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Training and teaching
What is the basic difference?
So how do we define the fundamental differences between teaching and training?
Teach has many alternate definitions, including: y To cause to know something y To guide the studies of y To impart the knowledge of y To instruct by precept, example, or experience Definitions for train are: y To form by instruction, discipline, or drill y To make prepared for a test of skill Note that training focuses on skill; the definitions imply a narrower focus than teaching and possibly a shorter timeframe. We might associate training with the notion of exercises that we repeat until we "get" the skills we are trying to acquire - until they become almost second nature. The definitions for teaching, in contrast, imply deeper knowledge and a longer timeframe. We often hear the term "lifelong learning," but I can't recall ever hearing about "lifelong training."
Do teaching and training have different goals? First, let's examine this question from two viewpoints: The people receiving the teaching or training, whom we will call students; and that of the organization to whom the students report. For full-time college students, that organization is usually the "Mom and Dad Company." For professionals in the workforce, the organization is usually their employer. College students' goals What motivates students? As a teacher, I'd like to say that students come to my class with an intense desire to learn. But I'm not that naieve - rarely does a student have such a desire. Most college students have three primary goals with respect to their courses: 1. Getting good grades. Like it or not, in academia, grades are how you are measured. They're not always fair. Some people don't test well and struggle to get good grades. But most instructors assign grades to indicate how well students have grasped the course material in a course. 2. Qualifying for continuing financial aid. With the cost of college education today, financial aid plays an important role for many students. Good grades are a requirement for maintaining financial aid, typically along with other requirements, such as working on campus for a certain number of hours. 3. Finding employment after graduation. This is, by far, the primary motivation for most students. Many of my computer science students are worried about job prospects when the leave school. They know the market for software engineers is not as robust as it was when they began their course of studies. So they work hard to develop enough skills and basic knowledge to make themselves attractive to potential employers. Professionals' goals What about professionals? What is their motivation for additional learning? Surely not grades. Professional courses, seminars, and workshops are typically not graded. You pay your money and walk away with as much knowledge as you can absorb. Nevertheless, I think professionals have three goals that map closely to those of college students. 1. Get a good annual review. Professionals do receive "grades," just not in courses. Instead, they are graded on their job performance. Taking courses might help them get better reviews - first, because it demonstrates their personal motivation and a desire to
help the organization, and second, because it gives them skills to do their work more effectively. 2. Keep your job and get a raise. Just as students must work hard to maintain their financial aid, professionals must perform at a certain level in order to keep their jobs and get salary increases. During the last few years, many people have lost their jobs, both in the software industry and others. This sense of insecurity is something we would never have imagined ten years ago. 3. Learn what is necessary to get a better job. Almost everyone looks toward the next job they want when they consider voluntary training - whether it is a promotion in their current company or a new, exciting position in a different organization.
Balancing training and teaching
Everything we do in our lives requires a balance between two things or more - a compromise. This column talks about the balance between theory and practice, so it is appropriate to consider that balance with respect to training and teaching. In my January 2004 column, I explained how I am seeking the right blend of theory and practice in my software development courses. My primary job is to prepare students for the rest of their working lives and help them succeed in their careers. So I first have to ensure that they learn fundamental principles and then teach them to use specific tools and techniques as time allows. A sample development project Things are a little different in a work environment. Let's say you are managing a new project to develop an enterprise-wide system to manage inventory in multiple, worldwide locations. This will involve Internet technology, database systems, and so on. You add two new members to the project team. Sarah is a new graduate with a computer science degree. She has learned software engineering principles as well as some specific technologies, such as Java programming. Mike has been employed with your organization for a while; he has attended inhouse training courses in programming as well as on other topics that apply to his job. Mike started his career in the military, which he joined right after high school; he never attended college. Both of these people have valuable skills. If you could combine their two skill sets, you would have an ideal team member who could step in and hit the ground running. However, as both of these people are new to the project, they need some orientation. Sarah will have the challenge of learning to understand not only the system itself, but also the culture within your organization and the specific ways people conduct business. And Mike will be challenged as well; your project has decided to adopt tools and processes from IBM Rational Suite,® which is new to your organization. You plan to follow a customized version of IBM Rational Unified Process,® use Rational ClearCase® for configuration management, Rational RequisitePro® for requirements management, and so on. The team might use additional tools as appropriate, some of which you will develop in house. Applying learning and training Now let's see how their respective backgrounds affect the way Sarah and Mike handle learning challenges. First, in order to learn about the system under construction, both of them look at the Software Architecture Document (SAD). This describes some architecturally significant use cases, UML diagrams, plans for development, testing, and so on. Mike is familiar with the format: It's the company standard he's been trained on. He quickly grasps the project's scope and potential business impact. His internal training courses and experience within the company have prepared him to understand both the jargon and companyspecific business issues. Sarah, in contrast, struggles a little over the terminology, application domain, and acronyms; but she quickly grasps the overall architecture. She understands multitier architectures and the technologies used to represent this one. She also understands why certain areas have been identified as architecturally significant and begins to see how the
designer might apply some common design patterns to simplify the architecture and make it more robust. You have assigned Mike and Sarah to the same small team responsible for implementing part of the business logic in the system's middle tier. The team has already decided that they can break up the use cases into user stories, which will help them schedule work and track progress. They have also decided to use JUnit for unit testing as they work. You allow them to hire an instructor to provide a day of training for the team on how to create user stories and apply JUnit. After the training, both Sarah and Mike understand the basic concepts and applications for user stories. When it comes to JUnit, Mike understands the mechanism, but he has trouble deciding what to test. Sarah remembers the principles of testing she learned in her software engineering class and begins to write positive and negative tests, boundary condition tests, and so on. She also takes time to help Mike develop good tests. They meet for several sessions of pairprogramming for the tests. Sarah learns more about the application domain from Mike, and he picks up new techniques and basic principles from Sarah. She suggests to you that using a code coverage tool in conjunction with JUnit would provide rapid feedback about the completeness of the unit tests. When you give her the go-ahead, Sarah reads through the IBM Rational PureCoverage manual and then writes a short document explaining how to use the tool to check the team's Java code. She holds a brown-bag lunch to answer questions about Rational PureCoverage, and then the team starts using the tool to improve their testing. As the project proceeds, the requirements change, and the team has to adapt the code they've already created to changes in the architecture. Luckily, the architecture has been well constructed, so there are clean interfaces for the major modules. However, some of the changes threaten certain interfaces and could have ripple effects through the subsystem the team is building. Sarah thinks about the design patterns she learned in one of her classes and realizes that, instead of refactoring the existing code, the team could make the code much more robust by adding adapters to the code base and applying common patterns, such as decorator, factory method, and so on. Even though she learned these design pattern implementations in C++, she understands the principles behind them and can easily adapt them for Java. Sarah turns to Mike again for help with the mechanics of setting up her environment to take advantage of the advanced features in IBM Rational ClearCase, because he's had extensive training on this tool. Once she is adept at using these features, Sarah becomes much more productive. She also realizes that the team might be able to leverage Rational ClearCase to achievecontinuous integration, a goal discussed in her software engineering class. She reads up on how to script tools for Rational ClearCase and then writes a couple of Perl scripts to make integration tests run continually as the integration builds proceed. When they adopt this change in process, team members find that they can indentify integration problems more quickly and fix them more easily. Mike, meanwhile, uses his knowledge of the organization and how it does business to identify several requirements that simply do not reflect how business is actually conducted. He also knows who to talk to in order to adjust the requirements, so you appoint him the domain expert for the team. You pat yourself on the back for bringing two high-powered people like Mike and Sarah on the team. Each one knows how to apply what he or she has learned and also how to leverage one another's strengths, which are complementary. But in the long haul, who is most likely to get ahead? I'd put my money on Sarah. Sarah's grounding in fundamental principles allows her to quickly find solutions to common problems and think strategically about measures that will increase both coding efficiency and system quality. Mike's practical knowledge has given him a deep understanding of his work environment and business processes that he can use to identify problems and quickly get them resolved. Sarah will acquire these same capabilities as time goes on - that is the nature of onthe-job training. But how could Mike acquire theoretical knowledge like Sarah's? Many people do it by going back to college, but some cannot make that kind of commitment.
Create an ongoing learning environment
Fortunately, there are some healthy organizations that not only offer training but also support opportunities for employees to acquire knowledge about theories and principles relating to their work. By giving people time and funding to pursue knowledge through outside sources, such organizations can give their "Sarahs" the domain knowledge that their "Mikes" have, and also help their "Mikes" learn what their "Sarahs" learned in academia. In other words, they create a learning environment that supports both the short-term and long-term goals of the organization and the employee. In a business setting, managers can act as "teachers" who guide learning for their employees. Managers can also help team members plot their careers, based on what each person wants to learn. And good managers can match the employee's desires with the company's needs. Many successful organizations recognize that this form of teaching (or mentoring) is critical for business success. They make it a condition for managerial promotions and pay increases. But they also give employees time to learn and opportunities to use the knowledge they acquire. On the academic side, we will continue to educate students about basic principles, sprinkled with a little training; we'll give them some practice and a lot of theory. When our graduates join your organization, we hope you will continue to expose them to theory rather than just providing practice in the form of training. You can take advantage of the resources at learning institutions in your area and provide programs that keep employees up to date on issues and ideas about software development. Invest in the future. Training helps people today; teaching guarantees them - and your organization - a bright tomorrow.
Learning about management issues and concepts
The four functions of management are: 1.The base function is to: Plan It is the foundation area of management. It is the base upon which the all the areas of management should be built. Planning requires administration to assess; where the company is presently set, and where it would be in the upcoming. From there an appropriate course of action is determined and implemented to attain the company¶s goals and objectives Planning is unending course of action. There may be sudden strategies where companies have to face. Sometimes they are uncontrollable. You can say that they are external factors that constantly affect a company both optimistically and pessimistically. Depending on the conditions, a company may have to alter its course of action in accomplishing certain goals. This kind of preparation, arrangement is known as strategic planning. In strategic planning, management analyzes inside and outside factors that may affect the company and so objectives and goals. Here they should have a study of strengths and weaknesses, opportunities and threats. For management to do this efficiently, it has to be very practical and ample. 2.The subsequent function is to: Organize The second function of the management is getting prepared, getting organized. Management must organize all its resources well before in hand to put into practice the course of action to decide that has been planned in the base function. Through this process, manageme will now determine the nt inside directorial configuration; establish and maintain relationships, and also assign required resources. While determining the inside directorial configuration, management ought to look at the different divisions or departments. They also see to the harmonization of staff, and try to find out the best way to handle the important tasks and expenditure of information within the company. Management determines the division of work according to its need. It also has to decide for suitable departments to
hand over authority and responsibilities. 3.The third function is to: Direct Directing is the third function of the management. Working under this function helps the management to control and supervise the actions of the staff. This helps them to assist the staff in achieving the company¶s goals and also accomplishing their personal or career goals which can be powered by motivation, communication, department dynamics, and department leadership. Employees those which are highly provoked generally surpass in their job performance and also play important role in achieving the company¶s goal. And here lies the reason why managers focus on motivating their employees. They come about with prize and incentive programs based on job performance and geared in the direction of the employees requirements. It is very important to maintain a productive working environment, building positive interpersonal relationships, and problem solving. And this can be done only with Effective communication. Understanding the communication process and working on area that need improvement, help managers to become more effective communicators. The finest technique of finding the areas that requires improvement is to ask themselves and others at regular intervals, how well they are doing. This leads to better relationship and helps the managers for better directing plans.
4.The final function is to: Control Control, the last of four functions of management, includes establishing performance standards which are of course based on the company¶s objectives. It also involves evaluating and reporting of actual job performance. When these points are studied by the management then it is necessary to compare both the things. This study on comparision of both decides further corrective and preventive actions. In an effort of solving performance problems, management should higher standards. They should straightforwardly speak to the employee or department having problem. On the contrary, if there are inadequate resources or disallow other external factors standards from being attained, management had to lower their standards as per requirement. The controlling processes as in comparison with other three, is unending process or say continuous process. With this management can make out any probable problems. It helps them in taking necessary preventive measures against the consequences. Management can also recognize any further developing problems that need corrective actions. Effective and efficient management leads to success, the success where it attains the objectives and goals of the organizations. Of course for achieving the ultimate goal and aim management need to work creatively in problem solving in all the four functions. Management not only has to see the needs of accomplishing the goals but also has to look in to the process that their way is feasible for the company.
Consider Bloom's theory too. Another method example of assessing and prioritising training isDIF Analysis. .the internet offers more opportunities than ever. Adair's are useful theory helps. degree Look also at your process and So is the Johari recruitment processes templateand Window model. Presentation is an important aspect to delivery.it's all about meaningful communication. 1. the 'skill-sets' and training needs analysis tools . processes and tools found in the effective planning and delivery of organizational training. The Kirkpatrick modelespecially helps you to structure training design. People's learning styles greatly affect what type of training they will find easiest and most effective. Good writing techniques help with the design of materials. Assess and agree training needs 2. Design materials. Involve the people in identifying and agreeing relevant aligned training. 4. Consider evaluation training effectiveness. The 360 more about this. you must break down the training or learning requirement into manageable elements. See the self-study program design tipsbelow . Consider team activities and exercises.they can help organize and training elements assessment on a large scale. Remember you are dealing with people. in pdf format) group. each model is and spirituality. love element.Principles of learning and development basic idea training process ideas and outline process Here is a relatively simple overview of typical reference models. wonderful for and compassion at understanding work as well as skills. See also running meetings andworkshops. Attach standards or Considerorganizational measures or valuesand aspects parameters to The Erikson ofintegrity and ethics. Look also atpersonality types. People have feelings as well as skills and knowledge. Revisit model. so that you can understand what sort of development you are actually addressing. which can be adapted for all sorts of providers and services. Plan training and evaluation 5. does helps identify the Tuckman development needs. Create 3. not objects. Consider training or learning styles development and personality specification Having identified what you want to train and develop in people. So do the principles of advertising . which includes before-and-after measurements. . Consider modern innovative methods see the Businessballs Community for lots of providers and ideas. This commonly happens in theappraisal process. methods and deliver training Conduct some sort oftraining needs analysis. So Why people leave also tools.there is no point the training people if they simpletraining Consider the are not the right planner (also team and the people to begin with. There is a usefultraining providers selection template on the sales training page.
and also enabling learning and personal development . and you will discover learning in virtually every new experience. and open-minded.or learning. lifecoaching. The leader's ethics and behaviour set the standard for their people's. which are templates for planning and organising the delivery of job skills training and processes. think about what really helps people to change. informal training. role-playing and role-play games and exercises. On-the-job training. productivity. distance learning . innovative.is anything offering learning and developmental experience.it's anything that helps a person to grow. internal training courses. If you consider the attributes of really effective people. More importantly. and the processes available to people. it improves performance. whether for yourself. belief system. Training is nothing without the motivation to apply it effectively. available to use and apply according to individual training needs and organisational training needs. See also thetraining induction checklist and planner tool. technical training. self-confidence. but remember after this to concentrate most of your 'training' efforts and resources on enabling and facilitating meaningful learning and personal development for people. Skills and knowledge.the important qualities which make good performers special are likely to be attitudinal . product training. Be creative. and knowledge are trained. If you want to make a difference. It helps improve quality. business development and profitability. or your organization. Attitude includes qualities that require different training and learning methods. classroom training. and there are better ways of achieving this sort of change and development than putting people in a classroom. and experience. and transfer of knowledge and policy etc. A strong capability to plan and manage skills training. customer satisfaction. behavioural development training. on-the-job coaching. mentoring. training and developing people increases the health and effectiveness of the organization. Training is also available far beyond and outside the classroom. or indeed by delivering most sorts of conventional business or skills training. Development isn't restricted to training . initiative. as well as skills and knowledge. What makes people effective and valuable to any organization is their attitude. Explore them and enjoy them. Training . commitment. More free training tools are available for download at the free training tools and resources page. and encourage others to do the same. emotional maturity. . and the development of motivation and attitude.There are many different training and development methods. skills. understanding. leadership and determination. largely determines how well people perform in their jobs. See for example the training planner and training/lesson plan calculator tool. and the productivity of the business. your team. which people see as a chore. inter-personal skills. techniques. These are the greatest training and development challenges faced.see and download a free training process diagram. There is no reason to stop at work-related training. and more. management succession. be they leaders. external training courses. As regards conventional work-related training planning. these are step-by-step processes . are no great advantage. attitude and behaviour. Many of these methodologies are explained on this website. accredited training and learning. tolerance. and training itself. training . confidence. any role at all. motivation (see the motivation theory section). the acquisition of knowledge. self-control.all part of the training menu. to look at it from the trainee's view . in ability. operators. skills training. All supervisors and managers should enable and provide training and development for their peop le training develops people. which determines how productively they use their skills and knowledge. Go further to help people grow and develop as people. technicians. raises morale. attitudinal training and development.is essential for the organisation. This is why training and learning must extend far beyond conventional classroom training courses. Training and learning development includes aspects such as: ethics and morality. Use these tools and processes to ensure that essential work-related skills. managers. Attitude stems from a person's mind-set. morale. training assignments and tasks.
which ensures a better result.Having said this. as an individual. Look atmultiple intelligences and the VAK learning model and free learning style tests. talent. and managers and supervisors play a key role in helping this process. and then settled in quickly and happily to a productive role. how best to communicate. Your aim is to help the other person learn and develop not to create another version of yourself. It's about the basics that seasoned employees all take for granted: what the shifts are. These induction training principles are necessarily focused on the essential skills and knowledge for a new starter to settle in and to begin to do their job. where the notice-board is. or train or mentor others: Are your own your own skills adequate? Do you need help or training in any important areas necessary to train. look to develop each person in a meaningful relevant way that they will enjoy and seek. Here's a free induction training checklist. what's the routine for holidays. And it's vital you understand the other person's style and personality too .not putting in). let people know that their job role does not define their potential as a person within or outside the organisation. and for all situations where people work together.also need to be assessed. etc. to experience themselves by trial and error? Knowing the other person's preferred learning style helps you deliver the training in the most relevant and helpful way. and the way that you see and relate to the person that your are coaching. and. abilities. The sooner the better.it's a useful explanation of the importance of open communications and strong mutual understanding among staff in organizations. coaching or mentoring role. and how best to help others grow and learn and develop. . Induction Training is especially important for new starters.by a variety of methods . sickness. Mentoring and proper coaching should be used alongside formal structured training anyway. that the opportunities for their development and achievement in the organisation are not limited by the job role. quicker. we do need to start with the essentials. People's personal strengths and capabilities . especially where the mentor or coach is seen as a role-model for the person's own particular aspirations. goals and philosophy. so they and everyone else involved can see what's happening and that everything is included. personnel practices. for example induction training for new starters. As early as possible. you understand how you will be perceived. timescales and expectations. coach. but this type of support can also greatly assist 'whole-person development'. and of course the job they're required to do. However there is great advantage in beginning to address personal development needs. and beyond work requirements. wishes. Induction training is more than skills training. where's the canteen.and aims and desires and special talents (current and dormant) . which is very effective in producing excellent people. so as to understand. do they prefer to be shown. Good induction training ensures new starters are retained. If possible 'top-up' this sort of development through the provision of mentoring and facilitative coaching (drawing out . opportunities.and then structure the way that the training and development is to be delivered. with clear methods. where the toilets are. You must prepare and provide a suitable induction plan for each new starter. or the skill-set that the organisation inevitably defines for the person. It helps you design activities and tasks that the other person will be more be more comfortable doing. mentor others? What is your own style? How do you you communicate? How do you approach tasks? What are your motives? These all affect the way you see and perform see the training. An organisation needs to assess its people's skills training needs . or mentoring. or training. during or very soon after the induction process. Managers must ensure induction training is properly planned . When you understand yourself. particular strengths. health and safety rules. what's the dress code. beyond the job role. Various models and tests are available to help understand learning styles . subject to organisational policy. It's important that as a manager you understand yourself well before you coach.. and help the person understand. It's also a useful model for personal awareness and selfdevelopment.how they prefer to learn do they like to read and absorb a lot of detail.look at the Kolb model.an induction training plan must be issued to each new employee. New employees also need to understand the organisation's mission. See also the Johari Window model and adapted theory .
Analysis and detail should always be a means to an end (to achieve effective training and development). given modest expertise in spreadsheets and logic. . Other methods exist for prioritising training. Importance. DIF Analysis can be used in different ways: for example as a flow diagram to consider each activity using a simple yes/no for each of the three factors in sequence of Difficulty (yes/no). which is generally the most powerful force for effective training and development. Choose or develop a method which is appropriate for your situation. The system looks at tasks and activities (or skills. especially if applied to a group or organization. If you have one to share please send it. depending on the situation. Resist the tendency to become overly detailed. Analysis can become extremely complex. based on three perspectives: Difficulty. here are three other examples of methods for prioritising training: Essential/Desirable . prioritising training needs and planning training. Task-based analysis is important for organizational development measurement and planning. whatever) which are high importance (of task to organizational performance) and low competence (of trainee skill level). be adapted to manage DIF Analysis. although better dedicated DIF Analysis tools exist.simply and quickly define each activity (skill. not an end in themselves. which generates eight possible combinations. competency. return on investment (typically in terms of organizational performance. Ultimately the best way to prioritise training is can be simply to agree with the trainee what they are most keen to commit to.DIF stands for Difficulty.the highest training priorities are obviously the activities (skills. Importance. high importance and low competence = high training priority low importance and low competence = low training priority high importance and high competence = low training priority low importance and high competence = zero training priority DIF Analysis . so it is sensible to ensure that the level of analysis is appropriate for the situation before starting to build complex analysis systems. For such a potentially detailed system. an activity that scores low on all three scales is obviously low priority. DIF Analysis is a sophisticated (and potentially very complex) method of assessing performance. whatever) rather than looking at development from a personal individual perspective. Frequency. All the analysis and detail in the world will not guarantee trainee commitment. which in most situations is the case. The Skill-set and TNA tools on this website could. Importance (yes/no) and Frequency (yes/no). At a simple level. competencies. DIF Analysis does not automatically take account of personal preferences and potential capabilities. and as such consideration to this aspect is wise where trainee commitment is influential upon development.prioritising training Given the vast range of skills and other competencies which can be developed in people it is useful for some sort of prioritising to take place so that training focuses on the areas which will yield best benefit. whereas an activity that scores high on all three scales is a high priority. although the needs of teams and individuals can also be very significant in prioritising training and development.) In addition to the skill-sets and training needs analysis tools on this website. Importance/Competency matrix . in other words. whatever) according to whether it isessential or desirable for the job purpose and organizational performance. competencies. but approaching training prioritisation from purely a task perspective ignores the vital personal factor. and Frequency. Weighting (significance of each factor relative to the job purpose/aims) is required in order to optimise the usefulness and relevance of the system. Training priority is obviously given to developing essential competencies.
or are nervous about being bold.people have to experience things which enable them to feel bolder. designing self-study training and learning programmes The same basic principles apply to designing self-study programs as to any other sort of training design. roles and teams. The growing businessballs community contains many other different innovative. lack confidence to do what they think is right. And not just the prospect of financial reward. Participative workshops work well in beginning this type of attitudinal development. not the skills. Organisations need staff at all levels to be more self-sufficient. often because they feel insecure. It's not a particularly conventional one. and this provides a platform for trust. and subsequent skills/process/knowledge development relevant to managing higher responsibilities. while conventional skills training gives people new techniques and methods. and problem-solving capabilities among their people. integrity. Provide learning and experiences that they'd like for their own personal interest. greater responsibility. Help them to achieve what they want on a personal level. maturity and attitude. groups. You could also use a personal development questionnaire to begin to set the scene and provide examples of 'alternative' learning opportunities. You can't 'teach' boldness . resourceful. which makes their organizations more productive and competitive. providers. . and free resources. emotionally. Performance and capability are ultimately dependent on people's attitude and emotional maturity. creative and autonomous.. it won't develop their maturity. solutions-finding. which across a whole team has a cumulative effect. interesting and excellent ideas. It starts with the person. nor an accredited or measurable one. whereas boldness is absolutely required for self-sufficiency. etc. and to want to take risks. Focus on what they want. There are many.real extra responsibility. Try to see things from the person's (your people's) point of view. 'emotional contracting' with the organisation. This behaviour enables staff can operate at higher strategic level. which is so essential for the development of managerial and strategic capabilities. Involve people right from the start. acting in a 'conforming' state. When people develop confidence. More importantly the Herzberg-type motivators . they automatically become more proactive. in fact all of the behaviours that organizations strive to encourage. responsive. The only limits are those you imagine. to take risks. So many people at work are simply 'going through the motions'. empowering and cost-effective than ever before. Like any sort of learning it will appeal to some people but not others. It's about attitude and emotional maturity. Again. Look on the web for ideas and selfstudy and self-development resources. solutions-focused. recognition. initiative. initiative. This is the fuel of people's growth and change. However. It's what all organizations strive to achieve. People's efforts produce bigger results. Johari is a useful model too. This website is effectively a self-study program. methods. Be creative and innovative. belief. The Emotional Intelligence principles and methodologies fit very well with modern approaches to developing people's belief. not the skills. development and fulfilment.developing people and capabilities Many organizations face the challenge of developing greater confidence. The internet enables self-study learning and development programs to be more useful. This means the rewards must be there too. and involvement in new successful and interesting projects. or people have no reason to stick their necks out. or courage. focus on developing the person. and technologies.
short sessions . Assessment and development are tightly connected.practical workshops . mentoring linked to projects and objectives activities Linking mentoring with objectives and project tasks or activities is a highly productive and effective modern method of training and developing people in organizations. especially for staff in teams and departments. Know yourself as a trainer (and/or encourage this among your trainers). relevance and commitment. As ever consider what you seek to achieve.focused on practical priorities and individual needs (SMART and WIIFM factors) follow-up coaching and mentoring one-to-one support . Designing a good self-study program should by its nature if possible involve the students. Then it is easier to decide how and what will help best. and the Bloom learning domains taxonomy model. Well-facilitated 'activity focused mentoring' is consensual.coaching/task notes for line managers y y y . and direct job and organizational performance improvement. The approach isfacilitative rather than prescriptive. prescribed along a single-channel towards a task focus. thepersonality styles theories. such as Erikson's theory.focused on practical job issues. The activity-mentoring approach uses several integrated techniques which produce more reliable and relevant training and learning outputs.and pre-training preparatory work small groups . The group selection recruitment and assessment centre guide is also relevant.You will find many other self-development offerings on the internet if you tap into relevant communities and portals. etc. for example the Kirpatrick evaluation and design model. individual personality/learning style and organisational priorities individually agreed tasks and assignments . The approach builds on management by objectives (MBO's) principles. organizations. and broadly features: y y y y strategic assessment of organisational and department priorities and 'high-yield' training needs interpreted discussion with line-managers of training delegates and strategic managers of the organisation pre-training skills/behavioural needs-analysis . attitudinal development. and for developing organizations themselves . in an open. but is more participative. in terms of individual skills. organic. read the training design and evaluation materials on this page and elsewhere on the website. isolated and individually separate. By comparison. Involving people from the beginning increases ideas. voluntary and inclusive.giving high accountability and reliable deliverables ongoing feedback and review with line-managers and strategic managers . threedimensional way. the learning styles and multiple intelligence theories. particularly to and between management/subordinate/peer levels. across multiple organizational interfaces. before you design how to achieve it.highly participative and situation/solutionbased . To help you structure and design and assess learning. with a personal development and team building focus. Activity focused mentoring methods also help develop systems (not IT and processes. To help you understand yourself read the materials relating to personality and motivation. dynamic. McGregor.all training delegates . management and communications. and help trainees and learners to know themselves. but overall systems: ie. team-orientated. Herzberg. MBO's are a 'one-way street'. and the ideas of Maslow.. how an organization works).
Mentors need to be facilitators and coaches. Mentor time away from normal activities . but selection of suitable mentor is absolutely critical . The mentor should not normally . so this is arguably a credit not a debit.The process works on several different levels: individual. the mentor's role should be to help the 'mentoree' find the answers for him/herself.. which would be intensive almost to the point of overloading the mentoree. Here however are general cost indicators for a program essentially delivered by internally appointed mentors. You should also refer to aspects of NLP (Neuro-Linguistic Programming).. team.if it's a programme involving several mentors an mentorees then estimate an hour per quarter (3 mths) per one-to-one mentoring relationship .effective mentoring should ideally integrate with the mentoree's normal activities. ie. instead mentors need to facilitate the experience of discovery and learning. helping the mentoree to find the answers for him/herself provides far more effective mentoring. Mentoring can be external.good natural mentors need little training.if the mentoring is limited to just a single one-to-one relationship then it's largely self-managing . evaluating and monitoring activity. which are particularly prominent within life coaching. because the process enables so much more for the mentoree in terms of experience of learning. Say on average a day a month including the associated administration work. and because mentoring programmes are so varied. The main elements of a mentoring programme that carry quantifiable cost would be: y Training of mentor(s) . That said. and enhance productivity.comfortably achievable for £1. or an internal activity. effectiveness. particularly where the mentoring is required to be formalised and recorded. Overseeing the program. progress and outputs depends on the size of the program. task.needs to be a minimum of an hour a month one-toone or nothing can usefully be achieved. etc. The mentor should therefore focus mentoring effort and expectations (of the person being mentored especially. statistics as to general costs and returns across industry are not easy to find. many of the principles of mentoring are common to those of proper coaching. mentoring cost analysis and justification Mentoring can be provided in various ways and programmes take a variety of shapes. organisational and strategic. Give someone the answers and they learn only the answers. number of mentors an number of 'mentorees' . and the organisation) on helping and guiding the mentoree to find the answers and develop solutions of his/her own. for instance client or supplier visits. as well as being strongly motivational and where necessary resolving conflict and attitudinal issues. using mentors within the organisation. Mentorees need simply to open their minds to the guidance and facilitative methods of the mentor. other people who are not ready or able to help others can be beyond any amount of training.it's not rocket science. not tutors or trainers. If this person with the overview/monitoring responsibility needs external advice you'd need to add on two or three days external training or consultancy costs. where the mentoring is essentially provided by external people.) y y y mentoring principles and techniqu es Rather than simply give the answers.probably the responsibility of an HR or training manager. up to at most a couple of hours a week one-to-one. While giving the answers is usually better than giving no help at all. and Sharon Drew Morgen's Facilitative Questioning methodology. Activity focused mentoring also gives strong outputs in skills. there may be occasions when the one-to-one would necessarily involve a whole day out for the mentor. Accordingly. behaviour and job priority areas. Due to the relative newness of mentoring as a formal organised process.000/head . (Mentoree time away from normal activities .
We can see parallels in the relationship between a parents and a child. The true self might never appear. we should try to help them develop as individuals according to their natural selves. If a parent imposes his or her ways. to develop his/her own natural strengths and potential. methods and thinking upon a child. and does not help the mentoree to find his/her own true self. knowledge. the child becomes a clone of the parent. and for the people being mentored? How might you build these core aims. experience.especially the agreed expectations of the people being mentored . etc) of communication and feedback are available to you. and their own wishes. then the mentoree becomes like the mentor. to experience their own attempts.(unless in the case of emergency) provide the answers for the mentoree. or when it begins to. When we mentor people. and the implied values and principles. and by so doing. tips on establishing a mentoring service or programme There are very many ways to design a mentoring programme. non-judgemental) that guide the mentoree towards finding the answers for him/herself. instead a mentor should ask the right questions (facilitative. failures and successes.are being met. The answers will move you closer to what you seek to achieve: What parameters and aims have you set for the mentoring activity? What will your mentoring programme or service look and feel like? What must it achieve and for whom? What are your timescales? How will the mentoring programme or activity be resourced and managed and measured? What type of design and planning approach works best for you? (It makes sense to use a design and planning approach that works for you. not ours. and in some cases then falsifies his or her own true self to please and replicate the model projected by the parent. Here are some questions that you should ask yourself. The mentor's role is to help the mentoree to find his/her own true self. or as a service or help that you provide personally to others. tools. processes. interpretive.) What are your main skills and style and how might these influence the programme design? What methods (phone. email. guiding. face-to-face. If a mentor tells a mentoree what to do. a crisis of confidence and purpose occurs as the person tries to find and liberate his or her true self. or when we raise children. style do you think you will need that you do not currently have? . into your programme design? How can you best measure and agree that these outputs . How can you best help people in matters for which you need to refer them elsewhere? What skills. which is not right nor sustainable. and what communications methods do your 'customers' need and prefer? What outputs and effects do you want the programme to produce for you. whether within an organization.
if you can't measure it you can't manage it. assessing. the more steps .('I hear and I forget. I do and I understand' . method and style or mentoring in other words what does your 'target market' need?. relaxed and always achievable in the mind of the trainee.keep them in mind all the time how many people you are training the methods and format you will use when and how long the training lasts where it happens how you will measure its effectiveness how you will measure the trainees' reaction to it When you you give skills training to someone use this simple five-step approach: 1. explain necessary tools. coach and adapt according to the pace of development Creating and using progress charts are helpful. which are different. Establishing a 'behaviour set' is also very useful. keeps things controlled. have the trainee practice the job . when you can build up each skill. measuring. which by their nature involve much wider and various development methods and experiences. Breaking skills down into easily digestible elements enables you to plan and manage the training activities much more effectively. prepare the trainee . . from a series of elements. skill. explain the job/task. I see and I remember.break it down . and are essential for anything complex .seek feedback and check understanding 4. general training tips These tips apply essentially to traditional work-related training .What do your 'customers' indicate that they want in terms of content.step-by-step .encourage. When planning training think about: y y y y y y y your objectives . It is not sufficient simply to assess against a job description. etc . It's essential to use other training tools too for planning. Training people in stages. only responsibilities. and what parts of those requirements are you naturally best able to meet? Mentoring is potentially an infinite demand upon the mentor so you need to have a clear idea of the extent of your mentoring 'offering'.the more complex. but is a more difficult area to assess and develop. These tips do not apply automatically to other forms of enabling personal development and facilitating learning. explain standards and why. monitor progress .Confucius) 5.always show the correct way accentuate the positive .give positive feedback . project. Establishing a relevant 'skill set' is essential for assessing and prioritising training for any role. as this does not reflect skills.for the transfer of necessary job. and then an entire role. Establishing clear visible parameters enables proper agreement of mutual expectations.discuss the method and why.or work-related skills or knowledge. equipment or systems 3.we all learn best by actually doing it .people cannot absorb a whole complicated task all in one go . recording and following up on the person's training.take care to relax them as lots of people find learning new things stressful 2. provide a demonstration .
These tools deal merely with basic work training. Do it to your utmost and you will be rewarded many times over through greater productivity. Your organisation may already use systems of one sort or another. or an organisation. See the section on psychometrics.if you show you care you can expect your trainee to care too check progress regularly and give feedback invite questions and discussion be patient and keep a sense of humour Induction training tips: y y y y y y assess skill and knowledge level before you start teach the really easy stuff first break it down into small steps and pieces of information encourage pride cover health and safety issues fully and carefully try to identify a mentor or helper for the trainee As a manager. and assessment and training planning see training evaluation. Using Skill-Sets to measure individual's skills and competencies is the first stage in producing a training needs analysis for individuals. supervisor. Some tips to make training (and learning. rather than subjective. and performance appraisals. environment and all-round job-satisfaction. for which more sophisticated questioning. so you need to be prepared to adapt the pace according to the performance once training has begun encourage. Remember also to strive for your own personal self-development at all times .recognition is the fuel of development offer praise generously be enthusiastic .these days we have more opportunity and resource available than ever to increase our skills. Psychometric tests (and even graphology . Psychometric testing produces reliable assessments which are by their nature objective. so seek advice. a group. mentoring) more enjoyable and effective: y y y y y y y y y y keep instructions positive ('do this' rather than 'don't do this') avoid jargon . helping your people to develop is the greatest contribution you can make to their well-being. You can see and download a free Skill-Set tool and Training Needs Analysis tool the free resources page. coaching. and not with more important whole person development. and other related linked articles on this site.or if you can't then explain them and better still provide a written glossary you must tailor training to the individual. Make use of it all. Some of these systems and tools are extremely useful in facilitating whole-person learning and development.be accepting of mistakes. This will not however go beyond the basic work-related job skills and attributes development areas. and a whole organisation.More information and guidance about working with 'Skill-Sets' and 'Behaviour Sets'. and treat them as an opportunity for you both to learn from them focus on accomplishment and progress .handwriting analysis) are also extremely useful for training and developing people. . and be kind and thoughtful . mentoring and learning facilitation methods need to be used. which is the more common use. as well as recruitment. as tends to be with your own personal judgement. knowledge and selfawareness. efficiency.
ADULT LEARNING Concept of adult learning Some Contemporary Principles of Adult Learning The process of action learning. or a mention in a company magazine or newsletter is often all that it takes to give people a huge boost. Exchange ongoing feedback around their experiences In addition. sign and send. delegated tasks. is special. Action learning asserts that adults learn best when: 1. founded by Reginald Revans about 50 years ago in England. projects or challenges. rather than from extensive note taking and memorization. People's valiant failures deserve recognition too. and higher up the organisation especially. real-world problem 2. Projects. A simple letter of congratulations . adults often learn best from experience. Remember that training and development is not restricted to training courses.letter examples As an employer or manager. is based on contemporary views of adult learning. An individual signed letter of congratulations from the MD or CEO is a hugely motivational event in most employee's lives. take the time to recognise and thank employees for successfully (or unsuccessfully) completing training and development courses. temporary postings and other responsibilities can all be forms of learning and development and are worthy of recognition when carried out well. 2.recognise and acknowledge training and development achievements . It's on official letterheaded paper. Here's are some short examples of simple sample letters of congratulations or encouragement for completing training and development aims. but a letter is a very powerful indeed. They actually apply new materials and information and 4. It's personally signed. which dramatically adds to the power of the recognition. So. or even a verbal 'well done' or pat on the back is better than nothing at all. An email. sent to the home address.especially in this age of disposable emails. Adapt these examples to give encouragement to people when they are striving to improve and achieve. It's something people tend to keep. Working to address a current. successfully. And yet the opportunity to acknowledge people's achievements is often overlooked. It can make the difference between them wanting to try again or not. Think about it: A letter. It took time and care to write. and also encouragement for unsuccessful effort. and keep striving to succeed in the future. It is likely to be opened so that the partner or family sees it too. and often help the person to keep positive. Letters of recognition and congratulations are appropriate from line managers. They are highly vest in solving the current problem 3. job-swaps. or encouragement when a brave effort fall short. Receiving recognition is a powerful motivator and stimulant towards further training and personal development. when some people need a boost more than ever. an email is good. . but not nearly so impactful as a letter.
an important aspect of Situated Learning Theory. In order to remember something. McLellan (1995) provides a collection of articles that describe various perspectives on the theory. also emphasize the need for a new epistemology for learning -. Scope/Application : Situated learning is a general theory of knowledge acquisition . Collins & Duguid (1989) emphasize the idea of cognitive apprenticeship: "Cognitive apprenticeship supports learning in a domain by enabling students to acquire. For example.learners become involved in a "community of practice" which embodies certain beliefs and behaviors to be acquired." Brown et al. Suchman (1988) explores the situated learning framework in the context of artificial intelligence. (2) develop questions about the material. These ideas are what Lave & Wenger (1991) call the process of "legitimate peripheral participation. the method of loci is a classic memory improvement technique. (3) read the material. Situated Learning (J.e.one that emphasizes active perception over concepts and representation. A typical study skill program is SQ3R which suggests 5 steps: (1) survey the material to be learned. during or after instruction has been shown to increase the degree of learning (see Ausubel). 1970). (4) recall the key ideas. context and culture in which it occurs (i. it involves making associations between facts to be remembered and particular locations. In addition. and (5) review the material. This ranges from techniques for improved memory to better studying or test-taking strategies. . This contrasts with most classroom learning activities which involve knowledge which is abstract and out of context. the use of questions before. situated learning is usually unintentional rather than deliberate. Situated learning has antecedents in the work of Gibson (theory of affordances) and Vygotsky (social learning). conversation theory (Pask). develop and use cognitive tools in authentic domain activity. Research on metacognition may be relevant to the study of learning strategies in so far as they are both concerned with control processes. As the beginner or newcomer moves from the periphery of this community to its center. Social interaction is a critical component of situated learning -. Lave) Overview: Lave argues that learning as it normally occurs is a function of the activity. Methods that attempt to increase the degree of learning that occurs have been called "mathemagenic" (Ropthkopf. Weinstein (1991) discusses learning strategies in the context of social interaction. A number of learning theories emphasize the importance of learning strategies including: double loop learning ( Argyris )." Other researchers have further developed the theory of situated learning. Some learning strategies involve changes to the design of instruction. advances through collaborative social interaction and the social construction of knowledge. Furthermore.. Learning. 1993). it is situated). the theory of Schoenfeld on mathematical problem solving embodies some of the critical elements of situated learning framework. and lateral thinking ( DeBono ). they become more active and engaged within the culture and hence assume the role of expert or old-timer. For example.Learning Strategies Learning strategies refer to methods that students use to learn. both outside and inside school. Brown. you simply visualize places and the associated facts. It has been applied in the context of technology-based learning activities for schools that focus on problem-solving skills (Cognition & Technology Group at Vanderbilt.
This activity is especially effective when accompanied by constructive feedback. Adult learning is facilitated through an innate ability to acquire additional knowledge or skills and through environmental influences. Effective learning based on principles of adult learning involves developing objectives and strategies and structuring activities to achieve these objectives. the learning objective is clear. An experience that produces feelings of frustration. Effective learning requires evaluation and feedback between the preceptor or supervisor and the adult learner to correct actions and reinforce learning activities. navy quartermasters. conducting. conduct. Although training in early and beginning career development should be self-directed. and a supportive environment to help the learner gain knowledge and skills and to shape professional values. Using Adult Lifelong Learning Concepts Fellows and management trainees are adult learners. but the correction should be positive. As such. 2.. and evaluate the training experience. the preceptor or supervisor should help plan. y Law of Readiness: Adults learn best when they are ready to learn. Learning requires social interaction and collaboration. An adult should be corrected when a mistake has been made. postulated several ³laws´ of learning. then they approach learning with eagerness. instructive. settings and applications that would normally involve that knowledge. This section acquaints the preceptor or supervisor with principles of adult learning and provides guidance in developing. If adult learners accept the purpose of the learning activity. Knowledge needs to be presented in an authentic context. These laws represent Thorndike¶s work and its application to the adult learning process in healthcare management. While motivation is an individual responsibility. i. defeat. or confusion will hamper learning. one of the pioneers in educational psychology. and evaluating training experiences. native tailors. their learning needs are unique.Example: Lave & Wenger (1991) provide an analysis of situated learning in five different settings: Yucatec midwives. experience-based change takes place in an individual¶s knowledge. While the preceptor or supervisor has no control over innate abilities. meat cutters and alcoholics. there was a gradual acquisition of knowledge and skills as novices learned from experts in the context of everyday activities.e. the preceptor or supervisor can encourage a readiness to learn. Law of Exercise: Things most often repeated are best retained. he or she can influence learning through the design of learning events. ³Laws´ of learning: Professor Edward L. learning is weakened when associated with an unpleasant feeling. and attitudes. Principles: 1. and reinforcing. and the knowledge or skill being learned is relevant. Thorndike. This law is the basis of all practice and drill in learning activities. During training in healthcare management. skills. structured activities. Learning is effective when it is purposeful and when the experiences involve both cognitive and effective skills of the learner. Law of Intensity: The adult learner will gain more from the learning activity if it is structured y y y . Law of Effect: Learning is strengthened when accompanied by positive feedback that generates a satisfying feeling. hostility. People will not learn if they see no reason for learning. In all cases. The preceptor or supervisor can implement the law of exercise by providing opportunities for practice or by repeating learning activities that strengthen skills.
First. Although this plan is the responsibility of the fellow or trainee. the observable knowledge base of skills) Describes the conditions under which the terminal behavior will occur . Opportunity for direct involvement will produce a greater learning experience than will mere observation.as an intense learning experience. the preceptor or supervisor and fellow or trainee must decide which knowledge. and values are most important and determine the level of proficiency required.e. Cognitive levels of learning begin with simple knowledge and proceed through the evaluation of complex materials or events. Then they must state the learning objectives to clearly convey the observable learning outcomes. The professional development plan is a comprehensive statement of what the fellow or trainee intends to accomplish during the training period and should include the following information: y y y y y A biographical sketch of the fellow or trainee A concise statement of the individual¶s career interests and goals A brief description of the individual¶s personal and professional strengths A brief description of the individual¶s attributes and qualities that need to be developed during the training period A list of educational objectives for the training experience In developing learning objectives. valuing). it should be accomplished with the participation of the preceptor or supervisor. To illustrate: y y y y y Receiving: Giving attention Responding: Responding with interest Valuing: Appreciating value of material or concept Organization: Organizing and bringing together different values to form a conceptualization Characterization: Internalizing the values so that they are a characteristic of the individual Learning objectives: Once the subject matter or skill is selected and the level of learning determined. the preceptor or supervisor and trainee must jointly prepare statements of learning objectives. A properly written learning objective y y Identifies the terminal behavior desired (i. The preceptor or supervisor is concerned with cognitive and effective skill development. The preceptor or supervisor should structure learning activities that incorporate the law of intensity. skills. and psychomotor (physical coordination). the more likely it is that the learner will achieve the learning objective. An exciting learning experience will be more valuable than a routine or boring experience. Levels of learning: Recognized domains of learning include cognitive (understanding). The greater the intensity of the experience and personal involvement. effective (appreciating.. To illustrate: y y y y y y Knowledge: Remembering previously learned material Comprehension: Ability to grasp the meaning of material Application: Ability to use learned material in new and concrete situations Analysis: Ability to understand both content and structure and perform critical analysis Synthesis: Ability to create new material or ideas for prior learning Evaluation: Combination of other levels of ability so that expert judgment and valuing can be achieved Effective learning begins by giving attention to something and then proceeding to develop a value system. there are two major considerations. Developing learning objectives: A practical work experience should begin with a professional development plan.
the preceptor or supervisor should consider the following guidelines: y Whole-part-whole approach: Broad concepts should be presented first. y y y y Evaluation: Evaluation of both the trainee and the training program is a major responsibility of the preceptor. Oral examinations: The preceptor or supervisor periodically conducts an oral examination to determine how effectively the trainee addresses hypothetical or real problems. such as standard. the trainee will learn to prepare a departmental operations budget that accurately reflects the department¶s financial need according to criteria in the guidelines Developing learning strategies: To achieve the desired result. Problem. Management audit: The trainee is assigned the task of designing and conducting a management audit of a function or department. illustrate the total concept through a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the budgeting technique. Trainee-centered: Trainee-centered learning activities ensure that the trainee actively participates. Evaluation should be integrated and consistent. Each has its advantages and disadvantages. Management study: The trainee is assigned responsibility for designing and conducting an applied research investigation of a particular problem to learn systematic analysis of problems or opportunities. and zero-based. y y Evaluation serves a primary purpose in providing information for making decisions about training. For example. Effective evaluations have several important characteristics. This teaches the trainee how to evaluate efficiency and effectiveness by comparing performance standards with actual performance. current issues in healthcare management. and statistical data. Such learning events are designed for maximum intensity and direct involvement of the trainee. Known-to-unknown: Adult learners learn best when they progress in a systematic manner from current knowledge to new knowledge. first explain several budgeting techniques. The preceptor and trainee then jointly critique the trainee¶s actions. flexible. while relating each new concept or skill to past experience. Finally. In determining and structuring learning events. or refers it to the preceptor.y States the criteria for judging acceptable performance The following examples will illustrate these points: y y Poor: Fellow or trainee will gain experience in budgeting Better: Given published budget guidelines. such as finance or marketing. A few of the more useful techniques are described below: y y Log diary: The trainee maintains a log of activities and observations used for self-analysis and joint review and critique with the preceptor or supervisor. . rather than observing the preceptor or supervisor. In-basket exercise: The trainee is routinely assigned items from the preceptor¶s in-basket that require decisions and/or actions. y y y Learning activity techniques: Several techniques for conducting learning activities exist. A learning strategy is an organized collection or series of tasks that should enable the trainee to achieve the learning objective. followed with detailed attention to components. appropriate forms.or issue-oriented: Learning will be more effective if the focus is on problems or issues that exercise analytical abilities rather than simple observation. not simply accomplished only at the conclusion of training. Evaluations should be designed to support program improvement. The trainee makes the decision. continuous. Then all components should again be considered as a whole. the individual must perform certain learning activities. Then address the details of each technique. Crisis management: The trainee is put under intense pressure by being assigned an existing or hypothetical crisis. or specific subjects. Behavior is observed and critiqued by the preceptor or supervisor. completes the action.
Evaluation must be incorporated into the design of the training and be an integral part of the total experience for both the preceptor or supervisor and trainee. and organizational level needs TRAINING NEEDS SURVEY A thorough and accurate assessment of needs must precede the design of a training intervention so that it can assist managers in improving in the areas that need it most. and heritage that are characteristic of the industry .The jobs are studied: -level in organization. division. 2. overcoming obstacles. occupational. practices. an understanding of how to develop learning objectives. Evaluation should prove useful to preceptor or supervisor in carrying out this important task. 3. and strategies. although it is the primary responsibility of the preceptor or supervisor. firm. It is categorized as follows: y y y y y Self-evaluation of process and achievement by the trainee Evaluation of the progress and specific achievements of the trainee by the preceptor or supervisor Evaluation of the training program graduate by the first-placement supervisor Evaluation of the overall training by the trainee Evaluation of the training in general by all parties Summary: Basic knowledge of adult learning concepts is essential to a preceptor or supervisor. facilitators. -role within the organization. Effective learning does not simply occur. These include the values.. Evaluations must be conducted in a mutually supportive climate as a collaborative effort between preceptor or supervisor and trainee. it must be planned and nurtured by the preceptor or supervisor who understands the adult learner. individual. not value-laden. 1.y y Evaluations should be timely.TRAINING NEEDS Training needs classification. hurdles. . Effective evaluation is descriptive. DIDNT FOUND ANY THING ON THIS TOPIC. -technical features/ demands.Factors external to the job and the culture surrounding the job are studied. and work unit. department. Transfer of learning: Mechanics. Evaluations should take into account the overall objectives of the training. as is an understanding of characteristics and ³laws´ of adult learning.
Definitions and classifications of the importance of knowledge.2 &3. and attitudes identified as being relevant by steps 1. TNS is pitched at the big picture. in order to enable the departments to meet its obligations for the period. such as Consultation with individuals in key roles Questionnaires Focus Groups Interviews Steering Groups Surveys . their skills. The term µlevel¶ suggests a hierarchy which in turn indicates relationships between hierarchical levels. -Challenge to and demands that will be made on the individuals as they receive promotions. their attitudes. TNS here aims to ensure that the organization is capable of meeting its obligations and following its corporate plan. In order to obtain that knowledge. 4.Study and assessment of the trainees: their knowledge. skills. Training needs in any organization occur at three levels: 1. which itself would be produced to cover a particular time period. where the knowledge of the individual does not satisfy the requirement of the role. With a mindset of survival in a competitive environment.Forecast of changes in: -factors external to the job. Variances between actual performance and planned performance at this level are commonly manifested as skills gaps. TNS method employed are many . The occupational level of needs analysis focuses on specific disciplines within organization. and changes in assignments. -The demands of the job. dealing with the overall performance and existence of the organization as an entity within its environment or market. attendance on a formal training course might provide the desired solution. 5.Deficient areas are identified and ordered in terms of their importance. to identify what skills shortages can be addressed through training and which areas require the recruitment of staff from without. team and individual foci .Organizational 2. It would also address some of the environmental issues affecting performance.Occupational [departments like sales/production/administration /finance etc] 3. 6. At the organizational level.3. transfers. an HR strategy would typically be developed to support the corporate plan.Individual which clearly has resonance with the organizational. for example the equipments/software requirements Then there is a third level which reveals the needs of the individual . namely at the department level.
sales etc. What current activities require specific training ? What future developments will require specific training? Is a job analysis carried out to identify the skills and knowledge required for tasks in a particular occupation? How are the skills of staff evaluated and compared to the requirements of the department? Does a procedure exist for upgrading the skills of staff ? How often is a staff appraisal carried out and how often is there a follow up meeting? Do members of staff have personal development plans which are designed to enhance their skills? Is a µlicence to practice¶ required for the occupational area? [like heavy equipment use/electricians etc] How do you ensure that you get the qualifying level of continuing professional (education) points? Do you regularly read professional / trade journals ± what are the current issues of concern and which need addressing through learning strategies? Occupational standards are available for most work areas and provide the most comprehensive descriptions of work activities ± are these used to inform decision making? Individual Learning Needs Analysis Checklist Review the performance of those individuals for whom there is responsibility. This enables resources to be focussed more directly on those whose who have a specific need.Observation Role competency frameworks Performance indicators Psychometric tests External benchmarks 360° feedback A comprehensive Training/learning Strategy should address the following areas: What are the aims and objectives of the organization? Do you have a policy for dissemination of the organizational vision and objectives? Would all employees be able to describe the objectives of the organization if asked? What opportunity is there for the HR Department to contribute to the development of organizational objectives? What are the aims and objectives of the Human Resource strategy? Are the aims and objectives measurable? Is there a clearly specified description of the organization¶s training/ learning strategy? Is the learning and development strategy linked to the Business Strategy? Does your organization anticipate internal developments and have learning strategies in place to respond to these? Does you organization anticipate external developments and have learning strategies in place to respond to these? Do employees know what their entitlements are regarding training and development? Is a return on investment analysis carried out on learning activities? Identification of training needs Identification of Occupational Training /Learning Needs The identification of training / learning needs may be conducted to address a specific cross-section of employees within an organization such as operators. administration. Below are a number of .
That is a great lesson in itself. Many times when I am complimented on my teaching techniques.. In fact many very smart or knowledgeable teachers are not great trainers because all .areas which need to be considered and which may provide insights into areas of learning needs: Does the person have the ability to successfully achieve work objectives? Does the person have the right attitude for the job? What is the level of energy which is used by the person? Are they lacking specific areas of experience which need to be addressed? Can the person work flexibly? Does the person possess the interpersonal skills to work effectively in their area? Does the person have the specific knowledge required for the post? Do they demonstrate suitable maturity for the post? Does the person possess the people management skills for their position? What is their level of productivity Does the person have the potential for promotion? Does the person have the qualifications necessary for their current or future positions? Does the person have the ability to work in a team? Does the person have the specific technical skills required for this or a future position? 4. Training or teaching is one of the most influential careers that has ever been created. Many believe that a great instructor needs to possess all three key elements -. However the immediate returns of the teachers efforts is usually long time away. great hands on skills and a strong. They may also be a relative or loved one. This notion infers that they must have extensive knowledge. They showed me many things and let me learn along the way. practical Skills and Attitude. In emergency response that has been most of my career has been spent there have been several great fire trainers that have influenced my career. I always let people know that my skills are a composite of many before me. What Makes a Great Trainer? Unfortunately there are many teachers and only a few of them become great.. When you look at an average teacher they basically teach knowledge.MAKING CHANGE ONE DAY AT A TIME Who Has Really Influenced Your Career? Have you ever really thought about who has influenced your career? I can almost guarantee there is always a teacher or trainer who is one of the major influences in your life. points and information... The three areas are usually referred to as Learning Domains. I submit that a great trainer does not possess these skills. EFFECTIVE LEARNING Trainer s skills DIDNT GOT ANYTHING. THE ROLE OF THE TRAINER . healthy attitude.Knowledge. Lecture. teachers don¶t teach students learn. but in most cases they were fulfilling the role of teacher. Role of trainer as a change agent. Role of management trainer in transfer of learning DIDNT GOT ANYTHING. facts. but they just know how to use them all effectively. Managing all three well will make great teacher.
they know today him maybe tomorrow me. may not always be liked. Trainers have the greatest chance for making changes. skills are necessary to perform well but they also know the most crucial element of making a great education experience is a correct attitude. Good teaching is hard work. Great trainers have practiced political correctness all their lives. A better trainer can teach both skills and knowledge. Great Trainers Exude Credibility Credibility is a by product of great training. They have alwa been the change agent.. Simply put. This close attention breeds success. A powerful instructor anticipates. I laugh at the current issue of political correctness. People did learn. The great trainer who really makes change assures the students that the are successful. and pal around. you are on the way to becoming great. But to develop the credibility necessary we all have to "been there. They constantly inspect the students work to keep apprised of success or possible slipping of the in effort. But in emergency response it simply means they been there and done it. Making the emotional connection is simple. My line has always been. But even a fire fighter knows that the great change comes from leadership positions.they teach have is knowledge. Those who know and can do are certainly a better combination. creed or color. Fire fighters or subordinates trying to change lack the credibility of leadership. Anyone who has experience basic training or recruit training are some examples. I just like some more than others. He knows that fast learners may Ask Too Many Questions. Another mistaken "attitude impaired" or emotionally weak trainer is the reader. "I never met a student I didn¶t like. Good Trainers are people who are respected. but many of us do look at our drill sergeants as the most influential teacher in our life... The last of the trainers who miss the emotional boat is the screamer. To Make a Change Know that Learning Speeds Differ Another important fact is that great trainers know that each student learns at a different speed or rate. If you want to make changes that stick you must have credibility. Lose it and the chance of changing anyone is greatly reduced. We all have had these and they are not on the top of the list in motivators. Done that . It is said learning is an observable change of behavior. the great instructor must always be constantly observing. because they are bored. They read the knowledge and because they are smart you should become smart by osmosis. Managers who are trainers or know change comes from training will impact any organization more than a totalitarian who thinks power is the answer." . managers make the opportunity for change with good policy. When evaluating a student great trainers always can find a good point or two unfortunately bad trainers never do. Most lessons do not include an attitude segment because it is difficult to teach emotional issues. If you come home tired every night after teaching. ys because they do it so subtly. Poor Trainers never make this emotional connection and without the emotional bond of student/teacher you will never make many lasting changes in individuals. Using these differing speeds successfully is an art of orchestration few trainers or teachers have. the trainer makes change happen. but because it¶s simply the right thing to do! Students never respect someone who attacks a student. I sometimes think of them as pure lecturers. expects and coddles. How do mediocre trainers differ from great trainers? Poor trainers misunderstand the emotional connection. Great instructors blend all three domains. A good teacher knows that change although necessary. They rise above the rest and are looked up to. Sometimes it takes a strong trainer to change a student. Remember careers . They know information is important. Change Agents are believable. The real reason for a trainer's success lies in the fact they genuinely care about the student. Always look for the good point in a student. Screamers think some training is a rite of passage and by making it tough it makes it worthwhile. Never lie. Great teachers know the value of attitude and teach it because they can make the emotional connection. They are trusted.. not because it is was ever politically correct. One of most guarded things an instructor can have is credibility. ridicule. never orally assault (physical assault no matter how much provoked is a definite no). This is not to say great trainers are not found in the rank and file. and many times he must also knows that slow Learners never ask enough questions because they¶re timid or embarrassed. You don¶t become a great trainer simply from reading the books. or attack based on race. They try to be your buddy.
You could be someone who will impact this student with the same power as relatives. the right way. That¶s a drop in the bucket for the family of teachers.Teaching is not hard when you care. Who What When Why How Where Who . Many of my colleagues I consider great instructors carry extra programs to conferences with them in case someone needs a session.do the right thing. When . we would have died out as a species. trainer. they have to keep making changes in their students. That¶s foolish. Training and education are a powerful force.Because you care. If a student knows you care about their Safety. literature and events. mentor or any of the thousand words used to describe someone who willing imparts knowledge to others. I went to college to teach elementary school. Teachers and trainers been changing all throughout history. Anytime they are eager for information. Good training always results in good learning experience. A great trainer knows one thing intrinsically. Training officers can make a substantial change in individuals. The strongest changes occur early in your career when you are young. Why .Any time. Summary I have been fortunate to have been a teacher. Impressionable. Empathy. professor. they manipulate this eagerness to learn for their own ends. Even as the new age of information dawns some say the teacher will be extinct or at least will make drastic changes. they feel you believe in your ability they will succeed. enthusiasm. with the right attitude every time. sympathy are emotions that cement the educational experience. ready to learn.. Great Trainers Have Six tools . The same caring that makes the "when" right makes the effort simple. Trainers embody all these influential issues..A great trainer knows simply that his job is three fold . How . joined the fire service and have taught now for over twenty years.As a teacher recognize the power you have a respect it. Had the young cave children been taught to hunt incorrectly. It no wonder that the negative result of this concept are cults and societies intended for violence. one day at a time. Credibility and sincerity are what validates the learning. instructor. influences such as people. If you strive to succeed remember these six points or tools. Always be ready to teach. If you don¶t care do something else. Great trainers Never Pass Up a Chance to Teach. supervisors and others. Humanity has had teachers and trainers all their evolutionary lives.are molded by experience. Anyplace. Anyone. This motivation for you is translated to the students.The sooner the better.Is the simplest issue for a good instructor . . They are the difference between a Captain or a couch potato What . education. friends. Six Key Elements to Great Trainers In closing I choose a literary model about the proverbial six friends or as I like to think six tools to becoming a great trainer. Where .
Designer 4. Also.Trainer 2.Trainee 3. DESIGN OF A TRAINING PROGRAM AND ITS EXECUTION Training objectives Training objectives are one of the most important parts of training program. which is the crucial factor to make the training successful. Training objective tell the trainee that what is expected out of him at the end of the training program. then the likelihood of achieving those goals is much higher than the situation in which no goal is set. it is important to keep the participants aware of the happenings. 1.5. Therefore. It provides the clear guidelines and develops the training program in less time because objectives focus specifically on needs. Therefore. Not knowing anything or going to a place which is unknown creates anxiety that can negatively affect learning. it helps in increase in concentration. While some people think of training objective as a waste of valuable time. trainer comes in a position to establish a relationship between objectives and particular segments of training. if the goal is set to be challenging and motivating. Training objectives are of great significance from a number of stakeholder perspectives. The objectives create an image of the training program in trainee¶s mind that actually helps in gaining attention. Secondly. The counterargument here is that resources are always limited and the training objectives actually lead the design of training. Trainee ± The training objective is beneficial to the trainee because it helps in reducing the anxiety of the trainee up to some extent. Evaluator Trainer ± The training objective is also beneficial to trainer because it helps the trainer to measure the progress of trainees and make the required adjustments. It helps in adhering to a plan. Thirdly. training objectiveshelps . rather than keeping it surprise.
Body Frame Uncertainty and Risk .Prospective Hindsight . . Consider an example. without any guidance.Decision Trees .Managing Risk . when there is a defect in a product or when a customer is angry. the training may not be designed appropriately.Types of Decision Making The Decision Making Process.Fault Trees . The training designer would then look for the training methods. Designer ± The training objective is beneficial to the training designer because if the designer is aware what is to be achieved in the end then he¶ll buy the training package according to that only.in increasing the probability that the participants will be successful in training. Therefore.What is Decision Making? .Fundamental Assumptions . Decision about content of training Strategic Decision Making Learn how you can make better strategic decisions consistently by instituting a strategic decision making process using proven tools and techniques developed and tested by experts.Linked Decisions . Furthermore. Evaluator ± It becomes easy for the training evaluator to measure the progress of the trainees because the objectives define the expected performance of trainees.PMI . Learning Objectives On completion of this training your participants will understand: y Decision Making and The Organization .Uncertainty and The Organization . This training content is ideal if you want to train your staff or clients on strategic decision making. training equipments.Disconfirming Questions . the designer will design a training program that will include ways to improve the interpersonal skills. and training content accordingly to achieve those objectives. Training objective is an important to tool to judge the performance of participants. dealing in unexpected situation i. This training content will repeatedly deliver endless results for you. planning al ays helps in dealing w effectively in an unexpected situation.Decision Making as an Organizational Issue . Since the objective is known.Factors that Influence Decision Making . such as verbal and non verbal language. Decision Making Techniques.Even Swap Method Overcoming Barriers To Effective Decision Making y y y y .e. the objective of one training program is to deal effectively with customers to increase the sales.
PDF). When And As Often As Required For Your Organization Permission To Customize." Training methods and choice of appropriate aids THE DIFFERENT METHODS OF TRAINING You have a choice of the following methods to prepare for effective training: y Lecture y Lecture/discussion y Skill lesson y On-the-job training (the four -step method) There are other methods of training. Adapt Or Modify To Meet Your Exact Training Requirements Detailed Learning Material Developed And Tested By Experts Instant Download After Placing Your Order Save Time. but their effective use is specific to special training situations and will not be discussed in this lecture. Word. and provide my clients with a choice of format (Powerpoint. Money & Considerable Effort Generate New Income Streams By Increasing The Range Of Training Your Organization Can Offer y y y y y y Personalized Training Oak Training offers over 50 courses which you can use to provide the most relevant training courses to your participants. Some of those methods include: y Role play y Assignment y Case study . Oak Training allows you to add your own logos and deliver the learning material as your own and as often as required.Additional Free Benefits y Permission To Add Your Own Logos And Deliver The Learning Material As Your Own As Often As Required Unlimited Rights To Use Where. The attachments arrived in a timely fashion and were easy to access. trainers and consultants who want an easy way to save hours of time and have presentations they can customize and call their own. What Our Customers Say The sample module I obtained motivated me to purchase the entire set of 52! I immediately saw the value in being able to customize the materials to fit my audience. I recommend these products to other coaches.
and he or she may be vague or may forget important elements. and you must therefore have answers to the following questions before you decide how you will present your material. connecting parts and using illustrations in a conversational way Preparation and lecture notes Preparation is important. The lecturer's notes need to be designed to facilitate efficient delivery.say 30 or more y When knowledge or understanding is to be imparted by an expert y When a body of factual information has to be comm unicated in a short time y When information is not readily available to group members Delivery Essentials of good delivery: y Words must all be clear y Words must be spoken at a suitable pace y Pauses should occur at logical places y Variety should be used: emphasizing important points in a deliberate manner. The lecturer may then improvise. y What is the ability and level of knowledge of the group? y How many trainees are in the group and why are they there? y How much time do you have to prepare your material? y Can you cover your topic fully in the time available? y What aids do you require? y Do you have the experience to use these aids with confidence? y Are you aware of the limitations of aids? Your method of presentation will depend on the answers to these questions. Notes may be too brief.y Training games y Group exercises y Programmed learning SELECTING THE RIGHT METHOD All the resources at your command must be used to make your instruction real and vital for your trainees. Distinction is needed between lecture outlines (showing matter only) and lecture notes (showing method and matter). The number and types of training methods you use during any presentation depend on many factors. THE LECTURE Use y When the group is large . The lecturer will then read them. and this is undesirable. . On the other hand. note s may be too extensive.
prepare the notes by asking these questions: y What is it safe to assume that the listeners know? y What are they likely to find difficult? y Hence. chart or overhead transparency. whiteboard. the more spectacular the demonstration should be.) Structure Introduction: y Statement of aims y Relation of this lecture to those that came before and are to follow y Establishment of goal (which gives purpose and direction) by linking aims with participant needs y Outline of thoughts that are to be developed Body of lecture: y Step-by-step building up of subject matter y Logical development y A few well-developed steps. The more important the point. what will require special care or illustration? y What will the illustrations (in detail) be? Can they be misunderstood or misinterpreted? y What demonstrations will be appropriate? Will everyone see clearly? (Demonstrations are used to illustrate really important points. strongly made (more effective than many steps) y Appropriate use of aids and questions to stimulate student interest and activity y Appropriately spaced summaries of material covered Conclusion: y Summary of lecture material .) y What new terms will be introduced? What unusual names? Mark these in the notes. They will need to be written on a blackboard. y What precisely should everyone know at the end of the lecture? (This is really a re examination of the outline and a restatement of the important points.Given an outline of the material.
say 20 or less y When the members know one another well enough to risk making errors y When the material is of a kind that can be assimilated readily. or when there is some prior knowledge of it Lecture Refer to preceding section. "Would anyone like to add to that?") y Trampling the incorrect answerer .) y Holding a dialogue with a single answerer (Bring in the group. Some uses of questions: y At beginning of lecture: to find out what trainees already know and to discover opinions y During lecture: to find out whether the participants understand and are following the lecture y End of lecture: to recapitulate and test the participants' knowledge and understanding Desirable features of questions: y They should be clear y They should be brief y They should lead to some constructive statement rather than to a nod or a grunt y They should stimulate thinking. e. Discussion The most useful starting point for the discussion is the question.g. rather than suggest the answer Pitfalls y Repeating the answer (Do not repeat.y Restatement of the relationship of this lecture to others in the series y Reference to additional material that should be read or seen y Setting of any assignments Disadvantages y Lecturer bombards students with considerable information (saturation may occur) y Participants sit passively without interaction THE LECTURE/DISCUSSION Use y When the group is small . at least in part. Move on.
show and illustrate one important point at a time y Stress each key point y Instruct clearly.) Structure y Introduction y Body of lecture y Discussion y Conclusion THE SKILL LESSON Aims y To teach correct and safe job methods y To develop confidence in job performance y To achieve accuracy and speed y To encourage conscientious effort Structure Introduction y Development (body of skill lesson) y Demonstration by trainer (complete) y Demonstration and trainee practice of each stage.y Asking too many questions (Adults do not like to be cross -examined. completely and patiently. but teach no more than the worker can master Step 3 .) y Letting the discussion take too long (Guide it carefully. Remember the objective of your discussion. in sequence y Practice of demonstrated j ob skill Conclusion ON-THE-JOB TRAINING (THE FOUR-STEP METHOD OF INSTRUCTION) Step 1 y Prepare the worker y Put the worker at ease y State the job and find out what the worker already knows about it y Stimulate the worker's interest in learning the job y Place the worker in the correct position Step 2 y Present the operations y Tell.
Unwashed hands transmit microorganisms. nails and arms from the elbow down y Rinse palms and hands with fresh water y Wipe palms and hands dry using a clean towel Parameters for assessment of training effectiveness The Kirkpatrick Model Level 4 Results What organizational benefits resulted from the training? Level 3 Behavior To what extent did participants change their behavior back in the workplace as a result of the training? Level 2 Learning To what extent did participants improve knowledge and skills and change attitudes as a result of the training? . with fresh water y Apply soap y Work lather on and around fingers. In order to educate the workers in better hygienic practices.y Try out the worker's performance y Have the worker do the job. and correct errors y Have the worker explain each key point to you as he or she does the job again y Make sure the worker understands. from the elbow down. It is therefore essential that hands be washed thoroughly. the correct hand washing method is one of the topics demonstrated in fish processing units . The following procedure for washing hands is recommended: y Wet palms and arms. The main objective of washing hands is to avoid contaminating the material with organisms from the hands. and continue until you are certain of this Step 4 y Follow up y Put the worker on his or her own y Designate to whom he or she should go for help y Check frequently y Encourage questions y Taper off extra coaching and reduce follow -up Example of an on -the-job training session: training workers in the correct metho d of hand washing Workers in fish processing units must maintain a high degree of personal cleanliness.
suppliers and regulators . if participants did not use the skills once back in the workplace (Level 3). the Kirkpatrick model explains the usefulness of performing training evaluations at each level. Sources include: y y y hardcopy and online quantitative reports production and job records interviews with participants. customers. participant reactions gathered at Level 1 (Reaction) will reveal the barriers to learning.000. Each level provides a diagnostic checkpoint for problems at the succeeding level. So. Level 3 evaluations (Behavior) for strategic programs only and Level 4 evaluations (Results) for programs costing over $50. Using the Kirkpatrick Model How do you conduct a training evaluation? Here is a quick guide on some appropriate information sources for each level. So. you will need to consider carefully what levels of evaluation you will conduct for which programs. In fact. You may decide to conduct Level 1 evaluations (Reaction) for all programs. before starting an evaluation. managers. peers. It¶s not that conducting an evaluation at one level is more important that another. Above all else. All levels of evaluation are important.and post-test scores on-the-job assessments supervisor reports Level 3 (Behavior) y y y completed self-assessment questionnaire on-the-job observation reports from customers. think about the cost and time involved in collecting the data.Level 1 Reaction How did participants react to the program? An evaluation at each level answers whether a fundamental requirement of the training program was met. Balance this against the accuracy of the source and the accuracy you actually need. Now moving up to the next level. Will existing sources suffice or will you need to collect new information? Think broadly about where you can get information. The difficulty and cost of conducting an evaluation increases as you move up the levels. if participants did not learn (Level 2). Level 2 evaluations (Learning) for ³hardskills´ programs only. perhaps they did not learn the required skills in the first place (Level 2). Level 1 (Reaction) y y y completed participant feedback questionnaire informal comments from participants focus group sessions with participants Level 2 (Learning) y y y pre. peers and participant¶s manager Level 4 (Results) y y y financial reports quality inspections interview with sales manager When considering what sources of data you will use for your evaluation. be crystal clear about your purpose in conducting the evaluation.
This is not an exhaustive list but an example of the sort of information to collect Stage 2 The second stage is to determine which components of fitness they need to improve. if there were lessons learned from the evaluation on how to make your training more effective. sports centre etc.the ability to perform a series of explosive power movements in rapid succession in opposing directions (ZigZag running or cutting movements) . Power .y y y y checklists and tests direct observation questionnaires. get fit enough to play in th e Saturday hockey league. run a local 5 km fun run or compete in next year's London Marathon. Strength . 2. 4. refer to your previously stated reasons for conducting the evaluation. 6. Agility . This could be to improve general fitness. self-rating and multi-rating Focus Group sessions Once you have completed your evaluation. And of course.the extent to which muscles can exert force by contracting against resistance (holding or restraining an object or person) 2. act on them! Steps involved in conducting an effective training program The process of creating a training program to help develop an individual's level of fitness comprises of 6 stages: 1.gym. 3. 5. Exercise scientists have identified nine elements that comprise the definition of fitness. In deciding on your distribution list.the ability to exert maximum muscular contraction instantly in an explosive burst of movements (Jumping or sprint starting) 3. The following lists each of the nine elements and an example of how they are used: 1. distribute it to the people who need to read it. This could depend upon what the individual wants to get fit for. Gather details about the individual Identify the fitness components to develop Identify appropriate tests to monitor fitness status Conduct a gap analysis Compile the program Monitor progress and adjust program Stage 1 The first stage is to gather details about the individual: y y y y y y y Age Reasons for wanting to get fit Current or recent injuries Health problems The sports they play and how often Their dislikes and likes with regards training What sports facilities they have access to .
8 metres 16 metres Over head medicine ball throw Arm power Gap analysis . Coordination . We now need to conduct a gap analysis of the individual's current fitness levels (from test results at stage 3) and target fitness levels (identified at stage 2).the heart's ability to deliver blood to working muscles and their ability to use it (Running long distances) 8. You will need to consider which of these elements are applicable to the individuals training program based on what it is they want to get fit for. g.Aerobic fitness and arm power are good and just need to be maintained sprint.e.1 metres 3. Flexibility . The results of this process will assist in the design of the training program so that each component of fitness is improved to the desired level.a single muscle's ability to perform sustained work (Rowing or cycling) 7. a handstand) or while moving (e. Cardiovascular Endurance . objectives and current level of fitness. The following is an example of a gap analysis: Test Multistage Fitness Test 30 metre acceleration Test Illinois agility run Test Standing Long Jump Test Fitness Component Aerobic Speed Agility Leg power Current Target Level 12 Shuttle 2 Level 12 Shuttle 5 4. Balance . either stationary (e. Stage 3 The next stage is to identify appropriate tests that can be used to initially determine the individual's level of fitness and then to monitor progress during the training. Of all the nine elements of fitness cardiac respiratory qualities are the most important to develop as they enhance all the other components of the conditioning equation.a muscle's ability to perform a maximum contracture time after time (Continuous explosive rebounding through an entire basketball game) 9.4 metres 16.the ability to achieve an extended range of motion without being impeded by excess tissue. Identified test should be conducted and the results recorded. a gymnastics stunt) 5. Local Muscle Endurance . Stage 4 We now know the individual's background.3 seconds 20 seconds 2.9 seconds <16 seconds 2. . fat or muscle (Executing a leg split) 6.g.4.the ability to integrate the above listed components so that effective movements are achieved. Strength Endurance . agility and leg power tests are below target . i.the ability to control the body's position.leg power needs to be improved.
This will ensure the program is enjoyable and convenient to do. " y y y y F .what exercise or training activity will help achieve the individual's fitness goals? For frequency. Strength work should last 15 to 30 minutes and comprise of 3 sessions a week with 48 hours recovery between sessions. The aim of the four week cycles is to: y y y y y Build Test. The program needs to last 12 to 16 weeks in order to see any real benefits and the planning (initial & subsequent adjustments) should be conducted with th e individual so that they feel they own the program.frequency . Aerobic training should last for 20 to 40 minutes. intensity and time you should start at an easy level and increase gradually e.training activity . The test results can be used to adjust the program accordingly.Stage 5 The next stage is to prepare a training program using the results of the gap analysis and FITT principles. Stage 6 The program has now been agreed and the individual can undertake the program.g. 10% increments. Every 4 weeks meet and discuss with the individual: y y y y how the training has gone the test results progress towards target fitness levels adjustments to the training program . medium. Plan the program in four week cycles where the work load in the first three weeks increase each week (easy.intensity .time . hard) and the fourth week comprises of active recovery and tests to monitor training progress.how long should each session last? T . Build you up to a level of fitness (3 weeks) recovery and adjustment of the training program (1 week) you up to higher level of fitness (3 weeks) recovery and adjustment of the training program (1 week) you up to an even higher level of fitness (3 weeks) " and so on The tests used to assess the individual's initial level of fitness should be planned into week 4 of the program in order to monitor progr ess and effectiveness of the program.how hard should the individual exercise? T .how often should the individual exercise? I . Build Test.
Training evaluation checks whether training has had the desired effect. transfer of knowledge at the work place.6. worth or merit of something. Purposes of Training Evaluation The five main purposes of training evaluation are: Feedback: It helps in giving feedback to the candidates by defining the objectives and linking it to learning outcomes. better manage the initiative or make it more sustainable) to assess its outcomes or impacts to understand why it does or does not work. project implementers and funding bodies) understand such things as what difference the initiative made (or could make). to find out how it is operating to assess whether its objectives were met to assess its efficiency or cost-effectiveness. Evaluation can help various groups with an interest in an initiative (including participants. EVALUATION OF TRAINING Why evaluate? Why conduct an evaluation? Evaluation is usually defined as assessing the value. and what changes could make the initiative more effective and sustainable in the future. Some of the purposes of evaluating a community initiative include: y y y y y y y to find out how well community or participants¶ needs were met to improve the initiative (to better meet community needs. It is something that we all do everyday and can therefore be readily built into community projects and initiatives. or to the regular work routines. Training evaluation ensures that whether candidates are able to implement their learning in their respective workplaces. whether the difference was what was intended. Research: It helps in ascertaining the relationship between acquired knowledge. Methods for evaluation The process of examining a training program is called train ing evaluation. and training. .
Intervention: It helps in determining that whether the actual outcomes are aligned with the expected outcomes. Process of Training Evaluation Before Training: The learner's skills and knowledge are assessed before the training program. During the start of training. the top management (higher authoritative employee) uses the evaluative data to manipulate it for their own benefits. they are asked to give their opinions on the methods used and whether those methods confirm to the candidates preferences and learning style. Power games: At times. During Training: It is the phase at which instruction is started. then it can be dealt with accordingly.Control: It helps in controlling the training program because if the training is not effective. Once aware. candidates generally perceive it as a waste of resources because at most of the times candidates are unaware of the objectives and learning outcomes of the program. This phase usually consist of short tests at regular intervals .
There are various evaluation techniques for this phase.After Training: It is the phase when learner¶s skills and knowledge are assessed again to measure the effectiveness of the training. As shown in Table 1. techniques. there is no universal approach to evaluating training³each organization must select the criteria that are most relevant to their organizational objectives. each type of outcome addresses a different evaluation question. This level of evaluation is the most widely used type of training assessment. and attitudes presented in training? Transfer Did the trainees transfer the principles. Techniques of Evaluation The various methods of training evaluation are: Observation Questionnaire Interview Self diaries Self recording of specific incidents y y y y y Criteria for evaluation Effectively evaluating training requires the systematic collection of information from a variety of sources. Within the training community. and attitudes presented in training to the workplace? Results Did the training program address the organization·s objectives? The first two levels (reactions and learning) tend to require assessing immediately after training. Table 1. Each of the four levels is described in more detail on the following pages. the dominant approach to training evaluation categorizes criteria into four levels. A survey by the American Society . Reactions The first criterion for training evaluation is reactions or trainees· perceptions of a course. techniques.This white paper will assist organizations in identifying appropriate criteria for assessing their training programs. Training Evaluation Outcomes Level Outcome Reactions What did the trainees think of the training program? Learning Did the trainees learn the principles. This phase is designed to determine whether training has had the desired effect at individual department and organizational levels. it is critical to identify what questions need addressing in the evaluation. As organizations use training to achieve a variety of organizational goals. What Should Be Evaluated? When choosing evaluation criteria. while the second two levels (behavior and results) require assessing after the learners ha ve completed training and have returned to the job (generally one month to one year after training).
Cognitive outcomes include facts and information presented in training. trainers should pull the questions together in a questionnaire (paper or online) and administer it to learners at the conclusion of training. Figure 1 outlines the three categories of learning outcomes. Tips for Collecting Reaction Data y y y Design the instrument so that results can be tabulated and quantified. Assessing reactions allows trainers to measure if trainees are satisfied with the course and if they feel that they are learning from the training. while skill-based outcomes include knowledge of how to perform the tasks or skills presented in training. Learning The second level of a training evaluation involves assessing what the students learned in the training. Occasionally. and their perceptions that the technology was easy to use and facilitated learning. Technology reactions³assess the trainees· satisfaction with the technology used. y y y y y Affective reactions³assess whether or not the trainees liked or enjoyed the training. The five main categories of training reaction measures are below.of Training and Development revealed that 91% of training courses use a reaction measure at the conclusion of training to evaluate the course (Sugrue & Rivera. Types of Reactions: As there are multiple aspects of a course that can influence trainee satisfaction. and affective. 2005). the important outcomes of training are not declarative or procedural knowledge. skillbased. Appendix A contains list of reaction items for each dimension. Instructor reactions³assess the learners· perceptions of the instructor·s contributions to learning. trainers should assess the dimensions that are relevant to their courses. Three Categories of Learning Outcomes . In measuring learning. Reaction data can provide trainers with valuable diagnostic feedback they can use to modify the courses to meet the needs of trainees and their organizations. Collecting Reactions Data: After deciding which types of training reaction measures are relevant. three types of outcomes are generally measured: cognitive. Utility reactions³assess the trainees· perceptions that the skills taught in training were useful and relevant to their jobs. allow surveys to be completed anonymously. To obtain more honest opinions. but affective changes in learners· attitudes or motivation. Provide a space for trainees to write in about topics not covered in the survey. Delivery reactions³assess the students· perceptions that the material was presented in an organized and coherent manner. Figure 1.
compare trainees· post-training test scores with pre-training test scores. and subordinates Evaluating training programs using on-the-job behavior is more difficult than using reaction or learning data as it requires a more systematic approach to collect pre-training and post-training data. 1976). Other results-level indicators that can be examined include costs. 2008). trainee·s coworkers. on the job). it is important to have a comparison point of behaviors before the training in order to quantify improvements. As shown in the box below. a multiple-choice test would be appropriate. If the training objective is for learners to recognize and recall training content. Information Sources to Assess On-the-job Behavior y y y Objective measurements of actual job behavior (e. In order to conclude if learning is due to training it is important to have a comparison point. number of errors made) Trained observers· assessments of job performance Performance appraisals conducted by the trainee. Sample self-efficacy items are included in Appendix B. there are multiple information sources that can be used to assess on-the-job behavior. In order to assess changes in behaviors on the job. Research has shown that self-efficacy is a strong predictor of training transfer (Sitzmann et al.Depending on whether the training objectives focus on cognitive. it is important to identify the organization·s objectives and how the training influenced these objectives. Results-level outcomes the most challenging evaluation criteria to assess. but if the training objective is executing a specific skill. turnover. In assessing results. skill-based. and morale (Goldstein & Ford. absenteeism. It is important to remember that just because trainees do well on a post-training exam does not mean that they learned the material during training³the students could have pre-existing knowledge or could have learned the material somewhere else (e. .g. there are different formats that are more appropriate for assessing knowledge gains.. although it is generally the outcome that organizations find most valuable.g.. scoring trainees· performance while performing the skill would be more appropriate.. One example of an affective outcome is self-efficacy. For example. Assessing post-training performance should be delayed at least three months after training to allow the trainees the opportunity to implement the changes in their performance (Kirkpatrick. grievances. Results Results refer to the degree to which the training met the organization·s objectives. Transfer Showing that trainees learned the material presented in training does not necessarily mean that the trainees will transfer the learning outcomes back to the workplace. or affective outcomes. supervisors. When possible. or with a control group who has not yet attended the training. if an organization implements a safety training program they could compare organizational records of on-the-job accidents before and after the training. or trainees· confidence in their understanding of the training material and their belief in their ability to apply the material they learned in the workplace. 2002).
A lecture may also take the form of printed text.7. The principle of case analysis is invoked in the celebrated remark of Sherlock Holmes. to the effect that when one has eliminated the impossible. When thetrainer begins the training session by telling the aim. decision or situation into a sufficient number of separate cases. body language. Training is basically incomplete without lecture. what remains must be true. goal. Straight Lecture: Straight lecture method consists of presenting information. The trainer in case of straight lecture can decide to vary from the training script. depending only on the division of a problem. etc. A lecture can be in printed or oral form. based on the signals from the trainees. however unlikely that seems. There are some variations in Lecture method. . such as books. processes. control of speed. Lecture is telling someone about something. Lecture is given to enhance the knowledge of listener or to give him the theoretical aspect of a topic. Main Features of Lecture Method Some of the main features of lecture method are: y y y y y Inability to identify and correct misunderstandings Less expensive Can be reached large number of people at once Knowledge building exercise Less effective because lectures require long periods of trainee inactivity Case analysis Case analysis is one of the most general and applicable methods of analytical thinking. purpose of the lecture. or methods that will be used in training that means the trainer is using the lecture method. A good lecture consists of introduction of the topic. the trainer speaks to a group about a topic. agenda. Analysing each such case individually may be enough to resolve the initial question. it does not involve any kind of interaction between the trainer and the trainees. notes. The difference between the straight lecture and the printed material is the trainer¶s intonation. In this method. and priorities and preferences of the order in which the topic will be covered. The variation here means that some forms of lectures are interactive while some are not. and visual image of the trainer. attitudes through lecture. which the trainee attempts to absorb. whereas same material in print is restricted to what is printed. It is difficult to imagine training witho ut lecture format. However. INVENTORY OF TRAINING METHODS Lecture It is one of the oldest methods of training. This method is used to create understanding of a topic or to influence behavior.
5. etc. such as: Multiple Role Play ± In this type of role play. objectives. emotions. managing conflict. Once the participants read their role descriptions. Then. Traineesare given with some information related to description of the role. concerns. Defining the issue(s) Analyzing the case data Generating alternatives Selecting decision criteria Analyzing and evaluating alternatives Selecting the preferred alternative Developing an action/implementation plan Role plays Role play is a simulation in which each participant is given a role to play. After the role play. Role Plays helps in y Developing interpersonal skills and communication skills y Conflict resolution y Group decision making y Developing insight into one¶s own behavior and its impact on others There are various types of role plays. 3. they act out their roles by interacting with one another. all trainees are in groups. etc. the trainer will stop the role play and discuss what happened so far. a general description of the situation. Other participants observe the role play. two parties in conflict. 7. 4. scheduling vacation days. Role Rotation ± It starts as a single role play. each group analyzes the interactions and identifies the learning points. responsibilities. For instance. analyze their interactions with one another and learn from the play. providing demonstrations of situation. Then the participants are asked to exchange . 2. with each group acting out the role play simultaneously.Analyzing the case should take the following steps: 1. is given. and the problem that each one of them faces. After the interaction of participants. Single Role Play ± One group of participants plays the role for the rest. 6. situation could be strike in factory.
"Pure" business simulations have been described as construction and management simulations without a construction element. Active development of Internet technologies and the growth of the Internet audience in recent years gave a powerful impetus to the development of the industry of online games.or economic simulation games. but the game also involves a building aspect that makes it a construction and management simulation. micromanagement is often emphasized in these kinds of games.browser-based and downloadable. gameplay and structures. It isn't group hugs. Spontaneous Role Play ± In this kind of role play.are games that focus on the management of economic processes. another notable pure business simulation is Hollywood Mogul.An important facet of economic simulations is the emergence of artificial systems. it isn't anymore. one of the trainees plays herself while the other trainees play people with whom the first participant interacted before.and can thus be called management simulations. single-player and multiplayer. There are many varieties of online business simulations . Or. IndustryPlayer and Tycoononline Experiential learning. including outdoors Experiential Learning Comes of Age It's easier to define what experiential learning isn't than what it is.usually in the form of a business. online business simulations. but try to hold the player's attention by using creative graphics. Trevor Chan is a notable developer of business simulation games. at least. It isn't singing "Kumbaya" around a campfire.characters.Besides Capitalism.The interest in these games lies in accurate simulation of realworld events using algorithms. It isn't festive all-organizational pow wows. as well as the close tying of players' actions to expected or plausible consequences and outcomes.having developed the 1995 game Capitalism which has been described as the "best business simulation game". and in particular. They are essentially numeric. There are many games in this genre which have been designed around numerous different enterprises. This method allows a variety of ways to approach the roles.Indeed.This genre also includes many of the "Tycoon" games such as Railroad Tycoon and Big Biz Tycoon Other notable business simulation games include Air Bucks and The Movies. Among the most notable online business simulations such as Virtonomics. real-time and turn-based.Theme Park World can be called a business simulation because the goal of the game is to attract customers and make profits. . Business / management games & simulations Business simulation games.
hanging after the ropes course is over. Outward Bound works collaboratively with its clients on areas such as team building. though.S. such as a game. Outward Bound's beginnings harken back to World War II when a British educator.. A new incarnation Carl Rogers. experiential learning has become a sophisticated training tool that when used properly can effect enormous change within an organization." then experiential learning has taken place. He discovered it was lack of confidence rather than a shortage of skills or equipment and he developed a program to teach internal fortitude and confidence. In the past 10 years. defined it as any experience where there is personal involvement that is initiated and evaluated by the learner. experiential learning was perceived as an event rather than a solution. director of Outward Bound Professional. We learned not to focus on the activity as the process for learning... the missing step in the early years was linking the experience back to the workplace. experiential providers got better at connecting the experience back to the workplace. 2) indoor experiences in which a nonwork-related activity. As the years have gone by. As the industry evolved. For example. and teamwork. a ropes course. is connected back to the workplace. The trouble was that after many thousands of organizations had spent many tens of thousands of dollars on such programs. In a quality experiential educational program. though. who has been called the father of experiential education. any positive changes were fleeting. For organizations. varies from provider to provider. Basically. Tim Bonnett. but the team building and leadership skills learned can be connected back to work. Founded in the United Kingdom in the early 1940s and established in the U. Outward Bound has become much more than outdoor challenge courses. what might take a person or group weeks or months to learn. all experiential learning provides metaphorical experiences that are applicable to life. and 3) classroom-based experiences that simulate a "true-to-life" work situation. The great outdoors One of the oldest and largest providers of experiential learning is Outward Bound. explains: "In the beginning. those kinds of team building exercises were common. leadership. Regardless of the format. which is a frequently used experiential learning activity. but. there is a debriefing after every event that illu minates and "anchors" how an experiential activity relates to an organization's mission or challenge. when experiential learning was in its infancy. But instead of leaving a group. This "link back" is a key ingredient to effecting change. can often be accomplished in a few hours. And a key benefit of using experiential learning is that the learning curve can be accelerated. "What have I experienced and learned and how can I apply it. That's when participants acquire insights of how to apply what they have just learned to life. leadership. Kurt Hahn. in the late 1960s.. it became painfully obvious that when employees returned to work after a weekend of bonding." Operating more than 57 schools in 32 countries. experiential learning facilitators now follow up the activity with skilled debriefing and discussion. to use it as a tool for learning. which evolved into the Outward Bound school. learned why the survival rate of young British seamen was much lower than older seamen. when a person introspectively asks. provides an experience where a group can work together to learn trust.Back in the 1970s. The company uses three approaches to . In other words. there are three types: 1) outdoor experiences in which the activity itself is unrelated to a business environment. The format for the actual experiential learning experience. and cultural and strategic change. rather.ahh.
but they could also be illustrated posters or booklets. such as slides or videos. The trainees need training materials to help them take home and implement the training. It can also help remind the trainees to implement the training after their return home. Small versions could be provided in the trainers' guide which could be copied on to flip charts or OHP.such as team building a software program). and wilderness programs. They can be professionally designed and produced in a form that can be used in the training. This can be in the form of trainers' guides or manuals. They c be an used in different parts of an organisation or by several organisations or training institutes who are all doing the same training. A package helps the message reach further than conventional training and makes it more likely to be implemented where it is intended. can create the kind of exuberance that the participants can then take back to work to innovate and not to fear change. Originals of these materials should be included in the package so copies can be made when running the particular course. may be needed for each trainee. when met. It aims to help the trainer run the training course and use the other material in the pack. The package will. "Our mission at Orion is to help create teams that work together toward a common cause. Many copies can be printed. etc. The visual aids are not meant for the trainer to read as a prompt. Bob Root. and so forth. challenge events. questionnaires. Their function of taking the message of the training back to the village enables the trainees to explain what the training was all about to their community or group. Organizing / preparing training material. Flip charts can be printed and audio-visual aids." Root is a forner high-tech CEO and is familiar with the processes needed to run a business and bui ld teams. such as ropes courses.experiential learning: initiatives (which can range from outdoor experiences to real work projects. Exercise sheets. . role plays.V. If the package is to be reproduced. Visual aids are included in the pack to be used in the training session itself." The two . In the training session the trainees will need other sorts of materials to work on. which can make their production comparatively cheap. sharing costs between many trainers can help these visual aids to be quite sophisticated.and threeday programs combine a sport (selected for its particular attributes that match up with an organization's business challenge) with "power tools" that teach people communication and rapport.. have to include materials for the trainers. therefore. aids Training Packages Training media and materials can be reproduced and used by more than one trainer. These can make use of the same pictures as the visual aids. which all sophisticated experiential learning companies provide. including A. cofounder and partner of Orion Learning Inc. but as aids for the trainees to see in the session itself. These materials can be simple notes or handouts. can be copied in whatever numbers are needed. conflict resolution. calls the link back. These can make the training session more participatory. Materials can be produced using several different forms and media which together form a training `package'. the "added value" that makes an outdoor adventure much more than just floating down a river: "A sports or adventure program can provide a challenge that. This package can consist of all the materials that a trainer or organisation needs to run the training course.
They could formulate what they could use and what the whole organisation. the particular messages or information and the proposed media for the elements in the package. It can require trainers. They may also be required to develop the courses and produce the information for which the materials will be developed. They have a vital role in identifying the needs for course development and requesting appropriate materials. This media element needs including in the training package so that trainers are clear what the media is doing and how they can use it to make their work more effective. Try to list down as ambitious suggestions as possible. A workshop could be arranged where selected trainers could work on the development of the package. however. subject specialists and designers working together. then it can be part of a process of sharing effective training experience. A training materials network. organisation or set of organisations. Working out how one topic should be put over and what the package would consist of can be a useful exercise. such as broadcast radio or TV. topics could be developed into a training materials package that would be useful for their work. The trainer should also have to spend less time in the preparation of the course as most of this should have been done for them and made available in the package. Work on the development of training packages can be difficult if most training is seen as an isolated individual activity. group or institute could benefit from. Each proposal should be discussed with other trainers as to the long term viability of the idea. This could be done with any appropriate mass media. it is seen as a basic function of a whole group. In a workshop the trainers can work out what overall. drama.Another element in the package could be mass media programmes. this work in the production of training packages will be still needed. story tellers. This should include listing who the target group for the training is to be. This work of developing materials is not just for the first trainers. It can also include folk media such as singers. etc. An orientation session may be needed to show them how to use the package in training. Even if these specialists are not available. Once one topic and one package has been planned. Training packages can become a means of spreading the training expertise as well as the training message itself. All these training materials need to be designed and illustrated with the same images. but for lots of other trainers who will use the package once it is produced. Your training could involve media support to help get it to those who need it and to help trained people implement what they have been trained to do. basic. Their use needs to be linked so that they become more effective as a concerted effort rather than individual materials. tested. Involving the trainers The trainers need to be involved in the development. Media and training can be organised into campaigns which can reach large numbers of people. production and use of atraining materials package. If. designed and produced. Organisation can enable far more developed materials to be produced and used than one trainer could make for themselves. However once the package has been developed. By linking media to on-going training a demand can be created and training can be re-enforced. it will enable the training to be done more effectively. Trainers can work together and benefit from each others work. To do this requires not just materials packages but organisation or a network to enable this to happen. teams can be put together to start on the development process. The best trainer should be able to influence the other trainers and they should be able to learn from each others' . Developing packages Developing materials and good packages can take a lot of time.
which can be written down. Organising the network The network has to pull together the producers and users of training materials. therefore. o with a training classroom. They should mutually assist each other to develop their work and the capability of the organisation. has organisational implications as well as technical ones. who will test material. Other research is necessary to see what potential exists for both producing and using any material. not just a top down organisation. Identifying who they are and what they have to offer or what they need can be the starting point. Pooling resources enables the production and the wider use of media which can be expensively and professionally designed and produced. as well as the media. The initial costs will be greater but by sharing them out to many users they will be less. tried out and widely used. What equipment. The next step in the research involves a careful search for resources in the network area. o provide a training with a trained trainer. and give general feed back.work though such a network. o with a designer and a funder who will pay for everyone to receive the materials. Finding out what materials already exist is another necessary step. With a network many points are linked. o with a video with a VCP and TV. for example. The first step. Such a network also needs access to resources so that many copies of successful and tested training materials can be produced cheaply. o the trainer with a materials producer with a o specialist on the subject. These ideas underlie most of this book which. To implement many of these ideas. Such a system implies a level of agreement that can be difficult to generate if you are working with many independent small organisations. It requires. therefore. Find out what training is being done and what needs there are for new material and new training methods. A network can o link a trainer and trainees. requires creating an effective network. as it can help people immediately to see what they can use and what needs to be developed. he or she may not realise that it could be useful to an other trainer with the same problem in another area. These connections are needed to develop materials that meet the needs of the trainees. Points on the network may produce different elements of the training material or do different work on the development process. If it is good you can buy sets of it rather than producing it yourself. but a complex network where the trainers and field workers and potential users of training are connected with skilled specialists of various sorts. A network can be such an organisation. If a trainer has had a good response to a role play. design and training skills. It requires a good two way flow for both the network and the material to be well developed. is helping people realise they have something to offer. This needs to be explained and the potential researched. This can enable many horizontal connections between all trainers to be developed. If it is written down it can be copied. space and other facilities do the trainers and members of the potential network have for training? It can be difficult to produce tape slide shows if the trainers do not have any working slide . If another organisation has produced material on a similar topic you can learn a lot from what they have done. The only way to encourage the sharing that is necessary to make it mutually beneficial. It can be more effective than the normal vertical connections between manager and managed.
it is essential to sell inwardly toward a company¶s people. When employees understand and commit to the value proposition of the company and its brands. Extra resources for equipment may be necessary if the training materials are to be widely used. What is the scope of internal marketing? Internal marketing includes the communication of corporate culture and goals. mission and vision statements. This can be done at a meeting or workshop and can be supplemented by training newsletters to keep everyone informed about developments and training. What to DoUnderstand the Need for Internal Marketing Internal marketing is becoming increasingly important as the pace of change accelerates. The workshop and research should be able to produce lists of trainers' needs for the network to meet. energy. It should also include details of courses. or downsizing. because the employees become product champions. It can also involve initiatives such as informing staff about new product introductions or new acquisitions. While most companies allocate resources to understanding and communicating with their external customers. This should include details of who does what and who has what so that others can gain access to any available resources. y Many companies are undergoing some form of transformation through mergers. They will enable considerable development and improve the quality of work. few make the same investment in time. Ideas and methods of working can be developed with the members or trainers of the network or organisation. as well as personnel policies and procedures. what and how your network can work. MARKETING OF TRAINING ACTIVITY Marketing in house (internal customer) internal customer :Employee who receives goods or services produced elsewhere in the firm as inputs to his or her work in the firm. Once the initial research has been collated it should show who. The need for communication is stronger in these circumstances. materials and other resources that exist already. Internal communications is traditionally viewed as the sole province of the Human Resources department. These documents should be the backbone of a training material network or organisation. There will be a need for a list or directory of the members and elements in the network or organisation.projectors. and money in communicating with their internal customers ² their employees. What You Need to KnowWhy is internal marketing important? Although external marketing remains the most important business development task. The includes lists of resources and training materials that the network should produce. Each member of the network should find it easier to draw on the other members for support and assistance. but it's essential to recognize the importance of marketing to internal customers. . external marketing becomes more effective. 8. alliances.
and do not participate effectively in the promises to external clients. these programs have proven too valuable to be omitted and will continue to be a part of any campaign for years to come. They have manyoptions in them such as bonds. They are normally issued outside all jurisdictions of that country or any country worldwide. that are not part of or under any of the jurisdictions of any single country worldwide. overlap. Internal marketing can bring the parties together with shared goals and values. stocks. newsletters. you'll have the analysis in hand to determine which to drop and which to now integrate into your custom designed campaign. Like external customers. It is very important that internal staffs· perception of the organisation ² your internal brand ² matches the external brand positioning for optimum results. There are various techniques and tools that help organisations implement effective internal brand building and marketing communications. internal marketing under pins the drive for greater involvement. These are intranets. futures. They are called the internal customers as they interact within the organisation internally to generate long term value. and User Events may be some of the activities that have been a part of your annual marketing mix. and understanding. Press Releases. For many companies. However. namely its employees and business partners as they define the company·s ability in optimizing resources and competencies to convert opportunities into revenues. they too are impacted by the company·s brand and its future plans. Constant organizational change can loosen the ties between employer and employee. They are sometimes called the Euro Market as that is where most of they investors come from or operate there corporations from. to maximize your return. it is essential to communicate the change to all stakeholders including employees. their name. better systems. enthusiastic work force boosts productivity.y When companies also change their brand. Trade Shows. They are offered all over the world and have multiple investors and multiple countries they are working out of at any given time simultaneously. Internal marketing helps the process of knowledge development by building understanding and commitment to personal development. commitment.Is the market place for the securities. Media Outreach. However if your internal customers are not sufficiently aware of your marketing plans. or simply don't deliver. With history on your side. company events. andmutual funds in a global perspective. . delivers better customer care while strengthening the corporate brand in the market place. An organization thrives on the abilities of its constituents. extranets (partner communication on the web). or their values. y As companies empower staff to build stronger customer relationship. internal rules and procedures. y y Marketing to external customers External Market. creates profitable customer relationships. An information-armed. minimises turnover costs. the external brand equity is negatively affected. company stores. posters and pamphlets informing about new initiatives. each activity should be scrutinized to determine if they complement.
it could target 'supporters' with a customised video on relocation benefits like low cost of living and better amenities. tactics. Internal marketing is a dedicated effort across the organization. including best practices around various organisational policies and processes · Increase the peoples· connections with the external / internal customer service division·s roadmap by articulating investments. For example. Internal marketing is an ongoing process that needs constant top management support and the process innovations to make it as viable as external marketing. and objectives. Each segment requires a different internal ¶marketing mix· to deliver on internal marketing goals. i. ¶opposers·. anywhere Smart . neutral. while the 'opposers' could be effectively coerced / forced to accept the re -location regardless of their objection (in the larger interests of the company). internal marketing should: · · · · · · · Function as a continual internal 'up-skilling' process Align the organisation·s purpose with employee behaviour Internalise core values of the organisation by all employees Motivate. if the company wanted to relocate closer to new emerging markets.whereby it aligns. reframe and empower employee attitude Facilitate an ¶inside-out· management approach Retain a positive customer experience across all business objectives Provide role-specific and user-focused information. identifying with the changes which organisations plan to implement.supporters. Like external customers. internal marketing needs to accurately segment internal customers. The 'neutral' internal customers could be targeted with incentives like a pay raise. Broadly speaking there are three segments . To ensure that it delivers consistently. they too have their own ¶buyer· behaviour. motivates and empowers people at all management levels to consistently deliver a satisfying internal and external customer experience.e.Internal Marketing Approach To be effective. · Be available in a self service / portable format that is accessible anytime.