specific cross-section of employees within an organization such as operators. What current activities require specific training ? What future developments will require specific training? Is a job analysis carried out to identify the skills and knowledge required for tasks in a particular occupation? How are the skills of staff evaluated and compared to the requirements of the department? Does a procedure exist for upgrading the skills of staff ? How often is a staff appraisal carried out and how often is there a follow up meeting? Do members of staff have personal development plans which are designed to enhance their skills? Is a µlicence to practice¶ required for the occupational area? [like heavy equipment use/electricians etc] How do you ensure that you get the qualifying level of continuing professional (education) points? Do you regularly read professional / trade journals ± what are the current issues of concern and which need addressing through learning strategies? Occupational standards are available for most work areas and provide the most comprehensive descriptions of work activities ± are these used to inform decision making? Individual Learning Needs Analysis Checklist Review the performance of those individuals for whom there is responsibility.
They may also be a relative or loved one.. but they just know how to use them all effectively. Many believe that a great instructor needs to possess all three key elements -. teachers don¶t teach students learn..areas which need to be considered and which may provide insights into areas of learning needs: Does the person have the ability to successfully achieve work objectives? Does the person have the right attitude for the job? What is the level of energy which is used by the person? Are they lacking specific areas of experience which need to be addressed? Can the person work flexibly? Does the person possess the interpersonal skills to work effectively in their area? Does the person have the specific knowledge required for the post? Do they demonstrate suitable maturity for the post? Does the person possess the people management skills for their position? What is their level of productivity Does the person have the potential for promotion? Does the person have the qualifications necessary for their current or future positions? Does the person have the ability to work in a team? Does the person have the specific technical skills required for this or a future position? 4. but in most cases they were fulfilling the role of teacher. healthy attitude. In fact many very smart or knowledgeable teachers are not great trainers because all .Knowledge. points and information. Lecture. The three areas are usually referred to as Learning Domains. In emergency response that has been most of my career has been spent there have been several great fire trainers that have influenced my career. That is a great lesson in itself. Training or teaching is one of the most influential careers that has ever been created.. Many times when I am complimented on my teaching techniques. Role of trainer as a change agent.MAKING CHANGE ONE DAY AT A TIME Who Has Really Influenced Your Career? Have you ever really thought about who has influenced your career? I can almost guarantee there is always a teacher or trainer who is one of the major influences in your life. However the immediate returns of the teachers efforts is usually long time away. EFFECTIVE LEARNING Trainer s skills DIDNT GOT ANYTHING. I always let people know that my skills are a composite of many before me. practical Skills and Attitude. What Makes a Great Trainer? Unfortunately there are many teachers and only a few of them become great.. Role of management trainer in transfer of learning DIDNT GOT ANYTHING. THE ROLE OF THE TRAINER . facts. This notion infers that they must have extensive knowledge. Managing all three well will make great teacher. When you look at an average teacher they basically teach knowledge. I submit that a great trainer does not possess these skills. They showed me many things and let me learn along the way. great hands on skills and a strong.
may not always be liked. Those who know and can do are certainly a better combination. you are on the way to becoming great. Sometimes it takes a strong trainer to change a student. skills are necessary to perform well but they also know the most crucial element of making a great education experience is a correct attitude. A good teacher knows that change although necessary. When evaluating a student great trainers always can find a good point or two unfortunately bad trainers never do.. but many of us do look at our drill sergeants as the most influential teacher in our life. the trainer makes change happen. Never lie. You don¶t become a great trainer simply from reading the books. they know today him maybe tomorrow me. Screamers think some training is a rite of passage and by making it tough it makes it worthwhile. Making the emotional connection is simple. creed or color. It is said learning is an observable change of behavior. If you want to make changes that stick you must have credibility. This is not to say great trainers are not found in the rank and file. They are trusted. the great instructor must always be constantly observing. But even a fire fighter knows that the great change comes from leadership positions. Good Trainers are people who are respected. The real reason for a trainer's success lies in the fact they genuinely care about the student. But to develop the credibility necessary we all have to "been there. Great instructors blend all three domains. They rise above the rest and are looked up to. managers make the opportunity for change with good policy. People did learn. They have alwa been the change agent. but because it¶s simply the right thing to do! Students never respect someone who attacks a student. Done that . because they are bored. I just like some more than others. and many times he must also knows that slow Learners never ask enough questions because they¶re timid or embarrassed. My line has always been. I sometimes think of them as pure lecturers. Change Agents are believable. The great trainer who really makes change assures the students that the are successful. He knows that fast learners may Ask Too Many Questions. This close attention breeds success. Anyone who has experience basic training or recruit training are some examples. Great trainers have practiced political correctness all their lives. not because it is was ever politically correct. Always look for the good point in a student.they teach have is knowledge. expects and coddles. Simply put. They constantly inspect the students work to keep apprised of success or possible slipping of the in effort. They read the knowledge and because they are smart you should become smart by osmosis. Great teachers know the value of attitude and teach it because they can make the emotional connection. How do mediocre trainers differ from great trainers? Poor trainers misunderstand the emotional connection.. A better trainer can teach both skills and knowledge. Lose it and the chance of changing anyone is greatly reduced. Using these differing speeds successfully is an art of orchestration few trainers or teachers have. The last of the trainers who miss the emotional boat is the screamer.. But in emergency response it simply means they been there and done it. and pal around.. "I never met a student I didn¶t like. I laugh at the current issue of political correctness." . Fire fighters or subordinates trying to change lack the credibility of leadership. Managers who are trainers or know change comes from training will impact any organization more than a totalitarian who thinks power is the answer. Trainers have the greatest chance for making changes. If you come home tired every night after teaching. One of most guarded things an instructor can have is credibility. or attack based on race. ridicule. Great Trainers Exude Credibility Credibility is a by product of great training. never orally assault (physical assault no matter how much provoked is a definite no). A powerful instructor anticipates. They try to be your buddy. Remember careers . We all have had these and they are not on the top of the list in motivators. Poor Trainers never make this emotional connection and without the emotional bond of student/teacher you will never make many lasting changes in individuals. They know information is important. Another mistaken "attitude impaired" or emotionally weak trainer is the reader. Most lessons do not include an attitude segment because it is difficult to teach emotional issues. To Make a Change Know that Learning Speeds Differ Another important fact is that great trainers know that each student learns at a different speed or rate. ys because they do it so subtly. Good teaching is hard work.
we would have died out as a species. Had the young cave children been taught to hunt incorrectly. Good training always results in good learning experience. education.Teaching is not hard when you care.Because you care. The strongest changes occur early in your career when you are young. Why . Training and education are a powerful force. Credibility and sincerity are what validates the learning. ready to learn. one day at a time. Impressionable. literature and events. Who What When Why How Where Who . Anyone. The same caring that makes the "when" right makes the effort simple. instructor. enthusiasm. That¶s a drop in the bucket for the family of teachers.The sooner the better. Great Trainers Have Six tools . How .Any time. Summary I have been fortunate to have been a teacher. professor.As a teacher recognize the power you have a respect it. they manipulate this eagerness to learn for their own ends. they have to keep making changes in their students. I went to college to teach elementary school. Where . friends.do the right thing. trainer. If you don¶t care do something else.are molded by experience. Great trainers Never Pass Up a Chance to Teach. Anyplace. You could be someone who will impact this student with the same power as relatives. When . Six Key Elements to Great Trainers In closing I choose a literary model about the proverbial six friends or as I like to think six tools to becoming a great trainer. with the right attitude every time. supervisors and others. They are the difference between a Captain or a couch potato What . Empathy. Humanity has had teachers and trainers all their evolutionary lives. sympathy are emotions that cement the educational experience. Trainers embody all these influential issues. joined the fire service and have taught now for over twenty years. If a student knows you care about their Safety. It no wonder that the negative result of this concept are cults and societies intended for violence.A great trainer knows simply that his job is three fold . A great trainer knows one thing intrinsically. Many of my colleagues I consider great instructors carry extra programs to conferences with them in case someone needs a session. mentor or any of the thousand words used to describe someone who willing imparts knowledge to others.. . This motivation for you is translated to the students.. Training officers can make a substantial change in individuals. Teachers and trainers been changing all throughout history. the right way. influences such as people. Always be ready to teach. That¶s foolish.Is the simplest issue for a good instructor . If you strive to succeed remember these six points or tools. Anytime they are eager for information. they feel you believe in your ability they will succeed. Even as the new age of information dawns some say the teacher will be extinct or at least will make drastic changes.
Also. which is the crucial factor to make the training successful. The objectives create an image of the training program in trainee¶s mind that actually helps in gaining attention. Training objective tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of the training program. DESIGN OF A TRAINING PROGRAM AND ITS EXECUTION Training objectives Training objectives are one of the most important parts of training program. While some people think of training objective as a waste of valuable time.5. Therefore. it helps in increase in concentration.Trainee 3. it is important to keep the participants aware of the happenings. training objectiveshelps . Therefore. It helps in adhering to a plan. Evaluator Trainer ± The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. The counterargument here is that resources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training. Trainee ± The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Secondly. rather than keeping it surprise.Trainer 2. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs. Thirdly. Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholder perspectives.Designer 4. Not knowing anything or going to a place which is unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. then the likelihood of achieving those goals is much higher than the situation in which no goal is set. if the goal is set to be challenging and motivating. trainer comes in a position to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training. 1.
Fault Trees . Learning Objectives On completion of this training your participants will understand: y Decision Making and The Organization .in increasing the probability that the participants will be successful in training. This training content will repeatedly deliver endless results for you.Prospective Hindsight . This training content is ideal if you want to train your staff or clients on strategic decision making. Consider an example.Decision Trees .Factors that Influence Decision Making . Designer ± The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the designer is aware what is to be achieved in the end then he¶ll buy the training package according to that only.Uncertainty and The Organization .Fundamental Assumptions . when there is a defect in a product or when a customer is angry.Types of Decision Making The Decision Making Process. Decision about content of training Strategic Decision Making Learn how you can make better strategic decisions consistently by instituting a strategic decision making process using proven tools and techniques developed and tested by experts. without any guidance. Since the objective is known.PMI . such as verbal and non verbal language. planning al ays helps in dealing w effectively in an unexpected situation. dealing in unexpected situation i.Body Frame Uncertainty and Risk . the designer will design a training program that will include ways to improve the interpersonal skills.What is Decision Making? . Therefore. and training content accordingly to achieve those objectives.Even Swap Method Overcoming Barriers To Effective Decision Making y y y y .Disconfirming Questions .Managing Risk . the objective of one training program is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales. the training may not be designed appropriately.e. The training designer would then look for the training methods. Evaluator ± It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the trainees because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees.Linked Decisions . Furthermore. . Training objective is an important to tool to judge the performance of participants.Decision Making as an Organizational Issue . training equipments. Decision Making Techniques.
Word. When And As Often As Required For Your Organization Permission To Customize.Additional Free Benefits y Permission To Add Your Own Logos And Deliver The Learning Material As Your Own As Often As Required Unlimited Rights To Use Where." Training methods and choice of appropriate aids THE DIFFERENT METHODS OF TRAINING You have a choice of the following methods to prepare for effective training: y Lecture y Lecture/discussion y Skill lesson y On-the-job training (the four -step method) There are other methods of training. Money & Considerable Effort Generate New Income Streams By Increasing The Range Of Training Your Organization Can Offer y y y y y y Personalized Training Oak Training offers over 50 courses which you can use to provide the most relevant training courses to your participants. but their effective use is specific to special training situations and will not be discussed in this lecture. I recommend these products to other coaches. trainers and consultants who want an easy way to save hours of time and have presentations they can customize and call their own. What Our Customers Say The sample module I obtained motivated me to purchase the entire set of 52! I immediately saw the value in being able to customize the materials to fit my audience. and provide my clients with a choice of format (Powerpoint. Some of those methods include: y Role play y Assignment y Case study . Adapt Or Modify To Meet Your Exact Training Requirements Detailed Learning Material Developed And Tested By Experts Instant Download After Placing Your Order Save Time. The attachments arrived in a timely fashion and were easy to access. PDF). Oak Training allows you to add your own logos and deliver the learning material as your own and as often as required.
Distinction is needed between lecture outlines (showing matter only) and lecture notes (showing method and matter). and you must therefore have answers to the following questions before you decide how you will present your material. y What is the ability and level of knowledge of the group? y How many trainees are in the group and why are they there? y How much time do you have to prepare your material? y Can you cover your topic fully in the time available? y What aids do you require? y Do you have the experience to use these aids with confidence? y Are you aware of the limitations of aids? Your method of presentation will depend on the answers to these questions.y Training games y Group exercises y Programmed learning SELECTING THE RIGHT METHOD All the resources at your command must be used to make your instruction real and vital for your trainees. The number and types of training methods you use during any presentation depend on many factors. connecting parts and using illustrations in a conversational way Preparation and lecture notes Preparation is important. The lecturer may then improvise. Notes may be too brief. . and he or she may be vague or may forget important elements. THE LECTURE Use y When the group is large . On the other hand. The lecturer's notes need to be designed to facilitate efficient delivery.say 30 or more y When knowledge or understanding is to be imparted by an expert y When a body of factual information has to be comm unicated in a short time y When information is not readily available to group members Delivery Essentials of good delivery: y Words must all be clear y Words must be spoken at a suitable pace y Pauses should occur at logical places y Variety should be used: emphasizing important points in a deliberate manner. note s may be too extensive. and this is undesirable. The lecturer will then read them.
whiteboard.) Structure Introduction: y Statement of aims y Relation of this lecture to those that came before and are to follow y Establishment of goal (which gives purpose and direction) by linking aims with participant needs y Outline of thoughts that are to be developed Body of lecture: y Step-by-step building up of subject matter y Logical development y A few well-developed steps. chart or overhead transparency. y What precisely should everyone know at the end of the lecture? (This is really a re examination of the outline and a restatement of the important points. strongly made (more effective than many steps) y Appropriate use of aids and questions to stimulate student interest and activity y Appropriately spaced summaries of material covered Conclusion: y Summary of lecture material . what will require special care or illustration? y What will the illustrations (in detail) be? Can they be misunderstood or misinterpreted? y What demonstrations will be appropriate? Will everyone see clearly? (Demonstrations are used to illustrate really important points. the more spectacular the demonstration should be. prepare the notes by asking these questions: y What is it safe to assume that the listeners know? y What are they likely to find difficult? y Hence. The more important the point.) y What new terms will be introduced? What unusual names? Mark these in the notes.Given an outline of the material. They will need to be written on a blackboard.
at least in part.say 20 or less y When the members know one another well enough to risk making errors y When the material is of a kind that can be assimilated readily. rather than suggest the answer Pitfalls y Repeating the answer (Do not repeat. Move on. or when there is some prior knowledge of it Lecture Refer to preceding section. "Would anyone like to add to that?") y Trampling the incorrect answerer .g.) y Holding a dialogue with a single answerer (Bring in the group. Discussion The most useful starting point for the discussion is the question.y Restatement of the relationship of this lecture to others in the series y Reference to additional material that should be read or seen y Setting of any assignments Disadvantages y Lecturer bombards students with considerable information (saturation may occur) y Participants sit passively without interaction THE LECTURE/DISCUSSION Use y When the group is small . e. Some uses of questions: y At beginning of lecture: to find out what trainees already know and to discover opinions y During lecture: to find out whether the participants understand and are following the lecture y End of lecture: to recapitulate and test the participants' knowledge and understanding Desirable features of questions: y They should be clear y They should be brief y They should lead to some constructive statement rather than to a nod or a grunt y They should stimulate thinking.
show and illustrate one important point at a time y Stress each key point y Instruct clearly.) y Letting the discussion take too long (Guide it carefully.) Structure y Introduction y Body of lecture y Discussion y Conclusion THE SKILL LESSON Aims y To teach correct and safe job methods y To develop confidence in job performance y To achieve accuracy and speed y To encourage conscientious effort Structure Introduction y Development (body of skill lesson) y Demonstration by trainer (complete) y Demonstration and trainee practice of each stage. in sequence y Practice of demonstrated j ob skill Conclusion ON-THE-JOB TRAINING (THE FOUR-STEP METHOD OF INSTRUCTION) Step 1 y Prepare the worker y Put the worker at ease y State the job and find out what the worker already knows about it y Stimulate the worker's interest in learning the job y Place the worker in the correct position Step 2 y Present the operations y Tell. Remember the objective of your discussion. but teach no more than the worker can master Step 3 . completely and patiently.y Asking too many questions (Adults do not like to be cross -examined.
Unwashed hands transmit microorganisms. the correct hand washing method is one of the topics demonstrated in fish processing units .y Try out the worker's performance y Have the worker do the job. The following procedure for washing hands is recommended: y Wet palms and arms. from the elbow down. and continue until you are certain of this Step 4 y Follow up y Put the worker on his or her own y Designate to whom he or she should go for help y Check frequently y Encourage questions y Taper off extra coaching and reduce follow -up Example of an on -the-job training session: training workers in the correct metho d of hand washing Workers in fish processing units must maintain a high degree of personal cleanliness. In order to educate the workers in better hygienic practices. with fresh water y Apply soap y Work lather on and around fingers. The main objective of washing hands is to avoid contaminating the material with organisms from the hands. It is therefore essential that hands be washed thoroughly. and correct errors y Have the worker explain each key point to you as he or she does the job again y Make sure the worker understands. nails and arms from the elbow down y Rinse palms and hands with fresh water y Wipe palms and hands dry using a clean towel Parameters for assessment of training effectiveness The Kirkpatrick Model Level 4 Results What organizational benefits resulted from the training? Level 3 Behavior To what extent did participants change their behavior back in the workplace as a result of the training? Level 2 Learning To what extent did participants improve knowledge and skills and change attitudes as a result of the training? .
be crystal clear about your purpose in conducting the evaluation. if participants did not learn (Level 2). managers. participant reactions gathered at Level 1 (Reaction) will reveal the barriers to learning. the Kirkpatrick model explains the usefulness of performing training evaluations at each level. Level 2 evaluations (Learning) for ³hardskills´ programs only. if participants did not use the skills once back in the workplace (Level 3).and post-test scores on-the-job assessments supervisor reports Level 3 (Behavior) y y y completed self-assessment questionnaire on-the-job observation reports from customers. Using the Kirkpatrick Model How do you conduct a training evaluation? Here is a quick guide on some appropriate information sources for each level. You may decide to conduct Level 1 evaluations (Reaction) for all programs. Sources include: y y y hardcopy and online quantitative reports production and job records interviews with participants. suppliers and regulators . Each level provides a diagnostic checkpoint for problems at the succeeding level.000. It¶s not that conducting an evaluation at one level is more important that another. customers. Now moving up to the next level. Level 1 (Reaction) y y y completed participant feedback questionnaire informal comments from participants focus group sessions with participants Level 2 (Learning) y y y pre. The difficulty and cost of conducting an evaluation increases as you move up the levels. So. Above all else.Level 1 Reaction How did participants react to the program? An evaluation at each level answers whether a fundamental requirement of the training program was met. Balance this against the accuracy of the source and the accuracy you actually need. peers and participant¶s manager Level 4 (Results) y y y financial reports quality inspections interview with sales manager When considering what sources of data you will use for your evaluation. before starting an evaluation. In fact. peers. Will existing sources suffice or will you need to collect new information? Think broadly about where you can get information. So. Level 3 evaluations (Behavior) for strategic programs only and Level 4 evaluations (Results) for programs costing over $50. think about the cost and time involved in collecting the data. perhaps they did not learn the required skills in the first place (Level 2). All levels of evaluation are important. you will need to consider carefully what levels of evaluation you will conduct for which programs.
distribute it to the people who need to read it. 2.y y y y checklists and tests direct observation questionnaires. 3. In deciding on your distribution list. This could depend upon what the individual wants to get fit for. This is not an exhaustive list but an example of the sort of information to collect Stage 2 The second stage is to determine which components of fitness they need to improve. And of course. Gather details about the individual Identify the fitness components to develop Identify appropriate tests to monitor fitness status Conduct a gap analysis Compile the program Monitor progress and adjust program Stage 1 The first stage is to gather details about the individual: y y y y y y y Age Reasons for wanting to get fit Current or recent injuries Health problems The sports they play and how often Their dislikes and likes with regards training What sports facilities they have access to . The following lists each of the nine elements and an example of how they are used: 1. Agility . if there were lessons learned from the evaluation on how to make your training more effective. sports centre etc. refer to your previously stated reasons for conducting the evaluation. run a local 5 km fun run or compete in next year's London Marathon. This could be to improve general fitness.the ability to perform a series of explosive power movements in rapid succession in opposing directions (ZigZag running or cutting movements) . 5.the extent to which muscles can exert force by contracting against resistance (holding or restraining an object or person) 2.gym. 6. Power .the ability to exert maximum muscular contraction instantly in an explosive burst of movements (Jumping or sprint starting) 3. Strength . self-rating and multi-rating Focus Group sessions Once you have completed your evaluation. 4. Exercise scientists have identified nine elements that comprise the definition of fitness. get fit enough to play in th e Saturday hockey league. act on them! Steps involved in conducting an effective training program The process of creating a training program to help develop an individual's level of fitness comprises of 6 stages: 1.
the ability to achieve an extended range of motion without being impeded by excess tissue. Cardiovascular Endurance . a gymnastics stunt) 5. g. Stage 4 We now know the individual's background.1 metres 3. Balance . Stage 3 The next stage is to identify appropriate tests that can be used to initially determine the individual's level of fitness and then to monitor progress during the training.4 metres 16. Coordination .g.e. Strength Endurance . either stationary (e. agility and leg power tests are below target . You will need to consider which of these elements are applicable to the individuals training program based on what it is they want to get fit for. Identified test should be conducted and the results recorded.a single muscle's ability to perform sustained work (Rowing or cycling) 7. We now need to conduct a gap analysis of the individual's current fitness levels (from test results at stage 3) and target fitness levels (identified at stage 2).the heart's ability to deliver blood to working muscles and their ability to use it (Running long distances) 8.8 metres 16 metres Over head medicine ball throw Arm power Gap analysis . Of all the nine elements of fitness cardiac respiratory qualities are the most important to develop as they enhance all the other components of the conditioning equation.the ability to control the body's position. Flexibility . a handstand) or while moving (e. objectives and current level of fitness.4. Local Muscle Endurance .Aerobic fitness and arm power are good and just need to be maintained sprint.3 seconds 20 seconds 2.a muscle's ability to perform a maximum contracture time after time (Continuous explosive rebounding through an entire basketball game) 9. fat or muscle (Executing a leg split) 6. The results of this process will assist in the design of the training program so that each component of fitness is improved to the desired level. .leg power needs to be improved.the ability to integrate the above listed components so that effective movements are achieved. The following is an example of a gap analysis: Test Multistage Fitness Test 30 metre acceleration Test Illinois agility run Test Standing Long Jump Test Fitness Component Aerobic Speed Agility Leg power Current Target Level 12 Shuttle 2 Level 12 Shuttle 5 4.9 seconds <16 seconds 2. i.
g. The test results can be used to adjust the program accordingly. This will ensure the program is enjoyable and convenient to do. " y y y y F .training activity . medium. Plan the program in four week cycles where the work load in the first three weeks increase each week (easy.frequency . Build Test. The program needs to last 12 to 16 weeks in order to see any real benefits and the planning (initial & subsequent adjustments) should be conducted with th e individual so that they feel they own the program.how often should the individual exercise? I .intensity .time . 10% increments. The aim of the four week cycles is to: y y y y y Build Test. Build you up to a level of fitness (3 weeks) recovery and adjustment of the training program (1 week) you up to higher level of fitness (3 weeks) recovery and adjustment of the training program (1 week) you up to an even higher level of fitness (3 weeks) " and so on The tests used to assess the individual's initial level of fitness should be planned into week 4 of the program in order to monitor progr ess and effectiveness of the program. Every 4 weeks meet and discuss with the individual: y y y y how the training has gone the test results progress towards target fitness levels adjustments to the training program .what exercise or training activity will help achieve the individual's fitness goals? For frequency.how hard should the individual exercise? T . hard) and the fourth week comprises of active recovery and tests to monitor training progress.Stage 5 The next stage is to prepare a training program using the results of the gap analysis and FITT principles. intensity and time you should start at an easy level and increase gradually e. Strength work should last 15 to 30 minutes and comprise of 3 sessions a week with 48 hours recovery between sessions. Stage 6 The program has now been agreed and the individual can undertake the program. Aerobic training should last for 20 to 40 minutes.how long should each session last? T .
Some of the purposes of evaluating a community initiative include: y y y y y y y to find out how well community or participants¶ needs were met to improve the initiative (to better meet community needs. It is something that we all do everyday and can therefore be readily built into community projects and initiatives. better manage the initiative or make it more sustainable) to assess its outcomes or impacts to understand why it does or does not work. Evaluation can help various groups with an interest in an initiative (including participants. worth or merit of something. Methods for evaluation The process of examining a training program is called train ing evaluation. and training. project implementers and funding bodies) understand such things as what difference the initiative made (or could make). Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge. or to the regular work routines.6. to find out how it is operating to assess whether its objectives were met to assess its efficiency or cost-effectiveness. Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. transfer of knowledge at the work place. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces. EVALUATION OF TRAINING Why evaluate? Why conduct an evaluation? Evaluation is usually defined as assessing the value. whether the difference was what was intended. Purposes of Training Evaluation The five main purposes of training evaluation are: Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes. . and what changes could make the initiative more effective and sustainable in the future.
Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes. then it can be dealt with accordingly. During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. During the start of training. candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style. the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits. This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals . Once aware. Process of Training Evaluation Before Training: The learner's skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program. Power games: At times.Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective.
As organizations use training to achieve a variety of organizational goals. techniques. Training Evaluation Outcomes Level Outcome Reactions What did the trainees think of the training program? Learning Did the trainees learn the principles. there is no universal approach to evaluating training³each organization must select the criteria that are most relevant to their organizational objectives. and attitudes presented in training to the workplace? Results Did the training program address the organization·s objectives? The first two levels (reactions and learning) tend to require assessing immediately after training. A survey by the American Society . techniques. There are various evaluation techniques for this phase. and attitudes presented in training? Transfer Did the trainees transfer the principles. Within the training community. Table 1.This white paper will assist organizations in identifying appropriate criteria for assessing their training programs. the dominant approach to training evaluation categorizes criteria into four levels. Techniques of Evaluation The various methods of training evaluation are: Observation Questionnaire Interview Self diaries Self recording of specific incidents y y y y y Criteria for evaluation Effectively evaluating training requires the systematic collection of information from a variety of sources. while the second two levels (behavior and results) require assessing after the learners ha ve completed training and have returned to the job (generally one month to one year after training).After Training: It is the phase when learner¶s skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training. Reactions The first criterion for training evaluation is reactions or trainees· perceptions of a course. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. As shown in Table 1. it is critical to identify what questions need addressing in the evaluation. Each of the four levels is described in more detail on the following pages. each type of outcome addresses a different evaluation question. This level of evaluation is the most widely used type of training assessment. What Should Be Evaluated? When choosing evaluation criteria.
skillbased. Types of Reactions: As there are multiple aspects of a course that can influence trainee satisfaction. but affective changes in learners· attitudes or motivation. allow surveys to be completed anonymously. three types of outcomes are generally measured: cognitive. while skill-based outcomes include knowledge of how to perform the tasks or skills presented in training. Reaction data can provide trainers with valuable diagnostic feedback they can use to modify the courses to meet the needs of trainees and their organizations. and their perceptions that the technology was easy to use and facilitated learning. Delivery reactions³assess the students· perceptions that the material was presented in an organized and coherent manner. Instructor reactions³assess the learners· perceptions of the instructor·s contributions to learning. Three Categories of Learning Outcomes .of Training and Development revealed that 91% of training courses use a reaction measure at the conclusion of training to evaluate the course (Sugrue & Rivera. Learning The second level of a training evaluation involves assessing what the students learned in the training. trainers should pull the questions together in a questionnaire (paper or online) and administer it to learners at the conclusion of training. Provide a space for trainees to write in about topics not covered in the survey. Tips for Collecting Reaction Data y y y Design the instrument so that results can be tabulated and quantified. and affective. the important outcomes of training are not declarative or procedural knowledge. Cognitive outcomes include facts and information presented in training. 2005). Utility reactions³assess the trainees· perceptions that the skills taught in training were useful and relevant to their jobs. In measuring learning. Figure 1. trainers should assess the dimensions that are relevant to their courses. Technology reactions³assess the trainees· satisfaction with the technology used. Appendix A contains list of reaction items for each dimension. y y y y y Affective reactions³assess whether or not the trainees liked or enjoyed the training. To obtain more honest opinions. Assessing reactions allows trainers to measure if trainees are satisfied with the course and if they feel that they are learning from the training. Collecting Reactions Data: After deciding which types of training reaction measures are relevant. Figure 1 outlines the three categories of learning outcomes. Occasionally. The five main categories of training reaction measures are below.
supervisors. In assessing results. skill-based. a multiple-choice test would be appropriate.. In order to conclude if learning is due to training it is important to have a comparison point. When possible. on the job). Other results-level indicators that can be examined include costs.. number of errors made) Trained observers· assessments of job performance Performance appraisals conducted by the trainee. 1976).Depending on whether the training objectives focus on cognitive. In order to assess changes in behaviors on the job. For example. . Results Results refer to the degree to which the training met the organization·s objectives. Sample self-efficacy items are included in Appendix B. but if the training objective is executing a specific skill. compare trainees· post-training test scores with pre-training test scores. and morale (Goldstein & Ford. Information Sources to Assess On-the-job Behavior y y y Objective measurements of actual job behavior (e. One example of an affective outcome is self-efficacy. 2002). or with a control group who has not yet attended the training. It is important to remember that just because trainees do well on a post-training exam does not mean that they learned the material during training³the students could have pre-existing knowledge or could have learned the material somewhere else (e. if an organization implements a safety training program they could compare organizational records of on-the-job accidents before and after the training. grievances. scoring trainees· performance while performing the skill would be more appropriate. or affective outcomes.g. turnover. 2008). If the training objective is for learners to recognize and recall training content. As shown in the box below. absenteeism. although it is generally the outcome that organizations find most valuable. trainee·s coworkers. Research has shown that self-efficacy is a strong predictor of training transfer (Sitzmann et al.g. Transfer Showing that trainees learned the material presented in training does not necessarily mean that the trainees will transfer the learning outcomes back to the workplace. Results-level outcomes the most challenging evaluation criteria to assess. or trainees· confidence in their understanding of the training material and their belief in their ability to apply the material they learned in the workplace.. there are multiple information sources that can be used to assess on-the-job behavior. it is important to have a comparison point of behaviors before the training in order to quantify improvements. it is important to identify the organization·s objectives and how the training influenced these objectives. there are different formats that are more appropriate for assessing knowledge gains. Assessing post-training performance should be delayed at least three months after training to allow the trainees the opportunity to implement the changes in their performance (Kirkpatrick. and subordinates Evaluating training programs using on-the-job behavior is more difficult than using reaction or learning data as it requires a more systematic approach to collect pre-training and post-training data.
. The trainer in case of straight lecture can decide to vary from the training script. Straight Lecture: Straight lecture method consists of presenting information. decision or situation into a sufficient number of separate cases. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. control of speed. A lecture may also take the form of printed text. agenda. etc. depending only on the division of a problem. There are some variations in Lecture method. what remains must be true. it does not involve any kind of interaction between the trainer and the trainees. However. Lecture is telling someone about something. A lecture can be in printed or oral form. INVENTORY OF TRAINING METHODS Lecture It is one of the oldest methods of training. to the effect that when one has eliminated the impossible. It is difficult to imagine training witho ut lecture format. goal. The variation here means that some forms of lectures are interactive while some are not. In this method. When thetrainer begins the training session by telling the aim. attitudes through lecture. A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic. however unlikely that seems. body language. the trainer speaks to a group about a topic. based on the signals from the trainees. or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method. This method is used to create understanding of a topic or to influence behavior. processes. purpose of the lecture. which the trainee attempts to absorb. such as books. and priorities and preferences of the order in which the topic will be covered. The principle of case analysis is invoked in the celebrated remark of Sherlock Holmes. Main Features of Lecture Method Some of the main features of lecture method are: y y y y y Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings Less expensive Can be reached large number of people at once Knowledge building exercise Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity Case analysis Case analysis is one of the most general and applicable methods of analytical thinking.7. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Analysing each such case individually may be enough to resolve the initial question. and visual image of the trainer. notes. whereas same material in print is restricted to what is printed. The difference between the straight lecture and the printed material is the trainer¶s intonation.
After the interaction of participants. such as: Multiple Role Play ± In this type of role play. providing demonstrations of situation. objectives. Traineesare given with some information related to description of the role. situation could be strike in factory. etc. Role Plays helps in y Developing interpersonal skills and communication skills y Conflict resolution y Group decision making y Developing insight into one¶s own behavior and its impact on others There are various types of role plays. a general description of the situation. and the problem that each one of them faces. emotions. analyze their interactions with one another and learn from the play. two parties in conflict. Role Rotation ± It starts as a single role play. 5. etc. Other participants observe the role play. is given. managing conflict. all trainees are in groups. Then. Then the participants are asked to exchange . concerns. After the role play. they act out their roles by interacting with one another. with each group acting out the role play simultaneously. the trainer will stop the role play and discuss what happened so far. 6. scheduling vacation days. For instance. 7. 4. Once the participants read their role descriptions. each group analyzes the interactions and identifies the learning points. Defining the issue(s) Analyzing the case data Generating alternatives Selecting decision criteria Analyzing and evaluating alternatives Selecting the preferred alternative Developing an action/implementation plan Role plays Role play is a simulation in which each participant is given a role to play. 2. Single Role Play ± One group of participants plays the role for the rest.Analyzing the case should take the following steps: 1. responsibilities. 3.
Indeed.browser-based and downloadable. it isn't anymore. but try to hold the player's attention by using creative graphics.This genre also includes many of the "Tycoon" games such as Railroad Tycoon and Big Biz Tycoon Other notable business simulation games include Air Bucks and The Movies.or economic simulation games. micromanagement is often emphasized in these kinds of games. one of the trainees plays herself while the other trainees play people with whom the first participant interacted before. at least. but the game also involves a building aspect that makes it a construction and management simulation. Business / management games & simulations Business simulation games. another notable pure business simulation is Hollywood Mogul. . as well as the close tying of players' actions to expected or plausible consequences and outcomes. This method allows a variety of ways to approach the roles. gameplay and structures. Active development of Internet technologies and the growth of the Internet audience in recent years gave a powerful impetus to the development of the industry of online games.characters. including outdoors Experiential Learning Comes of Age It's easier to define what experiential learning isn't than what it is.The interest in these games lies in accurate simulation of realworld events using algorithms.usually in the form of a business. They are essentially numeric.having developed the 1995 game Capitalism which has been described as the "best business simulation game". "Pure" business simulations have been described as construction and management simulations without a construction element. real-time and turn-based. single-player and multiplayer.An important facet of economic simulations is the emergence of artificial systems.Besides Capitalism.Theme Park World can be called a business simulation because the goal of the game is to attract customers and make profits. There are many varieties of online business simulations .are games that focus on the management of economic processes. Spontaneous Role Play ± In this kind of role play. online business simulations. and in particular. Among the most notable online business simulations such as Virtonomics. IndustryPlayer and Tycoononline Experiential learning. It isn't festive all-organizational pow wows.and can thus be called management simulations. Trevor Chan is a notable developer of business simulation games. Or. It isn't group hugs. It isn't singing "Kumbaya" around a campfire. There are many games in this genre which have been designed around numerous different enterprises.
those kinds of team building exercises were common. rather. though. learned why the survival rate of young British seamen was much lower than older seamen. is connected back to the workplace. defined it as any experience where there is personal involvement that is initiated and evaluated by the learner. can often be accomplished in a few hours. As the years have gone by.. though.Back in the 1970s. leadership. experiential learning was perceived as an event rather than a solution. experiential providers got better at connecting the experience back to the workplace. The great outdoors One of the oldest and largest providers of experiential learning is Outward Bound. experiential learning has become a sophisticated training tool that when used properly can effect enormous change within an organization. it became painfully obvious that when employees returned to work after a weekend of bonding.ahh. Outward Bound has become much more than outdoor challenge courses. and teamwork. "What have I experienced and learned and how can I apply it. when experiential learning was in its infancy. We learned not to focus on the activity as the process for learning. a ropes course. there is a debriefing after every event that illu minates and "anchors" how an experiential activity relates to an organization's mission or challenge. In a quality experiential educational program." Operating more than 57 schools in 32 countries. Regardless of the format. director of Outward Bound Professional. Tim Bonnett. all experiential learning provides metaphorical experiences that are applicable to life.hanging after the ropes course is over. there are three types: 1) outdoor experiences in which the activity itself is unrelated to a business environment. such as a game. experiential learning facilitators now follow up the activity with skilled debriefing and discussion. And a key benefit of using experiential learning is that the learning curve can be accelerated. which evolved into the Outward Bound school.S. to use it as a tool for learning. Kurt Hahn. Outward Bound works collaboratively with its clients on areas such as team building.. Outward Bound's beginnings harken back to World War II when a British educator. As the industry evolved. The company uses three approaches to . provides an experience where a group can work together to learn trust. For example. who has been called the father of experiential education. In other words. This "link back" is a key ingredient to effecting change. and cultural and strategic change. varies from provider to provider. The format for the actual experiential learning experience.. when a person introspectively asks. For organizations. He discovered it was lack of confidence rather than a shortage of skills or equipment and he developed a program to teach internal fortitude and confidence. which is a frequently used experiential learning activity. The trouble was that after many thousands of organizations had spent many tens of thousands of dollars on such programs. leadership. But instead of leaving a group. but the team building and leadership skills learned can be connected back to work. explains: "In the beginning. Basically. and 3) classroom-based experiences that simulate a "true-to-life" work situation. but. any positive changes were fleeting. in the late 1960s." then experiential learning has taken place. the missing step in the early years was linking the experience back to the workplace. what might take a person or group weeks or months to learn.. Founded in the United Kingdom in the early 1940s and established in the U. In the past 10 years. 2) indoor experiences in which a nonwork-related activity. A new incarnation Carl Rogers. That's when participants acquire insights of how to apply what they have just learned to life.
and so forth. This can be in the form of trainers' guides or manuals. role plays.and threeday programs combine a sport (selected for its particular attributes that match up with an organization's business challenge) with "power tools" that teach people communication and rapport. Originals of these materials should be included in the package so copies can be made when running the particular course. therefore. Exercise sheets. Many copies can be printed. challenge events. The trainees need training materials to help them take home and implement the training. They can be professionally designed and produced in a form that can be used in the training. In the training session the trainees will need other sorts of materials to work on. Flip charts can be printed and audio-visual aids. sharing costs between many trainers can help these visual aids to be quite sophisticated. Their function of taking the message of the training back to the village enables the trainees to explain what the training was all about to their community or group. The package will. . but they could also be illustrated posters or booklets. may be needed for each trainee. and wilderness programs. Bob Root. Organizing / preparing training material. It aims to help the trainer run the training course and use the other material in the pack. when met. have to include materials for the trainers." Root is a forner high-tech CEO and is familiar with the processes needed to run a business and bui ld teams. Visual aids are included in the pack to be used in the training session itself. These can make use of the same pictures as the visual aids. conflict resolution. The visual aids are not meant for the trainer to read as a prompt. which all sophisticated experiential learning companies provide. such as slides or videos. They c be an used in different parts of an organisation or by several organisations or training institutes who are all doing the same training.experiential learning: initiatives (which can range from outdoor experiences to real work projects. can be copied in whatever numbers are needed. If the package is to be reproduced. These can make the training session more participatory. questionnaires. including A.V. but as aids for the trainees to see in the session itself. can create the kind of exuberance that the participants can then take back to work to innovate and not to fear change. cofounder and partner of Orion Learning Inc. "Our mission at Orion is to help create teams that work together toward a common cause. which can make their production comparatively cheap." The two . calls the link back. These materials can be simple notes or handouts.. Small versions could be provided in the trainers' guide which could be copied on to flip charts or OHP. the "added value" that makes an outdoor adventure much more than just floating down a river: "A sports or adventure program can provide a challenge that. This package can consist of all the materials that a trainer or organisation needs to run the training course. Materials can be produced using several different forms and media which together form a training `package'. etc.such as team building a software program). It can also help remind the trainees to implement the training after their return home. aids Training Packages Training media and materials can be reproduced and used by more than one trainer. such as ropes courses. A package helps the message reach further than conventional training and makes it more likely to be implemented where it is intended.
designed and produced. it is seen as a basic function of a whole group. Training packages can become a means of spreading the training expertise as well as the training message itself. Try to list down as ambitious suggestions as possible. Their use needs to be linked so that they become more effective as a concerted effort rather than individual materials. teams can be put together to start on the development process.Another element in the package could be mass media programmes. A workshop could be arranged where selected trainers could work on the development of the package. then it can be part of a process of sharing effective training experience. however. Work on the development of training packages can be difficult if most training is seen as an isolated individual activity. The trainer should also have to spend less time in the preparation of the course as most of this should have been done for them and made available in the package. Once one topic and one package has been planned. production and use of atraining materials package. organisation or set of organisations. Developing packages Developing materials and good packages can take a lot of time. topics could be developed into a training materials package that would be useful for their work. Organisation can enable far more developed materials to be produced and used than one trainer could make for themselves. Even if these specialists are not available. tested. An orientation session may be needed to show them how to use the package in training. This media element needs including in the training package so that trainers are clear what the media is doing and how they can use it to make their work more effective. Trainers can work together and benefit from each others work. Your training could involve media support to help get it to those who need it and to help trained people implement what they have been trained to do. story tellers. the particular messages or information and the proposed media for the elements in the package. drama. Each proposal should be discussed with other trainers as to the long term viability of the idea. This should include listing who the target group for the training is to be. Media and training can be organised into campaigns which can reach large numbers of people. group or institute could benefit from. In a workshop the trainers can work out what overall. They have a vital role in identifying the needs for course development and requesting appropriate materials. such as broadcast radio or TV. This could be done with any appropriate mass media. They could formulate what they could use and what the whole organisation. this work in the production of training packages will be still needed. it will enable the training to be done more effectively. basic. To do this requires not just materials packages but organisation or a network to enable this to happen. By linking media to on-going training a demand can be created and training can be re-enforced. Involving the trainers The trainers need to be involved in the development. All these training materials need to be designed and illustrated with the same images. However once the package has been developed. subject specialists and designers working together. The best trainer should be able to influence the other trainers and they should be able to learn from each others' . A training materials network. etc. Working out how one topic should be put over and what the package would consist of can be a useful exercise. If. They may also be required to develop the courses and produce the information for which the materials will be developed. but for lots of other trainers who will use the package once it is produced. It can also include folk media such as singers. It can require trainers. This work of developing materials is not just for the first trainers.
o with a video with a VCP and TV. therefore. This needs to be explained and the potential researched. requires creating an effective network. With a network many points are linked. Points on the network may produce different elements of the training material or do different work on the development process. It requires. They should mutually assist each other to develop their work and the capability of the organisation. Pooling resources enables the production and the wider use of media which can be expensively and professionally designed and produced. which can be written down. space and other facilities do the trainers and members of the potential network have for training? It can be difficult to produce tape slide shows if the trainers do not have any working slide . It can be more effective than the normal vertical connections between manager and managed. If it is good you can buy sets of it rather than producing it yourself. Such a network also needs access to resources so that many copies of successful and tested training materials can be produced cheaply. It requires a good two way flow for both the network and the material to be well developed. The first step. o with a training classroom. The only way to encourage the sharing that is necessary to make it mutually beneficial. for example. tried out and widely used. he or she may not realise that it could be useful to an other trainer with the same problem in another area. Finding out what materials already exist is another necessary step. These connections are needed to develop materials that meet the needs of the trainees. Identifying who they are and what they have to offer or what they need can be the starting point. If it is written down it can be copied. and give general feed back. Such a system implies a level of agreement that can be difficult to generate if you are working with many independent small organisations. o the trainer with a materials producer with a o specialist on the subject. therefore. If another organisation has produced material on a similar topic you can learn a lot from what they have done. A network can be such an organisation. A network can o link a trainer and trainees. This can enable many horizontal connections between all trainers to be developed. has organisational implications as well as technical ones. The next step in the research involves a careful search for resources in the network area. If a trainer has had a good response to a role play. o provide a training with a trained trainer. These ideas underlie most of this book which. Other research is necessary to see what potential exists for both producing and using any material. as well as the media.work though such a network. The initial costs will be greater but by sharing them out to many users they will be less. o with a designer and a funder who will pay for everyone to receive the materials. as it can help people immediately to see what they can use and what needs to be developed. Organising the network The network has to pull together the producers and users of training materials. is helping people realise they have something to offer. design and training skills. who will test material. Find out what training is being done and what needs there are for new material and new training methods. not just a top down organisation. but a complex network where the trainers and field workers and potential users of training are connected with skilled specialists of various sorts. To implement many of these ideas. What equipment.
Each member of the network should find it easier to draw on the other members for support and assistance. as well as personnel policies and procedures. alliances. When employees understand and commit to the value proposition of the company and its brands. The includes lists of resources and training materials that the network should produce. mission and vision statements. or downsizing. What is the scope of internal marketing? Internal marketing includes the communication of corporate culture and goals. Once the initial research has been collated it should show who. what and how your network can work. Ideas and methods of working can be developed with the members or trainers of the network or organisation. y Many companies are undergoing some form of transformation through mergers. These documents should be the backbone of a training material network or organisation. Extra resources for equipment may be necessary if the training materials are to be widely used. it is essential to sell inwardly toward a company¶s people. external marketing becomes more effective. What to DoUnderstand the Need for Internal Marketing Internal marketing is becoming increasingly important as the pace of change accelerates. What You Need to KnowWhy is internal marketing important? Although external marketing remains the most important business development task. 8. few make the same investment in time. energy.projectors. materials and other resources that exist already. The need for communication is stronger in these circumstances. but it's essential to recognize the importance of marketing to internal customers. Internal communications is traditionally viewed as the sole province of the Human Resources department. It should also include details of courses. This should include details of who does what and who has what so that others can gain access to any available resources. It can also involve initiatives such as informing staff about new product introductions or new acquisitions. and money in communicating with their internal customers ² their employees. This can be done at a meeting or workshop and can be supplemented by training newsletters to keep everyone informed about developments and training. because the employees become product champions. The workshop and research should be able to produce lists of trainers' needs for the network to meet. They will enable considerable development and improve the quality of work. While most companies allocate resources to understanding and communicating with their external customers. There will be a need for a list or directory of the members and elements in the network or organisation. . MARKETING OF TRAINING ACTIVITY Marketing in house (internal customer) internal customer :Employee who receives goods or services produced elsewhere in the firm as inputs to his or her work in the firm.
that are not part of or under any of the jurisdictions of any single country worldwide. For many companies. delivers better customer care while strengthening the corporate brand in the market place. futures. and User Events may be some of the activities that have been a part of your annual marketing mix. each activity should be scrutinized to determine if they complement. better systems. and do not participate effectively in the promises to external clients. commitment.Is the market place for the securities. minimises turnover costs. . There are various techniques and tools that help organisations implement effective internal brand building and marketing communications. stocks. you'll have the analysis in hand to determine which to drop and which to now integrate into your custom designed campaign. andmutual funds in a global perspective. With history on your side. their name. or their values. and understanding. newsletters. y As companies empower staff to build stronger customer relationship. posters and pamphlets informing about new initiatives. They are offered all over the world and have multiple investors and multiple countries they are working out of at any given time simultaneously. or simply don't deliver. An information-armed. the external brand equity is negatively affected. it is essential to communicate the change to all stakeholders including employees. They are sometimes called the Euro Market as that is where most of they investors come from or operate there corporations from. extranets (partner communication on the web). However. Internal marketing helps the process of knowledge development by building understanding and commitment to personal development. to maximize your return. Like external customers. An organization thrives on the abilities of its constituents. overlap. they too are impacted by the company·s brand and its future plans. y y Marketing to external customers External Market. creates profitable customer relationships. Media Outreach. enthusiastic work force boosts productivity. Internal marketing can bring the parties together with shared goals and values. these programs have proven too valuable to be omitted and will continue to be a part of any campaign for years to come. internal marketing under pins the drive for greater involvement. These are intranets. It is very important that internal staffs· perception of the organisation ² your internal brand ² matches the external brand positioning for optimum results. company events. They are normally issued outside all jurisdictions of that country or any country worldwide. namely its employees and business partners as they define the company·s ability in optimizing resources and competencies to convert opportunities into revenues. Constant organizational change can loosen the ties between employer and employee.y When companies also change their brand. They have manyoptions in them such as bonds. Press Releases. company stores. Trade Shows. They are called the internal customers as they interact within the organisation internally to generate long term value. However if your internal customers are not sufficiently aware of your marketing plans. internal rules and procedures.
The 'neutral' internal customers could be targeted with incentives like a pay raise. reframe and empower employee attitude Facilitate an ¶inside-out· management approach Retain a positive customer experience across all business objectives Provide role-specific and user-focused information. Each segment requires a different internal ¶marketing mix· to deliver on internal marketing goals. Broadly speaking there are three segments . anywhere Smart . To ensure that it delivers consistently.e. if the company wanted to relocate closer to new emerging markets.Internal Marketing Approach To be effective. including best practices around various organisational policies and processes · Increase the peoples· connections with the external / internal customer service division·s roadmap by articulating investments. Like external customers. they too have their own ¶buyer· behaviour. identifying with the changes which organisations plan to implement. neutral. while the 'opposers' could be effectively coerced / forced to accept the re -location regardless of their objection (in the larger interests of the company). For example. internal marketing needs to accurately segment internal customers. and objectives. motivates and empowers people at all management levels to consistently deliver a satisfying internal and external customer experience. it could target 'supporters' with a customised video on relocation benefits like low cost of living and better amenities. Internal marketing is a dedicated effort across the organization.supporters. internal marketing should: · · · · · · · Function as a continual internal 'up-skilling' process Align the organisation·s purpose with employee behaviour Internalise core values of the organisation by all employees Motivate. tactics. ¶opposers·. · Be available in a self service / portable format that is accessible anytime. Internal marketing is an ongoing process that needs constant top management support and the process innovations to make it as viable as external marketing. i.whereby it aligns.
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