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30/7/2017 11 most important questions & answers from ASME B 31.

ASME B 31.3 which a Piping stress engineer must know What is Piping

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30/7/2017 11 most important questions & answers from ASME B 31.3 which a Piping stress engineer must know What is Piping

ANALYSIS) 11 MOST IMPORTANT QUESTIONS & ANSWERS FROM

ASME B 31.3 WHICH A PIPING STRESS ENGINEER MUST KNOW

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11 most important questions & answers


from ASME B 31.3 which a Piping stress Sludge Dewaterin
engineer must know
Machine
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ASME B 31.3 is the


url=http://www.whatispiping.com/asme- url=http://www.whatispiping.com/asme-
Sludge dewatering equipment
bible
b-31-3)
of process b-31-3)
piping engineering company. Best quality and servic
and every piping
engineer should
frequently use this
code for his
knowledge
enhancement. But
to study a code
similar to B 31.3 is
time consuming Zhongding Industry Boiler
and also difficult
because the Large Industrial Boiler Fuel Oil
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all interesting. Also
every now and then
it will say to refer to some other point of the code which will irritate you. But UPDATES
still every piping engineer should learn few basic points from it. The
following literature will try to point out 11 basic and useful points from the Enter your email address:
code about which every piping engineer must be aware.

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1. What is the scope of ASME B 31.3? What does it covers and what does
not?

MOST POPULAR POSTS


Ans: Refer to the ASME B 31.3-Process Piping section from my earlier post.
Link: http://www.whatispiping.com/?p=44 (http://www.whatispiping.com/?
p=44)
Pressure Tests of Piping
Alternatively refer the below attached figure ( Figure 300.1.1 from code
systems-Hydrotest Vs
ASME B 31.3)
Pneumatic Test
(http://www.whatispiping.com/pr
tests-of-piping-systems-
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hydrotest-vs-pneumatic-
test)
11 most important
questions & answers
from ASME B 31.3 which
a Piping stress engineer
must know
(http://www.whatispiping.com/as
b-31-3)
Piping Elbows and
Bends: A useful detailed
literature for piping
engineers
(http://www.whatispiping.com/pi
elbows-and-bends)
BASICS OF PIPE STRESS
ANALYSIS: A
PRESENTATION-Part 1 of
2
(http://www.whatispiping.com/ba
of-pipe-stress-analysis)
Step by Step Methods
(http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-
for WRC 107 and WRC
NatMYfHfQcA/UgnRRbcU1eI/AAAAAAAAAQs/stYVb5oNPqE/s1600/untitled1.bmp)
297 Checking in Caesar
2. What are the disturbing parameters against which the piping system
II
must be designed?
(http://www.whatispiping.com/wr
Ans: The piping system must stand strong (should not fail) against the
107-and-wrc-297)
following major effects:
BALL VALVE DESIGN
Design Pressure and Temperature: Each component thickness must
FEATURES: A Literature-
be sufficient to withstand most severe combination of temperature
Part-3 of 4
and pressure.
(http://www.whatispiping.com/ba
Ambient effects like pressure reduction due to cooling, fluid
valve-design-features-
expansion effect, possibility of moisture condensation and build up of
literature-part-3)
ice due to atmospheric icing, low ambient temperature etc.
Top 12 must have Piping
Dynamic effects like impact force due to external or internal
books for a begineer
unexpected conditions, Wind force, Earthquake force, Vibration and
into Piping industry
discharge (Relief valve) reaction forces, cyclic effects etc.
(http://www.whatispiping.com/pi
Component self weight including insulation, rigid body weights along
books)
with the medium it transport.
Stress Analysis of PSV
Thermal expansion and contraction effects due to resistance from
connected Piping
free displacement or due to thermal gradients (thermal bowing
systems using Caesar II
effect) etc.
(http://www.whatispiping.com/ste
Movement of pipe supports or connected equipments etc.
analysis-of-psv-
3. How to calculate the allowable stress for a carbon steel pipe? connected-piping-
Ans: The material allowable stress for any material other than bolting systems)
material, cast iron and malleable iron are the minimum of the following: A brief presentation on
1. one-third of tensile strength at maximum temperature. Air Cooled Heat
2. two-thirds of yield strength at maximum temperature. Exchangers
3. for austenitic stainless steels and nickel alloys having similar stress (http://www.whatispiping.com/air
strain behavior, the lower of two thirds of yield strength and 90% of cooled-heat-
yield strength at temperature. exchangers)
4. 100% of the average stress for a creep rate of 0.01% per 1 000 h Must have Load cases
5. 67% of the average stress for rupture at the end of 100 000 h for stress analysis of a
6. 80% of the minimum stress for rupture at the end of 100 000 h typical piping system
7. for structural grade materials, the basic allowable stress shall be 0.92 using Caesar II
times the lowest value determined (1) through (6) above. (http://www.whatispiping.com/loa
cases)

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4. What is the allowable for Sustained, Occasional and Expansion Stress


as per ASME B 31.3?
PREVIOUS POSTS
Ans: Calculated sustained stress (SL)< Sh (Basic allowable stress at
maximum temperature)
Calculated occasional stress including sustained stress< 1.33 Sh
Calculated expansion stress< SA = f [ 1.25( Sc + Sh) SL] Select Month
Here f =stress range factor, Sc =basic allowable stress at minimum metal
temperature and SL=calculated sustained stress. The sustained stress (SL) is
calculated using the following code formulas:
SELECT CATEGORY OF

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Select Category
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Here,
Ii = sustained in-plane moment index. In the absence of more applicable
data, Ii is taken asthe greater of 0.75ii or 1.00.
Io = sustained out-plane moment index. In the absence of more applicable
data, Io is taken as the greater of 0.75io or 1.00.
Mi = in-plane moment due to sustained loads, e.g.,pressure and weight
Mo = out-plane moment due to sustained loads, e.g.,pressure and weight
Z = sustained section modulus
It = sustained torsional moment index. In the absence of more applicable
data, It is taken
as 1.00.
Mt = torsional moment due to sustained loads, e.g.,pressure and weight
Ap = cross-sectional area of the pipe, considering nominal pipe dimensions
less allowances;
Fa = longitudinal force due to sustained loads, e.g.,pressure and weight
Ia = sustained longitudinal force index. In the absence of more applicable
data, Ia is taken as 1.00.
5. What are steps for calculating the pipe thickness for a 10 inch carbon
steel (A 106-Grade B) pipe carrying a fluid with design pressure 15 bar
and design temperatre of 250 degree centigrade?
Ans: The pipe thickness (t) for internal design pressure (P) is calculated from
the following equation.

(http://4.bp.blogspot.com/-4IbmzcgXqJM/UgnnXj9JmuI/AAAAAAAAAQ8/KULmgcUQZ4o/s1600/untitled2.bmp)
Here, D=Outside diameter of pipe, obtain the diameter from pipe
manufacturer standard.
S=stress value at design temperature from code Table A-1
E=quality factor from code Table A-1A or A-1B
W=weld joint strength reduction factor from code

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Y=coefficient from code Table 304.1.1


Using the above formula calculate the pressure design thickness, t.
Now add the sum of the mechanical allowances (thread or groove depth)
plus corrosion and erosion allowances if any with t to get minimum required
thickness, tm.
Next add the mill tolerance with this value to get calculated pipe thickness.
For seamless pipe the mill tolerance is 12.5% under tolerance. So calculated
pipe thickness will be tm/(1-0.125)=tm/0.875.
Now accept the available pipe thickness (based on next nearest higher pipe
schedule) just higher than the calculated value from manufacturer standard
thickness tables.
6. How many types of fluid services are available for process piping?
Ans: In process piping industry following fluid services are available..
Category D Fluid Service: nonflammable, nontoxic, and not
damaging to human tissues, the design pressure does not exceed 150
psig, the design temperature is from -20 degree F to 366 degree F.
Category M Fluid Service: a fluid service in which the potential for
personnel exposure is judged to be significant and in which a single
exposure to a very small quantity of a toxic fluid, caused by leakage,
can produce serious irreversible harm to persons on breathing or
bodily contact, even when prompt restorative measures are taken.
Elavated Temperature Fluid service: a fluid service in which the
piping metal temperature is sustained equal to or greater than Tcr
(Tcr=temperature 25C (50F) below the temperature identifying the
start of time-dependent properties).
Normal Fluid Service: a fluid service pertaining to most piping
covered by this Code, i.e., not subject to the rules for Category D,
Category M, Elevated Temperature, High Pressure, or High Purity Fluid
Service.
High Pressure Fluid Service: a fluid service for which the owner
specifies the use of Chapter IX for piping design and construction.
High pressure is considered herein to be pressure in excess of that
allowed by the ASME B16.5 Class 2500 rating for the specified design
temperature and material group.
High Purity Fluid Service: a fluid service that requires alternative
methods of fabrication, inspection, examination, and testing not
covered elsewhere in the Code, with the intent to produce a
controlled level of cleanness. The term thus applies to piping systems
defined for other purposes as high purity, ultra high purity, hygienic,
or aseptic.

7. What do you mean by the term SIF?


Ans: The stress intensification factor or SIF is an intensifier of bending or
torsional stress local to a piping component such as tees, elbows and has a
value great than or equal to 1.0. Its value depends on component geometry.
Code B 31.3 Appendix D (shown in below figure) provides formulas to
calculate the SIF values.

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8. When do you feel that a piping system is not required formal stress
analysis?
Ans: Formal pipe stress analysis will not be required if any of the following 3
mentioned criteria are satisfied:
1. if the system duplicates, or replaces without significant change, a
system operating with a successful service record (operating
successfully for more than 10 years without major failure).
2. if the system can readily be judged adequate by comparison with
previously analyzed systems.
3. if the system is of uniform size, has no more than two points of
fixation, no intermediate restraints, and falls within the limitations of
empirical equation mentioned below:

(http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-8g-
lXH6Y1Jg/UgoT0MYE79I/AAAAAAAAASE/RalO2xXw4Sw/s1600/untitled1.bmp)
Here,
D = outside diameter of pipe, mm (in.)
Ea = reference modulus of elasticity at 21C (70F),MPa (ksi)
K1 = 208 000 SA/Ea, (mm/m)2 = 30 SA/Ea, (in./ft)2
L = developed length of piping between anchors,m (ft)
SA = allowable displacement stress range
U = anchor distance, straight line between anchors,m (ft)
y = resultant of total displacement strains, mm (in.), to be absorbed by the
piping system
9. How will you calculate the displacement (Expansion) stress range for
a piping system?
Ans: Expansion stress range (SE) for a complex piping system is normally
calculated using softwares like Caesar II or AutoPipe. However, the same can
be calculated using the following code equations:

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(http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-

BCu04wap64c/UgoWEqCpuSI/AAAAAAAAASU/C0oc6kYdxGM/s1600/untitled2.bmp)

(http://1.bp.blogspot.com/-

GSpc36YRcCg/UgoapvsL-
0I/AAAAAAAAASk/TQtTM4KyIVI/s1600/untitled4.bmp)
here
Ap = cross-sectional area of pipe
Fa = range of axial forces due to displacement strains between any two
conditions being evaluated
ia = axial stress intensification factor. In the absence of more applicable data,
ia p 1.0 for elbows, pipe bends, and miter bends (single, closely spaced, and
widely spaced), and ia =io (or i when listed) in Appendix D for other
components;
it = torsional stress intensification factor. In the absence of more applicable
data, it=1.0;
Mt = torsional moment
Sa = axial stress range due to displacement strains= iaXFa/Ap
Sb = resultant bending stress
St = torsional stress= itXMt/2Z
Z = section modulus of pipe
ii = in-plane stress intensification factor from Appendix D
io = out-plane stress intensification factor from Appendix D
Mi = in-plane bending moment
Mo = out-plane bending moment
Sb = resultant bending stress

10. What do you mean by the term Cold Spring?

Ans: Cold spring is the intentional initial deformation applied to a piping


system during assembly to produce a desired initial displacement and
stress. Cold spring is beneficial in that it serves to balance the magnitude of
stress under initial and extreme displacement conditions.

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Aluminum Sheet Few Important points Mark Pipe Bender Top 12 must ha
for Stress Analysis Piping books fo
based on ASME B... begineer into P

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When cold spring is properly applied there is less likelihood of overstrain


during initial operation; hence, it is recommended especially for piping
materials of limited ductility. There is also less deviation from as installed
dimensions during initial operation, so that hangers will not be displaced as
far from their original settings.

However now a days most of the EPC organizations does not prefer the use
of Cold Spring while analysis any system.

11. How to decide whether Reinforcement is required for a piping


branch connection or not?

Zhongding Industry Boiler

Large Industrial Boiler Fuel Oil Gas Coal Biomass Electric etc High Quality
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Ans: When a branch connection is made in any parent pipe the pipe
connection is weakened by the opening that is made in it. So it is required
that the wall thickness after the opening must be sufficiently in excess of the
required thickness to sustain the pressure. This requirement is checked by
calculating the required reinforcement area (A1) and available
reinforcement area (A2+A3+A4) and if available area is more than the
required area then no reinforcement is required. Otherwise additional
reinforcement need to be added. The equations for calculating the required
and available area are listed below for your information from the code.
Please refer the code for notations used:

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24 COMMENTS

ARUN (HTTP://STRESSEQUATION)

December 11, 2013 - 4:05 pm Reply


(http://www.whatispiping.com/asme-b-31-3?replytocom=77#respond)

Please clarify my following doubts

1) the equation provided for the sustain is bit different what i


learned ( PD/4t+M/Z+F/A) ..but in your equation u havent

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