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New Directions in Civil Engineering
Series Editor
Hawaii University

Published Titles
Advanced Analysis of Steel Frames: Theory, Software, and Applications
W.F. Chen and Shouji Toma
Analysis and Software of Cylindrical Members
W.F. Chen and Shouji Toma
Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems for Engineers
C.S. Krishnamoorthy and S. Rajeev
Cold Weather Concreting
Boris A. Krylov
Concrete Beams with Openings: Analysis and Design
M.A. Mansur and Kiang-Hwee Tan
Concrete Buildings: Analysis for Safe Construction
W.F. Chen and K.H. Mosallam
Flexural-Torsional Buckling of Structures
N.S. Trahair
Flood Frequency Analysis
Ramachandro A. Rao and Khaled Hamed
Fracture Processes of Concrete
Jan G.M. van Mier
Fracture and Size Effect in Concrete and Other Quasibrittle Materials

Zdenek P. Bazant and Jaime Planas
Introduction to Environmental Geotechnology
Hsai-Yang Fang
Limit Analysis and Concrete Plasticity
M.P. Nielsen
LRFD Steel Design Using Advanced Analysis
W.F. Chen and Seung-Eock Kim
Response Spectrum Method in Seismic Analysis and Design of Structures
Ajaya Kumar Gupta
Simulation-Based Reliability Assessment for Structural Engineers
Pavel Marek, Milan Gustar, and Thalia Anagnos
Stability Design of Steel Frames
W.F. Chen and E.M. Lui
Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures under Cyclic Loading
Yuhshi Fukumoto and George C. Lee
The Finite Strip Method
Y.K. Cheung and L.G. Tham
Theory of Adaptive Structures: Incorporating Intelligence into
Engineered Products
Senol Utku
Unified Theory of Reinforced Concrete
Thomas T.C. Hsu
Water Treatment Processes: Simple Options
S. Vigneswaran and C. Visvanathan
Forthcoming Titles
Earthquake Engineering Handbook
W.F. Chen and Charles Scawthorn
Transportation Systems Planning: Methods and Applications
Konstandinos Goulias

Wai-Fah Chen
Charles Scawthorn

Boca Raton London New York Washington, D.C.
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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Earthquake engineering handbook / edited by Wai-Fah Chen, Charles Scawthorn.

p. cm.(New directions in civil engineering)
Includes bibliographical references and index.
ISBN 0-8493-0068-1 (alk. paper)
1. Earthquake engineeringHandbooks, manuals, etc. I. Chen, Wai-Fah, 1936- II.
Scawthorn, Charles, III. Series.

TA654.6 .E374 2002

624.1'762dc21 2002073647

This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reprinted material is quoted with
permission, and sources are indicated. A wide variety of references are listed. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish
reliable data and information, but the authors and the publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials
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2003 by CRC Press LLC

Information contained in this work has been obtained from sources believed to be reliable. ICBO, NCSEA, or their
memberships shall not be responsible for any errors, omissions, or damages arising out of this information. This work is
published with the understanding that ICBO and NCSEA, as copublishers, are supplying information but are not attempting
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No claim to original U.S. Government works

International Standard Book Number 0-8493-0068-1
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Printed on acid-free paper
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The International Conference of Building Officials (ICBO) is proud to join CRC Press to co-publish
the Earthquake Engineering Handbook. Known internationally for its development and publication of the
Uniform Building Code (UBC), ICBOs reputation as a leader in seismic codes traces its origin back
to 1927 with its release of the nations first complete model building code. The Earthquake Engineering
Handbook is not only timely, reflecting the most recent research in earthquake engineering, but also
comprehensive, covering more than 30 topics. Written by a panel of internationally known experts, the
Handbook provides applications and practical information to help solve real-world problems faced by
civil, structural, geotechnical, and environmental engineers. The Handbook also serves as an excellent
resource for researchers and students wishing to extend their knowledge of earthquake engineering.
Editors Wai-Fah Chen, and Charles Scawthorn have done a masterful job of assembling a blue ribbon
panel of authors from both academic and professional engineering communities. The result is a book
that more than lives up to the reputation of the long and outstanding line of engineering handbooks
from CRC Press. The Earthquake Engineering Handbook does not just review standard practices, but also
brings readers quickly up to date on new approaches and innovative techniques.
CRC Press and ICBO would like to thank the National Council of Structural Engineers Associations
(NCSEA) for co-sponsoring this Handbook. NCSEA was founded for the purpose of improving the level
of standard practice for the structural engineering profession throughout the United States and to
represent the profession on a national level.
Mark A. Johnson
Director of Publications and
Product Development, ICBO

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The Handbook of Earthquake Engineering is a comprehensive reference and resource work covering the
spectrum of disciplines required for mitigation of earthquake effects and design of earthquake-resistant
structures. It has been written with the practitioner in mind. The focus is on a graduate engineer with
a need for a single reference source to keep abreast of new techniques and practices, as well as review
standard practices.
Earthquake engineering requires first of all knowledge of the geologic causes of, and expected shaking,
liquefaction, and other effects that result from, a strong earthquake. It also requires a good understanding
of the impacts these natural effects have on humankind, ranging from our buildings and other structures
to the entire built and even social environment. In this regard, earthquakes are an almost unique natural
phenomenon, in that they affect virtually everything within a region even to furnishings within a
building, and underground structures.
To this end, the Handbook is divided into five parts. Initially, Part I reviews the basic problem of
earthquakes from a historical perspective, provides an overview of the framework within which earth-
quake risk is managed and an introduction to dynamics, since earthquakes are most fundamentally a
dynamic process and problem. Part II of the Handbook addresses the geoscience aspects, covering geology,
tectonics, liquefaction and tsunamis, focusing especially on earthquake strong ground motion.
Parts III and IV cover the broad spectrum of structures, from buildings built of steel, concrete, wood
and masonry, to special structures such as bridges and equipment, to the variety of infrastructure called
lifelines that is, the water, power, transportation and other systems and components without which
modern urban society cannot function. Earthquake structural engineering in the last decade has also
seen a burst of new technology intended to avoid rather than resist the forces of earthquakes. These
topics, base isolation and structural control, are also included.
Because earthquakes affect not only the built but also the social environment, in all its aspects, Part
V addresses special topics that the earthquake engineer must be cognizant of, if not indeed be expert in.
An important aspect of this is the social and economic impacts of earthquakes, which in recent years
have assumed increasing importance.
We wish to thank all the authors for their contributions and also to acknowledge the support of
CRC Press.
Wai-Fah Chen
Charles Scawthorn

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Wai-Fah Chen is presently Dean of the College of Engineering at the

University of Hawaii. He was a George E. Goodwin Distinguished
Professor of Civil Engineering and Head of the Department of Struc-
tural Engineering at Purdue University from 1976 to 1999.
He received his B.S. in civil engineering from the National Cheng-
Kung University, Taiwan, in 1959, M.S. in structural engineering from
Lehigh University, Pennsylvania, in 1963, and Ph.D. in solid mechan-
ics from Brown University, Rhode Island, in 1966. He received the
Distinguished Alumnus Award from the National Cheng-Kung Uni-
versity in 1988 and the Distinguished Engineering Alumnus Medal
from Brown University in 1999.
Dr. Chens research interests cover several areas, including consti-
tutive modeling of engineering materials, soil and concrete plasticity,
structural connections, and structural stability. He is the recipient of
several national engineering awards, including the Raymond Reese
Research Prize and the Shortridge Hardesty Award, both from the
American Society of Civil Engineers, and the T. R. Higgins Lectureship Award from the American Institute
of Steel Construction. In 1995, he was elected to the U.S. National Academy of Engineering. In 1997, he
was awarded Honorary Membership by the American Society of Civil Engineers. In 1998, he was elected
to the Academia Sinica (National Academy of Science) in Taiwan.
A widely respected author, Dr. Chen authored and coauthored more than 20 engineering books and
500 technical papers. His books include several classical works such as Limit Analysis and Soil Plasticity
(Elsevier, 1975), the two-volume Theory of Beam-Columns (McGraw-Hill, 197677), Plasticity in Rein-
forced Concrete (McGraw-Hill, 1982), and the two-volume Constitutive Equations for Engineering Materials
(Elsevier, 1994). He currently serves on the editorial boards of more than 10 technical journals. He has
been listed in more than 20 Whos Who publications.
Dr. Chen is the editor-in-chief for the popular 1995 Civil Engineering Handbook, the 1997 Handbook
of Structural Engineering, and the 1999 Bridge Engineering Handbook. He currently serves as the consulting
editor for McGraw-Hills Encyclopedia of Science and Technology.
He has been a longtime member of the Executive Committee of the Structural Stability Research
Council and the Specification Committee of the American Institute of Steel Construction. He has been
a consultant for Exxon Production Research on offshore structures, for Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill
in Chicago on tall steel buildings, and for the World Bank on the Chinese University Development
Projects, among many others.
Dr. Chen has taught at Lehigh University, Purdue University, and the University of Hawaii.

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Charles Scawthorn is a Senior Vice President with an international

risk consulting firm. He received his Bachelor of Engineering from
The Cooper Union for the Advancement of Science and Art, New
York; M.S. in structural engineering from Lehigh University, Bethle-
hem, Pennsylvania; and Doctor of Engineering in seismic risk analysis
from Kyoto University, Kyoto, Japan.
In more than 30 years of practice, Dr. Scawthorn has designed and
analyzed buildings and industrial structures and engaged in planning
projects and research in the United States and internationally. These
projects have included structural design of high-rise buildings, off-
shore platforms, and critical facilities such as LNG plants and data
processing and emergency operating centers. These activities have
progressed from the assessment of individual structure risk to that of
complex systems risk and the development of integrated risk reduc-
tion programs. Dr. Scawthorn has assessed organizational and com-
munity risk due to earthquake and other hazards for the Federal Emergency Management Agency
(FEMA), the Office of Emergency Services, and other agencies in the United States, and for national
governments and the World Bank internationally. These projects have ranged from analysis of portfolio
risks for multinational corporations and insurance companies, and regional loss assessments for govern-
ment, to analysis of enterprise-wide risk for multinationals, and design of national insurance programs.
These projects have ranged across the United States, Mid-East, Far East, and Europe.
Under funding from the National Science Foundation, the U.S. Geological Survey, FEMA and the
insurance industry, Dr. Scawthorn has developed innovative approaches for the analysis of fires following
earthquakes, optimizing urban land use with respect to natural hazards risk, and seismically reinforcing
low-strength masonry buildings. Much of his decision-oriented and emergency management work on
the spread and mitigation of fires following earthquakes has been performed in conjunction with fire
departments in California, particularly San Francisco. He has been a principal in the development of
techniques for the rapid assessment of seismic vulnerability, is the original author of the EQEHAZARDTM
software for seismic risk assessment, and was technical lead on the development of a national Flood Loss
Estimation Model for HAZUS, for the National Institute of Building Sciences and FEMA. Dr. Scawthorn
has investigated natural disasters in the United States, Canada, Mexico, Japan, Turkey, and the former
Soviet Union.
Dr. Scawthorn is a Fellow of the American Society of Civil Engineers and a member of various other
professional organizations. He has served on the Scientific Advisory Committee of the National Center
for Earthquake Engineering Research, received the Applied Technology Councils Award of Excellence
for Extraordinary Achievement in Seismic Evaluation of Buildings, and is on the Editorial Board of
Engineering Structures and the Natural Hazards Review (ASCE). He is the author of over 100 technical
papers as well as a contributor to the McGraw-Hill Yearbook of Science and Technology.

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Jorma K. Arros Lian Duan James J. Johnson

ABS Consulting California Department of James J. Johnson and Associates
Oakland, California Transportation Alamo, California
Sacramento, California
Donald B. Ballantyne Mahmoud Khater
ABS Consulting Eser Durukal ABS Consulting
Seattle, Washington University
Bogacizi Oakland, California
Kandilli Observatory
Horst G. Brandes Istanbul, Turkey
Richard E. Klingner
Department of Civil Department of Civil
Engineering Ronald T. Eguchi Engineering
University of Hawaii ImageCat, Inc. The University of Texas
Honolulu, Hawaii Long Beach, California Austin, Texas

Gilles J. Bureau Mustafa Erdik

Consulting Engineer University
Bogacizi Howard Kunreuther
Piedmont, California Kandilli Observatory Wharton School
Istanbul, Turkey University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Kenneth W. Campbell
ABS Consulting and EQECAT, Inc. Ronald O. Hamburger
Portland, Oregon Simpson Gumpertz & Heger, Inc. David L. McCormick
San Francisco, California ABS Consulting
Kuo-Chun Chang Oakland, California
Department of Civil Engineering Susumu Iai
National Taiwan University Port and Airport Research Y. L. Mo
Taiwan, China Institute Department of Civil and
Yokosuka, Japan Environmental Engineering
Wai-Fah Chen University of Houston
University of Hawaii Hirokazu Iemura Houston, Texas
Honolulu, Hawaii Graduate School of Civil
Niaz A. Nazir
J. Daniel Dolan Department of Civil Engineering
DeSimone Consulting Engineers
Brooks Forest Product Research Systems
San Francisco, California
Center Kyoto University
Department of Wood Science and Kyoto, Japan
Forest Products Michael J. ORourke
Virginia Polytechnic Institute and Gayle S. Johnson Department of Civil Engineering
State University Han-Padron Associates Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute
Blacksburg, Virginia Oakland, California Troy, New York

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Keith A. Porter Hope A. Seligson Yeong-Bin Yang

Civil Engineering Department ABS Consulting Department of Civil Engineering
California Institute of Technology Irvine, California National Taiwan University
Pasadena, California Taiwan, China
Guna Selvaduray
Mulyo Harris Pradono Materials Engineering Jong-Dar Yau
Structural Dynamics Department Department of Architecture and
Laboratory San Jose State University Building Technology
Department of Civil Engineering San Jose, California Tamkang University
Systems Taiwan, China
Kyoto University
Kyoto, Japan Kimberly I. Shoaf
School of Public Health
University of California at
Richard Roth, Jr. Los Angeles
Consulting Casualty Actuary Los Angeles, California
Huntington Beach, California

Costas Synolakis
Charles Scawthorn Department of Civil Engineering
Consulting Engineer University of Southern California
Berkeley, California Los Angeles, California

Anschel J. Schiff Paul C. Thenhaus

Stanford University ABS Consulting
Stanford, California Evergreen, Colorado

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SECTION I Fundamentals

1 Earthquakes: A Historical Perspective Charles Scawthorn

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Review of Historical Earthquakes

2 Earthquake Risk Management: An Overview Charles Scawthorn

2.1 Introduction
2.2 Overview of Earthquake Risk
2.3 Identifying the Assets at Risk
2.4 Earthquake Hazard
2.5 Earthquake Damage and Loss
2.6 Mitigation Alternatives
2.7 Earthquake Risk Management Decision-Making
2.8 Earthquake Risk Management Program
2.9 Summary

3 Dynamics of Structures Jorma K. Arros

3.1 Introduction
3.2 Single-Degree-of-Freedom System
3.3 Multidegree-of-Freedom Systems

SECTION II Geoscience Aspects

4 Earthquakes: Seismogenesis, Measurement, and Distribution Charles Scawthorn

4.1 Introduction
4.2 Causes of Earthquakes and Faulting
4.3 Measurement of Earthquakes
4.4 Global Distribution of Earthquakes
4.5 Characterization of Seismicity

5 Engineering Models of Strong Ground Motion Kenneth W. Campbell

5.1 Introduction
5.2 The Attenuation Relation

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5.3 Model Parameters

5.4 Statistical Methods
5.5 Theoretical Methods
5.6 Engineering Models
5.7 Engineering Evaluation

6 Simulation Modeling of Strong Ground Motion Mustafa Erdik and Eser Durukal
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Earthquake Source Models
6.3 Time Domain Characteristics of Strong Ground Motion
6.4 Frequency Domain Characteristics of Strong Ground Motion
6.5 Radiation Pattern and Directivity
6.6 Simulation of Strong Ground Motion

7 Geotechnical and Foundation Aspects Horst G. Brandes

7.1 Introduction
7.2 Seismic Hazards
7.3 Strong Ground Motion
7.4 Dynamic Soil Behavior
7.5 Liquefaction
7.6 Seismic Analysis of Slopes and Dams
7.7 Earthquake-Resistant Design of Retaining Walls
7.8 Soil Remediation Techniques for Mitigation of Seismic Hazards

8 Seismic Hazard Analysis Paul C. Thenhaus and Kenneth W. Campbell

8.1 Introduction
8.2 Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Methodology
8.3 Constituent Models of the Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Methodology
8.4 Definition of Seismic Sources
8.5 Earthquake Frequency Assessments
8.6 Maximum Magnitude Assessments
8.7 Ground Motion Attenuation Relationships
8.8 Accounting for Uncertainties
8.9 Typical Engineering Products of PSHA
8.10 PSHA Disaggregation
8.11 PSHA Case Study
8.12 The Owen Fracture ZoneMurray Ridge Complex
8.13 Makran Subduction Zone
8.14 Southwestern India and Southern Pakistan
8.15 Southeastern Arabian Peninsula and Northern Arabian Sea
8.16 Ground Motion Models
8.17 Soil Amplification Factors
8.18 Results

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8.19 Conclusions
8.20 PSHA Computer Codes

9 Tsunami and Seiche Costas Synolakis

9.1 Introduction
9.2 Tsunamis vs. Wind Waves
9.3 Tectonic Tsunami Sources
9.4 Initial Waves Generated by Submarine Landslides
9.5 Exact Solutions of the Shallow-Water (SW) Equations
9.6 Numerical Solutions for Calculating Tsunami Inundation
9.7 Harbor and Basin Oscillations
9.8 Tsunami Forces
9.9 Producing Inundation Maps

10 SoilStructure Interaction James J. Johnson

10.1 SoilStructure Interaction: Statement of the Problem
10.2 Specification of the Free-Field Ground Motion
10.3 Modeling of the Soil
10.4 SoilStructure Interaction Analysis
10.5 SoilStructure Interaction Response

SECTION III Structural Aspects

11 Building Code Provisions for Seismic Resistance Ronald O. Hamburger

11.1 Introduction
11.2 Historical Development
11.3 2000 NEHRP Recommended Provisions
11.4 Performance-Based Design Codes

12 Seismic Design of Steel Structures Ronald O. Hamburger and Niaz A. Nazir

12.1 Introduction
12.2 Historic Development and Performance of Steel Structures
12.3 Steel Making and Steel Material
12.4 Structural Systems
12.5 Unbraced Frames
Appendix A: Design Procedure for a Typical Reduced Beam Section-Type Connection

13 Reinforced Concrete Structures Y. L. Mo

13.1 Introduction
13.2 Basic Concepts

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13.3 Seismic Behavior

13.4 Analytical Models
13.5 Seismic Design
13.6 Seismic Retrofit

14 Precast and Tilt-Up Buildings Charles Scawthorn and David L. McCormick

14.1 Introduction
14.2 Precast and Tilt-Up Buildings
14.3 Performance of Precast and Tilt-Up Buildings in Earthquakes
14.4 Code Provisions for Precast and Tilt-Up Buildings
14.5 Seismic Evaluation and Rehabilitation of Tilt-Up Buildings

15 Wood Structures J. Daniel Dolan

15.1 Introduction
15.2 Wood As a Material
15.3 Seismic Performance of Wood Buildings
15.4 Design Considerations
15.5 Resistance Determination
15.6 Diaphragms
15.7 Shear Walls
15.8 Connections

16 Seismic Behavior, Design, and Retrofitting of Masonry Richard E. Klingner

16.1 Introduction
16.2 Masonry in the United States
16.3 Performance of Masonry in U.S. Earthquakes
16.4 Fundamental Basis for Seismic Design of Masonry in the United States
16.5 Masonry Design Codes Used in the United States
16.6 Analysis Approaches for Modern U.S. Masonry
16.7 Seismic Retrofitting of Historical Masonry in the United States

17 Base Isolation Yeong-Bin Yang, Kuo-Chun Chang, and Jong-Dar Yau

17.1 Introduction
17.2 Philosophy behind Seismic Isolation Systems
17.3 Basic Requirements of Seismic Isolation Systems
17.4 Design Criteria for Isolation Devices
17.5 Design of High Damping Rubber Bearings
17.6 Design of Lead Rubber Bearings
17.7 Design of Friction Pendulum Systems
17.8 Design Examples
17.9 Concluding Remarks

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18 Bridges Lian Duan and Wai-Fah Chen

18.1 Introduction
18.2 Earthquake Damages to Bridges
18.3 Seismic Design Philosophies
18.4 Seismic Conceptual Design
18.5 Seismic Performance Criteria
18.6 Seismic Design Approaches
18.7 Seismic Analysis and Modeling
18.8 Seismic Detailing Requirements

19 Structural Control Hirokazu Iemura and Mulyo Harris Pradono

19.1 Introduction
19.2 Structural Control Concepts
19.3 Structural Control Hardware and Software
19.4 Examples of the Application of Semiactive Control
19.5 Concluding Remarks

20 Equipment and Systems Gayle S. Johnson

20.1 Introduction
20.2 Importance of Equipment Seismic Functionality
20.3 Historical Performance
20.4 Design Practices
20.5 Code Provisions
20.6 Assessment of Existing Facilities
20.7 Nonstructural Damage

21 Seismic Vulnerability Keith A. Porter

21.1 Introduction
21.2 Method 1: Statistical Approach
21.3 Method 2: Expert Opinion
21.4 Analytical Methods: General
21.5 Validation of Vulnerability Functions
21.6 Catalog of Vulnerability Functions
21.7 Uses of Vulnerability Functions
21.8 Closing Remarks

SECTION IV Infrastructure Aspects

22 Lifeline Seismic Risk Ronald T. Eguchi

22.1 Introduction
22.2 Brief History of Lifeline Earthquake Engineering in the United States

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22.3 Nonlinearity of Earthquakes

22.4 Indirect Economic Losses
22.5 Cost-Effective Mitigation Strategies
22.6 Federal and Industry Lifeline Initiatives
22.7 Lifeline Seismic Risk

23 Buried Pipelines Michael J. ORourke

23.1 Introduction
23.2 Pipeline Performance in Past Earthquakes
23.3 PGD Hazard Quantification
23.4 Wave Propagation Hazard Quantification
23.5 Pipe Failure Modes and Failure Criterion
23.6 Pipeline Response to Faulting
23.7 Pipeline Response to Longitudinal PGD
23.8 Pipeline Response to Transverse PGD
23.9 Pipeline Response to Wave Propagation
23.10 Countermeasures to Mitigate Seismic Damage

24 Water and Wastewater Systems Donald B. Ballantyne

24.1 Introduction
24.2 Performance Objectives
24.3 Analysis Overview
24.4 Hazards
24.5 Pipe Vulnerability and Damage Algorithms
24.6 System Component Vulnerability
24.7 System Assessment
24.8 Mitigation Alternatives
24.9 Summary and Conclusions

25 Electrical Power Systems Anschel J. Schiff

25.1 Introduction
25.2 Historical Response of Electrical Power Systems to Earthquakes
25.3 Code Provision, Standards and Guidelines for Electrical Systems
25.4 Earthquake Preparedness
25.5 Earthquake Hazard and System Vulnerability Evaluation
25.6 Earthquake Preparedness Disaster-Response Planning
25.7 Earthquake Preparedness Earthquake Mitigation
25.8 Earthquake Preparedness Mitigation
25.9 Closing Remarks

26 Dams and Appurtenant Facilities Gilles J. Bureau

26.1 Introduction
26.2 Dams and Earthquakes

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26.3 Seismic Vulnerability of Existing Dams

26.4 Seismic Evaluation of Dams
26.5 Seismic Upgrade of Existing Dams
26.6 Seismic Design of New Dams
26.7 Seismic Instrumentation of Dams

27 Port Structures Susumu Iai

27.1 Introduction
27.2 Seismic Response of Port Structures
27.3 Current Seismic Provisions for Port Structures
27.4 Seismic Performance-Based Design
27.5 Seismic Performance Evaluation and Analysis
27.6 Methods for Analysis of Retaining/Earth Structures
27.7 Analysis Methods for Open Pile/Frame Structures

SECTION V Special Topics

28 Human Impacts of Earthquakes Hope A. Seligson and Kimberley I. Shoaf

28.1 Introduction
28.2 Casualties in Historic Earthquakes
28.3 A Standardized Earthquake Injury Classification Scheme
28.4 Casualty Estimation Methodology
28.5 Casualty Mitigation and Prevention
28.6 Public Health Impacts
28.7 Shelter Requirements
28.8 Closing Remarks

29 Fire Following Earthquakes Charles Scawthorn

29.1 Introduction
29.2 Fires following Selected Earthquakes
29.3 Analysis
29.4 Mitigation
29.5 Conclusion

30 Hazardous Materials: Earthquake-Caused Incidents

and Mitigation Approaches Guna Selvaduray
30.1 Introduction and Significance of Earthquake-Caused Hazardous Materials Incidents
30.2 The Loma Prieta Earthquake
30.3 The Northridge Earthquake
30.4 The Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake
30.5 Earthquake-Caused HAZMAT Incidents at Educational Institutions and Laboratories

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30.6 Damage and Corrective Actions at Japanese Petroleum Facilities

30.7 Lessons Learned
30.8 Mitigation Approaches
30.9 Problem Areas That Must Be Addressed
30.10 Conclusions

31 Loss Estimation Mahmoud Khater, Charles Scawthorn and James J. Johnson

31.1 Introduction and Overview
31.2 Why Do We Need Loss Estimation?
31.3 History of Loss Estimation
31.4 Loss Modeling
31.5 The Hazard Module
31.6 Seismic Vulnerability Models
31.7 Damage and Loss Estimation
31.8 HAZUS Earthquake Loss Estimation Software
31.9 Applications of Loss Estimation

32 Insurance and Financial Risk Transfer Charles Scawthorn, Howard Kunreuther,

and Richard Roth, Jr.
32.1 Introduction
32.2 Insurance and the Insurance Industry
32.3 Earthquake Insurance
32.4 Earthquake Insurance Risk Assessment
32.5 Government Earthquake Insurance Pools
32.6 Alternative Risk Transfer
32.7 Summary

33 Emergency Planning Charles Scawthorn

33.1 Introduction
33.2 Planning for Emergencies
33.3 Writing the Emergency Plan
33.4 The Emergency Operations Center (EOC)
33.5 Training and Maintenance of the Emergency Plan
33.6 Summary: Developing an Emergency Plan
Appendix A
Appendix B

34 Developing an Earthquake Mitigation Program Charles Scawthorn

34.1 Introduction
34.2 Overview of an Earthquake Mitigation Program
34.3 Phase 0: Pre-Program Activities
34.4 Phase 1: Assessing the Problem
34.5 Phase 2: Developing the Program

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34.6 Phase 3: Implementing the Program

34.7 Maintaining the Program

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