compressors

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compressors

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You are on page 1of 76

References:

Engineering

Towler and Sinnott Chemical Engineering

Design

Stanley M. Walas Chemical Process

Equipment: Selection and

Design

1

Gas Handling Equipment

they generate just enough pressure

- To overcome line friction

- To raise or lower pressure to some required

operating level in the connected process

equipment

2

Gas Handling Equipment (Contd 1)

Fans, Blowers and Compressors are the commonly

used gas handling equipment. Classification is mainly based

on discharge pressure

Fans accept gases at near atmospheric pressure and

raise the pressure by around 130 to 1500 mm wc

Blowers raise the pressure of gases to an intermediate level,

usually to less than 4 kg / cm2 g

Compressors are used where higher pressures are

required. In modern terminology, the term

compressors includes blowers.

Vacuum pumps and steam jet ejectors are used to

generate vacuum

3

Fans

Large Fans are the commonly used centrifugal

machines

Operate on the same principle as centrifugal pumps

Fan impellers are mounted in light sheet metal casings

Their impeller blades typically curve forward

In ventilating fans, nearly all of the added energy goes

to increase velocity and almost none to pressure

head

Since the change in density in a fan is small,

incompressible flow equations used for centrifugal

pumps can be applied to fans

4

Fans (Contd)

5

Compressors

The two major type of compressors are positive

displacement and rotodynamic

Positive displacement cover

- Reciprocating piston

- Rotary (screws, lobes)

Dynamic cover

- Centrifugal (radial flow)

- axial flow

Compressors work in the region of compressible flow

A proper selection is essential to meet the typical

6

Compressors (Contd 1)

operating principles

7

Compressor operating ranges

8

Centrifugal Compressors

widely used in chemical and petroleum refinery

industry. Also widely used in iron and steel industry

and on offshore platforms.

and pressure to fluid

consists of an impeller as the rotating element

and a stationary element, the diffuser

9

Centrifugal Compressors (Contd 1)

In centrifugal compressor, the fluid flow enters the

impeller in the axial direction and is discharged from

the compressor radially at a right angle to the axis of

rotation. The gas flows through a circular chamber

(diffuser) in a spiral path where it loses velocity and

increases pressure.

Pressure rise depends on RPM and impeller diameter

Maximum permissible speed is limited by the strength

of the materials of the blade and the sonic velocity of

the fluid

10

Centrifugal Compressors (Contd 2)

Section of a Compressor

11

Centrifugal Compressors (Contd 3)

pressure applications

required pressure in multiple stages; it contains a

series of impellers on a single shaft operating at high

speed in a massive casing.

impeller to the inlet of the next

12

Centrifugal Compressors (Contd 4)

inlet. Outlet pressures could be as high as 20 atm.

Inter-stage cooling is required on the high pressure

units.

motor, steam turbine or gas turbine

13

Centrifugal Compressors (Contd 5)

Section of a

three stage

Compressor

14

Centrifugal Compressors (Contd 7)

Advantages

- Higher efficiencies compared to reciprocating

compressor

- Gives lubricant free air

- Does not require special foundations much less

vibration

Disadvantages

- High initial cost

- High rotational speed requires special bearings and

sophisticated vibration and clearance monitoring

15

Compressor operating ranges

16

Axial flow Compressors

is low with high intake volume of flow

stream; fluid flow enters and exits the turbine in an

axial direction (parallel with the axis of rotation)

17

Axial flow Compressors (Contd 1)

Compresses the gas by first accelerating the fluid and

then diffusing it to increase its pressure

Gas flow is accelerated by a row of rotating airfoils

(blades) called the rotor, and then diffused in a row of

stationary blades (stator); stator converts the velocity

energy gained in the rotor to pressure energy.

There is no change in flow direction

One rotor and one stator make up a stage in a

compressor. Inter stage cooling is generally not

required

Driver of axial flow compressor can be steam turbine

or electric motor

18

Axial flow Compressors (Contd 2)

19

Compressor operating ranges

20

Positive Displacement Compressors

Rotary compressor

- Commonly used for discharge pressures

up to about 6 Kg/cm2 g

- Derives its pressurizing ability from the spinning

component which is eccentric to the casing

21

Positive Displacement Compressors (Contd 1)

between vanes which reduce it in volume as the

impeller rotates

require minimum operating attention and

maintenance

22

Positive Displacement Compressors (Contd 2)

23

Positive Displacement Compressors (Contd 3)

A screw compressor

24

Positive Displacement Compressors (Contd 4)

Reciprocating compressor

- Relatively low flow rate, high pressure machines

- Uses the positive movement of piston within a

cylinder to move gas from one pressure level to a

higher pressure level

- Single acting when the compressing is

accomplished only on one side of the piston,

double acting when it uses both sides of the piston

- These machines operate the same way as

reciprocating pump; important differences are

prevention of leakage is more difficult and

temperature rise is important.

25

Positive Displacement Compressors (Contd 5)

and any number of stages can be provided with

intercoolers.

150oC by providing adequate cooling

26

Positive Displacement Compressors (Contd 6)

27

Positive Displacement Compressors (Contd 7)

Advantages

- simple design

- easy to install

- lower initial cost

- special machines can reach extremely high

pressure

Disadvantages

- higher maintenance cost due to many moving

parts

- Potential vibration problems

28

Design Considerations for Compressors

Fluid properties

- Gas composition Component name,

molecular weight, boiling point

- Corrosiveness e.g. H2S

- Fouling tendency : flushing

- Liquid in the gas stream

- Inlet pressure and temperature

- Discharge pressure and temperature

29

Design Considerations for Compressors (Contd 1)

Mechanical design of compressor

- Casing & cylinder Maximum Allowable Working

Pressure (MAWP)

- Casing & cylinder Maximum Allowable Working

Temperature

- Piping flange and rating

- Shaft and piston rod seal

- Process Compression Stages Requirement of side

streams

Utilities available and their specs

30

Vacuum Producing Equipment

Vacuum Pump

- A compressor that takes suction at a pressure

below atmospheric and discharges against

atmospheric pressure is called a vacuum pump

- Hence, any type of blower or compressor

reciprocating, rotatory or centrifugal can be

adapted to vacuum practice by modifying the

design

- Recips are effective for absolute pressure down to

about 10 mmHg; Rotary vacuum pumps can lower

the absolute pressure to 0.01 mmHg

31

Vacuum Producing Equipment (Contd 1)

high vacuum is not required is liquid ring vacuum

pump. While normally water is used as the sealing

medium, other medium can also be used

32

Vacuum Producing Equipment (Contd 2)

Compressor

33

Vacuum Producing Equipment (Contd 3)

- Vacuum can also be produced by the action of

flowing fluids

- Steam jet ejectors are commonly used in

process industries. A 5-stage steam jet ejector

system can produce vacuum as low as 0.05

mmHg.

34

Vacuum Producing Equipment (Contd 4)

- No moving parts

- Quiet

- Easily installed

- Readily adaptable to handling corrosive

vapour mixtures.

Disadvantages

- Comparatively expensive to operate

when cost of steam is high

35

Vacuum Producing Equipment (Contd 5)

36

Vacuum Producing Equipment (Contd 6)

- As many as six ejectors are needed for

low pressures.

- Inter-stage condensers are deployed for

the sake of steam economy.

- Frequently these condensers are

barometric type

- The tail pipe of the condensers are sealed

with a ~10 m pipeline water in a seal pot

37

Vacuum Producing Equipment (Contd 7)

temperature of the water is below its bubble point at

the prevailing pressure in a particular stage.

Common practice require the temperature to be

about 3 C below the bubble point. Alternative is to

use surface condenser. Or to avoid a condenser

between in the early stages

C superheat to avoid corrosive effect of liquids on

the throat of the ejectors

38

Vacuum Producing Equipment (Contd 8)

39

Vacuum Producing Equipment (Contd 9)

inter-stage barometric

condenser

40

Vacuum Producing Equipment (Contd 10)

with surface

condensers inter-

stage and terminal

41

Drivers for Moving Equipment

and IC engines

- For loads under 100 kW, motors are mostly used

- Blowers and compressors are advantageously

driven by turbines because the high operating

speeds of 4000 to 10000 rpm are readily obtained

- When fuel is cheap or readily accessible, gas

turbines and IC engines are preferred

42

Drivers for Moving Equipment (Contd 1)

Motors

- Three main classes

- Induction

- Synchronous

- Direct current.

Higher voltages are more efficient, but only in the

larger sizes. Commonly used voltages in Indian

industries are 415 V, 3.3 kV, 6.6 kV, 11kV

43

Drivers for Moving Equipment (Contd 2)

of their simple and rugged construction. They are

constant speed devices 3000 rpm (2 pole), 1500

rpm (4 pole), 1000 rpm (6 pole), 750 rpm (8 pole).

1500 rpm is the most commonly used

- Synchronous motors are used where lower speeds

(less than 750 rpm) are required. They are good for

low speed reciprocating compressors. They are

more costly than induction motor since costs of

control equipment are higher. Hence, only used for

higher power applications

44

Drivers for Moving Equipment (Contd 3)

fine speed adjustment and a wide range of speed

control is required e.g., plunger pumps, conveyors,

hoists

45

Drivers for Moving Equipment (Contd 4)

Electrical Code). Some classes of protection are:

above drip

proof

Drip proof Dripping liquids

Weather protected 10 50 Rain, dust

TEFC 25 100 Explosive and non-

explosive

Explosion proof 110 140 Flammable and volatile

liquids

46

Drivers for Moving Equipment (Contd 5)

- Utilize the expansion of steam or gas to deliver

power to a rotating shaft. Salient features are high

speed rotation, adjustable speed operation, non-

sparking, simple controls, flexibility w.r.t. inlet and

outlet pressures

47

Drivers for Moving Equipment (Contd 6)

Steam Turbines

- Single stage normally used as drivers, normally of

condensing type. For multistage units, steam can

be bled at multiple reduced pressures to provide

steam at various pressures to the plant.

the plant cannot be overemphasized

48

Drivers for Moving Equipment (Contd 7)

When gases (other than steam) are used as the

motive fluid, the equipment is called as gas expander.

They are used to recover energy from high pressure

process streams in a plant when the lower pressure

gas is adequate

Gas turbines are the equipment that recover power

from hot combustion gases

IC engines are an excellent choice when low cost fuel

is available. Their installation and operation cost is

low. Example of use is in offshore drilling

49

Compression and Expansion of Gases

temperature), then for a unit mass of ideal gas,

Pv = constant

50

Compression and Expansion of Gases (Contd 1)

W = P1v1 ln (P2/P1) (1)

= (RT1/Mw) ln (P2/P1)

where

W = Work to be done, J/Kg v1 = Initial volume

P1 = Initial pressure P2 = Final pressure

Mw = Molecular weight of gas, in Kg/mol

T1 = Inlet gas temperature, oK

R = Universal gas constant, 8.314 K-1mol-1

51

Compression and Expansion of Gases (Contd 2)

In industrial compressors, the compression path will be

polytropic, approximated by Pvn = constant

(value of n depends on the design and operation of the

machine)

And the general expression for Work to be done (W) is

W = P1v1 (n/(n-1)) [(P2/P1)((n-1)/n) 1] (2)

= Z (RT1/Mw) (n/(n-1)) [(P2/P1)((n-1)/n) 1]

Where Z = compressibility factor (1 for ideal gases)

Energy required to compress a gas can be estimated

by calculating the ideal work and applying a suitable

efficiency value

52

Mollier Diagram

entropy chart

gases such as air, steam, methane

Isentropic work can be easily calculated:

W = H2 - H1

53

Mollier Diagram (Contd 1)

where

H1 = Specific enthalpy at the pressure and

temperature corresponding to the initial

gas condition,

and

H2 = Specific enthalpy at the pressure and

temperature corresponding to the final gas

condition

54

Mollier Diagram for Steam

55

Example 1

bar. If the isentropic efficiency is 0.85, calculate the

energy required to compress 10,000 Kg/hr of the gas.

Estimate the exit gas temperature.

56

Example 1 (Contd 1)

57

Example 1 (Contd 2)

Enthalpy H1 = 4500 cal /mol

(at P1 = 1 bar, Temp = 290oK)

Enthalpy H2 = 6200 cal / mol

(isentropic path)

Therefore,

Isentropic work = 6200 4500

= 1700 cal /mol

Actual work = 1700/0.85 = 2000 cal /mol

58

Example 1 (Contd 3)

H2 = H1 + 2000

= 4500 + 2000

= 6500 cal /mol

59

Example 1 (Contd 4)

= (10,000 x 103 /16) x 2000 cal / mol

= 1.25 x 109 cal / hr

= 1.25 x 109 x 4.187 J /hr

= 5.23 x 109 J /hr

= 1.45 MW

60

Compression and Expansion of Gases (Contd 3)

estimate the ideal work required to compress a gas

by calculating the ideal and applying a suitable

efficiency value

normally used, (n = ) in Eqn.2, along with efficiency

from fig. 3.7

61

Compression and Expansion of Gases (Contd 4)

the polytropic efficiency given in fig. 3.6 is used,

and in Eqn. 2

n = 1/(1 - m)

m = ( 1) / ( x Ep)

62

Compression and Expansion of Gases (Contd 5)

63

Compression and Expansion of Gases (Contd 6)

64

Example 2

of air from ambient conditions to 200 KN / m2 g using a

single stage reciprocating compressor

P1 = 1 atm

= 101.33 KN /m2 absolute

P2 = 200 + 101.33

= 301.33 KN/m2 absolute

for air, = cp / cv = 1.4

65

Example 2 (Contd 1)

Take inlet temperature of 30oC

At that temperature, specific volume

v1 = (22.4/29) x (303/273)

= 0.8573 m3/Kg

Work W = P1v1 ((/(-1)) [(P2/P1)((-1)/) - 1] (Eqn.2

with n= )

W = 1.0133 x 105 x 0.8573 x [1.4/(1.4-1)] x

[ (3.0133/1.0133) ((1.4 1)/1.4) 1]

= 1.0133 x 105 x 0.8573 x 3.5 x (2.9740.286 1)

= 1.0133 x 105 x 0.8573 x 3.5 x (1.366 -1)

= 111.28 KJ / Kg

66

Example 2 (Contd 2)

P2 / P1 = 3.0133 / 1.0133

= 2.974

Isentropic efficiency from Fig 3.7 is 84%

So work required

= 111.28 / 0.84 = 132.476 KJ / Kg

Mass flow rate = flow rate / v1

= 1000 / (3600 x 0.8573) = 0.324 Kg / sec

Power reqd.= 132.476 x 0.324 = 42.9 say 43 KW

67

Multistage Compressor

At higher pressure ratios, temperature rise is

too high for efficient operation

Hence for high pressure generation,

compression is split into a number of stages

with intercoolers between each stage

Inter-stage pressures normally selected to give

equal work in each stage

68

Multistage Compressor (Contd 1)

For a two stage compressor,

compression ratio (CR)in each stage is (P2 / P1) 1/2

and interstage pressure Pi ,is

Pi = CR x P1

For a three stage compressor, CR = (P2 / P1)1/3 and

interstage pressures Pi 1 and Pi 2 are

Pi1 = CR x P1

and Pi2 = CR x Pi1

= CR xCR x P1

and so on

69

Example 3

Estimate the power required to compress 1000 m3/hr of air from

ambient conditions to 700 KN /m2 g using a two stage

reciprocating compressor with an intercooler

P1 = 1 atm = 101.33 KN/m2 abs

P2 = 700 + 101.33 = 801.33 KN/m2 abs

For air, = cp / cv = 1.4

Compression ratio (CR) in each stage

= (8.0133 x 105 / 1.0133 x 105 )0.5 = 2.812

Therefore, interstage pressure Pi =101.33 x 2.812

= 284.9KN/m2

70

Example 3 (Contd 1)

Take inlet temperature of 30oC

v1 = (22.4 / 29) x (303 /273)

= 0.8573 m3 / kg

Work for each stage

Work W = P1v1 ((/(-1)) [(Pi /P1)((-1)/) - 1]

= 1.0133 x105 x 0.8573 x (1.4/(1.4-1))

x [ (2.849 /1.0133) ((1.4 1)/1.4) 1]

= 1.0133 x105 x 0.8573 x 3.5 [2.8120.286 1]

= 1.0133 x 105 x 0.8573 x 3.5 [1.344 -1]

= 1.0459 x 105 J/Kg = 104.59 KJ / Kg

71

Example 3 (Contd 2)

For 2 stages,

W = 2 x 104.59 = 209.18 KJ / Kg

Compression ratio in each stage = 2.812

For Compression ratio = 2.812, = 83% (from fig 3.7)

So work required = 209.18 / 0.83 = 252.02 KJ / Kg

Mass flow rate = 1000 / ( 3600 x 0.8573)

= 0.324 Kg / sec

Power reqd. = 252.02 x 0.324

= 81.65

say 82 KW

72

Electric Drives

pump) can be calculated from a knowledge of motor

efficiency.

Electric power

Power required by pump or compressor

= ________________________________

Electric motor efficiency

73

Approximate Efficiencies of Electric Motors

5 80

15 85

75 90

200 92

750 95

>4000 97

74

Class Exercise

A three stage reciprocating compressor with

intercoolers is used to compress 1000m3 / hr of air

at 50oC from 100 kN / m2 g to 1800 kN / m2 g.

Calculate

a) Compression Ratio for each stage

b) Inter-stage pressures

75

Answer

a) P 1 = 100 + 101.33 = 201.33 kN/m2 ab

P2 = 1800 + 101.33 =1901.33 kN/m2 ab

CR for each stage

= (1901.33 / 201.33)1/3 = 2.114

b) Inter-stage pressures

Pi1 = (CR x P1) = 2.114 x 201.33

= 425.61 kN / m2 ab

Pi2 = (CR x Pi1) = 2.114 x 425.61

= 899.74 kN / m2 ab

76

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