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An information system (IS) is an organized system for the collection, organization, storage and
communication of information. More specifically, it is the study of complementary networks that
people and organizations use to collect, filter, process, create and distribute data.[according to

"An information system (IS) is a group of components that interact to produce information."[1]

A computer information system is a system composed of people and computers that processes or
interprets information.[2][3][4][5] The term is also sometimes used in more restricted senses to refer to
only the software used to run a computerized database or to refer to only a computer system.

Information systems is an academic study of systems with a specific reference to information and the
complementary networks of hardware and software that people and organizations use to collect, filter,
process, create and also distribute data. An emphasis is placed on an information system having a
definitive boundary, users, processors, storage, inputs, outputs and the aforementioned communication

Data Information
Meaning Data is raw, unorganized facts that need to be When data is
processed. Data can be something simple and processed,
seemingly random and useless until it is organized. organized,
structured or
presented in a
given context
so as to make it
useful, it is

Example Each student's test score is one piece of data. The average
score of a class
or of the entire
school is
information that
can be derived
from the given

Etymology "Data" comes from a singular Latin word, datum, which "Information" is
originally meant "something given." Its early usage an older word
dates back to the 1600s. Over time "data" has become that dates back
the plural of datum. to the 1300s
and has Old
French and
Data Information
Middle English
origins. It has
always referred
to "the act of
informing, "
usually in
regard to
instruction, or
3. Accessible - Information should be easily accessible by authorized users so they can obtain it in
the right format and at the right time to meet their needs. Accurate -information is error free. In
some cases, inaccurate information generated because inaccurate data is fed into the
transformation process. [This is commonly called garbage in, garbage out [GIGO].] Complete
Complete information contains all the important facts. For example, an investment report that
does not include all important costs is not complete. Economical Information should also be
relatively economical to produce. Decision makers must always balance the value of information
with the cost of producing it. Flexible Flexible information can be used for a variety of purposes,
For example, information on how much inventory is on hand for a particular part can be used by
a sales representative in closing a sale, by a production manager to determine whether more
inventory is needed, and by a financial executive to determine the total value the company has
invested in inventory. Relevant information is important to the decision maker. Information
showing that lumber prices might not be relevant to a computer chip manufacturer.

4. Adaptive systems are ones that are continually changing to meet

the demands of the environment while non-adaptive systems do
not change. A system is a regularly interacting or interdependent group of items
forming a unified whole.[1] Every system is delineated by its spatial and temporal boundaries,
surrounded and influenced by its environment, described by its structure and purpose and
expressed in its functioning.
Alternatively, and usually in the context of complex social systems, the term is used to describe the
set of rules that govern structure or behavior.

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6. Performance measurement[1] is the process of collecting, analyzing
and/or reporting information regarding the performance of an individual,
group, organization, system or component. It can involve studying
processes/strategies within organizations, or
studying engineering processes/parameters/phenomena, to see whether
output are in line with what was intended or should have been achieved.
Performance measurement is not a new concept, but rather an old concept of renewed
importance today. In 1943, the International City Management Association published an
article on measuring the performance of municipal activities. During the Kennedy
administration, systems analysis processes were introduced to the Department of Defense
which fueled interest in performance measurement in the federal government. Other
agencies began experimenting in performance measurement when the Johnson
administration introduced what they called planning-programming-budgeting system (PPB).
Eventually more and more state and local governments began using performance
measurement to improve their management and budgeting. The use of performance
measurement became a common practice in the 1970s with the introduction of new social
programs that needed to be assessed. However, interest in performance measurement did
dwindle in the 1980s, as people did not perceive benefits of using performance
measurements in making decisions. In the 1990s, performance measurement was
reenergized as the demands for holding government entities accountable to public
increased. A number of resolutions were passed by associations such as the National
Academy for Public Administration, urging government to set goals and measure their
performance and in 1993, The Government Performance and Results Act was passed by the
federal government requiring their agencies to become involved in strategic planning, goal-
setting, and performance measurement.
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8. A computer(-based) information system is essentially an IS using

computer technology to carry out some or all of its planned tasks. The
basic components of computer-based information systems are: Hardware-
these are the devices like the monitor, processor, printer and keyboard, all
of which work together to accept, process, show data and
information.Software- are the programs that allow the hardware to process
the data.Databases- are the gathering of associated files or tables
containing related data.Networks- are a connecting system that allows
diverse computers to distribute resources. Procedures- are the commands
for combining the components above to process information and produce
the preferred output.
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11. Theres one major distinction between an intranet and the Internet: The Internet
is an open, public space, while an intranet is designed to be a private space. An
intranet may be accessible from the Internet, but as a rule its protected by a
password and accessible only to employees or other authorized users. From
within a company, an intranet server may respond much more quickly than a
typical Web site. This is because the public Internet is at the mercy of traffic
spikes, server breakdowns and other problems that may slow the network. Within
a company, however, users have much more bandwidth and network hardware
may be more reliable. This makes it easier to serve high-bandwidth content, such
as audio and video, over an intranet

12. Transaction Processing SystemTransaction processing systems meet the data collection,
storage, processing and outputting functionalities for the core operations of a
business. TPS information systems collect data from user inputs and then generate
outputs based on the data collected. An example of TPS system could be an online air
ticket booking system. In such a system, travelers select their flight schedule and
favorite seats (the input), and the system updates the seats available list, removing
those selected by the traveler (the processing). The system then generates a bill and
a copy of the ticket (the output). TPS information systems can be based on real-time
or batch processing, and can help business owners meet demand without acquiring
additional personnel. Customer Relationship Management System Business owners use
customer relationship systems to synchronize sales and marketing efforts. CRM
systems accumulate and track customer activities, including purchasing trends,
product defects and customer inquiries. The capabilities of typically CRM information
systems allow customers to interact with companies for service or product feedback
and problem resolutions. Businesses may also use CRM systems internally as a
component of their collaboration strategies. As such, CRM information systems allow
business partners to interact with each other as they develop ideas and products.
Collaboration can occur in real time even when business partners are in remote
locations. Business Intelligence Systems Business intelligence systems can be complex
as they identify, extract and analyze data for various operational needs, particularly
for decision-making purposes. BIS information systems may provide analyses that
predict future sales patterns, summarize current costs and forecast sales revenues.
Business intelligence systems collect data from the various data warehouses in an
organization and provide management with analyses according to lines of business,
department or any breakdown that management desires. For example, financial
institutions use BIS systems to develop credit risk models that analyze the number
and extent of lending or credit given to various sectors. These systems may use
various techniques and formulas to determine the probability of loan defaults.
Knowledge Management Systems Knowledge management systems organize and
dissect knowledge and then redistribute or share it with individuals of an
organization. The purpose of these information systems is to bring innovation,
improve performance, bring integration and retain knowledge within the organization.
Although KMS information systems are typically marketed to larger enterprises, small
businesses can also benefit from harvesting knowledge. KMS information systems
serve as a central repository and retain information in a standard format. These
systems can help business owners maintain consistency and enable speedy
responses to customer and partner inquiries.
Information literacy is the ability to access, organize, evaluate
and use information from various sources.
Computer literacy is having the knowledge to use technology in
order to manipulate computer software or hardware.

There is a strong correlation between the two, but they are still
different. Both concepts use critical thinking, but information
literacy goes beyond knowledge and access in learning more.

To be clearer, with information literacy one is taking what has

been read and learned and applying it. With computer
literacy one can have the knowledge but not necessarily know
how to use it or apply it.

Basically, with information literacy one will take the knowledge

to the next step by using the access to organize, use and
evaluate what has been found. With computer literacy one has
the technology to manipulate the computer, but they may not
have the information to continue on through the process
and derive a conclusion based on evaluations and organization.

Computer literacy, if you want to think of it in steps, is the

literacy before information literacy in which the person is on
their way to gaining the extra knowledge they need in order to
apply what is currently known.

Information literacy also requires one to have awareness in how

information systems work and the link between information need,
sources and channels.

An example would explain this easier. You can know how to use
Google search, but unless you take it a step further such as
knowing what you need, the sources and the channels to gain
what you need you will be stuck with unhelpful answers.
Certainly, you know you need keywords in a searchengine, but
unless you know what keywords you are stuck. This is the
relationship between the two concepts. Computer Literacy is
considered to be a very important skill to possess while in the first world.
Employers want their workers to have basic computer skills because their
company becomes ever more dependent on computers. Many companies try to
use computers to help run their company faster and cheaper.