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2014

PV Elite Tips & Tricks

Most common questions


Presented by: Ray Delaforce
The topics

I shall attempt to cover 11 topics do my best


1. Nozzle interference, Appendix 1-10 versus UG-37, and MAWP
2. Nozzle orientation around the vessel layout angle
3. MDMT how derived
4. Building a heat exchanger the pitfalls
5. Flanges Standard flanges why the fail when analysed
6. Stacked vessel the PV Elite work-around
7. Lifting lugs why the calculations are missing
8. PV Elite load cases for Wind and Seismic loads
9. Why the vessel fails when analysed for the hydrotest
10. The use of Code Case 2695
11. Code allowable stresses what are the limitations

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Nozzle interference - Clashes

The principle of nozzle reinforcement


Consider the nozzle inserted into the shell
This area has to be replaced - reinforced
Only excess material within this envelope is valid
An adjacent nozzle at this distance is Ok

If they are too close interference occurs which is not allowed

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Nozzle interference - Clashes

The solution reduce the diameter of the envelope


In the nozzle dialogue screen there is provision for this

The credit envelope is reduced


2d

d
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Nozzle interference - Clashes

There is provision in PV Elite to visualise the clashes


Right click the mouse in the 3D screen to get this menu
Click Visibility and click Diameter limits
The diameter limits are now visible

Interference

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Nozzle reinforcement - UG-37 and
Appendix 1-10

They are different principle of nozzle reinforcement


UG-37 is area replacement App. 1-10 compares metal
strength against pressure area

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Nozzle reinforcement - UG-37 and
Appendix 1-10

The limitations of Appendix 1-10


1. Only applies to internal pressure not vacuum conditions
2. Can only be used for nozzles on cylinders and cones not
heads
Advantages
1. Can be used for nozzles of any size e.g. large nozzles
2. May be able to reduce reinforcement but check

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Obround and rectangular nozzle

They are allowed by ASME VIII, Division 1, but with restrictions

This is the equivalent nozzle that must be analysed

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Nozzle orientation around the vessel

Where is the zero point, and do we go clockwise or counter clockwise ?

Is it like this going clockwise ?


Or is it like this going counter clockwise ?
PV Elite allows you to choose the Datum and Direction
0O 90O
North North

270O West East 90O 180OWest East 0O

South South
180O 270O
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Nozzle orientation around the vessel

This where you can orientate all your nozzles as you wish

This works for nozzles, platforms and anything attached to the shell

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Minimum Design Metal Temperature MDMT

We now look at the way ASME Division 1 derives the MDMT

The codes do not discuss the fracture at low temperature in


terms of the energy to produce fracture (= Toughness)

The codes use a much simpler method based upon:

Material thickness
The Group to which the material belongs
The desired low service temperature

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Minimum Design Metal Temperature MDMT

Here is the MDMT graph from ASME Division 1 Figure UCS-66

Each material falls within a group

SA 516 70 is Group B material


A Consider a 2 inch thick material
B
MAWP

C The MDMT is 61OF

Thickness
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Minimum Design Metal Temperature MDMT

If themeans
This calculated
that the
thickness
vessel of
might
the material
have a problem
is thinner than the
actual thickness the temperature can be lowered even further

Safe No brittle
fracture likely

Must impact test the


metal to see if it has
sufficient toughness

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Minimum Design Metal Temperature MDMT

This
If theiscalculated
the information
thickness
fromofthe
theCode
material is thinner than the
actual thickness the temperature can be lowered even further

Figure UCS-66.1 can be used

Ratio = tcalc / tactual

We can lower the MDMT a


further 20OF

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Minimum Design Metal Temperature MDMT

This is the information from the Code , Figure UCS-66

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Building a heat exchanger the Pitfalls

Advice number 1: Preferably build the heat exchanger with the


stationary tubesheet on the LEFT not mandatory

This way Not this way

It is much easier and tends to cause less problems

Advice number 2: We encourage users to use PV Elite instead


of CodeCalc

CodeCalc is MUCH harder to use

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Building a heat exchanger the Pitfalls

Consider the various stationary (left) tubesheet configurations

Integral both side

Shell integral extended as a flange

Gasketed both sides

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Building a heat exchanger the Pitfalls

Connecting the tubesheet to the adjacent element

Rule No 1: Always connect the tubesheet to the Flange

Rule No 2: Better to connect tubesheet to the channel element

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Building a heat exchanger the Pitfalls

When the tubesheet is extended to attach to a flange

Remember to check these boxes in the tubesheet dialogue screen

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Building a heat exchanger the Pitfalls

If the tubesheet is sandwiched between two flange like this:

Do not check this box

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Building a heat exchanger the Pitfalls

Remember the From and To Node numbers Very important

They go from left to right or bottom to top, vertical vessel


The From node comes first (left), then the To node (right)

30 is the From node and 40 is the To node


10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

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Building a heat exchanger the Pitfalls

This is how you set up the location of the tubesheet

200 mm

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

Always from the From node

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Building a heat exchanger the Pitfalls

One last thing to take note of:

Never locate the tubesheet half way in a shell element like this:

PV Elite cannot separate the channel from the shell

30 40

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Flange problems often encountered

Specification for standard flange are: B16.5 and B16.47

These were set before any analysis was available

They often failed when analysed according to a code

Standard flanges were designed by consensus of manufacturers

The code (e.g. ASME Division 1) does not require any calculation
for standard flanges. They can be used at the Pressure-
Temperature rating in B16.5 of B16.47

If the standard flange is modified, then a calculation is required

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Flange problems often encountered

Any standard component in Table U-3 does not need does not
need a calculation

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Flange problems often encountered

Paragraph UG-11(a)(2) says this:

This is the case for any type of gasket, and even if there is a
corrosion allowance

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Flange problems often encountered

Bolt spacing is a consideration too

Gasket squeeze can be reduced between the bolts if too wide

The code applies a penalty if the bolt spacing is too large

This is found in Appendix 2 paragraph 2-6

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Flange problems often encountered

This is only mandatory for lethal service

Also for lethal service, it is good to have a confined gasket

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Stacked vessels

Questions about stacked vessels sometimes arise

PV Elite can only analyse one vessel at a time.

Is there any way of doing the analysis in PV Elite ?

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Stacked vessels

Completely analyse the top vessel first and get the following:
The load (force) on each saddle
Any overturning moment from wind and seismic

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Stacked vessels

Design and transfer all forces and moments to the bottom vessel

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Stacked vessels

There is one problem it is not possible to analyse any saddles on


the top of the vessel but that is not really a problem if the
saddles at the bottom of the vessel are satisfactory.

If the vessel is hanging from the saddles, the analysis cannot be


done as there is no procedure available

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Lifting lug common problems

This is a common lifting lug we normally encounter

Users design the lifting lugs and get no calculations !

Why is that ?

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Lifting lug common problems

Let us look at the whole vessel and figure the reason


They set the lifting and tailing
lugs like this

4000 mm
Centre of
Gravity
Here, and the moments
cannot be worked out

4000 mm

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Lifting lug common problems

That places the lifting lug here too near the centre of gravity

Set the actual distance from


the base ring to the top lug

4000 mm
Centre of
Gravity
Here, and the moments
cannot be worked out

4000 mm

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Load cases what they mean

This applies in the main to a vertical tower

Three load cases that produce axial (longitudinal) stresses

Either Tensile or Compressive

The three fundamental load cases are:

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Load cases what they mean

This applies in the main to a vertical tower

Three load cases that produce axial (longitudinal) stresses

Either Tensile or Compressive

The three fundamental load cases are:

1. Pressure P
2. Weight W
3. Bending moment from wind or seismic M

Those are the only three load cases that exist for a tower

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Load cases what they mean

Let us consider each of these load cases in turn

Pressure P Weight W Moment M


No pressure No weight No moment
Design pressure Empty weight Wind moment
Hydrotest pressure Hydrotest weight Seismic moment
Vacuum Operating weight etc.

That is a combination of over 48 load cases

PV Elite can handle up to 20 load cases in combination

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Load cases what they mean

Pressing the Load Cases tab we get this dialogue screen

To find the key to the cryptic symbols , to get this screen

Put your cursor in any field


and press the <F1> key to
get the explanation

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Load cases what they mean

In the Stress Due to Combined Loads report you get this

There are Tensile and Compressive stresses from the moments

The tensile ratio is: 2.56 / 141.49 = 0.0181

This works for the compressive stress and for every element in the tower

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Load cases what they mean

At the bottom of the report you get:

The ratio must not exceed 1.0

Check which elements give the worst ratios and thicken them

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Load cases what they mean

It is possible to scale check this box in the Load Cases screen

Now you can scale the various load cases

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Problems with the hydrotest

Suddenly you get a problem like this !

The stresses are too high

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Problems with the hydrotest

What is the cause of this problem ?

The hydrotest pressure is: 1.3 x MAWP

The allowable stress by default is boosted to 1.3 x Allowable Stress

The reason:

For design there may be little or no liquid in the vessel


At test the vessel is full of water increasing the stress

We have to find a way of eliminating this problem

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Problems with the hydrotest

Here is the solution:

We can increase the allowable stress at hydrotest to 90% of Yield

Got to the Design Constraints tab and check this box

The hydrotest stresses are no


longer exceeded

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Problems with the hydrotest

Sometimes, there is no hydrotest report and the users are puzzled

This is because they forgot to ask for a hydrotest report !

On the Design Constraints tab inform PV Elite of the hydrotest

And whether you want the


test in the Horizontal or
Vertical position

It is also possible to set the


MAWP, MAPnc and Hydrotest
pressure

CC 2695 comes next


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Using Code Case 2695 with advantage

This code case was introduced in 2011 well worth investigating

Using this Code Case, we use ASME Division 2 technology for Division
1 vessels

However, we have to use Division 1 Allowable stresses

What are the advantages usually:

Formed heads can generally be thinner


Possible smaller nozzle reinforcement
No longer have to choose between Appendix 1-10 and UG-37

Best of all: PV Elite is probably the only software that can do it !

We should all make the users aware of this Code Case

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Using Code Case 2695 with advantage

How do we tell PV Elite to use Code Case 2695 ?

Go to ToolsConfiguration

Check this box

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Using Code Case 2695 with advantage

If you look on the main screen, you will see this:

You can always change back to Division 1 by clicking on this button

Code Case 2695 is a very important development for ASME

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Code Allowable Stresses

Let us re-visit the Stress-Strain diagram


Elastic Plastic Range
Range
Ductile fracture
normally occurs
Yield point here
Stress

Strain

If a cylinder is subject to pressure it is dangerous to go beyond


the yield point catastrophic failure can be the result.

So the yield point is very important

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Code Allowable Stresses

All the codes limit the Allowable Stress below the Yield Strength

ASME Division 1: S = lesser of UTS / 3.5 or Yield / 1.5

ASME Division 2: S = lesser of UTS / 2.4 or Yield / 1.5

PD 5500: f = lesser of UTS / 2.35 or Yield / 1.5

EN 13445: f = lesser of UTS / 2.4 or Yield / 1.5

The limiting allowable stress is well below the yield point Always
UTS Ultimate
for stress arising from pressure and mechanical loads Tensile Strength

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Code Allowable Stresses

Stresses from pressure (in a cylinder for example) exist Everywhere

Stresses that exist everywhere are know as General Stresses

If they derived from pressure or mechanical loads, they are


known as Primary Stresses stresses are Below Yield

We come to our first definition when membrane stresses are a result of:

Pressure
Mechanical loads that produce stresses over a large region

Are known as General Primary Membrane stresses Pm

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Code Allowable Stresses

Mechanical loads can produce primary membrane stresses over a small


region

These are known as Local Primary Membrane stresses can go up to yield

Mechanical loads can produce Bending Stress over a Large Region

These are known as Primary General Bending stresses

PL and Pb can be as high as yield. The reasons are beyond this talk

Are known as General Primary Membrane stresses Pm


Are known as Local Primary Membrane stresses PL

Are known as General Primary Bending stresses Pb

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Code Allowable Stresses

There is an important characteristic of these three stresses

It is this: Stress is proportional to the load

If the load (e.g. pressure) is doubled, the stress is doubled

This is the single most important about Primary Stress


Are known as General Primary Membrane stresses Pm

Are known as Local Primary Membrane stresses PL

Are known as General Primary Bending stresses Pb

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Code Allowable Stresses

Now consider this situation we have a pipe system attached to a nozzle

From thermal expansion it rotates like this

Are known as General Primary Membrane stresses Pm


Are known as Local Primary Membrane stresses PL

Are known as General Primary Bending stresses Pb

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Code Allowable Stresses

Now consider this situation we have a pipe system attached to a nozzle

From thermal expansion it rotates like this

Rotation (strain) produces stresses in the shell

These stresses are NOT from mechanical loads

Stress is not proportional to movement (strain)

Are known as General Primary Membrane stresses Pm


Are known as Local Primary Membrane stresses PL

Are known as General Primary Bending stresses Pb

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Code Allowable Stresses

We now have four stresses

Strain in turn produces Stresses

Any stress that arises as a result of Strain is a Secondary Stress

This stress is designated as Q

Are known as General Primary Membrane stresses Pm

Are known as Local Primary Membrane stresses PL

Are known as General Primary Bending stresses Pb

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Code Allowable Stresses

We now have four stresses

General Primary Membrane stresses Pm


Directly proportional
Local Primary Membrane stresses PL to the loads

General Primary Bending stresses Pb


Directly proportional
Secondary stresses Q to strain

The allowable stress intensities (ASME Division 2):

Pm < S
Pm+PL < 1.5S
Pm+PL+Pb < 1.5S
Pm+PL+Pb+Q < 3S or 2SY

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