The Student, «««.««.««««««««««. with ID Number of ««««««« at the Department of Environmental Engineering in the Faculty of Engineering, Who Performed ««««. Workdays Industrial Training in the Academic Year of ««-««, and the Aforementioned Training Has Been Accepted as ««««« Workdays. The above information is true as far as to my knowledge and concern. In case any fault or error is found in the above said statement I shall be held responsible for the action arising out of that.

Sandeep Kumar B.Tech 4th year (ECE) Poornima Institute Of Engg. And Technology

1.1 Introduction:
NTPC, India's largest power company, was set up in 1975 to accelerate power development in India. It is emerging as an µIntegrated Power Major¶, with a significant presence in the entire value chain of power generation business.NTPC ranked 317th in the µ2009, Forbes Global 2000¶ ranking of the World¶s biggest companies. With a current generating capacity of 32,194 MW, NTPC has embarked on plans to become a 75,000 MW company by 2017. Vision: "A world class integrated power major, powering India¶s growth, with increasing global presence." Mission: ³Develop and provide reliable power, related products and services at
competitive prices, integrating multiple energy sources with innovative and eco-friendly

technologies and contribute to society.´

1.2 Background of the company:
NTPC kahalgaon (a venture of NTPC limited )located in Bhagalpur district in Bihar near the banks of river Ganges. It is basically a super thermal power plant generating electricity from coal. The plant has nearly 4000 employees from different parts of the country generally from West Bengal, Jharkhand, Orissa etc. It was established way back in the year 1990 and from then it has made considerable amount of progress and this

continues till today. The company has been working to serve to the society with the most basic and essential need that is ³electricity´. Moreover it also supports many small scale and large scale industries in the region of Bihar and other neighboring provinces like West Bengal, Bihar,Jharkhand, Orissa, Sikkim. Today this branch of NTPC ltd produces around 2300 MW of electricity. (210 X 4 and 500 X 3).

1.3 Organizational Structure:
The company is a government enterprise and comes under the public sector . It is under the direct control of the Government Of India. The company has its own board of members and has its headquarters at New Delhi.(NTPC bhawan, Scope complex , 7 institutional area, Lodhi road New delhi-110003). Basically a thermal plant there are three major companies that help for the the establishment of the thermal plant namely B.H.E.L (bharat heavy electrical limited) , N.T.P.C and Power grid corporation. The work done by the companies are listed below. B.H.E.L ± It works in the establishment of a power plant i.e it provides the basic material and all the machinery required for the establishment of a power plant. The machinery may include items ranging from turbines to generators and several other essential parts. N.T.P.C ± It works for the smooth running of the power plant i.e production of electricity. Morever it also works for the maintainence of the power plant and looks after the glitches that occur in the plant. Power Grid ± The work of N.T.P.C is only to produce electricity but the work of distribution of the produced electricity is done by Power Grid. The power Grid decides how much electricity is to be send to which place.

The company has a advisory board which looks after the working of the power plants in an efficient manner and to solve problems regarding any issues in the company. ADVISORY BOARD: y y y

y y

Chairman and Managing Director: Mr. R.S.Sharma Director (Finance): Shri A.K.Singhal Director (Commercial): Shri I.J.Kapoor Director (Technical): Shri D.K.Jain Director (Projects): Shri B.P.Singh Chief vigilance officer : Shri T. venkatesh

1.4 Nature of Business:
The company basically deals with the production of electricity from water. Presently, NTPC generates power from Coal and Gas. With an installed capacity of 32,194 MW, NTPC is the largest power generating major in the country. It has also diversified into hydro power, coal mining, power equipment manufacturing, oil & gas exploration, power trading & distribution. With an increasing presence in the power value chain, NTPC is well on its way to becoming an Integrated Power Major. The water is first heated to steam and then this steam is used for rotation of turbines which in turn produces electricity. For this it requires huge amount of coal and water. The water is taken from the river ganges and coal is taken from Rajmahal Coal Fields of ECL. in Jharkhand.

1.5 Products:
The product is generally the generated electricity which is supplied to the neighbouring states.

1.6 Market strength:
NTPC has been ranked 317th rank in the world among the biggest companies. This has for sure increased the confidence of the investors and shareholders.

Stock quote: 197.00

NTPC has been operating its plants at high efficiency levels. Although the company hass

18.79%of the total national capacity it contributes 28.60% of the total power generation due to its focus on high efficiency.

In October 2004, NTPC launched its Initial Public Offering (IPO) consisting of 5.25% as offe

for sale by Government of India. NTPC thus became a listed company in November 2004 with thee

Government holding 89.5%of the equity share capital. The rest is held by the Institutional investors and the Public. NTPC is among the largest 5 companies in India in terms of market capitalization.


NTPC has adopted a multi-pronged growth strategy which includes capacity addition through green field projects. 10000 MW through gas. located across the country.1 Introduction: NTPC is one of the leading power generating coprporation in india. NTPC has been operating its plants at high efficiency levels. These departments serve as the building blocks which works individually. the power generation portfolio is expected to have a diversified fuel mix with coal based capacity of around 53000 MW. They can be broadly classified into the following departments depending upon the nature of work they do. 9000 MW through hydro generation.2 COMPANY INFRASTRUCTURE: 2.79%of the total national capacity it contributes 28.60% of the total power generation due to its focus on high efficiency. In addition under JVs. The total installed capacity of the company is 30. subsidiaries and takeover of stations. By 2017. 2. joint ventures. 3 stations are coal based and another station uses naptha/LNG as fuel. expansion of existing stations. .144 MW (including JVs) with 15 coal based and 7 gas based stations.CHAPTER. about 2000 MW from nuclear sources and around 1000 MW from Renewable Energy Sources (RES).2 Department Structure: For the smooth running of the company the overall load is distributed among various departments. Although the company has 18.

(NESCL) The company was formed on August 21.3 Network structure NTPC Electric Supply Company Ltd. The company¶s objective is to undertake sale and purchase of electric power. as a sequel to reforms initiated in the power sector.R department 2. It is a wholly owned subsidiary company of NTPC with the objective of making a foray into the business of distribution and supply of electrical energy. to effectively utilise installed capacity and thus enable reduction in the cost of power. as a wholly owned subsidiary company of NTPC.i) Finance department ii) Surveillance department iii) Project department iv) Field work department a) Information technology and communication b) Control and instrumentation c) Process management d) Material management e) Raw material handling f) Heavy vehicles maintenance department v) Employee development department and vi) H. NVVN . (NVVN) The company was formed on November 1. 2002. 2002. NTPC Vidyut Vyapar Nigam Ltd.

(NHL) The company was formed on December 12.NTPC Hydro Ltd. This includes installation of EPABX. 2. PPDCL is under winding up. valves etc. 2002. In addition to this in communication network the whole hardware installation has been done by the company CORAL. So it¶s need is catered by some companies which offers a complete set of packages required. More>> Pipavav Power Development Co. Ltd. Gujarat Power Corporation Limited (GPCL) and Gujarat Electricity Board (GEB) in 2004 for development of a 1000 MW thermal power project at Pipavav in Gujarat by forming a new joint venture company between NTPC and GPCL with 50:50 equity participation. . The control and instrumentation unit is also controlled with the help of software. The software package is provided by ABB. These includes software as well as hardware. Pursuant to the decision of Gujarat Government.4 Software and hardware: Although the company needs a variety of hardware and software for its smooth running. has dissociated itself from this company. This includes automation of starting and stopping of different equipments such as motors . NTPC Ltd. The hardware package is provided by IBM. as a wholly owned subsidiary company of NTPC with an objective to develop small and medium hydroelectric power projects of up to 250 MW. (PPDCL) A memorandum of understanding was signed between NTPC. this has no doubt decreased human interference and above all risk of any accident. IRIS.

with PLF of 102. y . The Unit # 6 of 490 MW of National Capital Thermal Power Project. y NTPC Coal Stations recorded the highest generation of 588. The previous highest generation was 587. Programme is meant for working Engineers from Central and State utilities. funding agencies and other stakeholders. private sector companies.90 MU. Moreover it has several further plans to increase its strength in the field of power generation. Dadri was synchronized with coal on 16. y NTPC.99 MU.53% on 26th March '09.685% on 31st March.5 Available Plans: The company is working hard to achieve greater heights and to earn mare respect among the companies. a PLF 102. Power Grid and DVC signed a Joint Venture Agreement (JVA) for incorporation of a JV Company to set up an Online High Power Indigenous Test Laboratory for short circuit test facility in the country to ensure testing of the electrical equipments as per international standards in New Delhi.07.2. It has also plans for nuclear power plants.2010. For this it has undertaken several projects . '09. PMI will be conducting a training programme on "Advance Course in Power Station Maintenance Operation and Efficiency" from 11/01/2010 to 03/04/2010. It is expected to achieve full load shortly. y y NTPC and NPTI to run ITI at Barkagaon in Jharkhand. This was the second unit planned to provide power to Commonwealth Games to be organized in Delhi in October 2010. NHPC.

A fan. This coal is transported upto the raw coal bunkers with the help of belt conveyers. P. Information technology and communication and 2. Both department concurrently work for the company.3 3. The mill consists of a round metallic table on which coal particles fall. The seamless connectivity and high speed data transfer is managed by the communication system whereas the control of various equipments and other processes is controlled by the c&I unit.CHAPTER.A fan takes atmospheric air.2 Project description What the plant does basically is described as follows. Coal is transported to bowl mills by coal feeders. a part of which is sent to air preheaters for while a part goes directly to the mill for temperature control.1 Introduction: The training at NTPC was divided into two sections namely 1. There are three large steel rollers which are spaced 120 degrees apart. Coal from the coal wagons is unloaded in the coal handling plant. This table is rotated with the help of motor. Atmospheric air from F. . 3. The crushed coal is taken away to the furnace through coal pipes with the help of hot and cold air mixture from P. Control and instrumentation. The coal is pulverized in the bowl mills. where it is grounded to a powdered form.D fan is heated an the air heaters and sent to the furnace as combustion air.

Water from bottom ring header is divided to all the foue sides of the furnace. Flue gases from the furnace are extracted by induced draft fan which maintains balance draft in the furnace with F. Due to heat and density difference the water rises up in the water wall tubes. Based on Faraday¶s law of Electromagnetic Induction a change in magnetic field induces e. Cold water from river is circulated through tubes and as the steam from the turbine passes round them it is rapidly . The steam then passes through a Intermediate pressure turbine and a Low Pressure Turbine which are just used for boosting purpose. Water is partly converted to steam as it rises up in the furnace. The steam and water mixture is again taken to the boiler drum where the steam is separated from water. Water follows the same path while the steam is sent to superheaters for superheating. The steam from the turbine is cooled down in a condenser.D. The steam generated is made to pass through a three stage turbine. This flue gases emits their heat energy to various super heaters in the plant house and finally passes through the air preheaters and goes to ESP where the ash particles are extracted. The super heaters are located inside the furnace and the steam is superheated and finally it goes to turbine. ESP consists of metal plates which are electrically charged. Water from the drum passes through down commers and goes to bottom ring header. Ash particles are attracted on this plate so that they do not pass through the chimney to pollute the atmosphere .f and thus electricity is generated. The steam is first made to pass through a High Pressure Turbine after which it is passes through a reheater to regain the lost temperature.Water from boiler feed pump passes through economizer and reaches the boiler drum. fan. The blades of turbine rotate at a speed of 3000 rpm and thus rotate the coils in the generator.m.

TPE.. Furnace safeguard supervisory system Data acquisition system SWAS and its auxiliaries Communication Satellite communication offers a great number of advantages over terrestrial links. USA). 2. Steam Water Analysis System & uninterrupted Power Supply system (supplied by Keltron). it is passed through further feed heaters to the economizer and the boiler for the reconversion into steam. namely :High availability minimal/nil fading No last mile problem y y . 6. it is preferred over terrestrial communication. SYSTEM ANALYSIS. 1. USA). 9. Control and instrumentation The control & instrumentation package of Kahalgaon project (4x210 MW + 3 x 500) is supplied by Russian with the Main package by M/s. Where the cooling water for power station is drawn from large rivers . 5.condensed into water condensate. The C&I package can be broadly classified into the following categories. From the condenser the condensate is pumped through LP heaters by the extraction pump. that is why. 3. USSR. In addition to the original Russian supplied system there are Furnace Safeguard Supervisory System (Make Forney. Process Measurements Process Protections Interlock & Protections of Boiler and Turbine auxiliaries Selective Control System & Short Sequence System Auto Control system Annunciation system. 4. 7. Data Acquisition System (Make Westinghouse. Cooling towers are used where about one hundredth part of the cooling water evaporates and certain amount is returned to its source to carry away any impurities that collect. it can be returned directly to the source after use. 8.

SYSTEM DESIGN C&I 1. multiplexer. DTE. The EPBAX connects to the main plant telephone exchange as well as a member of subscribers.y y y y y The disadvantages being:- Extensive coverage-Hemi/Zonal/Spot Broad cast nature allows easy point to multipoint links Easy scalability and expandability of network Security and secrecy can be adequately addressed Less prone to failure due to natural calamities y High up. EPBX. NTPC. The users can connect to the worldwide web or the company s internet using this system. From the router the data is routed to the multiplexer from where it goes to the RFT via a modem. In the process where mass monitoring is required like Boiler . router. Private Branch Automatic Exchange. A proxy server is also present in the Corporate Center from where it connects to the Internet w world via CGI and MTNL/BSNL server. which are much more damage prone. The indoor unit comprises a modem. Using a PC the users can connects to the company LAN via a modem and then via server all the outside mails are router to the Proxy server. PROCESS MEASUREMENT The process parameter measurement is realized by means of Transmitters.Khalgaon has been shown in figure I. The data is transmitted via the antenna and the satellite to the NTPC earth station at Muradnagar (now NOIDA). Thermocouples. To connect to the Corporate Center a 2Mbps micro wave link is used. A Satcom exchange has also been provided in NTPC-Khalgaon. The out door unit basically consists of the Antenna. which caters to the communication needs all its 96 employees. DAMA.front investment in ground segment y High recurring cost on satellite segment. RTDs and other primary instruments. This is particularly useful in case of terrestrial links. The layout of the SATCOM exchange BPL INOX 250. These provide the facility of voice communication via satellite to the users. GDAMS data is also sent to the corporate centre using this link. The signals received from these primary instruments are utilized for Control /Record /Indication of the process parameter and protection of the process.

potentimetric and bridge type. TSI equipment & all process variation measuring transmitters. milliampere. transmitters are providing. These are utilised for measurement of transmitter signal. Generally for Auto Control System dedicated transmitters are provided with 100% redundancy. pressure and flow. All transmitters are of strain gauge type. Status of the same is indicated through mimic just above the operating panel. For some process parameters the signal for DAS & Measurement is shared from a single transmitter.e. Selective and Short sequence panels. For remote indications of level.operative area consisting of Interlock and Protection panels. There is facility to control the operation of all drives. Annunciation panels. .All the secondary instruments are powered from UPS including Recorders.The other is the Non. Turbine bearing temperatures and Generator slot temperatures in these cases either multipoint recorders or indicators with a manual switch for point selection is provided. Turbine metal temperatures. Unit Control Board (UCB) is distinctly divided into two parts. Indicators.metal temperatures. Recorder & Indicator panels. In the operator desk The recorders & indicators are of three different types depending upon the inputs i. One is operative area which contain Desk panels. Auto Control panels. thermocouple signal and resistance thermal detector signal receptively. Explosion proof Transmitters are provided for explosion prone areas like Fuel oil pump house and Hydrogen plant. which gives an output of 4 ± 20mA when the pressure across the diaphragm varies from minimum range to maximum range. valves & dampers from operator desk panel. This sharing is done through Zener diode isolation circuit. Transmitter power supply panels & Mimic panels . RC feeder & FSSS panels.

The cell constant and cell slope is adjustable.L. Auto calibration facility is also available. winding temperature PA Fans & Mills are shared by DAS and measurement from dual RTD. . For cleaning these tubular type For Drum level protection as per the original design. Coal pipe temperatures of furnace inlet are exclusively provided in DAS only. In case of fire the differential temperature increases and when it crosses a pre-set value alarm is obtained at UCB. This gives annunciation when it crosses the alarm value.For the measurement of excess Oxygen in flue gas. supplied by I. The output of the probe is mv. In Air preheater system. 01. . There are many important parameters. which is converted to mA through converter. In Boiler Feed Pumps the bearing temperature recorders & winding temperature indicators are located at local which helps the operator for easy monitoring of the temp regularly.Kota) is installed at 41 meter in second pass of Boiler. differential temperature of air & gas is measured in a recorder. Bearing temperature. which are measured locally through pressure gauges & switches. For safe operation of Turbine the following Turbo Supervisory measurements are carried out in continuous basis. which is of tubular type. an insitu zirconia probe (Make Westinghouse. level switches are provided at different levels. However presently protection of drum level is of two out of three logic rooted through Hydrastep (Keyston Make) both left and right side and the pressure compensated signal from drum level compensation package (supplied by M/s Bells control). Axial shift.

which is subsequently amplified by preamplifier at local. the pivot point of the turbine rotor. 06.02. . Control valve servo meter position measurement. 03. 07. One is for vertical vibration & other one for axial & cross sectional vibration. For Turbine vibration measurement in each bearing there are two pick-ups. In each pick up there is a facility of on line checking of healthiness by injection of A. 08. At UCB the signal is processed & integrated to get velocity measurement output in the range of 0 ± 12 mm/sec or 0 ± 30mm/sec. For Turbine speed measurement a permanent magnet pick up is mounted above a wheel of 60 teeth attached to turbine shaft located at MOP. This pick up is having a coil which is induces an A. This square pulse is finally counted by the counter located in NOP area which gives three Analogue & three digital output used for local / UCB analogue / digital measurement. 05. HPC / IPC/ LPC differential expansion measurement are realised by a instrument based on the principle of Linear voltage differential transducer principle. Seal Noise device for Bearing 1 to 7. Vibration signal is measured by piezoelectric crystal. 04. Eccentricity HPC/IPC thermal expansion Turbine speed measurement Turbine vibration of Bearing 1 to 7. which induces a millivoltage as per the vibration.e. Axial Shift. The signal is converted into analogue output of 0 ± 5 mA who is shared DAS & measurement. Axial shift pick up is fixed near brg-2 i.C current which is processed by a pre amplifier to get a square pulse.C voltage another piezoelectric crystal placed near to the measuring crystal. HPC / IPC differential expansion.

For each stage air temperature before cooler is measured and independent tripping is initiated when it rises beyond the alarmed value. In each pump Bearing temperature is measured & dedicated recorders are provided in local panel. This helps the UCB personnel to maintain & monitor the offsite area. There are two sets of lift pumps. there are four compressors common to all four units. In Air Compressor house. when any local annunciation is generated a parallel contact goes to UCB and µcontrol board faulty µ annunciation appears. FOPH. Recorders and instruments indication the temperature & current etc. In each set there are two pumps connected in series. Fuel oil flow to boiler and return oil flow from boiler is measured through transmitters. H2 & chlorine plant. The Compressor has got two independent motors winding for two independent speeds (Low speed and High speed). for easy monitoring and operation of the equipment in addition to local Pressure gauge. In offsite areas including Fly Ash. There are four oil storage tanks in which level and temperature are measured.e. UPH.There is a provision of two-alarm contact for alarm & warning setting for the measurement of each vibration. Gland sealing is required for each stage of pump. pressure switch. In Fuel Oil Pump House their three receiving tanks. This arrangement is done to give more discharge Pressure to the slurry. each consisting of two oil transfer pumps. Each set consists of two stages. Compressor trips when lubrication oil pressure falls below the set limit and cooling water flow is absent. Each Bottom Ash pump house consists of three sets of pumps. Suction and discharge pressure is measured through local gauges. Pneumatic valves are provided in the discharge of the pumps. are also provided near the equipment itself. In case of emergency i. . The ON/OFF status of the major offsite drives are available in UCB # 1. There are two BottomAsh a pump house. Bottom Ash.

Signal converter block.2.Some of the important blocks are mentioned below. Unit protection. . The system is based on a split architecture. 2. PROCESS PROTECTION Protection intended to prevent the damage of the equipment under the alarm conditions can be broadly divided into the following categories.LPH. AUTO CONTROL SYSTEM The Auto Control system is intended to maintain process variables within a predetermined range and to ensure the reception of process data. The system produces control instructions & actions which helps in achieving the predetermined state. Controllers comprises of two separate units i. 6. 1.e regulating unit and operative unit.D/A) 4. 4. 2.Signal input block. 3. Turbine local protection (HPH. Turbine protection BFP protection Boiler trip protection Boiler load drop protection QPRDS protection 7. The Controllers actions are processed through different blocks which are used for different purposes . 5. 1.

UNIT CAPACITY CONTROL This controller is for maintaining a controlled TG power output and mainsteam inlet pressure to turbine. Parallel command goes to annunciation blocks also. millivolts or resistance depending upon the type of transducer used which in-turn converted to 0 ± 10v for block operation through input signal block.Integration block 4. This also optically isolates the input & output signals. Boiler capacity controller will receive unit preset capacity .Annunciation block The input to the system is of 4 ± 20 mA .Summator block 5. A.Provisions are there for bumpless transfer of actuator from auto mode to manual mode. The pulse output block compare the process parameter set point . Boiler capacity control and Turbine capacity control. Provisions are there for manual change over to the standby in case of failure of the working transmitter . The main automatic controllers are as detailed below. In the event of abrupt failure such as open circuit or short circuit in transmitters controller trip action takes place through this block. For some important controllers redundant transmitters are provided. process parameter measurements and control valve position and gives output accordingly for the control valve.Pulse output block 6.There is a signaling unit.3. which compares the parameter value with a predetermined set point. This controller incorporate Load change limiter. Deviation beyond that gives alarm & changes the Auto operation into Manual Mode.

B.e Devices and Stop valves Audio-visual alarm annunciation of emergency tripping and autostart of equipments Audio-visual process annunciation. Alarm is provided with each annunciation block. ANNUNCIATION SYSTEM The Annunciation system is intended to make available the information about the equipment under control. Total Air flow . It generates a demand signal to a coal flow controller & total air flow controller. Visual status indication of equipment under control i.signals from unit load rate of change limiter and the actual power output. Summation of Coal flow & Fuel Oil flow are used for Total air flow controller which maintain a predetermined value of free oxygen in flue gas. Turbine capacity control initiates command to operate the speeder gear motor. Furnace draught controller & F. COMBUSTION CONTROL Combustion control is done by means of Coal flow controller . rate of feed forward signals of the preset output. controller. Furnace draught is controlled through controlling the inlet vanes of ID fans. the error signal representing the discrepancy between the demand and actual main steam inlet pressure to for time . Mill loading controller regulates feeding of coal to the pulverizes. Audio-visual preventive alarm annunciation of parameter deviation from normal values.O pr. y y y y . deviation of measured parameters from the normal (preset) value and interlock action. The loop actuates individual actuate of FD fans dampers for maintaing the specified free oxygen in flue gas. Turbine capacity controller will receive signal from actual power output . Mill loading controller. 5.

Section ± I controls the Boiler & off site annunciations. when arises actuate the annunciation system. igniters. Mills. of subsystems (Excluding Maintenance subsystem ± II) per each unit each responsible for predefined . PA Fans. Once the alarmed value is reached by any signal. USA i. seal air fans and their associated dampers etc. oil guns. The main task of FSSS is to control the fuel system equipments i. Besides. AFS ± 1000 Burner management system employs plug in printed circuit board assemblies. Flashing takes place till the resetting is not done. If the alarmed condition still exist then it glows steadily. The circuit is powered by 110v DC which is generated by 3 phase 415v AC rooted through a transformer and diode rectifier circuit. section ± II controls the turbine related annunciations and section ± III looks after the generator related annunciation. 6.This permits maintenance by replacing board without causing the total shutdown.There are three major section in the annunciation circuit. The Burner Managent System logic comprises of ten nos.e of Model AFS ± 1000 is a 16 bit 80186 microprocessor based system. Each annunciation section will be provided with test push buttons to check the audio annunciation signal and with the panel switches for lamp healthiness checking.e. FURNACE SAFEGUARD SUPERVISORY SYSTEM The Furnace safeguard supervisory system supplied by Forney. it flashes & hooter circuit is energizes. Operating status of important drives protection status and alarm conditions. one of the most important FSSS task is to implement process protections with provision for a first up annunciation facility on operating console with respect to the first actuated protections. transient and normal conditions. so as to ensure safe operation of the Boiler under start up.

Purge and fuel safety subsystem : The purge and fuel safety subsystem comprises of the following logic. Each subsystem is responsible for a portion of overall control. There are also some logic derived inputs that got transmitted from one subsystem from another and all subsystem operate independently of other purge and fuel safety subsystem. For depicting valves . CRT master subsystem: The primary function of each CRT master subsystem is to act as controller of the intercommunication bus (ICB) used to pass data back and forth between the master and the other subsystem.portion of the overall system. There are two CRT master subsystem . Printer ON/OFF status and Command elements appear of which print out can be taken if required.dampers and drives different symbols were used and when status changes the colour changes. A subsystem consist of a single . . It also decodes commands that it receives from CRT screen. starburst keyboard with intercommunication through fiber optic Assembly and a shared operation interface through fiber of the cable assembly and having touch screen facility. For starting the purge the following conditions should be met. Purge logic has the major responsibility for insuring that the furnace is purged thoroughly with air to remove any combustible before the fuel is released into the headers & into the furnace.board control card (80186 up based ) . one oil burner subsystem & six mill subsystems. solid state input / output printed circuit board assemblies. 01. In the CRT screen the last acknowledged alarm.

All burner oil valves closed. Igniter trip valve closed. Operator trip Drum level high / low Loss of all fuel Loss of all flame . b). 05. It monitors the potential danger points throughout the boiler.a). g). The cause of first out alarm function indicators the cause of the tripping. the fuel safety logic shuts off some or all fuel to the furnace depending upon the conditions. 04. 06. Pre light Logic: When furnace purging is completed pre light logic is responsible for the safe release of fuel into the headers. Both the FD fans off. All hot air damper closed. j). The MFT 1 and MFT 2 relays get trip command when any of the following conditions is / are initiated. k). If the predetermined limits are crossed. Fuel Safety logic ± Fuel safety logic is responsible for overall boiler safety. Pre light logic is also responsible for communicating to the banners subsystem that furnace conditions are satisfactory for banner operation. Oil trip valve closed. pulverizers & Raw coal feeders off. Oil re-circulation valve closed No flame detected Scanner Air fan on. No trip (Boiler) present Air flow >30% After all these conditions are satisfied PURGING takes place for 10Minutes. Any Induced Draught & Furnace Draught running. f). 01. All primary fans . 03. Both the ID fans off. h). d). e). 04. 03. i). 02. c).

feeders and associated program in safety taking burners in service. graphic CRT / KBD and menu driver software.4. The drops talk to each other directly over the data highway. DATA ACQUISITION SYSTEM The Data Acquisition System of 4x210 Mw KhSTPP was supplied by M/S ESPL . The standard . Maintenance subsystem-II. drops connected to each other through high speed standard Westnet data highway having 100% redundancy. Mill control subsystem. primary Air fans. 09. Unit trip from BPS Furnace pressure high/ low Delayed light off (10 min after purging) Air flow (< 30%) low. Burner control sub system ± It is responsible for following a predetermined programme in safety placing burners in service. The MS-II is an equipment helping for fault finding or trouble shooting of the systems input as well as to change the program logic. a control unit. It comprises of on operation console. The system caters 900 analog points and 1400 digital points in each unit Each system supports two units. removal from service and monitoring burner operation. which eliminate the need of host computer.Milling subsystem is responsible for controlling the coal burners and associated pulverizer.Chandigarh. 02. removal from service. 7. interfacing cable assembly. This is a WDPF family of system manufactured by Westinghouse with software level version 6. 08. purging of burners that have been removed from service and for monitoring burner operations. 05.07. 01. This system is a microprocessor based distributed modular type with independent system. 10.

WDPF drops and products perform specific functions. FSSS. inverters. In case of failure of one inverter the other one takes up the full load automatically. chargers. The two inverters. The system consists of 2 nos. are connected together to the O/P busbar to share 50% of the load. ACS etc. and maintenance and Calibration equipment for plant. . Analyse system and Flue gas oxygen analyser. one servo controlled voltage stabiliser (SVCS) and one set of Battery (550AH) for one-hour backup at 75KVA load.Trivendrum for each of the four units which caters the power supply for all C&I system including Data Acquisition system. 8. UPS PACKAGE UPS system of capacity 75 KVA has been supplied by M/S KELTRON . C&I EQUIPMENT PACKAGE: The package was awarded to M/S Keltron. In case of failure of both the chargers the battery automatically takes up the load and starts feeding to the inverters without any interruption. also work in parallel and each one can take the load if needed. The set of battery is connected at the output of the chargers and input of the inverters. In case of failure of both the inverters the SCVS gets connected to the output busbar through the static switch with a maximum time delay of 20millisec. Aroor. Miscellaneous C&I equipment such as switch drivers etc. and one paralleling unit. The package contents of supply of the below mentioned instruments. 2 nos. ANALYSER AND MISC. The SCVS is also connected to the output busbar. 9. The two chargers. (1) (2) Analyser for steam and water. Instrument supply. which allows a custom system to be configured by determining required functions and selecting the appropriate standard equipment. which are meant for feeding the inverters and charging the battery. each of which is rated at 75KVA.

(e) Coil winding machine. Only the supply was in the scope of M/S Keltron. D. (h) Solder sucker. Flow switch. Conductivity. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) Temperature gauges. Thermocouples Flow elements. (i) Variac. (d) Flowmeter calibrator. (l) Logic Probs. Part (1) is consisting of the following major equipment. Secondary coolers. Dissolved oxygen. (a) Pneumatic test bunch. (b) Vacuum tester. (m) Portable pneumatic calibrator. Part (2) consists of the following major. Equipment's. Level switch. Silica Analyser. Temperature switch. (c) Thermocouple test furnace. Phosphate Analysers. PH analyser. (k) RCL Bridge. . Maintenance and calibration equipment. (j) Rheostat/Potentiometer. (f) Soldering iron (g) Radial drilling machine.P switch.(i) (i) The supply and erection and commissioning were in the scope of M/S Keltron. Hydrogen Analyser. (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) Flue gas oxygen Analyser.

Spt Rx Setting : : 6025MHz 3800MHz (6012. The bandwidth was updated to 27MHZ on 19th of July.It and communication« SATELLITE: - The third transponder of INSAT-3E with a bandwidth of 18MHz has been allocated to NTPC to cater to its communication purposes.97MHz E/S U/L LINEAR HORIZONTAL E/S DN/L LINEAR VERTICAL MCPC Stn.00MHz) Beacon Frequency Polarization : : 4190.The Kahelgaon satellite Communication Plan is given below: : : : : INSAT 3E 55 DEG EAST 3 27MHz 6039.00MHz- Satellite Location Transponder No. Transponder Bandwidth . 2005. Setting MCPC Stn. Spt Tx.

ANTENNA:- The antenna is of CASs grain configuration using shaped reflector technique to optimize receive gain to noise ratio and the corrugation technique for primary horn feed to get better symmetry and minimum side lobe of the radiation pattern.200GHz Polarization Gain : LINEAR ORTHOGONAL AND CIRCULAR : 6GHz BAND.700-4.850-6.+90deg AZ -20deg .5+20logf/4dB Power Handling Capacity Antenna Weight TRANSCIEVER:: 5KW C W : 9 TONNES (Approx) The AAV680 C-Band single Package Transceiver ODU interfaces with the 70MHz/140MHz Indoor Unit having bandwidths of + 18MHz.5M dia. The antenna specification is given below:- : LIMITED STEERABLE AZ-EL MOUNT Type Feed And Reflector : 7.+20 deg Frequency Range : TX 5.425GHz Rx 3. AUTO STEP TRACK : EL +5deg .51+20logf/6 dB 4GHz BAND ±47. CASSEGRAIN WITH SHAPED REFLECTOR Tracking Sky Coverage : MANUAL DRIVE. .

up converter 3. The Single Package Transceiver has three parts« Phase Locked Low Noise Block ( PLLNB) Booster for 16W and above (optional) Accessories y y y It also has two modules« L band module comprising. Power supply board 2. SSPA module ( Solid State Power Amplifier ) 3. transmission via antenna and down convert the L-Band signal (950 ± 1450 MHz) to an IF signal of 70/140 MHz. 1. for the demodulator. monitor & control y Power Block Up Module (PBU) This also has some partitions.. synthesizers 2. BUC module ( Block Up Converter ) It designed as a single PCB. All SSPA configurations are designed as soft boards bounded onto aluminum base plates.In Single Package RF Transceiver there 70 or 140 MHz if input from the indoor modulation to an RF signal in the C-Band. As follows. A low noise amplifier is provided which receives the weak . down converter 4. y This also has some partitions. 1. As follows.

two streams of outdoor C-Band and Ex C-Band transceivers have been provided. Redundancy switching equipment performs the switchover operation when a fault is detected at any one of the streams. It uses HEMT devices to achieve low noise. Switchover can be auto/manual and results in less than half a second of traffic interruption. A A low noise amplifier is provided which receives the weak downlink signal (3. low distortion in amplification. A Booster is provided to boost up the transmit power of the signal from SPT. This is used to boost the transmit power of signal from SPT.downlink signal (3. high gain and low distortion amplification features. Another equipment is used named BOOSTER. It requires 12 V DC. SSPA (Solid State Power Amplifier ) This receives RF power from SPT and amplifies to correct power level. It receives very weak down link signal and amplifies it to the right level before sending to SPT for the frequency down conversion. It has two pats. two streams of outdoor C-Band and Ex C-Band transceivers have been provided. There is a LNA device. It uses HEMT devices to achieve low noise. Power supply board This converts AC to DC for SSPA. high gain and low distortion amplification features. . high gain.625-4200MHz) and amplifies it to the correct level before sending it to the SPT for frequency down conversion.625-4. 1. 2. A Booster is provided to boost up the transmit power of the signal from SPT. For better reliability.200MHz) and amplifies it to the correct level before sending it to the SPT for frequency down conversion. Independent path switching between the transceivers is allowed. For better reliability. This procedure uses High Electron Mobility Transistor (HETM) for low noise.

The unit contains.. In the transmit direction the UMOD accepts user data at the common interface module (CIM) and directs it across the backplane to the transmit portion of the terrestrial . The transmit and receive paths are independent for most applications. y y y y Monitor & control (M & C ) module Window access panel (WAP ) IF input power splitter IF output switch M & C« This module comes with an intel based microcontroller to link the monitor and control functions from the out door RCU to the indoor DTE (usually PC). toggle the DIP switch at the out door RCU window access panel.RCU« The redundancy control unit is supplied with +12 or +15 V DC via agile transceivers. The digital satellite modem serves as an interface between the user¶s data terminal equipment and the IF frequency interface with the up/down converter. To active remote /local mode.Users CAN NOT active remote or local mode from the indoor DTE. The UMOD has been configured for full duplex operation. NOTE:. MODEM:The word "modem" is a contraction of the words modulator-demodulator.

highly versatile user configurable modular TDM system providing an efficient method for transmitting data. The data is then routed to the receive portion of the terrestrial data interface daughter card which converts the receive data and clock to appropriate formats and directs it across the backplane to the CIM where they can be accessed by the user. differential encoding & FEC encoding is performed. differentially decoded and interface which converts the users electrical format to the format used in UMOD. The resulting base band data is then directed to the channel decoder where it is FEC decoded. The data is then routed to the transmit filter for digital filtering and interpolation. then passed to the modulator where the signal is PSK modulated onto an IF carrier provided by the transmit synthesizer. passed across the backplane and received by the receive IF processor on the UMOD motherboard which performs low noise amplification. Its main functions are:- . voice and fax over digital data services. then routed for transmission across the backplane to the IF OUT connector on the IF panel. The signal is then routed to the receive synthesizer and demodulator where the IF carrier is removed by either BPSK or QPSK demodulation. The data is directed to the optional internal framing unit for processing and then to the UMOD motherboard. In the receive direction the IF signal is input at the IF IN connector on the IF Panel. This modulated carrier is then amplified inn the IF stage. automatic gain control and filtering. On the motherboard the data is sent to the channel encoder where scrambling. The data then passes through the optional IFU daughter card where deframing and other processing takes place. The UMOD block diagram is illustrated above:MULTIPLEXER:The Kilomux is an advanced.

Two main links are there to provide for standby redundancy for the main link. The Kilomux is designed for unattended operation. The system can be managed using either of the following:Front panel using push buttons and LCD ASCII terminal connection Telnet connection via the Ethernet LAN/SLIP connection y ROUTER:Routers are specialized computers that send your messages and those of every other Internet user speeding to their destinations along thousands of pathways. y y y The router ensures that information doesn't go where it's not needed.. Kilomux can store two different databases and can be configured to switchover automatically between databases per determined by a database which is stored in the non-volatile memory of the Kilomux control module.y y y Multiplexing/De-multiplexing operation System management Interfacing with the optional external system management. This is crucial for . The basic Kilomux system consists of two kilomux units interconnected with each other. A complete collection of parameters configuring the kilomux system and each of its modules. These are crucial devices that let messages flow between networks rather than within networks. It is provided with alarm buffer as well as LED indicator to display in real time the main link and power supply status. A router has two separate but related jobs: RADview network management station. The Kilomux uses permanent on-demand allocation of main link bandwidth.

including: (i) Information on which connections lead to particular groups of addresses (ii) Priorities for connections to be used (iii) Rules for handling both routine and special cases of traffic. One is via the satcom system and the other via the BSNL ISDN line as is illustrated in figure I. A configuration table is a collection of information. It also protects the networks from one another. the rules in a router's configuration table are important to keeping a company's (or family's) network secure. performing translations of various protocols between the two networks. how the network appears to the outside world. in some cases. While most companies also have a special piece of hardware or software called a firewall to enforce security. passing information from one to the other and.keeping large volumes of data from clogging the connections of "innocent bystanders. There are two connections between our router and the ISP. As the number of networks attached to one another grows. the router has rules limiting how computers from outside the network can connect to computers inside the network." The router makes sure that information does make it to the intended destination. In addition to routing packets from one point to another. One of the crucial tasks for any router knows when a packet of . and other security functions. preventing the traffic on one from unnecessarily spilling over to the other. This way the ISDN line is held as an ³insurance´ against a problem with the other faster connection. the configuration table for handling traffic among them grows. ROUTING OF PACKETS:The office network connects to the router using an Ethernet connection. It joins the two networks. and the processing power of the router is increased.

Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchanges used . however). EPABX is owned and operated by the enterprise rather than the telephone company (which may be a supplier or service provider. and shouldn¶t be sent to another network. Originally. such systems . An EPABX is a telephone system within an enterprise that switches calls between enterprise users on local lines while allowing all users to share a certain number of external phone lines. Thus knowing where and how to send a message is the most important job of a router.255. including the Internet. The main purpose of an EPABX is to save the cost of requiring a line for each user to the telephone company's central office. could not exist without the router. Others may have rules that help minimize the damage from "denial of service" attacks. Other routers add additional functions to the jobs they perform. The subnet mask looks like an IP address and usually reads "255." Some manufacturers of PABX (PBX) systems distinguish their products from others by creating new kinds of private branch exchanges. EPABX What is an EPABX? A private automatic branch exchange (PABX) is an automatic telephone switching system within a private enterprise. Rolm offers a Computerized Branch Exchange (CABX) and Usha Informatics offers an Electronic Private Automatic Branch Exchange (EPABX).called private branch exchanges (PBX) .required the use of a live operator. Rules about where messages from inside a company may be sent and from which company¶s messages are accepted can be applied to some routers.0. Some simple routers do this and nothing more. the abbreviation "PBX" usually implies a "PABX. For this. The one constant is that modern networks. it uses a mechanism called a subnet mask. Since almost all private branch exchanges today are automatic.255." This tells the router that all messages with the sender and receiver having an address sharing the first three groups of numbers are on the same network.information stays on its local network.

Most medium-sized and larger companies use a PBX because it's much less expensive than connecting an external telephone line to every telephone in the organization. PBX are at the forefront of the next generation of VoIP based PBX replacements that offer tremendous benefits by consolidating your organization's data and telephony capabilities to a single network. Today. it's easier to call someone within a PBX because the number you need to dial is typically just 3 or 4 digits. key telephone systems. a private telephone network used within an enterprise. A new variation on the PBX theme is the Centrex. In addition. for very small enterprises.EPABXs use digital technology (digital signals are converted to analog for outside calls on the local loop using plain old telephone service). which is a PBX with all switching occurring at a local telephone office instead of at the company's premises. PBX. alternatives to an EPABX include centrex service (in which a pool of lines are rented at the phone company's central office). An EPABX includes: y y y y y Telephone trunk (multiple phone) lines that terminate at the EPABX A computer with memory that manages the switching of the calls within the EPABX and in and out of it The network of lines within the EPABX Usually a console or switchboard for a human operator In some situations. Users of the PBX share a certain number of outside lines for making telephone calls external to the PBX.analog technology originally. and. . EPABX and Key Telephone Systems:-A Comparison Private Branch Exchange Private Branch Exchange. If the telephone system in your organization is based on a legacy PBX (Private Branch Exchange) that uses old style telephone lines then PBX can offer a range of affordable products that will enhance your corporate telephony infrastructure while dramatically reducing overall capital and operating costs. primary rate Integrated Services Digital Network.

y Flexibility and Upgradeability.Here are few of the many benefits of migrating to PBX VoIP: y Operating Cost Reductions. upgrade and operating costs compared to legacy PSTN-based PBXs. y Minimum Investment Risk. A major operating cost of legacy telephony systems is the required intervention by IT managers or technicians when staff moves around the organization. y Improved Employee Productivity and Control of Telephony Traffic. PBX will use a reliable VoIP connection if it is available or it will fall back to a PSTN connection. Call charges are drastically reduced for IP based traffic to and from remote offices. In a PBX VoIP network each user is immediately recognized by handset or log on. Minimum investment is required to get started since the PBX VoIP technology is embedded in your existing corporate data network. Your company can invest in a PBX and just a few SIP handsets to begin with. All of this equates to significantly reduced installation. Our PBX models are among the cheapest on the market and hardware installation is so simple that there is no need to employ technicians or specialists. Subsequent telephony system expansion is as simple as plugging extra handsets into your existing LAN connections. Software configuration is done via your corporate intranet and this is also a simple procedure that does not require specialist staff. Just three cable connections are needed for many installations. y Installation Cost Reductions. The wealth of enhanced telephony user features that arrive with PBX will increase employee productivity while the superb array of built-in call recording and archiving features will facilitate control of telephony traffic. .

PBX can be configured to comply with local laws and regulations that require you to notify either party that the call is being recorded. PBX is uniquely designed to provide non-intrusive recording of all phone calls in both directions. PBX is software based and so upgrades can be performed remotely via the internet. PBX lowers the cost of your long-distance calls by automatically routing each call through the cheapest available VoIP long-distance provider. If this option is enabled the remote party will be recorded in the left channel of an audio file while the local party will be recorded in the right channel of the same file. This is achieved with maximum reliability through a fail-safe sequential selection of: Automatic Recording of all Incoming and Outgoing Calls. Some Further Details:Call Cost Reduction with no Sacrifice of Reliability. It can be configured to play a call recording notification automatically.To upgrade legacy PBXs a technician would need to physically visit the site and make wiring changes or even replace the unit. An option is available to record each party in a separate audio channel. Several standard call recording prompts are available. Here are two examples: .

while PBXs rely on a central control unit located at the customer site. terminals and equipment that provide immediate access from all terminals to a variety of telephone services without attendant assistance. except that key systems rely on the telephone company switching equipment. the dial tone is generated at the telephone company central office. In other words. with a key system. this call may be monitored and recorded. PBX can easily be configured to make a periodic back-up of all conversations onto CD or DVD media. Automatic Backup to CD or DVD.' 'To ensure the highest level of customer service. CD-R/RW and DVD±R/RW formats are supported. A full PBX generates its own dial tones. On a PBX system. lines are connected to the PBX.'This call may be monitored and recorded.Key systems are noted for their expandability and having individual line selection buttons for each connected phone line. and the PBX makes connections to the central office when the outside number is dialed. You can create a CD or DVD archive of all phone conversations within your organization and with the outside world using just a few mouse clicks. Each CD or DVD is given a unique label. a key telephone system is a premises telephone system that is best known by the phones that have buttons for calling inside an organization and for placing calls outside through the public telephone network. Key systems also do not require dialing a number to gain an outside line since all lines are already directly connected to the telephone company central office. A key telephone system is in the same category as a PBX (private branch exchange). You can access your archived data using the PBX device or any PC.' There is also an option to record your own prompts. Key Telephone Systems Often referred to as just KTS. This allows you to easily find the conversation you need. however some features of a private branch exchange such as dialable intercoms may also commonly be present.Key systems can be built using three principal architectures: y y y Electromechanical shared-control Electronic shared-control Independent keysets Electromechanical shared-control key systems . A key system or key telephone system is a multiline telephone system typically used in small office environments.Infact in a local environment.

Before the advent of large-scale integrated circuits. 12. or many individual telephone lines. This would place the call on hold and then mechanically release the depressed line button. An individual worker or executive might have a set with one or a few lines "appearing". The system marketed in North America as 1A2 was entirely typical and sold for many decades. and other simple features. A caller could place a call "on hold" by pressing the red "hold" button. music on hold. The . The system attendant (receptionist) might have a set with many lines appearing so that they could monitor the status of all incoming lines simultaneously. These systems also supported manual buzzers. allowing the user to select another line. key systems were typically built out of the same electromechanical components (relays) as larger telephone switching systems. The lamps installed at the telephone sets allowed the user to instantly determine the status of all of the individual telephone lines that "appeared" at that set: y Lamp off The line is idle y Lamp steady on The line is in use for a call y Lamp flashing slowly The line is ringing with an incoming call y Lamp winking fast A call on the line is "on hold" A user could select any of the lines simply by pressing the appropriate line button and picking up the handset. intercom lines (with or without selective ringing). This system consisted of a central control unit and a number of specialized telephone sets. A common five-line keyphone would be connected using 25-pair cable and an Amphenol 50-position "MicroRibbon" connector. Each line to the telephone sets was routed using six wires: y y Two wires (one pair) carried the actual telephone line Two wires (a second pair) carried control information for that line Two wires (a third pair) carried current to a lamp installed at the telephone y A telephone set could contain five.

. buzzers. In addition. allowing easy customization of these systems. Compatible 1A2 equipment was manufactured by a number of vendors including Western Electric. and Automatic Electric (GTE). A mechanical interrupter in the power supply provided the pulsing voltages for the various lamps. Major Manufacturers The major manufacturers of Telephone Exchanges are as follows:- 1. Northern Telecom. these more-modern systems allowed vastly more features including: y y y y y y Interactive voice response systems Answering machine functions Remote supervision of the entire system Automatic call accounting Speed dialing Caller ID Features could be added or modified simply using software. Zentek Electronics & Communication 2. Yecaud Electronics Pvt Ltd. and ringers in the system.features were provided on a line-by-line basis by the selection of particular Key Telephone Units (KTUs) plugged into a pre-wired backplane in the central control unit. it was possible to eliminate the many-wire cabling and replace it with much simpler cable similar to (or even identical) with that used by non-key systems. Independent keysets LSI also allowed smaller systems to distribute the control (and features) into individual telephone sets that don't require any single shared control unit. Electronic shared-control systems With the advent of LSI ICs. The central control unit also provided power for the entire key system (including ringing voltage). Generally. these systems are used with a relatively few telephone sets and it is often more difficult to keep the feature set (such as speeddialing numbers) in synchrony between the various sets. the same architecture could be implemented much less expensively than was possible using relays. Additionally.

6. Electronics Ushil Electronics Usha Infomatics Unitech Microelectronics Pearl Telecommunication & Electronics Pvt Ltd. Czech. 5. Russian. Tangent systems. 911 emergency dialing over a PSTN line. Multiple VoIP and PSTN backups for bullet-proof reliability. Extensive call recording and archiving. Some Unique Features of EPABX:1. 4. 4. 8. 6. Easy LCD-button operation. 3. 10. VoIP-VoIP and VoIP-PSTN backup. 8. Long distance routing through VoIP. V. Norwegian. 10. RADIUS Accounting. Webtel Electronics Warahi Engineers Pvt Ltd. 7. 6. All incoming and outgoing calls are logged. 5.r. 5. Uses SIP phones/adaptors with automatic detection and configuration. Secure and easy to use Firewall/NAT bypass. 12. Other Features of EPABX:1. Single or Quad T1/E1 units are available. 4. PBX is not tied to a specific VoIP provider or existing network hardware. 8. 2. Spanish. Automated recorded call backup to CD or DVD media. Configuration Backup/Restore on/from CD or DVD media. Auto Attendant. 9. 3. Voice/Data logging. 7. Music On Hold.3. 2. and Swedish Brief Description of the latest Features in EPABX Based in Micro controller technologies: . 4 FXO. User's interface in English. Voice Mail. 7. 9. Caller ID with call annotation to detect incoming and outgoing numbers. Highly scalable: 2 FXO. ACD Queues. 11. 9.

Keyphone Console . These features are designed to impress those who call you on this telecom system.New telecom systems usually have all the basic features of simple systems. which can be used for answering your calls when you are not available. These messages can be played back by the owner of the mailbox. . Caller-ID .Capability to read CALLER-ID or Calling Party's Telephone Number as per data provided by MTNL/BSNL line and show on:. on extensions where call is transferred. and guide the caller further in order to reach the desired extension. message on no-reply of extension and release message. It can be set up as a "single user" or "multiple users" option with each user having a separate private mailbox with a personal password.Redial Dynamic Locking Console Never Busy Fax Homing External Call Forwarding Remote Programming DOSA Auto Disconnection after set interval Call Budgeting INTEGRATION WITH COMPUTERS. and is useful especially if you have many STD/ISD lines. All the call billing data from the telecom system can be transported to the PC's hard disc so that it can be merged with the data thus obtained for the previous and the later periods. The PC needs to have an extra COM port. in call billing data. independently or along with your other applications. This helps to control your telephone bills.ringing extensions. It may also have the capability of RE-TRYING the desired extension when it is not immediately available.Provision to connect a KEYPHONE as a 'Masterphone' or 'Operator Console' to handle higher telephone traffic. Extensions may use normal CALLER-ID phones or keyphones Additional features may include: CALL BILLING with buffer memory and COMPUTER INTERFACE Auto. VOICE MAIL. A MATURE auto-attendant usually has a provision to record at least the BASIC FOUR MESSAGES namely greeting message. Older IMMATURE versions (called Voice DISA) with only greeting message are also available at lesser cost. Voice guidance messages guide a caller to the respective mailbox and the voice mail messages of that person are saved in that automatic operator feature to handle the incoming calls. CALL BILLING COMPUTER: A PC can be hooked up to the telecom system if it has a RS232C serial port on the output of the call billing buffer memory. This data may be used for analysis of calls made and costs incurred. control possible mis-use. message on busy extension. This can be recorded with your VOICE MESSAGES to greet the caller. and in addition they may have (some of) the following features. ETC. and improve ease and efficiency Auto Attendant . who can access this playback function using his secret password. VOICE MAIL : It is a computer based "answering machine". announce the name of your organization.

like the kind you hear when you talk on the phone. There are three different types of VoIP services used in common day to day life. is a method for taking analog audio signals. VoIP can turn a standard Internet connection into a way to place free phone calls. The interesting thing about VoIP is that there is not just one way to place a call. The practical upshot of this is that by using some of the free VoIP software that is available to make Internet phone calls. Providers like Vonage and AT&T CallVantage are bundling ATAs free with their service.What is VoIP? Voice over Internet Protocol. and you re ready to make VoIP calls. VoIP is a revolutionary technology that has the potential to completely rework the world s phone systems. plug the cable from your phone that would normally go in the wall socket into the ATA. VoIP providers like Vonage have already been around for a little while and are growing steadily. Major carriers like AT&T are already setting up VoIP calling plans in several markets around the United States.The simplest and most common way is through the use of a device called an ATA (analog telephone adaptor). and turning them into digital data that can be transmitted over the Internet. you are bypassing the phone company (and its charges) entirely. Some ATAs may . The ATA allows you to connect a standard phone to your computer or your Internet connection for use with VoIP. and the FCC is looking seriously at the potential ramifications of VoIP service. It takes the analog signal from your traditional phone and converts it into digital data for transmission over the Internet. The ATA is an analog-to-digital converter. You simply crack the ATA out of the box.ATA . 1 .

but in any case. speakers. IP Phones . households will have VoIP phone service by the end of 2006. there is usually no charge for computer-to-computer calls. 2. More and more businesses are installing VoIP systems. As long as you have a headset/microphone. With VoIP. Once the call is received by a gateway on the other side of the call. By routing thousands of phone calls through a circuit switch and into an IP gateway. IP telephony just makes sense.These specialized phones look just like normal phones with a handset.S. you can place calls from your laptop anywhere in the broadbandconnected world. With the elimination of . Except for your normal monthly ISP fee. reassembled and routed to a local circuit switch. Soon.ship with additional software that is loaded onto the host computer to configure it. Phone companies use VoIP to streamline their networks. Another alternative is the softphone. and the technology will continue to grow in popularity as it makes its way into our homes. The Vonage softphone has an interface on your screen that looks like a traditional telephone. they can be administered by the provider anywhere there is a connection. cradle and buttons. in terms of both economics and infrastructure requirements. Most VoIP companies are offering minute-rate plans structured like cell phone bills for as little as $30 per month. Wi-Fi IP phones will be available. The Forrester Research Group predicts that nearly 5 million U. Since the IP phones or ATAs broadcast their info over the Internet. 3. You don¶t even have to pay for long-distance calls. preferably a fast one like you would get through a cable or DSL modem. But instead of having the standard RJ-11 phone connectors. it is decompressed. Although it will take some time. But chances are good you are already making VoIP calls any time you place a long-distance call. allowing subscribing callers to make VoIP calls from any Wi-Fi hot spot. a sound card and an Internet connection. they can seriously reduce the bandwidth they re using for the long haul. So business travelers can take their phones or ATAs with them on trips and always have access to their home phone. IP phones connect directly to your router and have all the hardware and software necessary right onboard to handle the IP call. it is a very straightforward setup. no matter the distance.This is certainly the easiest way to use VoIP. IP phones have an RJ-45 Ethernet connector. Perhaps the biggest draws to VoIP for the home users that are making the switch are price and flexibility. Computer-to-computer . All you need is the software. some offer unlimited plans for $79. you can be sure that eventually all of the current circuit-switched networks will be replaced with packet-switching technology (more on packet switching and circuit switching later). a microphone. you can make a call from anywhere you have broadband connectivity. On the higher end. A softphone is client software that loads the VoIP service onto your desktop or laptop. There are several companies offering free or very low-cost software that you can use for this type of VoIP.

so if you re interested. it s best to do a little shopping. VoIP includes: o o o o o o Caller ID Call waiting Call transfer Repeat dial Return call Three-way calling There are also advanced call-filtering options available from some carriers. it helps to first understand how a traditional phone system works. the connection is called a circuit. Circuit Switching Existing phone systems are driven by a very reliable but somewhat inefficient method for connecting calls called circuit switching. In order to understand how VoIP really works and why it s an improvement over the traditional phone system. the connection is maintained for the duration of the call. Now that we ve looked at VoIP in a general sense. you can also check voicemail via the Web or attach messages to an email that is sent to your computer or handheld. You can: y y y y y Forward the call to a particular number Send the call directly to voicemail Give the caller a busy signal Play a ³not-in-service´ message Send the caller to a funny rejection hotline With many VoIP services. Prices and services vary. Most VoIP companies provide the features that normal phone companies charge extra for when they are added to your service plan. This is the foundation of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Circuit switching is a very basic concept that has been used by telephone networks for more than 100 years. 1. it can be quite a savings. Because you are connecting two points in both directions.unregulated charges and the suite of free features that are included with these plans. let s look more closely at the components that make the system work. Here's how a typical telephone call works: . Not all VoIP services offer all of the features above. When a call is made between two parties. These features use caller ID information to allow you make a choice about how calls from a particular number are handled.

So in a 10-minute conversation. though). which is roughly equal to 10 megabytes. The call is routed through the switch at your local carrier to the party you are calling. because you actually owned a 3. and 960 KB every minute it's open. During this time. Plus. for a total transmission rate of 128 Kbps. Instead. this translates to a transmission of 16 KB each second the circuit is open. freeing your line and all the lines in between. When you hang up. And. and your voice along with thousands of others can be combined onto a single fiber optic cable for much of the journey (there's still a dedicated piece of copper wire going into your house. 2. This is called packet switching. 2. much of this transmitted data is wasted. 4.1. neither party is talking. for efficiency. Let's say that you talk for 10 minutes. the switches between New York and Los Angeles would connect pieces of copper wire all the way across the United States. So if you were in New York and you wanted to call Los Angeles. the alternative to circuit switching. You dial the number of the party you wish to talk to. what if we sent just the packets of noisy bytes when you created them? That is the basis of a packet-switched phone network. You paid a lot for the call. we can surmise that we could cut the file in half. which means that only half of the connection is in use at any given time.600 KB. Your voice is digitized. You would use all those pieces of wire just for your call for the full 10 minutes. data networks simply send and retrieve data as you need it. .for seconds at a time. and someone answers the call.7 MB. Packet Switching Data networks do not use circuit switching. Your Internet connection would be a lot slower if it maintained a constant connection to the Web page you were viewing at any given time. the circuit is closed. a significant amount of the time in most conversations is dead air -. Telephone conversations over today's traditional phone network are somewhat more efficient and they cost a lot less. Then. In the early phone system. 7.000-mile-long copper wire for 10 minutes. the circuit is continuously open between the two phones. You pick up the receiver and listen for a dial tone. the other party is listening. While you are talking. up until 1960 or so.If you look at a typical phone conversation. Based on that. 6. These calls are transmitted at a fixed rate of 64 kilobits per second (Kbps) in each direction. instead of sending a continuous stream of bytes (both silent and noisy). Since there are 8 kilobits (Kb) in a kilobyte (KB). the data packets flow through a chaotic network along thousands of possible paths. the file would be even smaller. 3. This lets you know that you have a connection to the local office of your telephone carrier. instead of routing the data over a dedicated line. 8. The phone at the other end rings. A connection is made between your telephone and the other party's line using several interconnected switches along the way. down to about 4. every call had to have a dedicated wire stretching from one end of the call to the other for the duration of the call. If we could remove these silent intervals. 5. the total transmission is 9. The connection opens the circuit. You talk for a period of time and then hang up the receiver.

323 is a standard approved by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in 1996 to promote compatibility in videoconference transmissions over IP networks. A technique used by at least one equipment manufacturer. H. using a T-carrier system or E-carrier interface. Using VoIP. H. it is now considered to be the standard for interoperability in audio. with an address on each one telling the network devices where to send them. to help ensure faster packet delivery is to use ping to contact all possible network gateway computers that have access to the public network and choose the fastest path before establishing a Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) sockets connection with the other end. Adir Technologies (formerly Netspeak).323 was originally promoted as a way to provide consistency in audio.323. video and data packet transmissions in the event that a local area network (LAN) did not provide guaranteed service quality (QoS). gaming. packet switching opens a brief connection -. video and data transmissions as well as Internet phone and . The gateway receives packetized voice transmissions from users within the company and then routes them to other parts of its intranet (local area or wide area network) or. a music file or whatever type of file is being transmitted inside the packet. and so on. voice. from one system to another. an enterprise positions a "VoIP device" at a gateway.323 is a standard approved by the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) in 1996 to promote compatibility in videoconference transmissions over IP networks. as well. The sending computer sends the packet to a nearby router and forgets about it. it uses instructions contained within the packets to reassemble the data into its original state. It lets the network route the packets along the least congested and cheapest lines. When the receiving computer finally gets the packets (which may have all taken completely different paths to get there). Inside of each packet is a payload. H. Although it was doubtful at first whether manufacturers would adopt H. It works like this: y The sending computer chops data into small packets. It also frees up the two computers communicating with each other so that they can accept information from other computers. The payload is a piece of the e-mail. called a packet.just long enough to send a small chunk of data. The nearby router sends the packet to another router that is closer to the recipient computer. and virtual reality. H. That router sends the packet along to another.While circuit switching keeps the connection open and constant. sends them over the public switched telephone network. chat. y y y Packet switching is very efficient.323 and SIP The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard protocol for initiating an interactive user session that involves multimedia elements such as video. even closer router.

SIP works in the Application layer of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) communications model. gaming. and the called party's desire to engage in the communication. SIP establishes call parameters at either end of the communication. chat. voice. The Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard protocol for initiating an interactive user session that involves multimedia elements such as video. SIP is a request-response protocol. H. Once these are assured. Like HTTP or SMTP.3x. bandwidth and user participation.323. and modify. SCTP. SIP determines the end system to be used for the session. This recommendation was announced in August 2000. The latest of these recommendations. An IP PBX is a private branch exchange that switches calls between VoIP users on local lines while allowing all users to . Because the SIP supports name mapping and redirection services. H. by the ITU-TU Study Group 16 and the Megaco Working Group of the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). or terminate them. The main purpose of a PBX is to save the cost of requiring a line for each user to the telephone company's central office. Requests can be sent through any transport protocol. is a recommendation to provide a single standard for the control of gateway devices in multi-media packet transmissions to allow calls to connect from a LAN to a Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). and virtual reality. The Session Initiation Protocol is specified in IETF Request for Comments [RFC] 2543. the communication media and media parameters. as well as to other standardsbased terminals. or TCP. and for networks to identify the users whereever they are. IP-PBXs and hybrid systems A PBX is a telephone system that switches calls between enterprise users on local lines while allowing all users to share a certain number of external phone lines. The Application layer is the level responsible for ensuring that communication is possible. SIP can establish multimedia sessions or Internet telephony calls. and handles call transfer and termination. Participants are identified by SIP URLs. network equipment and services. is part of a larger group of ITU recommendations for multi-media interoperability called H. which describes how multimedia communications oc/cur between terminals. dealing with requests from clients and responses from servers. The protocol can also invite participants to unicast or multicast sessions that do not necessarily involve the initiator. such as UDP. it makes it possible for users to initiate and receive communications and services from any location. PBXs.248.voice-over-IP (VoIP) because it addresses call control and management for both point-to-point and multipoint conferences as well as gateway administration of media traffic.

323 is an older standard developed by the ITU. Some VoIP phone sets offer enhanced quality audio. a VoIP phone set resembles a traditional hard wired or cordless telephone set. Many major vendors are offering hybrid voice systems that combine elements of VoIP and public switched telephone network (PSTN) systems. VoIP phone A VoIP phone is a telephone set designed specifically for use in a voice over IP (VoIP) system by converting standard telephone audio into a digital format that can be transmitted over the Internet.share a certain number of external phone lines. Very few manufacturers are working on new H.323 and SIP both support VoIP and multimedia communications. A VoIP phone allows the user to take advantage of VoIP technology without involving a personal computer. and by converting incoming digital phone signals from the Internet to standard telephone audio. SIP is an open standard and solutions based on SIP are highly interoperable. Getting to know VoIP regulations . It employs the familiar ear and mouth (E&M) arrangement with an earphone (or earpiece) for listening to incoming audio. SIP was developed by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and is text based (similar to HTTP). so they can be considered video telephones. SIP has become the standard of choice and is being worked on by large companies such as Microsoft and Cisco. comparable to that on compact disc (CD). Much of the infrastructure already in place to support HTTP has been adapted to support SIP.323 is a binary protocol and is fairly complex in nature. What is the difference between H. A few VoIP phone sets allow for the transmission and reception of image data during calls.323 and SIP? H. IT managers within businesses are generally more comfortable with SIP because they are used to handling HTTP traffic. A lot of effort has gone into ensuring interoperability and many manufacturers work together to regularly test to ensure this. These new hybrid systems may give enterprises an opportunity to benefit from VoIP cost savings by combining the traditional telephony hardware with new technologies. H. A good chunk of it is based on ISDN which comes from the traditional telephony world. Physically.323 implementations. although an Internet connection is required. and a microphone (or mouthpiece) for transmitting audio. A typical IP PBX can also switch calls between a VoIP user and a traditional telephone user. H.

that 10-minute phone call we talked about earlier consumed 10 full minutes of transmission time at a cost of 128 Kbps. The call processor determines to whom to map the phone number. The soft switch connects the two devices on either end of the call. 3. On the other end. . another three or four calls could easily fit into the space used by a single call under the conventional system. Based on this simple estimate. Using PSTN. the phone number is translated to an IP address (more on this later).it's regulatory hoopla. The call processor checks it to ensure that it is in a valid format.Unfortunately. We're keeping track of developments and will update this report as we learn more. which further reduces the size of each call. Let's take another look at that typical telephone call. For example. The ATA receives the signal and sends a dial tone. packet switching allows several telephone calls to occupy the amount of space occupied by only one in a circuit-switched network. Michael Powell. Advantages VoIP technology uses the Internet's packet-switching capabilities to provide phone service. that same call may have occupied only 3. Former chairman of the Federal Communications Commission. This lets you know that you have a connection to the Internet. You pick up the receiver. With VoIP. And this example doesn't even factor in the use of data compression. The tones are converted by the ATA into digital data and temporarily stored.5 minutes. or the lack of experienced implementers. which sends a signal to the ATA. VoIP is simply illegal in an astonishing number of countries. The phone number data is sent in the form of a request to your VoIP company's call processor. telling it to ask the connected phone to ring. In mapping.5 minutes. You dial the phone number of the party you wish to talk to.5 minutes of transmission time at a cost of 64 Kbps. strongly argues that new communications technologies should not be subjected to federal and state regulations. Let's say that you and your friend both have service through a VoIP provider. 4. there is staunch opposition from several states to regulate VoIP as a traditional telephone service. However. 5. plus an additional 128 Kbps for the remaining 6. or even compelling business cases -. VoIP has several advantages over circuit switching. 2. but this time using VoIP over a packet-switched network: 1. a signal is sent to your friend's ATA. the biggest challenge to the total adoption of VoIP isn't the complex technology. leaving another 64 Kbps free for that 3. You both have your analog phones hooked up to the service-provided ATAs. a move that many fear would stifle its potential. while the rest are mired in enough red tape to often negate the cost savings.

the normal Internet infrastructure handles the call as if it were e-mail or a Web page. calls from outside of the company can still typically connect the conference bridges. The ATAs at each end translate these packets as they are received and convert them to the analog audio signal that you hear. You finish talking and hang up the receiver. This means that each system knows to expect packets of data from the other system. Either way. VoIP audio conferences use the same principle -. In the middle. from one system to another. External . one for each direction. Probably one of the most compelling advantages of packet switching is that data networks already understand the technology. which is a miniature phone network within the office.6. VoIP networks do not use circuit switching. callers connect to a conference bridge. 8. If all of the callers are located in the same office building. the data travels across the Internet. their calls connect to the bridge through the private branch exchange (PBX). a session is established between your computer and your friend's computer.just long enough to send a small chunk of data. You talk for a period of time. In a conference call. Your ATA also keeps the circuit open between itself and your analog phone while it forwards packets to and from the IP host at the other end. so only parts of the connection are actually in use at any given time. as part of the session. usually following the most efficient path. The systems implement two channels. terminating the session. Instead of traveling from switch to switch. 9. telephone networks immediately gain the ability to communicate the way computers d Audio conferencing using Voice over IP (VoIP) works very similarly to a traditional conference call using analog telephones. The conference bridge then connects multiple calls to one another. the telephone system routes calls through a series of interconnected switches until it reaches the conference bridge. Each system must use the same protocol to communicate. Conference calling capabilities are often built into VoIP networks or available as a service upgrade. only one person talks at a time. By migrating to this technology. Traditional telephones use circuit switching. packet switching opens a brief connection -. If a business uses a VoIP network for its telephones. The main difference involves how the data moves from one point to another. your system and your friend's system transmit packets back and forth when there is data to be sent. 7. called a packet. While circuit switching keeps the connection open and constant. the circuit is closed between your phone and the ATA. they use packet switching. During the conversation. Once your friend picks up the phone. Instead. The ATA sends a signal to the soft switch connecting the call. When you hang up. all the connections stay open as long as the call continues. Usually. For circuit-switched conferencing.callers connect to a conference bridge via their telephones or computers. a server that allows multiple people to talk to one another.

QoS A big component of VoIP infrastructure is effectively deploying a Quality of Service (QoS) model. You've got a lot of questions to answer. hijacking of calls. y y y y y y y y y y y Avaya Nortel Siemens NEC Mitel Inter-Tel 3Com Alcatel Astra Technologies (EADS) Ericcson Cisco IP Telephony Products Evaluation If you've decided to implement an IP telephony network. QoS is the idea that transmission rates. error rates and other characteristics can be measured. guaranteed in advance. Top VoIP players. stations. there are plenty of places to attack. The list of possible threats includes. impersonation. toll fraud. There are many ways to ensure QoS. QoS is of particular concern for the continuous transmission of highbandwidth video and multimedia information. and to some extent. session replay. servers and proxies. media tampering. This section will help you avoid some security pitfalls. denial of service and SPIT. . you're probably planning to evaluate a lot of IP telephony hardware and software in the near future. or external calls may reach the server through the VoIP network. you want to listen to actual phone calls to hear how it sounds for yourself. Since telephony traffic must travel over the IP network between gateways. Securing VoIP Deploying effective VoIP security is challenging. These include concerns about the hardware and software compatibility with your existing network. and of course. This section will help you decide which QoS method is right for you. You also want to verify interoperability between a number of vendors and product lines. improved. but you haven't decided on a vendor yet.lines may connect directly to the bridge server.

Avaya Definity G3si Version 9 PBX with Cisco CallManager using Cisco VG200-T1 Network Topology . what good is it? If you're trying to set up all the equipment at once and you have issues. but if you don't already have a network set up. These and other issues can make evaluations almost pointless. it's hard to know which product is misconfigured or at fault.All of this may be easier said than done. You get some demo equipment from your salesmen.

a Lucent/Avaya Definity G3si EPABX is connected via a T1-CAS link to a Cisco VG200 Gateway. was connected to an Ethernet switch. The interoperability testing involved basic call setup functionality between the Cisco Call Manager and the Lucent/Avaya EPABX. Just to have an insight.As shown in the diagram above. which in turn. . These two exchanges are interlinked through 2 MB HDSL on copper pair. Technical details/ Features of ONGC EPABX Systems: Two TATA make G-3 Si Definity series exchanges are installed one at Infocom. Chandkheda & other at Sabaramati campus for catering need of captive inter/intra region/field communication through TDMA/ICNET as well as external communication need through 2 PRI link from local BSNL.

Q-Signaling etc. . E-Mail through LAN node Connected on LAN through LAN switch Remote Maintenance through LAN as well as from outside Compatible to VOIP. All features of Convectional Digital Exchange. Fax. E-mail Access to FAX. y y y y y y y Level DID on PRI Link enabling CLI on each extensions Unified Messaging System for Voice. Chandkheda exchange is as follows:  Model & Make of Existing Exchange  License for total port  Installed Capacity y y y y Analog extension Digital extensions Analog SLIC Digital SLIC : G-3 Si Definity of TATA-Avaya : 1742 port : 1350 extensions : 1302 : 48 : 54 : 02 : 890 extension : 250 extensions : 640 extensions : 1742 ports : 2700 ports : 16 ( 8 I/C + 8 O/G) : 60 Channels for both I/C + O/G  Working Extensions y y ICNET/Telemetry EPABX extensions  Expansion capacity with existing hardware  Overall Expansion capacity  CO Junction Lines  Two PRI link from BSNL for Level DID  2W/4W E&M circuits for tie line to ICNET : 32 circuits  Salient Features  Single exchange works as captive EPAX and Group EPABX Using vertical partitioning in exchange.the brief description of technical features and capacity of IS Building. ATM. DECT.

Network Diagram of ONGC Exchanges at Ahmedabad Asset: Satellite Network of ONGC Microwave Network ICNET lines E&M Closed No. of ONGC BSNL CO & LD-DID AVAYA Definity at Chandkheda Vertic al Partit ion BSNL PRI LINKS HDSL Modem HDSL Modem Vertic al Partit ion 2MB Link : NEL from BSNL Voice Mail Server Call Billing & Maintenance PC . Cambay. Lines for Baroda.