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2nd Semester Exam Study Guide

Biology Pre-IB
Unit 6- Ecosystems

1. Ecology is the study of the environment and how it relates to living organisms.
2. Factors of an Ecosystem
2.1. Biotic=Living
2.1.1. Plants
2.1.2. Animals
2.2. Abiotic=Non-living
2.2.1. Water
2.2.2. Temperature
2.2.3. Wind
2.2.4. Weather
3. Biome is a community characterized by its unique biotic and abiotic factors
3.1. tundra; taiga; temperate deciduous forest; scrub forest; grassland; desert; tropical rain forest;
temperate rain forest; etc.
4. Succession
4.1. The gradual process by which an ecosystem forms.

4.2. Climax Community

4.2.1. The stable community in an ecosystem (See 4.1)
5. Niche vs. Habit
5.1. Niche-The part of a habitat that a particular organism inhabits (can be different in the species)
5.2. Habitat- is an ecological or environmental area that is inhabited by a particular species of
animal, plant or other type of organism.
6. Density Dependent vs. Density Independent
6.1. DD- Population Change due to biotic factors
6.1.1.EX: “Since snakes prey on frogs, an increase in the frog population causes an increase in
the snake population”
6.2. DI- Population change due to abiotic factors
6.2.1.EX: “Off the coast of Peru, many fish die due to a change in the winds and the movement
of ocean currents”
7. Biogeochemical Cycles
7.1. Water Cycle
7.1.1. Movement of water between ground, bodies of water, and air.

7.2. Carbon Cycle

7.2.1. Movement of carbon between organisms, ground, and air.

7.3. Nitrogen Cycle (nitrogen is important to structure and functioning of all organisms)
7.3.1. Movement of nitrogen between atmosphere, soil, and organsims.

7.4. Phosphorus Cycle (P is an ingredient in nucleic acids, phospholipids and ATP)

7.4.1. Movement of phosphorus between rocks, solutions and organisms.

8. Interactions of Organisms
8.1. Organism- Individual
8.2. Population- Group of individuals (same species)
8.3. Community- Group of species
8.4. Ecosystem- All biotic and abiotic factors
9. Biomes
9.1. Tropical Rainforests-
9.1.1.Tropical rain forests are found in regions where temperatures and precipitation
are high year-round
9.1.2.Tropical rain forests may contain 50% or more of the world's biodiversity. High
biodiversity appears related to high ecological specialization of species.
9.1.3.Tropical rain forests are being converted to agricultural land, with associated
erosion and disruptions of nutrient and water cycling.
9.2. Tropical Dry Forest-
9.2.1. Seasonal Dry and Wet Season
9.2.2. 80o average
9.2.3.India, Central US
9.3. Tropical Savannas-
9.3.1.Very warm season
9.3.2.Never cold
9.3.3.Little rain
9.3.4.Grasslands, no forests
9.3.5.Africa and Australia
9.4. Deserts-
9.4.1.Very little or no rain
9.4.2.Water evaporates quickly
9.4.4.N. Africa
9.4.5.W. America
9.4.6.Middle East
9.5. Temperate Grasslands- (richest soil)
9.5.1.Hot summer
9.5.2.Cold winter (snow)
9.5.3.Little rain
9.5.4.N. America
9.5.5.N. Asia
9.6. Temperate Woodlands- (Deciduous Forest)
9.7. Temperate Forests- (Season Changes)
9.7.1.High precipitation
9.7.3.Rich soil
9.7.4.Central US
9.8. Coniferous Forest- (conifers)
9.8.1.Trees produce cones with seeds
9.9. Taiga-
9.9.2.N. Russia
9.9.3.Far N. America
9.9.4.Small lakes
9.10. Tundra
9.10.1. Permafrost
9.11. Freshwater
9.11.1. Salt-free
9.12. Estuaries
9.12.1. Freshwater meets saltwater (brackish)
9.13. Marine
9.13.1. Salt water