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Bifurcations in Dc-dc Switching Converters

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International Journal of Bifurcation and Chaos, Vol. 15, No. 5 (2005) 15491578

c World Scientic Publishing Company

CONVERTERS: REVIEW OF METHODS

AND APPLICATIONS

A. EL AROUDI , M. DEBBAT and R. GIRAL

Departament dEnginyeria Electronica, Electrica i Automatica,

Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Campus Sesceledes,

43007, Tarragona, Spain

abdelali.elaroudi@urv.net

Departament de Matematica Aplicada IV,

Departament de Fsica Aplicada,

Barcelona, Spain

This paper presents, in a tutorial manner, nonlinear phenomena such as bifurcations and chaotic

behavior in DCDC switching converters. Our purpose is to present the dierent modeling

approaches, the main results found in the last years and some possible practical applications. A

comparison of the dierent models is given and their accuracy in predicting nonlinear behavior

is discussed. A general Poincare map is considered to model any multiple conguration of DC

DC switching converters and its Jacobian matrix is derived for stability analysis. More emphasis

is done in the discrete-time approach as it gives more accurate prediction of bifurcations. The

results are reproduced for dierent examples of DCDC switching converters studied in the

literature. Some methods of controlling bifurcations are applied to stabilize Unstable Periodic

Orbits (UPOs) embedded in the dynamics of the system. Statistical analysis of these systems

working in the chaotic regime is discussed. An extensive list of references is included.

Keywords: Power electronics; nonlinear dynamics; bifurcations; Poincare map; chaos; DCDC

converters; statistical analysis.

Contents

1. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1550

2. Preliminaries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1552

3. Modeling of DCDC Switching Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1554

3.1. Switched model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1554

3.2. Averaged model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1555

3.3. Discrete-time model. Poincare map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1556

4. A Review of Bifurcation Phenomena . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1556

5. Generalized Approach for Bifurcation Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1557

Author for correspondence.

1549

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5.2. Jacobian matrix and stability analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1560

6. Bifurcations in DCDC Switching Converters . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1561

6.1. A necessary condition for stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1561

6.2. Instability of the 1-periodic orbit associated to = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1561

6.2.1. Example 1: PWM voltage controlled buck converter . . . . . . . . . . . . 1562

6.2.2. Example 2: Current programmed boost converter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1563

6.2.3. Example 3: Boost converter with hysteretic modulator and PI controller . 1563

6.3. Instability of 1-periodic orbit associated to = 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1565

6.3.1. Example 4: PWM controlled DCDC boost converter . . . . . . . . . . . 1565

6.4. Instability of 1-periodic orbit associated to (0, ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1566

6.4.1. Example 5: PWM state feedback controlled boost converter . . . . . . . . 1567

6.4.2. Example 6: PWM controlled buck converter with voltage PI control . . . . 1568

6.5. Border collision and grazing bifurcation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1568

7. Approximated Poincare Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1570

7.1. Linear ripple approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1570

7.2. Constant output voltage approximation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1570

8. Control of Bifurcations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1571

8.1. The OGY method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1572

8.2. Time delay auto synchronization of DCDC switching converters . . . . . . . . . 1573

9. Conclusions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1576

1. Introduction

The elementary DCDC converters buck, boost

and buck-boost are a family of Power Electronics

(PE) circuits that allow the conversion of electrical

energy from one level to another without taking

into account, theoretically, losses in the compo-

nents. They are extensively used in power supplies

for electronic circuits and in the control of the ow

of energy between DC to DC systems, and in any

industrial application where there is a need of stabi-

lizing an output voltage to a desired value. They are

also widely used in small spacecrafts such as satel-

lites where DC power is generated by solar arrays.

Figure 1 shows the three basic power converters

buck, boost and buck-boost.

The operation of DCDC converters is mainly

based on the switching between dierent linear con-

gurations. This must be implemented with an

appropriate control of the switches. In a noise per-

turbation free environment, given the desired out-

put voltage, the switching frequency can be selected

and the switches can be turned ON and OFF

according to a xed pattern; this is referred to as

the open loop system. In contrast, in industrial

applications, noise and perturbations are always Fig. 1. The three basic power electronic converters buck,

present, and also the parameters of the circuits may boost and buck-boost.

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

be aected by external disturbances. Thus the use described by two independent and rst order dier-

of an appropriate control to counteract the devia- ential equations for each switch position. The con-

tions on the output voltage in the system is needed; trol forces the system to switch between two basic

this is referred to as the closed loop system. We linear congurations. These systems are therefore

will refer to the ON phase when the switch S is piecewise linear (PWL). During the rst phase, the

closed and diode D is open; the OFF phase refers state space evolution is given by a system of linear

to when the switch S is open and diode D closed. equations, i.e.:

A third phase (OFF) that takes place when both

x = A1 x + B1 (1)

switches are open is also possible. The operation

mode when this topology takes place is called Dis- where A1 and B1 are constant matrices and x is

continuous Conduction Mode (DCM). Otherwise, it the vector of the state variables composed by the

is called Continuous Conduction Mode (CCM). voltage and current of the energy storage elements

The most interesting dynamics of these sys- like capacitors and inductors. This model follows

tems, from a classical design point of view, is the the evolution of the system for some time and then

T -periodic orbit (periodic evolution with the same switches to another linear set of equations in the

period as the modulating signal). following form

Switching DCDC converters are variable

structure systems (VSS) that are highly nonlinear. x = A2 x + B2 (2)

During each phase the electrical switches select the with, generally, new constant A2 and B2 matrices.

corresponding conguration of the circuit making In compact form, the dynamical behavior of the sys-

the energy ow from the input to the output in tem can be described by

agreement with the driving signal. The form of this

driving signal gives operating exibility to the cir- A1 x + B1 if (x, t) > 0

x = f (x, t) = (3)

cuits and allows, for example, regulation in front A2 x + B2 if (x, t) < 0

of its parameter variations, a task that cannot be

done with a rectier implemented with only diodes. As the As and the Bs matrices and vectors are

However this switching gives rise also to switched generally dierent we have a PWL discontinuous

waveforms which can result in a great electromag- vector eld f . Other systems can be modeled by

netic noise emission. similar PWL but continuous vector eld f [Freire

DCDC switching converters working in et al., 1998; Freire et al., 2002]. In general, these

voltage-voltage (VV ) mode get energy from a pri- discontinuous changes in the constant matrices are

mary continuous voltage source VIN , and transfer responsible for inducing nonlinear eects. However,

it in the form of a voltage vC (t) which contains a as the system is PWL, we can solve the time evolu-

continuous component VC and a small ripple. To tions exactly. In other words, we can nd the map-

maintain constant the averaged value of the out- ping function that takes the state space variables

put voltage, the switching action should be periodic. just after one switching instant up to their values

Thus the modulating signal should also be periodic just before the next one. Let us assume that when

and the permanent regime will be ordinarily peri- the switching occurs the value of the variable x

odic. However, due to their switching action and takes on certain value x(tS ) at the switching instant

feedback they are able to present a great variety of tS . The time derivatives then show discontinuous

nonlinear behavior such as bifurcations and chaos. changes at the switching, i.e.:

A canonical cell of rst order with a capac-

x(t+

S ) x(tS ) = (A2 A1 )x(tS ) + (B2 B1 ) (4)

itor in parallel with the load to lter the out-

put ripple is a second order circuit, and its state where t+

S and tS are the time instants just before

variables are the inductor current iL and the and just after the switching instant tS . When the

capacitor voltage vC . The signal driving the elec- switching condition is time dependent, we have a

trical switch presents dierent intervals per cycle: nonautonomous system, which as we know, requires

for each interval, the circuit takes a specic con- at least one more state space dimension. For feed-

guration delivering energy during some intervals back systems, as for most of DCDC switching

and absorbing it within others. As it can be shown, converters, the switching instant depends on the

the dynamics of DCDC converter circuits working history of the state variables themselves. Therefore,

in continuous conduction mode (CCM) may be we eectively have a nonlinear system. Hence this

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Table 1. The As and Bs matrix for the basic converters heating) that produce deviations in the converter

during phases ON, OFF and OFF .

state with respect to the nominal one. If the param-

Converter AON AOFF AOFF BON BOFF BOFF eter changes are abrupt, they respond with oscil-

lations which decay with a certain characteristic

buck Aa Aa Ac Ba Bb Bb time and they will pass to a similar near state

boost Ab Aa Ac Ba Ba Bb

or they bifurcate to a qualitatively dierent one.

buck-boost Ab Aa Ac Ba Bb Bb

If the driving signal is generated from a constant

duty cycle clock, the converter input to output gain

will be constant, but its operating point, the out-

kind of piecewise model, at least in principle, may put voltage ripple and the power delivered to the

present nonlinear phenomena such as bifurcations load will depend strongly on the parameters varia-

and chaos. tion (unregulated converter). In order to make the

The dierential equations, modeling each one of converter state almost independent of the parame-

the three congurations that use each converter, can ter variation, it should be regulated with a control

be derived by using the standard Kirchos laws. circuit (controller) that xes a reference (reference

Let us dene the matrices Aa , Ab , Ac , Ba and Bc voltage Vref or/and reference current Iref ). The con-

as follows: trol of a DCDC converter can be implemented in

many ways. However, all the strategies can be clas-

1 1 1

0

RC C sied into two main groups: Fixed Frequency Con-

Aa = , Ab = RC ,

1 RS RS

troller (FFC) and Variable Frequency Controller

0 (VFC). The basic ingredients of almost all existing

L L L controllers that are used for output voltage control

1 are (Fig. 2):

0 0

Ac = RC , Ba = VIN ,

1. an output voltage error amplier

0 0 2. a sawtooth signal generator (modulating signal)

L

3. a comparator that compares the error amplier

0 output with the sawtooth waveforms.

Bb =

0 The objective of the controller is to main-

tain the converter state near this reference by

(5)

where R is the output load resistance, L is the

inductance which is supposed to have an Equivalent

Series Resistance ESR RS , C is the capacitance,

and VIN is the input voltage. During each phase

(ON, OFF and OFF ), and until a switching condi-

tion is fullled, the dynamics of the system is

described as:

x = Ax + B (6)

x = (vC , iL )T is the vector of the state variables

and the overdot stands for derivation with respect

to time t (x = dx/dt). Table 1 shows the As and Bs

matrices for the three basic converters buck, boost

and buck-boost during each phase.

2. Preliminaries

Switching converters undergo great variations of

their external parameters (the input voltage rip-

ple or abrupt variations in the load) as of the Fig. 2. Schematic diagram of xed frequency controller

internal ones (changes in the driving signal fre- (PWM) and variable frequency (Hysteresis) controller for

quency, capacitors and inductors drift, aging and DCDC converters.

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

compensating the deviations of the controlled vari- where (x, t) := vcon h is a switching function

able by means of feedback and feedforward loops formed by the dierence between a control signal

(Fig. 3). In the case of FFC, the comparator decides vcon depending on the state variables x and pos-

the switching instants and therefore the duty cycle sibly on time t and a term h which could depend

d of the driving signal u(t) by comparing the switch- explicitly on time. It should be noted that in the

ing function with a sawtooth signal (Fig. 4). In case of FFC h(t) = vramp (t) is a periodic ramp sig-

the case of VFC, no sawtooth signal is used but the nal. In the case of a time invariant state reference

comparator uses hysteresis. The feedforward is the Xref , is given by

control that translates the deviations from the vec- (x, t) := vcon (x) h(t)

tor of parameters p, and the feedback is the control

that translates the deviations of their present state := K(x(t) Xref ) h(t) = 0 (8)

x(t) to an error signal that takes the information K is the vector of the feedback coecients with

of the deviation of the present state x(t) regarding appropriate dimension. If h = VH , this switching

the required one Xref (Xref = (Vref , Iref )T ). In order function corresponds to hysteresis controlled con-

to do it periodically, some repetitive signals in the verters. In this case, both the period and the duty

form of a triangular, sawtooth voltages or clock sig- cycle are variable. These regulators are often called

nals are usually used in the control loop. We will bang bang, free running or variable frequency.

model these periodic signals in the control circuit The whole system formed by the switching

by a signal h(t). converter and the controller is called switching

The control logic is given by the expression of regulator. The control of DCDC converters

the control variable u(t) in terms of the state vari- can usually be carried out using two dierent

ables, the state reference Xref , the control parame- approaches, namely voltage feedback control and

ters. Using the Heaviside step function H, the con- current-programmed control, also known as voltage-

trol logic of a regulator can be written as: mode and current-mode control, respectively. In

voltage feedback control, the output voltage is com-

1 if (x, t) > 0 pared with a reference to generate a driving signal

u(t) := H((x, t)) = (7)

0 if (x, t) < 0 which drives the switches. For current-programmed

control an inner current loop is used in addition to

voltage feedback. The aim is to force the peak (or

the valley) inductor current to follow a reference sig-

nal which is derived from the output voltage feed-

back loop. The result of using current-programming

is a more robust system and it is now widely used

for boost and buck-boost converters.

The performance of a DCDC converter is eval-

uated by steady-state and dynamics analysis. In

steady-state analysis, the existence and location of

Fig. 3. Block diagram of a DCDC converter with feedback periodic solutions are of concern. In dynamic anal-

and feedforward. ysis, stability and transient dynamics can be stud-

ied using the closed-loop eigenvalues. There exist

two particular modes of operation of these systems:

continuous conduction mode (CCM) when the mini-

mal inductor current iL > 0 and discontinuous con-

duction mode (DCM) when iL drops to zero at

a certain instant within a switching cycle. These

two modes have 2 and 3 congurations respectively

in one cycle, and the dynamics is linear for each

conguration.

Sometimes, to improve the quality and for

meeting with some regulation requirements, active

Fig. 4. Control signal (t), sawtooth ramp signal vramp (t) lters are inserted in the controller. These l-

and driving signal u(t). ters also called compensating networks are usually

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

applied to the output variable, and are typically produces periodic dynamics whose period depends

Proportional plus Integral (PI) or low pass lters. on the whole system parameters according to the

In the case of a state control (all the state variables switching condition.

make part of the control signal), if the lter is a PI

controller applied to the output voltage vo of the

regulator, the general expression of the amplied 3. Modeling of DCDC Switching

ltered error signal (control signal) will be Converters

3.1. Switched model

vcon := Kp (x(t) Xref ) + kint (vo (t) Vref )dt

The switched model of a DCDC converter working

(9) in CCM may be written in the following form:

It should be noted that these lters enlarge the x = A1 x + B1

order of the regulator and therefore their possible := f1 (x) during ON subinterval

(11)

stationary states. For instance,

the integral term x = A2 x + B2

adds a new variable xN +1 = (vo (t) Vref )dt. The := f2 (x) during OFF subinterval

control voltage (9) can be rewritten in the form

DCDC converters being switched dynamical sys-

vcon := K(xa (t) Xr ) (10) tems can present equilibrium points only if they

where K = [Kp , Kint ], xa = [x, xN +1 ]T and work with innite switching frequency. Periodic

Xr = [Xref , 0]T . Obviously, this control signal is orbits with high switching frequency can be approx-

similar to the previous one and the same approach imated by equilibrium points as they have very

can be used for both cases (with and without small amplitude. For two-dimensional converters

compensators). (with two storage elements), the analysis can be

The theory of dynamical systems shows that carried out by graphical support. At an equilibrium

a nonlinear dynamic system of order less than point, the elds dening the dynamics of each con-

three (for example, open loop second order con- guration must have opposite direction. Imposing

verters) can present only stationary equilibrium this condition for f1 and f2 in Eq. (11), we can

states (without switching) and limit cycles [Parker obtain the equation dening the set of equilibrium

& Chua, 1989], while those of order equal or greater points of the system:

than three (for example, those of second order

iL = Cc (vC ) (12)

converters under Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

control) can also show quasiperiodic and chaotic This equation denes the load line [Krein & Bass,

dynamics. Moreover, being VSS, switching regu- 1990] or characteristic curve (CC) [Benadero et al.,

lators present specic dynamics. Modern control 1999] in the state plane. It depends only on the

theory shows that there are dierent regions on power stage parameters. On the other hand, with

the switching surface, called refractive, rejective linear feedback controllers, two switching bound-

[Kassakian et al., 1991] or sliding [Utkin, 1978]. If aries can be dened. Due to the linearity of the

a trajectory arrives to a sliding region, the regula- feedback, these boundaries are also linear (Fig. 5).

tor state slides on this region switching with, the- Both boundaries dene a boundary layer (BL) in

oretically, an innite frequency and if it reaches the state plane. For PWM controllers these bound-

in this region an equilibrium point, the switching aries depend on the feedback coecients and the

frequency in the steady state will be innite. This lower and the upper values of the external ramp

produces high switching power losses that destroy voltage while for hysteresis controlled converters,

quickly the switch by increasing its temperature. In these boundaries depend on the feedback coe-

practice, this frequency is limited by delays in the cients and the hysteresis width. On one side of BL

switching times. For example, in the case of a two- the controlled switch is turned ON and on the other

dimensional converter, (x) = 0 denes a straight side it is turned OFF. Trajectories beginning at

switching line in the state plane. Under certain con- an arbitrary point switch alternately when one of

ditions related to circuit parameters, the dynam- the switching boundaries is reached. A point in the

ics on this straight line is an innite frequency two-dimensional space is an equilibrium operating

trajectory (ideal sliding). A method for limiting point if it belongs to both CC and a line inside BL.

this phenomenon uses a hysteretic comparator that If this point is stable, it denes the steady state,

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

Fig. 5. Characteristic curve CC and boundary layer BL for a boost converter with linear feedback controller.

although in practice it would be a limit cycle whose an intuitive comprehension. In order to reduce and

period and amplitude are related to the hystere- simplify the system another approach can be used:

sis width or the switching frequency of the PWM the averaged model.

modulator. Depending on the type of the converter,

on the nature, and the parameter values of the 3.2. Averaged model

controller, there may exist more than one operat-

The average method is obtained by substituting the

ing point. All the points belonging to CC can be

state variables x and the control variable u by their

operative using an adequate control. A necessary

averaged values x and u := d during one period of

condition for the existence of an equilibrium point

the modulating signal.

is that BL and CC intersect. Varying the system

state reference or feedback coecients we can make x = [(A1 A2 )d + A2 ]x + (B1 B2 )d + B2

the system operate in a specic point of CC. The

:= f (x) (13)

stability concerns both power and control param-

eters. A lot of eort has been made studying the Averaged models are easier to handle than the

stability of these circuits from dierent points of switched models. The binary variable u {0, 1} is

view, mainly using frequency domain approaches. substituted by the continuous bounded variable d

In [Krein & Bass, 1990] the stability is analyzed belonging to [0, 1] interval. Obviously, the averaged

through the series of successor points. The sys- model is no longer valid if d is out of this interval. In

tem is stable when the distance between successor this case, only the corresponding conguration (sat-

points decreases. Two-dimensional representation is uration of the duty cycle) exists. This model is more

not outright if an auxiliary or modulating signal is accurate when the switching period is much smaller

used in the control (nonautonomous case). Actually than the time constants of the converter. The equi-

the system in this case is three-dimensional. A com- librium points are obtained by equating to zero the

plete state representation needs a third variable, the time derivative of the averaged state variables. It

phase of the modulating signal. The points in the should be noted that the equilibria obtained using

two-dimensional space can correspond with dier- this procedure are the same as those dened by

ent phases. This two-dimensional space is just a pro- Eq. (12). The stability of the equilibrium points can

jection of the complete 3D space. But in spite of be analyzed by means of the response to a small

this, the two-dimensional representation can oer perturbation x of the equilibrium point X. From

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

the large signal model, we can derive a small signal P which relates two successive samples of the state

model in the neighborhood of X. We assume that variables can be obtained. Viewing the dynamics of

the vector of state variables x may be composed by the system in each cycle is equivalent to considering

a steady state value X and a small perturbation x. the dynamics on a switching surface which can

Linearizing in the vicinity of the equilibrium point be time dependent (PWM) or time independent

X, we obtain a small signal model in the follow- (Hysteresis). This surface denes a Poincare sec-

ing form: tion [Holmes, 1983; Parker & Chua, 1989; Seydel,

1994; Kutnetsov, 1998]. The map governing the

x = Df x + HOT (14) dynamics on the Poincare section will have the

following form:

where Df is the Jacobian of the vector eld f and

HOT stands for high order terms. The solution of P : RN1

RN1

this equation takes the following form: (16)

xn xn+1 := P (xn ), n = 0, 1, 2, . . .

x(t) = eDf t x0 (15) N being the order of the system, xn the value of the

state vector on the switching surface and xn+1 the

A necessary and sucient condition for stability is

vector of state variable at the next instant when

that the eigenvalues i of Df are in the left side

the trajectory hits the same switching surface.

of the complex plane. Two dierent ways of losing

This discrete model keeps all the properties of the

stability can take place.

continuous model regarding the existence of peri-

1. The eigenvalues crossing the imaginary axis are odic orbits and their stability. In order to obtain

complex conjugates (trace(Df ) = 0). this map, the switching instants must be found.

2. One of the eigenvalues crosses the imaginary axis These switching instants are, in general, solutions

from the origin (det(Df ) = 0). of transcendental equations and therefore are usu-

ally obtained numerically. Note that the map is an

where trace and det stand for the trace and deter- N 1-dimensional system if its underlying contin-

minant, respectively. As the averaged model is an uous time system is N -dimensional.

approximated model for the actual system, some

accuracy is lost by using this approach to predict

the stability. The more accurate model that con- 4. A Review of Bifurcation Phenomena

serves the switching nature of the system and at The research in nonlinear dynamics of DCDC

the same time allows mathematical analysis is the converters began in 1984 by [Brockett & Wood,

discrete-time model. 1984]. Later, chaos and nonlinear phenomena in

power electronic (PE) circuits have attracted sev-

eral research groups around the world. Dierent

3.3. Discrete-time model. Poincare

nonlinear phenomena were discovered in dierent

map DCDC converters controlled by various control

A discrete-time state-space description most com- strategies. Among others we can cite flip bifurca-

monly comes from regular sampling of the tion or period doubling and its related route to chaos

state variables of the continuous-time description. [Hamill & Jeeries, 1988; Deane & Hamill, 1990;

Because most of power circuits operate cyclically, Tse, 1994a, 1994b; di Bernardo et al., 1998; Fossas

the discrete time modeling approach seems to be the & Oliver, 1996; Fang & Abed, 2001; Alfayoumi

natural way to deal with these systems [Kassakian et al., 1999], anomalous or so-called border collision

et al., 1991]. The switching action is essentially dis- bifurcations [Yuan et al., 1998; Banerjee et al., 2000]

crete. The discrete-time model considered in this and quasiperiodicity route chaos and torus break-

paper relates the state variables at the beginning down [El Aroudi & Leyva, 2001; El Aroudi et al.,

and at the end of an operating cycle. To build 2000]. All these bifurcations are covered in some

up the discrete-time model of a DCDC switching 2D bifurcation diagrams in the parameter space

converter, we consider the operation of the sys- [Benadero et al., 2003].

tem within the nth cycle. The closed form solu- Some researchers were attracted by statisti-

tion of the state equations for each time interval cal analysis of DCDC converters. In [Baranovski

are linked at the switching instants and the map et al., 1999a], a systematic approach to design

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

switched dynamical systems with chaotic behavior converter as a nonlinear map and discuss the local

from statistical characteristics (probability density static and dynamic behavior of such a system as a

function and spectral power density) of the out- function of a bifurcation parameter. To understand

put signal is presented. An analysis of a DCDC the complex behavior of these systems, an orga-

boost converter has been carried out in [Baranovski nizational framework is required. Examples given

et al., 1999b]. Using the state densities approach in Sec. 6, we hope, serve several purposes. They,

[Marrero et al., 1996], an ergodic map was used to rst, illustrate the application of some theoretical

describe the converters dynamics. It was shown that and numerical tools and more importantly they put

the chaotic regime, with the stability of periodic in evidence the occurrence of nonlinear phenomena

orbits lost, is not necessarily bad, and does not need that these simple circuits can exhibit.

to be avoided. In spite of the instability of these We hope that we have provided sucient con-

orbits, the converters still behave properly and the nections to the literature to give a start to a moti-

output voltage ripple is small. In [Marrero et al., vated reader since the recent literature dealing with

1999], the static characteristics such as the average this subject is extensive. Our reference list, neces-

voltage gain and the average switching frequency sarily, omits many papers.

were computed using the statistical approach. The

results were also validated experimentally.

In most of the previously cited works, chaos 5. Generalized Approach for

in DCDC converters under PWM-mode control is Bifurcation Analysis

studied. Few of them have undertaken the sliding- The similarity between the results obtained for dif-

mode control and its inuence upon the operation ferent DCDC converters bring to the conclusion

of the converter. The work by Calvente et al. [1996], that the dynamical behavior of all these systems

showed that boost converter under sliding-mode can be described by a similar model. In this sec-

control can exhibit chaotic behavior and subhar- tion we will try to give a generalized approach to

monics. The authors observed that the increase of model DCDC switching converters. The discrete-

the proportional gain of the compensating network time model will be used in analyzing bifurcations in

and changes in the hysteresis width result in sub- these systems since it is more accurate than other

harmonics, bifurcations and chaos. modeling strategies in predicting these nonlinear

The study of the nonlinear phenomena and phenomena.

chaos was not restricted to the elementary convert-

ers, but it was extended to another class of power

electronic systems as drive systems. In [Suto & 5.1. Generalized Poincare map

Nagy, 2001] it was shown that the induction motor Generally an N -dimensional DCDC switching

supplied by a voltage source inverter and controlled converter has M phases during one operating cycle.

by a tolerance band current controller, can exhibit The duration of this cycle may be xed (i.e. PWM)

a strong nonlinear behavior. Steady states of a two- or variable (i.e. Hysteresis). IN CCM, the system

channel resonant converter family including both switches sequentially among two dierent linear

CCM and DCM operations are analyzed in [Hamar congurations during one switching cycle. We will

& Nagy, 2003]. A detailed study of the stability construct the mapping function from xn at time

of one member (the buck) of that family in sym- instant tn to xn+1 at time instant tn + Tn . In this

metrical operation is made in [Dranga et al., 2003] section we assume that the parameters of the sys-

and quasiperiodic behavior is demonstrated in these tem are selected in such a way that the number of

systems. congurations per cycle is the same during all the

The objective of this paper is to oer a per- time. In this case, the map is dierentiable every-

spective of the state-of-the-art of the study of where (smooth) and only standard bifurcations like

nonlinear dynamics and bifurcations in DCDC ip, Hopf and tangent are possible in these systems.

switching converters, and to give a summary of The occurrence of other nonstandard (anomalous)

other related works using a generalized approach. bifurcations are due to a structural change in the

This paper covers a bigger canvas than was covered discrete model. The system switches among the dif-

in earlier reviews like [Tse & di Bernardo, 2002] and ferent phases at time instants tn + n when certain

[Hamill, 1995]. Our formulation is fairly general. threshold conditions are fullled. For elementary

We view an elementary DCDC power electronic DCDC switching converters such as buck, boost

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

in the following compact form

1 (x(tn ), n ) 0

(x(t), t) := = (19)

2 (x(tn ), n , Tn ) 0

(a)

ration must be taken into account and therefore

another constraint is added. In this paper we will

focus on CCM operation. In order to construct a

generalized map, let us write Eq. (18) in the follow-

ing more convenient form

(b)

x(t) = Xeq,i + i (t tk )(x(tk ) Xeq,i ) (20)

Fig. 6. Switching sub-intervals and switching instants.

(a) Hysteresis control, (b) PWM control. where i (t) = eAi t . The mapping that relates the

state variable xn at the beginning of a cycle to xn+1 ,

at the end of the same cycle, can be written in the

following form:

and buck-boost working in CCM and in standard

operating regime, two congurations act (Fig. 6).

xn+1 := P (xn )

Conguration 1: x = A1 x + B1 = Xeq,2 + 2 (Tn n )[Xeq,1

for t [tn , tn + n ]

(17) + 1 (n )(xn Xeq,1 ) Xeq,2 ] (21)

Conguration 2: x = A2 x + B2

for t [tn + n , tn + Tn ] For PWM controlled converters and under strobo-

scopic sampling, tn = nT and Tn = T , where T

where Ai and Bi are the system matrices during is the period of the modulating signal. Therefore

phase i (i = 1, 2). x is the vector of the state vari- only one equation has to be solved to obtain n , the

ables and the over dot stands for derivation with switching instant at the nth cycle. The switching

respect to time (x = dx/dt). During each subinter- condition for the PWM control may be written in

val the system equations are linear and time invari- the following form

ant. Let Xeq,i = A1i Bi (i = 1, 2) the equilibrium

point corresponding to conguration i. In this case, (xn , n ) := K[Xeq,1 + 1 (n )(xn Xeq,1 )] h(n )

the solution during each phase interval takes the

following form: = 0 (22)

x(t) = Xeq,i + eAi (ttk ) (x(tk ) Xeq,i ) (18) If a triangular signal is used instead of a sawtooth

one, another switching condition has to be added

where tk = tn , tk = tn + n and tk = tn + Tn are the with another switching instant. For hysteresis con-

instants at which the system switches from one con- trol tn is xed to a reference value (0 for example)

guration to another, x(tk ) are the state vectors at while n and Tn are unknown and two equations are

the switching instants. The condition for switching to be solved to obtain them. The switching condi-

tions in this case may be written as:

K[Xeq,1 + 1 (n )(xn Xeq,1 )] h1 (n ) = 0 0

(xn , n , Tn ) := = (23)

K[Xeq,2 + 2 (Tn n )[Xeq,1 + 1 (n )(xn Xeq,1 ) Xeq,2 ] h2 (Tn ) 0

nonlinear constrained mapping for any switch- be noted that this generalized map works for

ing dynamical system with some dened thresh- PWM controlled converters as well as for hys-

old conditions and two congurations. It should teresis controlled systems. It works even for any

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

switched system with two constraints. For instance, and it is equal to the period of the external mod-

for hysteretic controlled systems, h1,2 (t) = VH /2, ulating signal, while for hysteresis controlled con-

where VH is the hysteresis width [Calvente et al., verters T is unknown and it depends on the circuit

1996; El Aroudi et al., 2002]. For a PWM controller parameters. It should be noted that the locus of the

if a sawtooth voltage is used, h(t) = Vl + (Vu xed points x in the state plane when is varied

Vl )t/T := Vl + mc t, where mc := (Vu Vl )/T is from zero to T is a curve similar to the characteristic

the slope of the ramp voltage. In the case of PWM curve obtained from the switched and the averaged

control with a triangular signal (double edge mod- models. This is illustrated in Fig. 7 which shows

ulation) instead of a sawtooth signal, the switching the limit cycles, the state variables at the switching

equation will be similar to that of the hysteresis con- instants and CC for a boost converter when is

trol. In this case h1 () and h2 () will represent the varied in the range (0.05T, 0.95T ).

triangular signal during the trailing edge and the Once the xed points have been determined,

leading edge subintervals, respectively. Note that in their stability analysis may be carried out by study-

this case we would have three subintervals instead ing the local behavior of the map P in their vicinity.

of two and the expression for the Poincare map Performing a Taylor expansion near a xed point we

will include a third conguration characterized by can write

3 and Xeq,3 . This also occurs in the discontinu-

P (xn ) = P (x ) + DP (x )(xn x ) + HOT (25)

ous conduction mode [Tse, 1994b]. For feedforward

controlled converters and for power factor correc- where DP is the Jacobian matrix of the map P .

tion circuits, h() depends also on the input voltage Denoting xn x by xn and noting that by def-

which is, in general, time dependent (AC input). inition P (x ) = x , Eq. (25) to rst order can be

Once the generalized discrete-time model is written as:

obtained, it would be interesting to obtain its

Jacobian matrix DP . In the steady state (at a xed xn+1 DP (x )xn (26)

point of P ), xn = x , [n , Tn ] = [ , T ]. Solv- As Eq. (26) is linear, its solution for an initial con-

ing (23) for n and Tn (recall that tn = nT and dition x0 has the following expression

Tn = T for PWM control), we nd the xed points

of the map. In general the solution is not available xn = [DP ]n (x )x0 (27)

in closed form. Therefore a root nding algorithm Let us concentrate on the case where DP is diago-

(i.e. NewtonRaphson) should be applied. However, nalizable. In this case, there exists a set of linear

for some simple circuits, or under some approximat- independent eigenvectors vi with eigenvalues i

ing conditions, the switching condition is solvable such that the initial distance x0 can be written

in closed form [Deane, 1992; Podar et al., 1998]. It as their linear combination, and Eq. (27) implies

is well known that the stability of xed points of a

N

map is the same as for the underlying periodic orbits

of the continuous system. For xed frequency con- xn = x + ci ni vi , (N = 2 for two-dimensional

i=1

trolled systems with xed number of congurations

during a cycle, the generalized map corresponds to a converters) (28)

stroboscopic map, while for variable frequency con- where ci are the components of the initial condition

trol (hysteresis), this map corresponds naturally to x0 . The eigenvalues i are also called the charac-

an A-switching or impact map [di Bernardo et al., teristic or Floquet multipliers [Duchesne, 1993] and

1997; di Bernardo et al., 1998]. it can be expected that they give the amount of

The xed points x of the Poincare map can be expansion or contraction near the xed point x

obtained by enforcing periodicity: xn+1 = xn = x . when the map is iterated. Therefore the position of

By doing so and using (21) we obtain the characteristic multipliers in the complex plane

x = [I 2 (T )1 ( )]1 determines the stability of the xed point and hence

of its underlying periodic orbit. The xed point and

[(I 2 (T ))Xeq,2 the periodic orbit are asymptotically stable if and

+ 2 (T )(I 1 ( ))Xeq,1 ] (24) only if all characteristic multipliers lie inside the

unity circle. In the next subsection, stability anal-

where T is the period of periodic orbit. Note that ysis of periodic orbits is analyzed by obtaining the

for PWM controlled converters T = T is known Jacobian matrix and its eigenvalues.

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

Fig. 7. The limit cycles, the state variables at the switching instants and CC for a boost converter when n is varied in the

range (0.05T, 0.95T ).

5.2. Jacobian matrix and stability term in Eq. (31) using Eqs. (21) and (22) for

analysis PWM controlled converters or Eq. (23) for hys-

teretic controlled converters, DP can be obtained in

The pair (n , Tn ) denes the duration of the nth

a straightforward procedure. It can be shown that

cycle and the switching instant during this cycle.

the expression of the Jacobian matrix has the fol-

Let us dene dn := (n , Tn ). By denition DP is

lowing form:

dP P P ddn

DP := = + (29)

dxn xn dn dxn DP = 2 (T )Q1 ( ) (32)

where we have assumed that all parameters are con-

where Q is an appropiate matrix which depends on

stant during the whole switching cycle. In the FFC,

the controller used and and T are, respectively,

Tn = T is constant and then we only need to dif-

the switching instant and the duration of the cycle

ferentiate with respect to n while for the VFC

at the steady state. In the case of FFC, it can be

case, the dierentiation must be carried out with

demonstrated that

respect to both n and Tn . Dierentiating Eq. (23),

we obtain: (x x+ )K

Q=I (33)

K x mc

dxn + ddn = 0 (30)

xn dn

where mc is the slope of the compensating ramp,

from which we can deduce (ddn )/(dxn ) and replace while in the case of VFC, this matrix becomes

its expression in Eq. (29) to obtain

x+K2 (T )

P P 1 Q=I (34)

DP = (31) K2 (T )x+

xn dn dn xn

It is important to remark that for PWM controlled where x and x+ are the derivative of the

converters, the equation = 0 has one unknown state variables just before and after the switch-

variable while it has two unknown ones for hys- ing instants, respectively. Evaluating this Jaco-

teretic controlled converters. By calculating each bian matrix in a xed point and computing its

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

give us the stability of its underlying periodic orbit. stability

For nonautonomous systems like PWM controlled

If the system is stable, both eigenvalues of the

systems, as long as no eigenvalue is on the unit circle

Jacobian matrix are inside the unit circle. The

(|i | = 1, i [1, 2, . . . , N ]), the periodic orbit is a

determinant of the Jacobian matrix which is equal

nonbifurcating (hyperbolic) orbit. For autonomous

to the product of its eigenvalues will be less than

systems like those controlled with hysteresis, one

unity. Thus, for the case of FFC, by using Eq. (32),

eigenvalue say 1 is always unity [Parker & Chua,

a necessary condition for local stability is:

1989; El Aroudi et al., 2002]. When for some i

(i = 1 for hysteretic controlled converters), |i | = 1,

K x+ mc tr(A A )t +tr(A )T

the periodic orbit loses stability and this implies the 2 1 1 2

K x mc e <1 (36)

existence of a bifurcation. In the remainder of the

paper when we talk about a bifurcation of an orbit,

It should be noted that this inequality is very sim-

we will refer to the nominal orbit which we will refer

ilar to a well known and widely used criterion for

to as 1-periodic orbit or T -periodic orbit. The fact

stability [Erickson, 1997] which is:

that an eigenvalue is equal (or near) to 1 can also

occur for systems with some state variable which is

m2 mc

constant, or in situations in which a periodic orbit m1 mc < 1 (37)

disappears suddenly when a parameter reaches a

critical value. where m1 and m2 are the positive and negative

slopes of control signal, respectively and mc is the

6. Bifurcations in DCDC Switching slope of the ramp compensator. However (36) is

Converters only a necessary and not sucient condition for sta-

bility. Therefore traditional methods based in the

In this section we will give some examples of

bifurcations that DCDC switching converters can approximated criterion (37) could fail to predict sta-

undergo. Local bifurcations are strongly related to bility if the exponents in (36) are not suciently

the loss of stability in the small signal model. It was small.

shown that this stability is determined by the eigen-

values of the linearized map DP . These eigenvalues 6.2. Instability of the 1-periodic

are obtained from the characteristic equation of the orbit associated to =

linearized map which is given by

It happens that, for some parameter values, a sta-

det(DP I) = 0 ble T -periodic orbit becomes an unstable T -periodic

(35)

P (x ) x = 0 orbit, and moreover, a stable 2T -periodic orbit is

created. This process is called a period-doubling or

where I is the identity matrix and 0 is null column

ip bifurcation, and it is typical of smooth systems.

vector whose order is the same as that of the con-

The inverse process, as a parameter is varied, is also

verter. At a bifurcation point, the modulus of is 1

possible, and then, it is called an inverse period-

and we can write = ej . There are three standard

doubling bifurcation or subcritical ip bifurcation.

ways for eigenvalues to leave the unit circle in the

Buck, boost and buck-boost DCDC converters,

case of a smooth map P . For = , ip bifurcation

being systems modeled by smooth maps under stan-

takes place, while for = 0, saddle node bifurca-

dard operating conditions (CCM and with a single

tion can occur (a pair of periodic orbits coalesce

switching instant within a switching cycle), usu-

and disappear). For other values of , a Neimark

ally show this type of bifurcation when appropri-

Sacker bifurcation is possible. In the next subsec-

ate parameters of the circuit are varied. For a ip

tions we will see the three dierent ways of losing

bifurcation one of the eigenvalues is equal to 1.

stability. These three instabilities are classied into

Therefore from Eq. (35) we have the following

two commonly encountered situations among bifur-

condition

cations of xed points of a map: bifurcation points

and turning points [Seydel, 1994]. Other names of det(DP + I) = 0

turning points are limit points, fold bifurcations or (38)

saddle nodes [Hilborn, 1994]. P (x ) x = 0

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

1 1

0

RC C

A1 = A2 =

, B1 = VIN ,

1 RS

L

L L

0

B2 =

0

(39)

Vref Vl (Vu Vl ) =0 (40)

Fig. 8. Schematic diagram of a voltage controlled buck T

PWM DCDC converter.

where x is given by [Eq. (24)] and K = [kv ki ].

Let us take the input voltage VIN as a bifurca-

tion parameter and keep constant all the remaining

parameters. Using Eqs. (31) and (38), the critical

6.2.1. Example 1: PWM voltage controlled

value of the input voltage is found to be Vin,cr =

buck converter 24.5166 V and the xed point at this critical value is

Let us consider the PWM controlled buck converter x0 = [12.0277 V; 0.6081 A]T . Figure 9 shows typical

represented in Fig. 8 with the same value of param- waveforms of the inductor current, control voltage

eters in [Hamill et al., 1992]: R = 22 , L = 20 mH, and sawtooth ramp modulator after the ip bifurca-

C = 47 F, RS = 0 , T = 400 s. If a ramp signal tion takes place. The loci of the characteristic mul-

with lower value Vl = 0 V and upper value Vu = 1 V tipliers are also shown indicating that one of the

is used, the corresponding control parameters are: eigenvalues crosses the unit circle at 1. It should

kv = 1.9091, ki = 0 , Vref = 22.4364 V. The matri- be noted that the duty cycle to output transfer func-

ces A1 and A2 and vectors B1 and B2 are: tion of the system obtained from the traditional

Fig. 9. Subharmonic oscillation in a PWM voltage controlled buck converter. (Left) Characteristic multipliers as the input

voltage is varied. (Right top) Sawtooth and control voltage. (Right bottom) Inductor current.

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

vo (s) Vin Eqs. (31) and (38), the critical value of the feed-

H(s) := = (41) back coecient ki is found to be ki,cr = 0.4615

d(s) L

LCs2 + s + 1 and the xed point at this critical value is

R

Based on this transfer function, the system is x0 = [14.3673 V, 6.2220 A]T. Figure 11 shows

expected to be stable over the whole range of the typical waveforms of the inductor current, control

input voltage. Therefore nonlinear analysis based voltage and sawtooth ramp modulator after a ip

on the discrete time model is more accurate. bifurcation takes place. The loci of the character-

istic multipliers are shown in Fig. 12 indicating

6.2.2. Example 2: Current programmed that one of the eigenvalues crosses the unit circle

boost converter at 1. Traditionally the slope of the ramp modula-

tor is chosen in order to assure stability. In Fig. 11,

Let us consider now the current controlled boost the parameters of the system have been selected

converter with a ramp modulator (Fig. 10) with to fulll (37). However, as it can be shown, the T -

the following values of parameters: R = 5 , L = periodic orbit is unstable and the system presents

10 H, C = 47 F, VIN = 5 V, RS = 0 , Vl = 0 V, subharmonic oscillations. This discrepancy can be

Vu = 1 V, kv = 0, T = 20 s, Vref = 5 V. The matri- explained by the fact that Eq. (37) is derived from

ces A1 and A2 and vectors B1 and B2 are:

a one-dimensional map while the system is actually

1 1 1 two-dimensional.

RC 0

, A2 = RC C

A1 =

,

RS 1 RS

0 6.2.3. Example 3: Boost converter with

L L L hysteretic modulator and PI controller

0

In this example, a boost converter is controlled in

B1 = B2 = VIN

sliding mode using a sliding surface dened by a lin-

L ear combination of the inductor current iL , voltage

(42) error

vC Vref and integrative of the voltage error

The switching condition is (vC Vref ) dt [Calvente et al., 1996]. This system

is represented in Fig. 13. Let us take the follow-

(x , ) = Vref K[Xeq,1 + 1 ( )(x Xeq,1 )]

ing values of parameters: R = 10 , L = 200 H,

C = 200 F, VIN = 10 V, RS = 0, VH = 0.5 V,

Vl (Vu Vl ) =0 (43)

T ki = 1 , Vref = 20 V. The matrices A1 and A2 and

vectors B1 and B2 are:

1

0 0

RC

A1 =

0

RS ,

0

L

1 0 0

1 1

0

RC C

(44)

A2 = 1

RS

0

L L

1 0 0

0 0

V V

IN IN

B1 = , B2 =

L L

Fig. 10. Current controlled boost converter with ramp

modulator. Vref Vref

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

(a)

(b)

Fig. 11. Flip bifurcation in a current controlled boost converter with ramp modulator. (a) Control signal and ramp waveforms

showing subharmonic oscillations. (b) Corresponding capacitor voltage waveforms.

Fig. 13. Hysteretic controlled boost converter with PI

current programmed boost converter when ki is varied.

controller.

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

associated to = 0

1 (x , , T ) = K[Xeq,1 + 1 ( )(x Xeq,1 )]x Dierent types of bifurcations are associated with

an eigenvalue equal to 1. The critical point in this

VH

kv Vref =0 case may be a bifurcation point or a turning point.

2 In the rst case we can have transcritical and pitch-

2 (x , , T ) = K[Xeq,2 + 2 (T )[Xeq,1 (45) fork bifurcation and in the second one we have a

+ 1 ( )(x Xeq,1 ) Xeq,2 ] saddle node or tangent bifurcation. The condition

for a map to display a pitchfork bifurcation is that

VH it must be an even function with respect to the

kv Vref + =0

2 state variables: i.e. P (xn ) = P (xn ). Obviously

the Poincare map of elementary DCDC switch-

where K = [kv , ki , kint ] and T is the cycle dura- ing regulators is not an even function and pitch-

tion corresponding to the xed point x . kv and kint fork bifurcation cannot occur. A state variable with

are the weights of the proportional and the integral small ripple can also give rise to a characteristic

terms, respectively of the PI controller and ki is multiplier close to 1. This situation evidently does

the weight of the inductor current. The parameter not correspond to a bifurcation.

kint is taken to be 2kv /RC without loss of general- At a saddle node bifurcation, one of the eigen-

ity. Varying the coecient kv , the system undergoes values is equal to 1. Therefore from Eq. (35) we have

a ip bifurcation and subharmonic oscillations are the following condition

obtained. The critical value of kv is kv,cr 4.35.

det(DP I) = 0

Figure 14 shows typical waveforms after this bifur- (46)

cation occurs. The loci of the characteristic multi- P (x ) x = 0

pliers are also shown.

It should be noted that in hysteretic controlled

6.3.1. Example 4: PWM controlled

converters, the period does not double exactly but it

is still a bifurcation with = 1 (ip). The reason DCDC boost converter

is that the Poincare map is not a synchronous map. Let us consider the PWM DCDC boost converter

For this reason we preferred the term ip bifurca- shown in Fig. 15 with the following values of param-

tion rather than period doubling bifurcation. eters: R = 5 , L = 20 H, C = 47 F, VIN = 20 V,

Fig. 14. Subharmonic oscillation in a hysteretic controlled boost converter with PI control. (Left) Characteristic multipliers

when kv coecient of the PI controller is varied. (Right) Capacitor voltage and inductor current after ip bifurcation takes

place.

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

converter. Fig. 16. Saddle-node bifurcation in a PWM controlled

DCDC boost converter.

RS = 0.1 , Vl = 0 V, Vu = 1 V, ki = 0.05 , one and only one xed point. By plotting the char-

Vref = 2 V, T = 10 s. The matrices A1 and A2 acteristic curve and the boundary layer in the state

and vectors B1 and B2 are: plane we can obtain geometrically the set of param-

eter values that makes the system have only one

1 1 1

0 nominal operating point. The situation in Fig. 5

RC C

A1 = , A2 = RC , corresponds to this case. It should be noted that

1 RS RS the averaging approach can be also used in this case

0

L L L without losing accuracy if the switching frequency

is suciently high.

0

B1 = B2 = VIN

L 6.4. Instability of 1-periodic orbit

(47) associated to (0, )

The switching condition is Most discrete models for DCDC switching con-

verters give rise to eigenvalues in complex conju-

(x , ) = K(1 ( )x + 1 ( )) Vref Vl gate pairs. For a NeimarkSacker bifurcation two

of the eigenvalues are of modulus equal to 1,

(Vu Vl ) = 0 (48)

T being complex conjugates but dierent from 1.

Therefore from Eq. (35) we have the following

Let us take Vref as bifurcation parameter. Using

condition

Eqs. (31) and (46), the critical value of the ref-

erence voltage is found to be Vref,cr = 3.625 V

and the xed point at this critical value is x0 = det(DP ) = 0

ej 0

[57.5549 V, 46.6404 A]T . When Vref > Vref,cr , the (49)

P (x ) x = 0 being =

0 e j

system has only the OFF equilibrium point as a

solution. When Vref < Vref,cr , the system has three

solutions: the OFF equilibrium point, the saddle being the phase of the complex pair eigenvalues

point and the node point (Fig. 16). In this case when these cross the unit circle. After the occur-

the behavior of the system in the steady state will rence of a NeimarkSacker bifurcation, the trajec-

be dependent on the initial conditions. Tangent tory of the Poincare map is an invariant closed

bifurcations may explain why DCDC converters curve that emerges from the xed point of the

undergo some sudden jump in their solution or sud- map. This invariant closed curve corresponds to

den disappearance of a periodic solution. A method a torus in the underlying continuous time system.

to avoid this behavior is by making the system have The system behavior is therefore quasiperiodic and

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

incommensurate frequencies. For xed frequency Vu = 1 V, ki = 0.1 , kv = 0.1, fs = 1/T = 25 kHz.

controlled systems, one of the frequencies appear- The matrices and the vectors of the system and

ing in the quasiperiodic behavior is the switching the switching condition are the same as for Exam-

frequency and the other is due to the natural fre- ple 4. Let us take Vref as a bifurcation parameter.

quency of the linearized Poincare map. This natural With the above set of parameter values, the criti-

frequency is related to the phase of the complex cal reference voltage is found to be Vref,cr = 1.435 V

eigenvalues pair at the bifurcation point. Since the and the xed point for this critical value is x0 =

modulus of these eigenvalues is 1, we can write [9.536 V, 0.597 A]. In this case, Eqs. (31) and (49)

for the complex pair eigenvalues that 1,2 = ej . lead to the system eigenvalues 1,2 = ej0.2029 with

Therefore, natural frequencies of the linearized map a natural system frequency f0 of about (/2)fs

may be written as f0 = (/2)fs , where fs = 1/T is 807 Hz. Figure 17 shows the dynamic behavior

the xed switching frequency. Note that for = , of the system before and after Hopf bifurcation

f0 = fs /2, period doubling bifurcation is obtained takes place. Before this bifurcation occurs, the xed

while for = 0, f0 = 0, saddle node takes place. point of the Poincare map is a stable focus and

it becomes unstable when Hopf bifurcation occurs.

In this case the attractor of the system is a torus

6.4.1. Example 5: PWM state feedback

[Fig. 17(b)]. Its Poincare section is an invariant

controlled boost converter closed curve [Fig. 17(c)]. The power spectrum of the

Let us take the system of Example 4 but with the inductor current shows a low frequency component

following values of parameters: R = 0.1 , L = around f0 .

(a) (c)

(b) (d)

Fig. 17. Dynamics of the PWM DCDC boost converter before and after Hopf bifurcation takes place. (a) Bifurcation

diagram. (b) Attractor of the system in the continuous time domain. (c) Discrete-time attractor. (d) Power spectrum of the

inductor current in the frequency domain.

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

again its Poincare section is an invariant closed

curve [Fig. 19(c)]. The power spectrum of the capac-

itor voltage shows also a low frequency component

very near to f0 .

In the case of quasiperiodicity another quanti-

fying term of the dynamics is the rotation or the

winding number w. It is dened as the averaged

angle by which the map rotates in the invariant cir-

cle. The denition of the rotation number involves a

limit for the number of iterations of a map P dened

on the torus starting from an initial point x0 .

P n (x0 ) x0

w = lim (51)

n n

Fig. 18. PWM controlled DCDC buck converter with PI For quasiperiodic solutions this number is irra-

control. tional. A special case of the dynamics on the torus

is when the two frequencies of the system are com-

mensurate. In this case, the rotation number is

6.4.2. Example 6: PWM controlled buck rational, and the behavior is periodic, correspond-

converter with voltage PI control ing to a phase locked orbit. These orbits are usu-

Now, consider the PWM DCDC buck converter ally organized in the form of Arnold Tongues in a

with PI controller shown in Fig. 18 with the follow- two-dimensional parameter space. The plot of the

ing values of parameters: L = 1 mH, C = 20 F, rotation number, as the bifurcation parameter is

VIN = 20 V, RS = 0.01 , Vl = 0 V, Vu = 1 V, ki = varied, is a typical devils staircase (see [El Aroudi

0 , kv = 0.1, kint = 1000, fs = 1/T = 20 kHz. The et al., 2000] and [El Aroudi & Leyva, 2001] for more

matrices A1 and A2 and the vectors B1 and B2 are: details).

It should be noted that in hysteresis controlled

1 1

0 elementary converters buck, boost and buck-boost,

RC C

NeimarkSacker bifurcation is not possible. This is

A1 = A2 =

0

1 RS , due to the fact that in these systems one of the

L L eigenvalues is always zero because of the constraint

1 0 0 Kxn + VH = 0 n. This bifurcation is neither

(50) observed in current programmed elementary con-

0 verters. However, the insertion of input lters or PI

V 0

IN controllers in these circuits may produce this bifur-

B1 = , B2 = 0 cation [Alfayoumi et al., 1999].

L

Vref

Vref

6.5. Border collision and grazing

Let us take the load resistance R as a bifurca-

tion parameter. With the above set of parameter bifurcation

values, the critical load resistance is found to be Bifurcations in the parameter space that have

Rcr = 7.45 . Using Eqs. (31) and (49), the eigenval- been analyzed in the above sections are associ-

ues of the system at this point are 1,2 = ej0.6283 . ated to smooth changes in the system, although

It is expected that the natural frequency of the often remarkable disturbance follows them. Fur-

system is f0 = (/2)fs 2 kHz. Figure 19 shows thermore, Piecewise-Smooth Systems (PWS) are

the dynamic behavior of the system before and susceptible to undergo other complex bifurcations

after Hopf bifurcation takes place. As in the PWM when some critical condition modies the pattern

voltage mode controlled DCDC boost converter, for transitions between their inherent smooth con-

before this bifurcation occurs, the xed point of gurations. Switched converters are among these

the Poincare map is a stable focus and it becomes systems; although each of their congurations is lin-

unstable when Hopf bifurcation occurs and the ear, nonsmoothness is associated with the transition

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

(a) (c)

(b) (d)

Fig. 19. Dynamics of the PWM DCDC buck converter with PI controller before and after Hopf bifurcation takes place.

(a) Bifurcation diagram. (b) Attractor of the system in the continuous time domain. (c) Discrete-time attractor. (d) Power

spectrum of the inductor current in the frequency domain.

more used when the discontinuity aects the state

equations but not the state variables themselves, as

in the case of DCDC converters.

Regarding the Poincare map of PWS, it has

been assumed that it changes smoothly against

some parameter sweeping. But this is not true if the

sequence of the linear conguration is altered; then

a border collision bifurcation takes place. As a con-

sequence of this structural change of the eld (state

equations) associated with border collisions bifurca-

tions, there is an abrupt change in the eigenvalues

Fig. 20. Waveforms of the ramp modulator and the induc- for the Jacobian or linearized matrix associated to

tor current for the approximated one-dimensional model of

those xed points.

DCDC converters.

A large variety of border-collision bifurcations

have been reported in recent literature and several

between these congurations. One case called graz- names are coined for some of them. In a switched

ing bifurcations occurs in mechanics for impact converter, most typically border collisions involve

oscillators which are modeled by considering orbits with high periodicity, but they can also be

negligible the impact time, so discontinuities in present with the T -periodic orbit. For instance, if

the state variables are present. The term border the inductor current reaches the zero value, both the

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

main switch and the diode are OFF, then the only sense of sweeping is changed so as to show the

nonzero state variable is the capacitor voltage; in hysteretic behavior. Corner collision is another term

this case the system changes from two-dimensional used for associated bifurcation to the signal control

(2D) to one-dimensional (1D). In [Parui & Banerjee, equaling the sawtooth signal just when it changes

2001] an extended analysis for border collisions, slope. Readers interested in the mathematical back-

where the map is 2D in one side of the border ground about these anomalous bifurcations can

and 1D in the other side, is given. Another sim- refer to [Nusse & Yorke, 1992; Wolf et al., 1994;

ple case occurs if the reference voltage is shifted Nusse et al., 1994; Yuan et al., 1998; Banerjee et al.,

to overow the control range, freezing a single con- 2000; Zhusubaliyev & Soukhoterin, 2001].

guration. These simple cases show two possibili-

ties, one is when the attractor is present at both 7. Approximated Poincare Maps

sides of the borderline and other case implies that

there are two xed points on one side colliding on We have seen that stability analysis of periodic

the border, and there are no xed points on the orbits cannot be carried out in closed form due to

other side (for more details see [Parui & Banerjee, the transcendental nature of the equation of the

2001]). Merging and disappearance of two solutions switching condition. However, in some practical sit-

of dierence type, a phenomenon that has some uations and in some specic control strategies, we

similarities to saddle-node bifurcations in smooth are able to nd the switching instants due to the

systems, is treated in detail in [Zhusubaliyev & fact that the expression of the map is available in

Mosekilde, 2003] for a two-dimensional map describ- closed form. Let us focus on the PWM control with

ing the behavior of a PWM buck converter. A main a sawtooth modulating signal. A similar approach

dierence is that under the parameter variation can be followed in case of other control methods.

those xed points are separated from each other

more in a linear manner than in a parabolic way. 7.1. Linear ripple approximation

Border collision bifurcations can also drive to sud- In this case, it is considered that the waveforms

den transitions to chaos. Piecewise linear maps, as of the state variables are linear in each subinter-

for instance the tent map, exhibit this behavior. val. Therefore, we can approximate eAt by I + At,

Using selected piecewise smooth Poincare maps, where I is the identity matrix. The switching condi-

an accurate analysis is made in [Zhusubaliyev & tion will be a rst-order equation in n which may

Mosekilde, 2003] for dierent kinds of more com- be solved in closed form. Substituting n in Eq. (21)

plex bifurcations which include switched converters will result in a closed form expression of the map-

among the detailed examples. The same approach is ping governing the dynamical system behavior.

used in [Robert & Robert, 2002] to study these kind

of bifurcations in a PWM current mode H-bridge 7.2. Constant output voltage

inverter. Other nonlinear phenomena like chatter-

approximation

ing and skipping are examples of border collision

bifurcations. Skipping phenomenon is produced by Further simplications in the expression of the map-

varying some parameter, the control signal can ping may be carried out assuming that the capac-

jump to another cycle of the modulating signal. itor voltage is no longer a state variable. Indeed,

This leads to the period adding bifurcation. in most applications this voltage is controlled to a

Chattering, or sliding in some ideal cases, is desired value in such a way that the ripple is very

given if the control signal impacts repetitively on small. In this case, the capacitor voltage is constant

the modulating sawtooth signal. Multistability phe- (vC = VC ) and the mapping governing the dynam-

nomena is frequently associated with border col- ics is therefore one-dimensional. In [Marrero et al.,

lision bifurcations. Many dierent attractors are 1996] assuming a constant output voltage, it was

referred to possible coexistence. This can be out- shown that the mapping governing the dynamics of

lined by building bifurcation diagrams where the any current mode controlled elementary converter

working in CCM can be written as (see Fig. 19):

in + m1 T if in < T (mc m1 ) + Iref

in+1 := P (in ) =

m2 mc (52)

(in Iref ) + Iref + m2 T if in > T (mc m1 ) + Iref

m1 mc

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

Table 2. The expressions of m1 , m2 and for the analyze bifurcation phenomena [Woywode et al.,

dierent elementary converters.

2001].

Converter Buck Boost Buck-Boost Dierently to the geometric approach used for

nonlinear analysis of dynamical systems, statistical

VIN VC VIN VIN approach is based on the system average properties.

m1

L L L

Using classical results from ergodic theory applied

VC VC VIN VC to stochastic processes, the statistical approach can

m2

L L L address certain questions about the average values

VC VC VIN VC of signals generated by nonlinear Poincare maps. In

VIN VC VIN VIN this approach it is often referred to a chaotic sig-

nal being stochastic even though the map giving

where Iref is the reference current, m1 and m2 being rise to it is deterministic. An important feature of

the increasing and the decreasing slopes of the state the statistical analysis is that a nonlinear map will

variable. Table 2 shows the values of m1 , m2 and not be dependent on an initial condition so that

:= m1 /m2 for buck, boost and buck-boost con- the sensitive dependence of chaotic signals on the

verters. Figure 21 shows the graph of the induc- initial conditions is not to be taken into account

tor current map. Other works use another map, the if we suppose that the system is ergodic. The map

so-called impact or A-switching map [Baranovski (55) governing the dynamics of DCDC elemen-

et al., 1999a; Woywode et al., 2000; Deane et al., tary converters is ergodic for values of greater

1999; Banerjee & Verghese, 2001]. than the golden mean Gm = (1 + 5)/2. The sta-

tistical approach is based on considering the state

Iref ik space of a nonlinear system as a measure space.

ik+1 = Iref m2 T 1 mod 1 (53)

m1 T The measure (xi ) of a set of points in the state

where the subscript k stands for sampling at ON space is usually normalized in such a way that it

switching instants, mod stands for the modulus has a probabilistic interpretation [Lasota & Mackey,

function and mc = 0 for simplicity. Introducing 1994]. When this measure is normalized, the density

the parameter and the dimensionless variable xk function is a probability density (). The mean-

dened by ing of this probability is the relative frequency of a

trajectory that lies in a region when the iteration

Iref ik

xk = (54) number is large enough. For two-dimensional sys-

m1 T tems, the state plane is divided into a set of cells

The map (53) can be written in the following dimen- each one with a certain probability of being visited

sionless form by a trajectory. If we use M cells and nd that the

xk+1 := P (xk ) = (1 xk mod 1) (55) trajectory visits the ith cell mi times, then we asso-

ciate the probability pi = mi /M with the ith cell

This recurrence equation is more suitable for (Ii ). This probability may be also obtained using

carrying out statistical analysis rather than to the probability density (). The probability of nd-

ing a trajectory in the ith cell is given by integrating

in this cell, i.e.

Ii

Usually, densities vary when the map is iterated.

The evolution of a probability density when the map

is iterated is the central issue in the statistical appr-

oach. This density evolves according to the Frobe-

nious Perron operator [Lasota & Mackey, 1994].

8. Control of Bifurcations

It was shown from the examples presented previ-

Fig. 21. The approximated one-dimensional map of a ously that sometimes the behavior of an unstable

DCDC converter. DCDC converter is expected to be stable by using

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

averaged model and the approximated expressions xn+1 DP (xn ) + DPp (pn ) (57)

obtained from the discrete time model. In order to

widen, the stability range of the circuit parame- where pn is the available parameter, xn = xn x ,

ter, some methods based on nonlinear analysis, and pn = pn p , and DPp is composed by the partial

known from chaos theory like the OGY method, derivative of map P with respect to the parame-

and TDAS control can be used. Control of chaos, ter p. We also assume that x is a saddle periodic

meaning suppression of the chaotic regime in a sys- orbit with a one-dimensional stable manifold and

tem has been a subject of interest in recent years a one-dimensional unstable manifold with stable

[Shinbrot et al., 1993]. In [Ott et al., 1990], it was direction es and unstable direction eu (with stable

pointed out that the many Unstable Periodic Orbits eigenvalue s and unstable eigenvalue u , respec-

(UPOs) embedded in a strange attractor could be tively). Thus, for two-dimensional converters DP

stabilized. This is to the advantage of engineers try- can be expressed as

ing to control nonlinear systems in which chaotic DP = u eu feu + s es fes (58)

uctuations are present but undesirable. Two main

where fes and feu are the contravariant vectors of

groups of methods for controlling chaos, such that

es , eu (and thus es fes = eu feu = 1 and es feu =

the feedback perturbation vanishes on the target

eu fes = 0). The idea of the method is to let the

orbit, have been considered in the literature.

system operate until the orbit is near the unstable

orbit. At that moment the value for p is modied

8.1. The OGY method from p to p + p. With this small perturbation,

The rst method was proposed by Ott, Grebogi the localization of the unstable orbit and its stable

and Yorke [Ott et al., 1990], where small perturba- manifold is also varied in order to force the orbit to

tions to an accessible parameter are introduced. The stay in the stable manifold of x in the next itera-

method exploits the fact that during its wandering tion. Thus, pn = p + pn must be chosen to satisfy

over the strange attractor, the system will eventu- (in a rst-order approximation)

ally come near the UPO of a given Poincare section. feu xn+1 = 0 (59)

When this happens, and only then, a small pertur- and then,

bation is applied to the parameter so as to make

feu xn

the orbit land on the stable manifold of the target pn = u if feu DPp = 0 (60)

orbit the next time it crosses the Poincare section. feu DPp

It has been applied with success to a great variety This perturbation is applied only if it does not

of systems in almost all areas and it is continuously exceed pmax . If this is not the case, pn = 0 and

revised in the literature. The OGY method can be p = p is kept. Theoretically, once the value xn+1 is

applied when the equations of the system dynamics on the stable manifold of x , the perturbation can

are known, like in the case of DCDC converters, be reset to zero. In practice, since the value for pn

and from a sampled sequence of values of the chaotic was computed to rst-order approximation, the fol-

signal when the equations are not known. Some lowing iterations will not be exactly on the stable

types of OGY method have already been applied to manifold and the orbit will be unstabilized. Thus,

a buck converter [Podar et al., 1995; Chakrabarty the perturbation must be applied at each iteration.

& Banerjee, 1995] stabilizing T -periodic and The rst step to implement the algorithm numeri-

2T -periodic unstable orbits, taking advantage of the cally is to compute the unstable orbits desired for

piecewise-linear character of the system. The main stabilization. This can be done by writing down the

idea of Ott, Grebogi and Yorke was to consider that necessary equations for T -periodicity with one sin-

there can be a great number of UPOs embedded gle switching in each cycle, and following the main

in the chaotic attractor. Thus, slightly varying an branch attractor beyond the rst bifurcation. The

available parameter p [p pmax , p + pmax ] in derivatives of the map P with respect to the state

the system, the orbit can be stabilized, pmax being and the parameter are computed using the expres-

the maximum perturbation allowed in the available sion of this map. In order to illustrate the appi-

parameter, and p the value of the parameter for cation of the method it was applied to an unstable

which the UPO is localized. Let x = P (x , p ) DCDC buck converter. The bifurcation parameter

be the unstable orbit to be stabilized. A rst-order is selected to be the input voltage VIN as before.

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

Figure 22 shows the waveforms of the output volt- mode controlled boost converter and varying, cycle

age before and after applying the OGY method. by cycle, the maximum value of the ramp volt-

The OGY method assumes that the UPO is age. Observe that when the control is activated the

always of saddle type. Evidently, this is not always width of the ramp changes until the periodic orbit is

the case in DCDC converters. Theoretically, the stabilized. When this occurs, the width of the ramp

control is activated only if the trajectory of the sys- is constant. Note that in the averaged context, a

tem fails on the stable manifold of the system. This cycle by cycle modication of the amplitude of the

method can be slightly modied to stabilize any ramp voltage is not allowed while this is possible in

UPO (not necessarily a saddle). At the beginning the discrete time approach.

of each cycle, the value of a certain parameter may

be actualized following a certain control law which

depends on the state variables in such a way that 8.2. Time delay auto synchronization

the dynamic of the system is stabilized. In the sim- of DCDC switching converters

plest case, the control law may take the following Another method to stabilize UPOs is auto syn-

linear form chronization, and it uses delayed samples of the

pn = p G(xn x ), G = [gv , gi ] (61) state variables. This method was proposed by Pyra-

gas [1992] and it is called time-delayed auto syn-

where G is a feedback gain vector which must chronization (TDAS). It involves a control signal

belong to the domain of control of the system. When formed by the dierence between the current state

the periodic orbit is stabilized, xn = x , n and variables and the T delayed ones. TDAS and its

therefore pn = p is constant. In order that the variants [Socolar et al., 1994; de Sousa Vieira &

control works, the pair (DP, DPp ) must be stabi- Lichtenberg, 1996] have the advantage that the

lizable. Moreover, the components of the vector G only information needed about the target orbit is

must belong to the domain of control of the system its period, and that no computer processing must

in such a way that the eigenvalues of the system be done to generate the control signal. In gen-

eral, the feedback gain which successfully stabilizes

xn+1 = (DP DPp G)xn (62)

the orbit lies in a nite, and often narrow, orbit-

lie inside the unit circle. The parameter p could dependent range. In the space of the feedback gain

be any available parameter of the system. How- and the bifurcation parameter(s) of the system, the

ever, some parameters are more easy to change region where TDAS can be applied with success is

than others. The slope of the ramp voltage can called the domain of control. The TDAS control was

be easily modied by varying its maximum value. succesfully applied to stabilize UPOs of a PWM cur-

Figure 23 shows the simulated results obtained by rent mode H-bridge inverter using a discrete time

applying the control law (61) to a PWM voltage approach [Iu & Robert, 2003].

Fig. 22. Stabilized orbit for VIN = 35 V. The remaining parameters are the same as in Fig. 9.

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

Fig. 23. Stabilizing the UPO by changing the width of the sawtooth voltage cyclically. The control is activated at t = 5 ms.

The parameters used are gv = 0.1, gi = 0 , Vref = 1.5 V. The remaining parameters are the same as in Fig. 17.

Fig. 24. The control voltage and the sawtooth signal showing the stabilization of the periodic orbit under TDAS control.

(a) From subharmonic oscillations to T -periodic orbit. (b) From a quasiperiodic behavior to a T -periodic orbit.

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

In a DCDC converter with PWM control, the 1. an unstable T -periodic orbit must coexist with

switching is decided by comparing the error sig- the stationary dynamics in the system without

nal with a modulating T -periodic sawtooth voltage. TDAS control.

TDAS control adds to the error signal another sig- 2. parameters mv and mi belong to the domain of

nal vTDAS (t), which is a linear combination of the control in the parameter space.

actual errors between the state variables x(t) and

the delayed ones x(t T ). The delay is the period Experimentally, TDAS control may be implemented

T of the sawtooth voltage or the period of the clock by using a digital delay line. In [Gaston et al.,

in current programming control. 1999] a digital delay line of 8 bits and with 3.3 s

as sampling period was used. The delay line was

built by means of an A/D converter, which sam-

vTDAS (t) = mv (vC (t) vC (t T ))

ples the linear combination of both capacitor volt-

+ mi (iL (t) iL (t T )) (63) age and inductor current mv v(t) + mi i(t), and a

memory RAM of FIFO type that stores this signal.

where mv and mi are the feedback factors of In Fig. 24(a) we show how TDAS control can sta-

both voltage and current, respectively. TDAS con- bilize the UPO embedded in the 2T-periodic orbit

trol suppress any dynamics resulting from an of a buck converter. Figure 24(b) shows the sta-

UPO (chaotic, subharmonic or quasiperiodic), and bilization of an UPO of a PWM voltage controlled

presents a stable T -periodic orbit if the two follow- boost converter when the system stationary dynam-

ing conditions are fullled: ics is quasiperiodic (torus). Figure 25 shows the

Fig. 25. Capacitor voltage, inductor current and the sawtooth signal showing the stabilization of the periodic orbit under

experimental TDAS control from a 2T -periodic DCDC buck converter.

June 4, 2005 17:30 01294

experimental results corresponding to Fig. 24(a). and saddle node bifurcation but they fail to detect

TDAS control may be extended to other modes period doubling.

of operation. More recently, a TDAS control was After bifurcations occur, classical methods

applied experimentally to a buck converter working based on averaging techniques are inaccurate in

in DCM [Hikihara et al., 2000]. giving the system performances. If a converter is

allowed to work in the chaotic regime, a statistical

approach is more suitable to get averaged state vari-

9. Conclusions ables, averaged switching frequency and averaged

In our opinion, the formality of our presentation duty cycle. In the periodic regime static analysis is

is necessary because terminology in the eld of sucient to get these averages.

nonlinear dynamics of PE may be confused and Most works reported recently in the literature

much of it may be new to some readers. Most non- deal with identifying and classifying nonlinear phe-

linear phenomena that the nominal periodic orbit nomena that can occur in power electronic cir-

in DCDC converters undergo are classied into cuits. Other works deal with obtaining the system

standard bifurcations like, ip, Hopf and saddle performances using a statistical approach. Very few

node bifurcations. We have attempted to provide works deal with applications of such phenomena in

an overview of these local bifurcations as applied engineering problems. The research in nding appli-

in DCDC power electronic converters analysis. cations is in its infancy. However, the number of

The discussion is based in the general discrete-time interested research groups is increasing. It can be

description of these systems. Analytical tools must expected therefore that engineers will be more inter-

be combined by numerical simulations to study and ested in this eld of research.

predict these bifurcation phenomena. Other non-

standard bifurcations are also possible but they

occur mainly for other periodic orbits and they are Acknowledgments

due essentially to the change of the number of con- This work was supported by the Spanish CICYT

gurations that can operate in one switching period. under Grant TIC2000-1019-C02-01 (& 02). The

We have not studied in detail these nonstandard authors wish to express their thanks to the anony-

bifurcations as they are beyond the scope of the mous reviewers for their valuable comments and

present paper. The type of bifurcations that can suggestions.

occurs in a DCDC converter depends on the type

of this converter, its order and the nature of the con-

troller used. It can be conjectured for example that References

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