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You are on page 1of 58

Presented by: Ray Delaforce

The topics

1. Nozzle interference, Appendix 1-10 versus UG-37, and MAWP

2. Nozzle orientation around the vessel layout angle

3. MDMT how derived

4. Building a heat exchanger the pitfalls

5. Flanges Standard flanges why the fail when analysed

6. Stacked vessel the PV Elite work-around

7. Lifting lugs why the calculations are missing

8. PV Elite load cases for Wind and Seismic loads

9. Why the vessel fails when analysed for the hydrotest

10. The use of Code Case 2695

11. Code allowable stresses what are the limitations

2

Nozzle interference - Clashes

Consider the nozzle inserted into the shell

This area has to be replaced - reinforced

Only excess material within this envelope is valid

An adjacent nozzle at this distance is Ok

3

Nozzle interference - Clashes

In the nozzle dialogue screen there is provision for this

2d

d

4

Nozzle interference - Clashes

Right click the mouse in the 3D screen to get this menu

Click Visibility and click Diameter limits

The diameter limits are now visible

Interference

5

Nozzle reinforcement - UG-37 and

Appendix 1-10

UG-37 is area replacement App. 1-10 compares metal

strength against pressure area

6

Nozzle reinforcement - UG-37 and

Appendix 1-10

1. Only applies to internal pressure not vacuum conditions

2. Can only be used for nozzles on cylinders and cones not

heads

Advantages

1. Can be used for nozzles of any size e.g. large nozzles

2. May be able to reduce reinforcement but check

7

Obround and rectangular nozzle

8

Nozzle orientation around the vessel

Or is it like this going counter clockwise ?

PV Elite allows you to choose the Datum and Direction

0O 90O

North North

South South

180O 270O

9

Nozzle orientation around the vessel

This where you can orientate all your nozzles as you wish

This works for nozzles, platforms and anything attached to the shell

10

Minimum Design Metal Temperature MDMT

terms of the energy to produce fracture (= Toughness)

Material thickness

The Group to which the material belongs

The desired low service temperature

11

Minimum Design Metal Temperature MDMT

A Consider a 2 inch thick material

B

MAWP

Thickness

12

Minimum Design Metal Temperature MDMT

If themeans

This calculated

that the

thickness

vessel of

might

the material

have a problem

is thinner than the

actual thickness the temperature can be lowered even further

Safe No brittle

fracture likely

metal to see if it has

sufficient toughness

13

Minimum Design Metal Temperature MDMT

This

If theiscalculated

the information

thickness

fromofthe

theCode

material is thinner than the

actual thickness the temperature can be lowered even further

further 20OF

14

Minimum Design Metal Temperature MDMT

15

Building a heat exchanger the Pitfalls

stationary tubesheet on the LEFT not mandatory

of CodeCalc

16

Building a heat exchanger the Pitfalls

17

Building a heat exchanger the Pitfalls

18

Building a heat exchanger the Pitfalls

19

Building a heat exchanger the Pitfalls

20

Building a heat exchanger the Pitfalls

The From node comes first (left), then the To node (right)

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

21

Building a heat exchanger the Pitfalls

200 mm

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80

22

Building a heat exchanger the Pitfalls

Never locate the tubesheet half way in a shell element like this:

30 40

23

Flange problems often encountered

The code (e.g. ASME Division 1) does not require any calculation

for standard flanges. They can be used at the Pressure-

Temperature rating in B16.5 of B16.47

24

Flange problems often encountered

Any standard component in Table U-3 does not need does not

need a calculation

25

Flange problems often encountered

This is the case for any type of gasket, and even if there is a

corrosion allowance

26

Flange problems often encountered

27

Flange problems often encountered

28

Stacked vessels

29

Stacked vessels

Completely analyse the top vessel first and get the following:

The load (force) on each saddle

Any overturning moment from wind and seismic

30

Stacked vessels

Design and transfer all forces and moments to the bottom vessel

31

Stacked vessels

the top of the vessel but that is not really a problem if the

saddles at the bottom of the vessel are satisfactory.

done as there is no procedure available

32

Lifting lug common problems

Why is that ?

33

Lifting lug common problems

They set the lifting and tailing

lugs like this

4000 mm

Centre of

Gravity

Here, and the moments

cannot be worked out

4000 mm

34

Lifting lug common problems

That places the lifting lug here too near the centre of gravity

the base ring to the top lug

4000 mm

Centre of

Gravity

Here, and the moments

cannot be worked out

4000 mm

35

Load cases what they mean

36

Load cases what they mean

1. Pressure P

2. Weight W

3. Bending moment from wind or seismic M

Those are the only three load cases that exist for a tower

37

Load cases what they mean

No pressure No weight No moment

Design pressure Empty weight Wind moment

Hydrotest pressure Hydrotest weight Seismic moment

Vacuum Operating weight etc.

38

Load cases what they mean

and press the <F1> key to

get the explanation

39

Load cases what they mean

This works for the compressive stress and for every element in the tower

40

Load cases what they mean

Check which elements give the worst ratios and thicken them

41

Load cases what they mean

42

Problems with the hydrotest

43

Problems with the hydrotest

The reason:

At test the vessel is full of water increasing the stress

44

Problems with the hydrotest

longer exceeded

45

Problems with the hydrotest

test in the Horizontal or

Vertical position

MAWP, MAPnc and Hydrotest

pressure

46

Using Code Case 2695 with advantage

Using this Code Case, we use ASME Division 2 technology for Division

1 vessels

Possible smaller nozzle reinforcement

No longer have to choose between Appendix 1-10 and UG-37

47

Using Code Case 2695 with advantage

Go to ToolsConfiguration

48

Using Code Case 2695 with advantage

49

Code Allowable Stresses

Elastic Plastic Range

Range

Ductile fracture

normally occurs

Yield point here

Stress

Strain

the yield point catastrophic failure can be the result.

50

Code Allowable Stresses

All the codes limit the Allowable Stress below the Yield Strength

The limiting allowable stress is well below the yield point Always

UTS Ultimate

for stress arising from pressure and mechanical loads Tensile Strength

51

Code Allowable Stresses

known as Primary Stresses stresses are Below Yield

We come to our first definition when membrane stresses are a result of:

Pressure

Mechanical loads that produce stresses over a large region

52

Code Allowable Stresses

region

PL and Pb can be as high as yield. The reasons are beyond this talk

Are known as Local Primary Membrane stresses PL

53

Code Allowable Stresses

Are known as General Primary Membrane stresses Pm

54

Code Allowable Stresses

Are known as Local Primary Membrane stresses PL

55

Code Allowable Stresses

Are known as Local Primary Membrane stresses PL

56

Code Allowable Stresses

57

Code Allowable Stresses

Directly proportional

Local Primary Membrane stresses PL to the loads

Directly proportional

Secondary stresses Q to strain

Pm < S

Pm+PL < 1.5S

Pm+PL+Pb < 1.5S

Pm+PL+Pb+Q < 3S or 2SY

58

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