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Chapter 12

Education and Manpower

Definition of Education and Manpower Development

Education and Manpower Development is one of the sub-sectors in what commonly

refer to in the field (workplace).

Education and Manpower Development refers to the educational system, plus science
and technologies, media, culture, and sports.

The Philippines educational system is characterized into formal, non-formal, and informal

Formal education refers to learning that is hierarchically structured and sequenced from
lower to higher levels.

The formal system is further characterized into primary, secondary, and tertiary

Non-formal education is defined as a wide assortment of organized, systematic

education and training program outside the formal system, designed to generate skills and
knowledge relevant and useful to particular subgroups of the population and labor force.

Informal learning is neither organized nor pre-determined. The most important sources
of informal learning are social institution such as the family, church, and mass media.

Central to the development of human resource, the educational system will be progressively
reoriented towards equalizing educational opportunities, achieving universal literacy, and
promoting the economic, social, cultural, and political goals of the country.

I. Past Development

Student Statistics Enrolled in public and private schools.


2009-2010 13.93 million 25.08 million 3.85 million

Table 39

Enrolment in Private and Public Schools


Elementary Secondary Tertiary

Public Schools 90% 60% 60%

Private Schools 10% 40% 40%

100% 100% 100%

Table 40

Labor Force by Age Group


(In thousands)

Sex and Age Group Total Population Total labor Force

15 years old 15 years old

and over and over


Both Sexes 68,743 43,724

Number (in thousands)
Total 100.0 100.0
15 - 24 28.8 19.3
25 - 34 22.1 26.1
35 - 44 17.8 22.2
45 - 54 14.3 17.7
55 - 64 9.7 10.4
65 and over 7.4 4.3
Table 41

Unemployed and Out-of-School Youth1


(In Thousands)

Total Unemployed 2,040

Experienced 1040

Percent of Total 50.6

Inexperienced 1000

Percent of total 49.4

Total Out-School Youth

6-24 years old 36,238

Table 42

Employment Promotion

Key Performance Indicators


2015 Jan-July 2016

Conducted/ coordinated/ assisted 70 81

Job Fairs 56 59

Livelihood Fairs 18 26

Applicants registered 29,072 40,143

Job Fairs 25,149 35,219

Livelihood Fairs 3,923 4,924

Applicants placed 4,576 13,863

Job Fairs 3,887 12,987

Livelihood Fairs 689 876

II. Education and Manpower Objectives and Strategies

Overall Objectives

The ultimate aim of education and manpower development is to enable each Filipino to
develop his full potential for self-actualization and productivity.

For the Plan period 1987-92, the education and manpower development sector shall
address the following objectives:

(a) To improve the quality and increase the relevance of education and training;
(b) To increase access of disadvantaged groups in all educational areas;
(c) To accelerate of the development of middle and high level manpower toward
economic recovery and sustainable growth, as well as to enhance their
employability, productivity, and self-reliance;
(d) To inculcate values needed in social transformation and renewal;
(e) To preserve ,enrich and propagate the nations desirable cultural heritage and
(f) To raise the level of awareness, interest, and participation in sports and cultural
activity; and
(g) To maintain an educational system that is truly Filipino in orientation, open to
constructive ideas from everywhere nut alert to influences inimical to national dignity.

Education and Training

In education and training, major laws and policy reforms were geared toward enchancing
educational access, quality, and relevance.

Policies and Legislation*

The more important policy developments include the following:

a. Across education levels

The trifocalization of the management of the education system was carried out
with the creation of Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and Technical
Education Skills Development Authority (TESDA) and so on.

b. Basic Education

The learning continuum was extended to cover both elementary and secondary
education on integrated basis, rather than on separate and independent levels;

c. Middle-level skill development (MLSD)

The first National Technical Education and Skills Development Plan: A Vision
and strategy for the Development of Middle-Level Human Resources was
formulated. This plan is expected to improve the matching of supply and demand
for critical middle-level manpower and rationalize investment in HRD.
d. Higher education

Apart from further straining the meager public resources available, they also
crowded out private sector investment in higher education and affected
resources allocation for basic education.

e. Culture, arts, and media

Implementation of the Declaration of 1988-1998 as the Philippine Decade of

culture and Nationalism.