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UNIT OPERATION III.

1. Size reduction

2. Principle of communition, size and shapes of communited material

3. Energy and power requirements in communition. Crushing efficiency. Rittingers and


Kicks law.

4. Mixing. Type of mixers. Pony mixer, beater mixer. Two arm kneader. Disperser and
blades. Banbury internal mixer. Muller mixer. Ribbon blenders. Internal screw mixers.
Tumbling mixers.

5. Size reduction equipment. Crushers. Jaw crushers. Gyratory crushers. Tooth ed-roll
crushers.

6. Size reduction equipment. Grinders. Ultrafine grinders. Hammer mills and impactors.
Roller mill. Attrition mill. Tumbling mills. Colloid mills.

7. Size reduction equipment. Cutting machines. Knife cutters. Energy consumption in


product size.

8. Screening. Screening equipments. Gyrating screens. Vibrating screens.

9. Filtration. Cake filter. Clarifying filter. Crossflow filter. Automatic belt filter. Rotary
drum filter. Horizontal belt filter. Centrifugal filters. Filter media.

10. Liquid clarification. Gas cleaning. Types of membranes. Ultra and microfiltration.

11. Clarifying and settling process. Gravity classifiers. Sorting classifiers. Flocculation.
Batch sedimentation. Gravity thickener.

12. Centrifugal settling processes. Separation of solids from gases. Cyclones.


Hydrocyclones. Tubular centrifuge. Disk centrifuge.

13. Principles of diffusion and mass transfer between phases. Theory of diffusion,
Analogies with momentum and heat transfer. Mass transfer theories, two film theory.
Mass transfer coefficients. Operating line and equilibrium curve in mass transfer
processes. Classification of mass transfer processes. Stages- and continuous operations.

14. Gas absorption and adsorption. Principles of absorption. Adsorption in plate and
packed towers. Common tower packing. Material balances. Operating line and
equilibrium curve. Limiting gas-liquid ratio. Calculation of tower height. Number of
transfer units, NTU, and height of transfer unit MSH pp576-582. Adsorption. Fixed-bed
adsorbers.

15. Distillation, Principles of distillation. Vapor-liquid equilibrium relations. Boiling-point


diagrams and x-y plots. Relative volatility of vapor-liquid systems. Equilibrium
diagrams for ideal- and real systems. Azeotropes. Simple distillation methods. Flash or
equilibrium distillation. Simple batch or differential distillation.

16. Continuous distillation with reflux. Action on an ideal plate. Combination rectification
and stripping. Material balance in plate columns. Overall material balances for two-
component system. Net flow rate. Operating lines. Number of ideal plates, McCabe-
Thiele method. Condition of feed. Feed line. Minimum number of plates. Minimum
reflux. Optimum reflux ration.

17. Extraction. Liquid-liquid extraction. Single- stage liquid-liquid extraction processes.


Equilibrium relations in extraction. Extraction equipment.

18. Chemical reactors. Classification of reactors. Homogeneous and heterogeneous reactors.


Batch- and continuous reactors. Tubular flow reactor, Continuous stirred tank reactor
(CSTR) and CSTRs in series as frequently used. Chemical kinetics. Definition of
reaction rate, order of reaction and rate constant. Influence of temperature, Arrhenius
equation.

19. Batch reactors, calculation of reaction time, basic design equation. Tubular flow
reactors, basic design equations for tubular reactor. Residence time and space velocity.
Continuous stirred tank reactor, design equations for continuous stirred tank reactor.
Isothermal and adiabatic reactors.