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Yojana July 2017


Sl.No. Topics Page No.

1. EMPOWERING THE DISABLED .................................................... 3



4. SOCIAL SECURITY : GLOBAL SCENARIO....................................... 8

5. ENSURING A RISING TIDE .............................................................. 10

1.EMPOWERING THE DISABLED dependent persons with disabilities are

Social security is the action eligible for income tax deduction under
section 80 DD.
programmes initiated by the government to
promote the welfare of its population. Thus, National scholarship for students who
the purpose of social security is to provide are persuing post matric/ professional/
various support and resources to the technical courses of duration more than one
vulnerable people such as children, old age, year. Students with disabilities are provided
and people with disabilities in order to with 3 percent reservation in seats in

improve the quality of life. government and government aided

Article 43 of Indian constitution
The comprehensive education scheme
speaks of state's responsibility to provide
to provide transport facilities, remove
social security to the citizens of the country.
architectural barriers, supply free books,
Article 41 states that states shall, within the
uniform and other materials, grant
limits of its economic capacity and
scholarship, restructure curriculum and
development, make effective provisions for
modify the examination system for the benefit
securing the right to work, to education and of children with special needs.
to public assistance in cases of
The Integrated Education of Disabled
unemployment, old age, sickness and
Children (IEDC) aims to provide educational
opportunities for the moderately disabled
Every state has social security children in the general school system. The
schemes for differently abled people who are scope of the Scheme includes pre-school
poor or unable to maintain themselves and training, counseling for parents and
the government provides monthly community involvement.

maintenance as per the guidelines of The government reserved 5 percent

respective states and applicant's income. reservation in posts in Group A,B,C and D
positions in government services, public
sector banks and PSUs. They are given upto
Persons with disabilities are eligible for 10 years of age relaxation for recruitment of
professional and income tax deduction under government jobs.
section 80 U and the legal guardians of | 3
The Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Sugamaya Pustakalaya is an online
Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA) platform that makes accessible content
guarantees employment to rural household available to print-disabled people. The library
adults including differently abled persons. houses publications across diverse subjects
Under National Rural Livelihood and languages and multiple accessible
Mission(NRLM), a provision of 3% of the formats.
total beneficiaries has been made for PwDs.
They are eligible for loans under the
Indira Gandhi National Disability differential rate of interest in all the public
Pension Scheme (IGNDPS) under the sector banks. Rate of interest is charged upon
National Social Assistance Programme 4 percent uniformly throughout the country.
(NSAP) provides pension to BPL persons with
Under the Indira Gandhi National
severe or multiple disabilities between the age
Disability Pension Scheme (IGNDPS) BPL
group of 18 to 79 years @ of Rs. 300 p.m. per
persons aged 18-79 years with severe and
multiple disabilities are entitled to a monthly
Under Deendayal Disabled pension of Rs.300/-.
Rehabilitation Scheme (DDRS), financial
assistance is provided through Non
Though various disability specific
Governmental Organizations (NGOs) for
programmes are available in the country,
various projects for providing education,
vocational training and rehabilitation of coverage is not comprehensive and does not

persons with disabilities. tackle the issues and common problems of

The main objective of the Assistance to
Lack of information and dissemination
Disabled persons for purchasing / fitting of
and absence of single window approach often
aids / appliances (ADIP) scheme is to assist
makes the differently abled person unaware
the needy disabled persons in procuring
of these benefits and schemes available to
durable, sophisticated and scientifically
manufactured, modern, standard aids and
appliances that can promote their physical, The multiplicity of agencies or
social and psychological rehabilitation, by departments looking after disability benefits
reducing the effects of disabilities and need to be integrated together to have a
enhance their economic potential. comprehensive program design and uniform
implementation throughout the country. | 4
The 10th plan advocated the Monsoon failures impair not only
introduction of Component plan for the current production but their effects can spill
disabled in the budget of all concerned over to subsequent seasons and years via
ministries in order to ensure a regular flow of water levels in reservoirs, rivers, canals, wells
funds for schemes for the empowerment of and soils.
disabled. This must be implemented
Sometimes excess rainfall or untimely
rainfall also poses a grave threat. In Bihar rise
Comprehensive administrative in water levels displaced 5 lakh people and
arrangements, pooling the funds from various affected over 3 lakh hectares of land.
sources and delivering the benefit under
Raising MSP encourages the farmers
professional supervision and control are
to grow more crops and keep the
important steps to be taken.
remunerative prices stable but only if
government can procure adequately.

2. SECURING FARMER'S WELFARE : Demand fluctuations and global

REALITY TO VISION competition may further intensify price

From the days of food shortage in uncertainties with opening up of markets.

1960s India found a place among the world's For many years, human resource
top milk and rice production and attained self development of the poor was not in focus.
sufficiency in food because of the various Villages where bulk of the poor dwelt worst
policy interventions. affected. Even after the school enrolment

Yet, in this growth story, large sections began to receive importance, education felt

of primary producing farmers remained short in quality and employable skill content.

deprived and disenchanted. Not only do farm Budget constraints, weak

incomes tend to be low, some of the worst implementation and corruption are some of
victims of economic uncertainty is farmers. the reasons for this pathetic situation. They
also undermined public health services on
which also large sections of farmers in the
Small sizes of Indian farms can create
country depend.
diseconomies. Population growth, together
with poor industrial employment generation Although public efforts focussed on
creates pressure on land, keeping per capita physical communication in the last decades
farm incomes low. still 16 percent of villages are deprived of all | 5
weather roads. Recent census shows that 45 - Keeping in view the importance soil
70 percent of rural households still lack health, soil health card scheme was initiated
electricity and water facilities. for the first in which an unanimous soil
specimen unification and trial methodology
Evidences suggest that women
has been adopted. Through this scheme 12
withdraw from labour force with the advent
soil health parameters are analysed so that
of new technology and higher income
the farmers might be aware accurately about
opportunities. given the obvious preference
the use of fertilizers and nutrients in their
for men o move to non farm work often
feminisation of agriculture is a compulsion
for poorer women. The Sub-Mission on Agroforestry has
been launched by government to augment
tree planting activities, intercropping and
After thorough review of erstwhile Medh Par Ped. The scheme has been
scheme of Modified National Agriculture implemented in the states having liberalised
Insurance Scheme (MNAIS), the Government transit regulations for transport of timber.
launched PMFBY in April, 2016.The scheme This will not only help in reducing the effects
includes not only coverage of risks to of climate change, increase soil biodiversity,
standing crops, but also covers risk such as but it will also provide a source of income for
prevented sowing and post-harvest losses. farmers.
Under this scheme, farm level assessment of
losses due to localized calamities is being National bovine productivity mission

done for the first time and 25 % of the has been started for the enhancement of

assessed claims are paid online immediately. income of animal rearers, milk production
and productivity. For the first time in the
Earlier, different states had different country, 8.8 million milch animals are being
regulations for the mandis. After consultation
issued Nakul Swastha Patra and UID cards
with the states, rectification of three rules -
under the Pashudhan Sanjeevani scheme and
recognition of e-trading, implementation
are being provided comprehensive health
mandi tariff on single window and single treatment.
licence across the state have been
implemented to provide single mandi for Blue Revolution has been concentrated

trading to the farmers. on one point for all of its schemes related to
the productivity of water resources, fisheries,
inland fisheries in order to enhance the | 6
security of fish rearers, marine fisheries, a focus on the different dimensions across the
mariculture and the development of the entire agriculture to nutrition pathways in a
harbours for fishery farmers. unified approach.

Recently ICAR has declared The government should immediately

agriculture, horticulture, fisheries and agro promote the consumption of diverse diet like
forestry stretched to 4 years span as color plate diet of USA. The colors represent
profession degrees. These degrees enable the the composition of daily intake of the food in
students for obtaining fellowship, admission the meal. The colors pertaining to different
in universities and different post graduation food groups like cereals, pulsed, fruits,
degrees abroad. vegetables etc., are made aware to the people.

The following portals like E-Dialogue, Utter importance should be given to

Agriculture e-office and E-Agriculture Mandi the culture and local food habits, and those
have been made through the use of which improve nutritional status. A top down
information and communication technology approach has never been successful given the
which has carried out expeditious diversity of food production, consumption
performance in a transparent way. and preparation in the country.

3. PRIORITISING AGRICULTURE TO Decentralization in food policy may

NUTRITION PATHWAYS actually work with greater emphasis on

It has been widely discussed in the governance and accountability.

literature that food security is a multi Good infrastructure should be made

dimensional process involving production, available as infrastructure, availability of
distribution, consumer choice and adequate medical centers and newspapers are
intake of macro and micro nutrients. instrumental in improving the consumption

However in India, food policy making of diet.

become redundant with policies framed on While it may be quite difficult to

the basis of either ideological issues or what provide subsidized food items other than
had worked in the past. cereals and pulsed incentives to producers of

There was limited focus on diet vegetables, fruits, milk, egg, fish, meat etc

diversity, and all the energies were directed at depending on local patterns and consumption

launching a revamped PDS which is not the may be provided.

urgency of the movement. What we require is | 7
Both the Tendulkar and Rangarajan Government intervention should be in
Committee recognized the importance of the form of taxing fatty food products and
nutrients other than calories and supermarkets who encourage consumption of
incorporated same in the calculation of unhealthy food products.
poverty line estimation. A index like "Healthy
Safety of food also involves the less
eating living index" must be framed from the
usage of chemicals in production and
pattern of consumption from the household
preservation. Guidelines must be formulated
level and this will be essential tool in framing
for safe usage of the pesticides and chemicals.
Climate change remains another
Cash transfers should be implemented
important issue interrelated with food safety
with caution that the same is used for
issues. For example, food systems are
improving the food security status to
adjusting in the Indo Gangetic plains due to
households. Cash transfers may shift
climate change.
household's consumption from staple food
items towards a more diverse and nutritious 4. SOCIAL SECURITY : GLOBAL
Social security systems often
Older women are generally the
recognised as the shock observer system and
decision makers in the household, and they
a step towards protecting people against
should be more educated to promote the
vulnerabilities, bridging social inequalities,
consumption of diverse diet.
ending poverty and hunger and for
Given the digital revolution in the strengthening human dignity, social cohesion
country poor individuals must be tracked at and democracy.
regular intervals. This strategy has been
The social security systems in most of
implemented in the ultra poor regions of
the countries started with select populations
Mongolia, where households are continuously
and benefits, witnessed an expansion of
monitored to lift them out of poverty
benefits and populations along the course and
few countries could make the scheme almost
Fast pace of urbanization, easy universal.
availability of fatty acid products, price , life
style and excessive marketing makes people
obese. Wealthy should be properly educated
about these ill effects. | 8
International experience shows that
Almost all countries have included old there should be a systematic mechanism for
age pension and retirement benefits for inclusion of target beneficiaries, likely to be
formal sector employees and provision of excluded otherwise. A road map for
minimum wages. increasing breadth and depth of such
initiatives has to be available and agreed at
Efforts to cover additional populations
are sub optimal and the coverage with most of highest level with sufficient legal provisions.

the current benefits has been less than The recent initiatives like AADHAR and Jan
comprehensive and universal. dhan yojana could provide excellent
platforms and should be proactively weaved
There is a general agreement in all
into roadmap and framework for
countries to include health in social security
schemes. however only a few countries have
set up mechanisms to progress towards In India, there are multiple social
universal health coverage. security provisions which are being poorly

In federal structure, the provinces and implemented. Therefore an autonomous

states are the ones to design and implement agency at both national and state level would
schemes and national level provides policy bring efficiency and implementation
guidance and rules and regulations to bring effectiveness.
A social security investment plan must
There have been innovative be developed for next two decades with clear
approaches, on the go modifications and understanding of the resource requirement,
learning, use of information and giving due consideration to changing
communication technology tools for optimal
scaling up these services.
There should be innovative and
Many countries which are making
assured financial mechanism to fund these
good progress have attempted to converge
social security schemes must be in place to
schemes and integrate the implementation.
ensure sustainability. If needed mandatory
In these settings, the providers have been
contributions from select and target
separated from purchaser of these services
and an independent and autonomous agency populations have to be implemented by

administers these provisions on behalf of the constitutional and legal amendments.

government. | 9
Solidarity is the key principle of the 5. ENSURING A RISING TIDE
social security system. This can be brought Social security measures broadly refer
through involvement of community in such to public, that is government provisioning for
initiatives as well through awareness economic security and social welfare of
generation efforts, which would also individuals and families. Traditionally, the
contribute to increased uptake of existing focus has been on the targeted programmes
schemes. that address deficiencies in some
communities or region.
Health related expenditure and
absence of universal health coverage system Education, healthcare, skills that open
is undoing all social security efforts including up opportunities for improving livelihoods
efforts targeted for poverty reduction in the and interventions will ensure the population
country. So the impetus should be given for to attain economic security and social welfare.
the implementation of universal health
The Government took immense efforts
to ensure the social welfare and particularly
A number of states are at the stage for the targeted groups like women,
where these can show the path to the rest of minorities, dalits and tribal population.
the country for universalisation of social
security schemes including that for universal
health coverage. These role models must be According to WHO estimates, about 5
followed by other states also for better lakh deaths in India alone due to unclean
implementation. cooking fuels. Indoor air pollution is also
responsible for a significant number of acute
In a federal system like India, the
respiratory illnesses in young children. So
states have a major role to play in social
Government launched Pradhan Mantri
security measures. This provides enough
Ujjwala Yojana which empowers women as
flexibility and window for innovations to
she has access to better and clean cooking
make social security initiatives a success.
fuel and which have positive impacts on
Absence of legal safeguards of social health of women and children.
security provisions will violate the goal of
PMJDY has been one of the most vital
security and sustainability of these schemes
initiatives towards financial inclusion in India
will be a challenge. So these schemes have to
till date. The scale of undertaking this project
be provided with proper legal and
in a Mission Mode was much higher than any
constitutional support for sustainability. | 10
other initiatives taken in the past. PMJDY has studies at graduate and post-graduate levels.
been instrumental in bringing almost all 30% of the scholarships are earmarked for
families of the country into the formal girl students.
financial system and enabling citizens at
The Maulana Azad Sehat Scheme
grassroots level to perform financial
aims to provide annual health check-up of
transactions and keep their hard earned
students studying in institutions aided by
money safe.
Maulana Azad Education Foundation and
A scheme for Leadership also provides financial assistance upto Rs.2
Development of Minority Women called lakhs for minority students for serious
Nai Roshni has been launched with the illnesses studying in institutions aided by
objective to empower and instill confidence in Maulana Azad Education Foundation.
women, by providing knowledge, tools and
The Ministry has launched Seekho
techniques to interact with Government
Aur Kamao (Learn and Earn) a new
systems, banks, and intermediaries at all
100% Central Sector Scheme for Skill
levels so that they are emboldened to move
Development of minorities. The scheme is
out of the confines of home and assume
implemented by private professional skill
leadership roles.
development organizations/companies. The
The Nai Manzil scheme aims to scheme ensures employment of minimum
benefit the minority youths in the age group 75% trained candidates, and out of them 50%
of 17 to 35 years who are school-dropouts or in organized sector. The scheme reserves
educated in the community education minimum 33% seats for minority women.
institutions like Madarsas, by providing them
Prime Ministers New 15 Point
an integrated input of formal education (up
Programme for Welfare of Minorities is an
till Class VIII orX) and skill training along
overarching programme which covers various
with certification, with a view of enabling
schemes of concerned
them to seek better employment in the
Ministries/Departments either by earmarking
organized sector and equipping them with
15% of physical targets/financial outlays for
better lives.
the minorities or by specific monitoring of
The Merit-cum means based flow of benefits/funds to areas with
Scholarship Scheme provides financial substantial minority population.
assistance to the poor and meritorious
minority students pursuing professional | 11
Under Free Coaching and Allied
Scheme candidates belonging to the
minority community are provided financial
assistance for coaching in Government and
the private sector institutes for imparting
coaching/training for Competitive Exams,
Information Technology and other
employment oriented courses. 30% of the
scholarships are earmarked for girl students.

The objective of Maulana Azad

National Fellowship For Minority
Students is to provide integrated five year
fellowships in the form of financial assistance
to minority students to pursue higher studies
such as M.Phil and Ph.D. The Fellowship
covers all Universities/Institutions
recognized by the University Grants
Commission (UGC). 30% of the Scholarships
are earmarked for the girl students. | 12