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Child Psychology Child Psychology

MODULE 1 MODULE 1

MAJOR MAJOR
DEVELOPMENTAL DEVELOPMENTAL
ISSUES ISSUES

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Unit One The First Years of Life Unit One The First Years of Life

Aims The aim of this unit is to enable you to: Aims The aim of this unit is to enable you to:

• distinguish between ‘innate’ and ‘learned’ approaches to • distinguish between ‘innate’ and ‘learned’ approaches to
development development

• appreciate that there are few clear cut answers in • appreciate that there are few clear cut answers in
psychology psychology

• describe and discuss physiological and psychological innate • describe and discuss physiological and psychological innate
reflexes reflexes

• quote psychological evidence to demonstrate individual • quote psychological evidence to demonstrate individual
differences in newborn infants differences in newborn infants

• identify evidence for early social behaviours and how these • identify evidence for early social behaviours and how these
change during the first year of life change during the first year of life

• define cross-cultural studies • define cross-cultural studies

Context The first module of this course takes you quickly through the Context The first module of this course takes you quickly through the
child’s experiences right from birth through to home, family and child’s experiences right from birth through to home, family and
school life. After this initial review we will focus on more specific school life. After this initial review we will focus on more specific
issues of research and interpretation. issues of research and interpretation.

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The Newborn Infant The Newborn Infant


When an infant is born, he or she clearly achieves biological When an infant is born, he or she clearly achieves biological
separation from his or her mother. However, more so than any separation from his or her mother. However, more so than any
other young animal, the human newborn remains totally other young animal, the human newborn remains totally
dependent upon the mother or suitable substitute. dependent upon the mother or suitable substitute.

We’re now immediately faced with a question which will continually We’re now immediately faced with a question which will continually
arise throughout this course: arise throughout this course:

How many of a newborn infant’s abilities are innate or inborn How many of a newborn infant’s abilities are innate or inborn
and how many have to be learned? and how many have to be learned?

This question is continually raised in many areas of child This question is continually raised in many areas of child
development and is often referred to as the nature/nurture development and is often referred to as the nature/nurture
debate. debate.

Nativists versus Empiricists Nativists versus Empiricists

On one side there are the nativists who believe that various On one side there are the nativists who believe that various
aspects of behaviour are innate. aspects of behaviour are innate.

On the other side there are the empiricists who believe that these On the other side there are the empiricists who believe that these
behaviours must be learned and are influenced by the child’s behaviours must be learned and are influenced by the child’s
experiences in their environment. experiences in their environment.

Surprise, surprise, there are rarely any clear cut answers to Surprise, surprise, there are rarely any clear cut answers to
support just one or other of these theorists! support just one or other of these theorists!

Take for example apparently clear-cut innate behaviours such as Take for example apparently clear-cut innate behaviours such as
sucking and swallowing. Even this has been shown to be open to sucking and swallowing. Even this has been shown to be open to
the effects of learning. Cohen (1967) found that babies who were the effects of learning. Cohen (1967) found that babies who were
restless and crying for a feed became quicker with practice at restless and crying for a feed became quicker with practice at
recognising the nipple, stopping crying and commencing sucking. recognising the nipple, stopping crying and commencing sucking.

We’ve introduced another recurring point here. In psychology We’ve introduced another recurring point here. In psychology
there are very few black or white answers. Most are ultimately there are very few black or white answers. Most are ultimately
varying shades of grey. In looking at various aspects of varying shades of grey. In looking at various aspects of
development and behaviour we will consider the balance of development and behaviour we will consider the balance of
research evidence which supports or refutes different theories. research evidence which supports or refutes different theories.

This might mean that although we can quote several particular This might mean that although we can quote several particular
theories, often there are serious criticisms of these. We will theories, often there are serious criticisms of these. We will
always aim to evaluate these theories by considering both the always aim to evaluate these theories by considering both the
weight of evidence to support them and specific criticisms of such weight of evidence to support them and specific criticisms of such
theories. theories.

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Child Psychology Child Psychology

Self- In your own words try to explain the nature/nurture debate. Self- In your own words try to explain the nature/nurture debate.
Assessment Use the space below to write down your answer and then compare it Assessment Use the space below to write down your answer and then compare it
Test 1 with the answer given at the end of the unit. Test 1 with the answer given at the end of the unit.

Infant Reflexes Infant Reflexes


All infants are born with several innate reflexes. All infants are born with several innate reflexes.

A reflex is an automatic, involuntary response to a specific A reflex is an automatic, involuntary response to a specific
stimulus. stimulus.

Let’s look at some specific examples of reflexes. Let’s look at some specific examples of reflexes.

Stimulus o Response Stimulus o Response

Food in the mouth o Produces saliva Food in the mouth o Produces saliva
Food in the throat o Swallowing Food in the throat o Swallowing
Food in the windpipe o Coughing to prevent choking Food in the windpipe o Coughing to prevent choking
Puff of air into the eye o Blinking Puff of air into the eye o Blinking

Self- Can you think of a reason why our bodies incorporate such Self- Can you think of a reason why our bodies incorporate such
reflexes? reflexes?
Assessment Assessment
Test 2 As with all SATs, write your answer below, and then check with the Test 2 As with all SATs, write your answer below, and then check with the
suggested answer at the end of the unit. suggested answer at the end of the unit.

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In addition to these basic physiological reflexes (all of which In addition to these basic physiological reflexes (all of which
continue to be present throughout our lives), newborn infants continue to be present throughout our lives), newborn infants
possess certain primitive reflexes which a paediatrician will possess certain primitive reflexes which a paediatrician will
usually check as a guide to the neurological health of the infant. usually check as a guide to the neurological health of the infant.

These reflexes include: These reflexes include:

The rooting reflex - if you gently touch the corner of an infant’s The rooting reflex - if you gently touch the corner of an infant’s
mouth and pull your finger slowly towards their cheek, the infant mouth and pull your finger slowly towards their cheek, the infant
will turn his tongue, mouth and even his entire head towards the will turn his tongue, mouth and even his entire head towards the
stimulated side and attempt to suck your finger. stimulated side and attempt to suck your finger.

The moro reflex - in response to any sudden movement or noise The moro reflex - in response to any sudden movement or noise
nearby the infant quickly extends his arms and brings them nearby the infant quickly extends his arms and brings them
together. Sick or premature babies often fail to demonstrate this together. Sick or premature babies often fail to demonstrate this
reflex, though even in normal, healthy babies it often disappears reflex, though even in normal, healthy babies it often disappears
after about 5 days. after about 5 days.

The Babinski reflex - if the bottom of an infant’s foot is stroked, The Babinski reflex - if the bottom of an infant’s foot is stroked,
he will first of all splay out his toes and then curl them in. he will first of all splay out his toes and then curl them in.

The stepping reflex - if the infant is held carefully with his head The stepping reflex - if the infant is held carefully with his head
supported and gently lowered to a table top until his feet touch and supported and gently lowered to a table top until his feet touch and
his knees bend, his legs will straighten. Then, if he is leaned his knees bend, his legs will straighten. Then, if he is leaned
forward with his feet gently dragging on the table he will make a forward with his feet gently dragging on the table he will make a
step-like movement. step-like movement.

Do remember that all children are individuals and that even Do remember that all children are individuals and that even
healthy infants will not display a reflex every time they are healthy infants will not display a reflex every time they are
stimulated. stimulated.

Even skilled paediatricians can’t always persuade Even skilled paediatricians can’t always persuade
hungry/tired/unhappy/unco-operative infants to demonstrate a hungry/tired/unhappy/unco-operative infants to demonstrate a
reflex. reflex.

Also remember that right from the word ‘go’ infants clearly Also remember that right from the word ‘go’ infants clearly
demonstrate individual differences. demonstrate individual differences.

Many mums often say that they could identify specific individual Many mums often say that they could identify specific individual
characteristics in their children right from their first few days characteristics in their children right from their first few days
together on the maternity ward. together on the maternity ward.

Binns (1965) demonstrated this experimentally. He studied babies Binns (1965) demonstrated this experimentally. He studied babies
less than 5 days old and found clear differences in babies’ less than 5 days old and found clear differences in babies’
reactions to being suddenly disturbed. reactions to being suddenly disturbed.

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Activity 1 Talk to as many different mothers of two or more young children Activity 1 Talk to as many different mothers of two or more young children
as possible. Ask them whether they noticed differences between as possible. Ask them whether they noticed differences between
their children during their first few days of life. their children during their first few days of life.

• What kind of differences did they notice? • What kind of differences did they notice?

• Have these differences remained? • Have these differences remained?

Those preliminary investigations will not only help you appreciate Those preliminary investigations will not only help you appreciate
the way in which individual differences appear to operate right the way in which individual differences appear to operate right
from the moment of birth but may also be of help to you in your from the moment of birth but may also be of help to you in your
individual investigation which you will conduct later in this course. individual investigation which you will conduct later in this course.

Early Social Behaviour Early Social Behaviour


Probably the most important relationship an infant forms during Probably the most important relationship an infant forms during
the first year of life is with his/her mother. the first year of life is with his/her mother.

Just how soon does an infant begin to distinguish his/her mother? Just how soon does an infant begin to distinguish his/her mother?

Macfarlane investigated whether infants could recognise their Macfarlane investigated whether infants could recognise their
mothers by smell alone. She found that at two days old infants mothers by smell alone. She found that at two days old infants
would turn their heads towards a stranger’s breast pad as often as would turn their heads towards a stranger’s breast pad as often as
they did towards their mother’s. However, by the time they were they did towards their mother’s. However, by the time they were
ten days old they showed a definite preference for that of their ten days old they showed a definite preference for that of their
mother’s. mother’s.

Self- What conclusion would Macfarlane have drawn from this study? Self- What conclusion would Macfarlane have drawn from this study?
Assessment Assessment
Test 3 Test 3

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Social Interaction Social Interaction


Human infants are really quite anti-social beings. They often seem Human infants are really quite anti-social beings. They often seem
to do little but cry, eat and demand changing! to do little but cry, eat and demand changing!

One of the first ways in which they initiate social interaction is by One of the first ways in which they initiate social interaction is by
smiling. smiling.

From about the second to the seventh month of life the infant will From about the second to the seventh month of life the infant will
smile at whoever approaches and interacts with him. He will even smile at whoever approaches and interacts with him. He will even
smile at a very crude, oval-shaped piece of cardboard with two smile at a very crude, oval-shaped piece of cardboard with two
black dots painted as eyes (Ahrens, 1954). black dots painted as eyes (Ahrens, 1954).

In the second part of the first year of the infant’s life a dramatic In the second part of the first year of the infant’s life a dramatic
change takes place in how readily they smile at a stranger’s face. change takes place in how readily they smile at a stranger’s face.
Spitz clearly demonstrated this change. Spitz clearly demonstrated this change.

Age of children Number of % smiling at Age of children Number of % smiling at


children strange face children strange face
0 - 20 days 54 0 0 - 20 days 54 0
21 days - 2 months 144 2 21 days - 2 months 144 2
2 months - 6 months 145 98 2 months - 6 months 145 98
6 months - 12 months 147 3 6 months - 12 months 147 3

This change in the infants’ social behaviour is clearly related to This change in the infants’ social behaviour is clearly related to
their development of specific attachments, as we’ll see in the next their development of specific attachments, as we’ll see in the next
unit. unit.

It’s important to note that cross-cultural studies have noted It’s important to note that cross-cultural studies have noted
similar types of behaviour in children throughout the world. similar types of behaviour in children throughout the world.

Self- Give a definition of what you understand by cross-cultural Self- Give a definition of what you understand by cross-cultural
Assessment studies. Assessment studies.
Test 4 Test 4

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Child Psychology Child Psychology

Summary Check now that you feel able to: Summary Check now that you feel able to:

• distinguish between ‘innate’ and ‘learned’ approaches to • distinguish between ‘innate’ and ‘learned’ approaches to
development development

• appreciate that there are few clear cut answers in • appreciate that there are few clear cut answers in
psychology psychology

• describe and discuss physiological and psychological • describe and discuss physiological and psychological
innate reflexes innate reflexes

• quote psychological evidence to demonstrate individual • quote psychological evidence to demonstrate individual
differences in newborn infants differences in newborn infants

• identify evidence for early social behaviours and how these • identify evidence for early social behaviours and how these
change during the first year of life change during the first year of life

• define cross-cultural studies • define cross-cultural studies

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Suggested Answers to Self-Assessment Tests Suggested Answers to Self-Assessment Tests

Test One Test One


In this debate there are two beliefs: In this debate there are two beliefs:

Nativists - who believe that behaviour patterns are inborn. Nativists - who believe that behaviour patterns are inborn.

Empiricists - who believe that behaviour is learned. Empiricists - who believe that behaviour is learned.

Test Two Test Two


One of the most important functions of reflexes is protection. One of the most important functions of reflexes is protection.
They protect the body from, for example, choking or potentially They protect the body from, for example, choking or potentially
harmful stimuli to the eyes. harmful stimuli to the eyes.

Test Three Test Three


Macfarlane concluded that infants could demonstrate their Macfarlane concluded that infants could demonstrate their
recognition of their mothers by smell alone by the age of just ten recognition of their mothers by smell alone by the age of just ten
days. days.

Try to get used to drawing conclusions from studies such as this. Try to get used to drawing conclusions from studies such as this.
This is a skill which will be assessed in the exam. This is a skill which will be assessed in the exam.

Test Four Test Four

Cross-cultural studies compare the same aspect of behaviour (in Cross-cultural studies compare the same aspect of behaviour (in
this case smiling during the first year of life), in totally different this case smiling during the first year of life), in totally different
societies. societies.

The comparative nature of these studies is most important. The comparative nature of these studies is most important.

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Child Psychology Child Psychology

Unit Two
The Formation of Unit Two
The Formation of
Attachments Attachments

Aims The aim of this unit is to enable you to: Aims The aim of this unit is to enable you to:

• define and describe imprinting • define and describe imprinting

• discuss attachment and the factors necessary to bring about • discuss attachment and the factors necessary to bring about
attachment attachment

• consider the relevance of animal studies to the study of • consider the relevance of animal studies to the study of
human attachment, with particular reference to Harlow human attachment, with particular reference to Harlow

Context Now that we’ve begun to consider that strange jungle we’ve all Context Now that we’ve begun to consider that strange jungle we’ve all
been through, the first year of life, we will look at one of the most been through, the first year of life, we will look at one of the most
important experiences of all, the formation of attachments. Why important experiences of all, the formation of attachments. Why
and how this happens is a subject which has always fascinated and how this happens is a subject which has always fascinated
psychologists. In the following unit we will consider what psychologists. In the following unit we will consider what
happens when such attachments break down. happens when such attachments break down.

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Introduction Introduction
We have seen in Unit One that towards the end of the first year of We have seen in Unit One that towards the end of the first year of
life infants clearly distinguish between known and unknown people life infants clearly distinguish between known and unknown people
and begin to form attachments to certain individuals. In this unit we and begin to form attachments to certain individuals. In this unit we
shall be looking at the nature and causes of this attachment. To shall be looking at the nature and causes of this attachment. To
begin with, we will examine a particular mechanism for attachment begin with, we will examine a particular mechanism for attachment
behaviour found in animals, known as imprinting. behaviour found in animals, known as imprinting.

Imprinting Imprinting
Konrad Lorenz, an Austrian ethologist (a scientist who studies Konrad Lorenz, an Austrian ethologist (a scientist who studies
animals in their natural environment) was one of the first to study animals in their natural environment) was one of the first to study
this aspect of animal behaviour. Imprinting refers to an inbuilt this aspect of animal behaviour. Imprinting refers to an inbuilt
tendency for a young animal to follow a moving object with which it tendency for a young animal to follow a moving object with which it
forms an attachment. forms an attachment.

Lorenz conducted his original observations with greylag goslings Lorenz conducted his original observations with greylag goslings
who were reared from the egg by human keepers and did not mix who were reared from the egg by human keepers and did not mix
with any other geese. He noted that they followed after human with any other geese. He noted that they followed after human
beings in the way that goslings normally follow their parents. Also, beings in the way that goslings normally follow their parents. Also,
once these goslings became sexually mature they directed their once these goslings became sexually mature they directed their
sexual approaches to humans rather than to other greylag geese. sexual approaches to humans rather than to other greylag geese.

The greylag gosling appears to be imprinted to the first fairly large The greylag gosling appears to be imprinted to the first fairly large
moving object that it sees. This process seems to be confined to a moving object that it sees. This process seems to be confined to a
very definite period of life and to require only a brief exposure. very definite period of life and to require only a brief exposure.
Greylags imprinted to Lorenz followed him about and peeped in Greylags imprinted to Lorenz followed him about and peeped in
distress when he moved away. Such a gosling placed with its own distress when he moved away. Such a gosling placed with its own
parents and in a brood that was following the parents in the normal parents and in a brood that was following the parents in the normal
way, showed no tendency to stay with the parents and brood but way, showed no tendency to stay with the parents and brood but
ran off to Lorenz or any other passing human. Further research ran off to Lorenz or any other passing human. Further research
has shown that imprinting occurs in many bird species, in some has shown that imprinting occurs in many bird species, in some
insects and fishes and in some mammals such as sheep and deer. insects and fishes and in some mammals such as sheep and deer.

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Self- Supply the missing word for the third box in the flow diagram Self- Supply the missing word for the third box in the flow diagram
Assessment below: Assessment below:
Test 1 Test 1

Hatching Following first fairly ? Hatching Following first fairly ?


large moving object -------------- large moving object --------------

Human Attachment Human Attachment


Although imprinting probably does not occur in human infants, it is Although imprinting probably does not occur in human infants, it is
undoubtedly the case that babies do form close relationships with undoubtedly the case that babies do form close relationships with
others. From the second or third month on, the infant behaves others. From the second or third month on, the infant behaves
differently with his mother than with others. For example, he may differently with his mother than with others. For example, he may
smile and vocalise with her more readily, constantly follow her smile and vocalise with her more readily, constantly follow her
movements and quieten sooner when picked up by her after movements and quieten sooner when picked up by her after
crying. Clearly the infant can now recognise his mother. crying. Clearly the infant can now recognise his mother.

Bowlby suggests that the infant possesses a number of inborn Bowlby suggests that the infant possesses a number of inborn
behaviour patterns, such as following, clinging, sucking, smiling behaviour patterns, such as following, clinging, sucking, smiling
and crying, which serve to bind the child to his mother from the and crying, which serve to bind the child to his mother from the
beginning. He calls this attachment behaviour. This can be defined beginning. He calls this attachment behaviour. This can be defined
generally as the tendency for the infant to seek the closeness or generally as the tendency for the infant to seek the closeness or
proximity of certain others and feel more secure in their presence. proximity of certain others and feel more secure in their presence.
It is still widely debated whether this need to seek the proximity of It is still widely debated whether this need to seek the proximity of
others is in fact innate or not. others is in fact innate or not.

It’s important to distinguish between attachment and attachment It’s important to distinguish between attachment and attachment
behaviours. behaviours.

Attachment is the child’s enduring tendency to prefer a particular Attachment is the child’s enduring tendency to prefer a particular
person whereas attachment behaviours are the specific person whereas attachment behaviours are the specific
behaviours which the child displays in order to maintain their behaviours which the child displays in order to maintain their
proximity to this particular person. proximity to this particular person.

There is a clear evolutionary significance to attachment There is a clear evolutionary significance to attachment
behaviours. In the past it was always necessary for infants to behaviours. In the past it was always necessary for infants to
remain close to their mothers in order to enable them to survive. It remain close to their mothers in order to enable them to survive. It
was because separation was such a potentially life – threatening was because separation was such a potentially life – threatening
situation that it was such a traumatic and frightening experience. situation that it was such a traumatic and frightening experience.

Just the ability to recognise the mother is apparently not sufficient Just the ability to recognise the mother is apparently not sufficient
to constitute the formation of an attachment bond as Schaffer and to constitute the formation of an attachment bond as Schaffer and
Callender demonstrated when examining the reaction of infants to Callender demonstrated when examining the reaction of infants to

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hospitalisation. They found that infants did not protest at being hospitalisation. They found that infants did not protest at being
separated from their mothers until approximately 7 months of age separated from their mothers until approximately 7 months of age
– long after they were able to recognise her. – long after they were able to recognise her.

Self- (a) What is meant by the term ‘attachment’? Self- (a) What is meant by the term ‘attachment’?
Assessment Assessment
Test 2 (b) Who was chiefly responsible for the popularisation of this Test 2 (b) Who was chiefly responsible for the popularisation of this
term? term?

(a) (a)

(b) (b)

Factors Necessary for Attachment Behaviour Factors Necessary for Attachment Behaviour
An important factor involved in the formation of attachments An important factor involved in the formation of attachments
appears to be that the child realises that objects exist when he can appears to be that the child realises that objects exist when he can
no longer see them. Up to the age of 6 months or so when an no longer see them. Up to the age of 6 months or so when an
object drops out of the sight of an infant he makes no attempts to object drops out of the sight of an infant he makes no attempts to
look for it. look for it.

By the age of 8 or 9 months a child will look to see what has By the age of 8 or 9 months a child will look to see what has
happened to the toy that has fallen out of his sight and (s)he will happened to the toy that has fallen out of his sight and (s)he will
realise that the toy that is covered by a cloth is still really there and realise that the toy that is covered by a cloth is still really there and
has not ceased to exist. This marks an important stage in has not ceased to exist. This marks an important stage in
development and is called object conservation or object development and is called object conservation or object
permanence by the Swiss psychologist, Jean Piaget. permanence by the Swiss psychologist, Jean Piaget.

Before an infant understands object permanence (s)he will reach Before an infant understands object permanence (s)he will reach
for an object (s)he can see and ignore it when it disappears from for an object (s)he can see and ignore it when it disappears from
view. view.

Separation protests tend to start occurring at approximately the Separation protests tend to start occurring at approximately the
same time as the infant acquires the ability of object conservation. same time as the infant acquires the ability of object conservation.
It appears he realises that the person to whom he seeks proximity It appears he realises that the person to whom he seeks proximity
has a separate existence and thus separation protests occur when has a separate existence and thus separation protests occur when
the attachment figure is no longer with the child. It seems that, the attachment figure is no longer with the child. It seems that,
generally, a child forms specific attachments during the third generally, a child forms specific attachments during the third
quarter of the first year. quarter of the first year.

It is important to note that although many researchers have placed It is important to note that although many researchers have placed
emphasis on the infant forming one close attachment with the emphasis on the infant forming one close attachment with the
mother, this need not necessarily be the case. Schaffer and mother, this need not necessarily be the case. Schaffer and
Emerson (1964) found that a substantial minority of their subjects Emerson (1964) found that a substantial minority of their subjects
formed several attachments, with the father being an important formed several attachments, with the father being an important

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one of these, also siblings. We’ll return to this issue again in Unit one of these, also siblings. We’ll return to this issue again in Unit
Four. Four.

Activity 1 If you have any contact with infants up to the age of 8 or 9 Activity 1 If you have any contact with infants up to the age of 8 or 9
months, try catching their interest with a small toy and then months, try catching their interest with a small toy and then
cover it and observe their reactions. Note their age and whether cover it and observe their reactions. Note their age and whether
they have the ability of object conservation. they have the ability of object conservation.

Self- What is meant by the term ‘object permanence’? Self- What is meant by the term ‘object permanence’?
Assessment Assessment
Test 3 Test 3

Secure and Insecure Attachment Secure and Insecure Attachment


Ainsworth has distinguished between infants who are securely Ainsworth has distinguished between infants who are securely
attached and those who are insecurely attached. The basic attached and those who are insecurely attached. The basic
difference between the mothers of these two different types of difference between the mothers of these two different types of
infants was their sensitivity. By this Ainsworth means the extent infants was their sensitivity. By this Ainsworth means the extent
to which the mother could detect her infant’s signals, interpret to which the mother could detect her infant’s signals, interpret
them correctly and respond promptly and appropriately. them correctly and respond promptly and appropriately.

The need to be securely attached appears to be of significant The need to be securely attached appears to be of significant
importance since security of attachment in infancy is a good importance since security of attachment in infancy is a good
predictor of later emotional and social adjustment. predictor of later emotional and social adjustment.

Attachment Across the World Attachment Across the World


The widespread existence of attachment behaviour has been The widespread existence of attachment behaviour has been
shown in many different studies conducted in countries and shown in many different studies conducted in countries and
cultures as far apart as Scotland and Africa. cultures as far apart as Scotland and Africa.

Schaffer and Emerson (1964) followed the progress of 60 Schaffer and Emerson (1964) followed the progress of 60
Scottish infants from a few weeks old to 18 months. They noted Scottish infants from a few weeks old to 18 months. They noted
the responses of the infants to being left alone by their mother in the responses of the infants to being left alone by their mother in

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several situations, for example being left alone in a room or being several situations, for example being left alone in a room or being
put down after being held. They found that at the age of about 7 put down after being held. They found that at the age of about 7
months specific attachments emerged which became more months specific attachments emerged which became more
intense during the following 3 or 4 months. However, they also intense during the following 3 or 4 months. However, they also
noted pronounced individual differences. One infant displayed noted pronounced individual differences. One infant displayed
attachment behaviour as early as 22 weeks old, whereas 2 of the attachment behaviour as early as 22 weeks old, whereas 2 of the
infants did not exhibit such specific behaviour until after their first infants did not exhibit such specific behaviour until after their first
birthday. birthday.

During the course of this study, Schaffer and Emerson found it During the course of this study, Schaffer and Emerson found it
possible to identify some of the variables which were related to the possible to identify some of the variables which were related to the
intensity of an infant’s attachments. intensity of an infant’s attachments.

1. The degree to which the mother was ready to attend to her 1. The degree to which the mother was ready to attend to her
infant’s crying by picking him up and attending to him infant’s crying by picking him up and attending to him
immediately. immediately.

2. The amount of time and attention the mother gave her infant 2. The amount of time and attention the mother gave her infant
besides the routine caretaking activities. besides the routine caretaking activities.

This is clearly echoing Ainsworth’s remarks regarding the need for This is clearly echoing Ainsworth’s remarks regarding the need for
sensitivity to ensure secure attachment. sensitivity to ensure secure attachment.

Mary Ainsworth conducted a cross-cultural study into the Mary Ainsworth conducted a cross-cultural study into the
development of attachment behaviour among the Ganda people of development of attachment behaviour among the Ganda people of
Uganda in East Africa and Americans. This was a longitudinal Uganda in East Africa and Americans. This was a longitudinal
study conducted over 9 months of 28 babies aged between 0 and study conducted over 9 months of 28 babies aged between 0 and
24 months. She found that crying and attempts to follow the 24 months. She found that crying and attempts to follow the
mother occurred in one infant as early as 15 and 17 weeks mother occurred in one infant as early as 15 and 17 weeks
respectively. respectively.

Ainsworth noted that both sorts of behaviour were common by 6 Ainsworth noted that both sorts of behaviour were common by 6
months of age amongst the Ganda children. All but 4 of the infants months of age amongst the Ganda children. All but 4 of the infants
attempted to follow their mother as soon as they could crawl. attempted to follow their mother as soon as they could crawl.

It would appear that attachment behaviour exists across many It would appear that attachment behaviour exists across many
different cultures. It is also relevant to the study of adults as well different cultures. It is also relevant to the study of adults as well
as children, as Bartholomew (1993) has shown. Bartholomew as children, as Bartholomew (1993) has shown. Bartholomew
gathered evidence that adults also feel a desire for closeness with gathered evidence that adults also feel a desire for closeness with
an attachment figure, especially under stressful conditions, and a an attachment figure, especially under stressful conditions, and a
sense of security derived from that attachment. sense of security derived from that attachment.

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