Water Treatment

Mathematical
Formulas

6
th
Edition


Fleming Training Center
Murfreesboro, TN
Updated April 16, 2009

Water Treatment Math Formulas – Fleming Training Center
Water Treatment Formulas i
Index
Area ..............................................................................3
Carbonate and Noncarbonate Hardness .................... 14
Chemical Feeders ................................................ 11, 12
Chlorination .......................................................... 12, 13
Coagulation/Flocculation ..............................................8
Conversion Factors ......................................................1
Corrosion Control ....................................................... 17
Density ....................................................................... 12
Detention Time ........................................................... 12
Dosage .........................................................................5
Filtration ...................................................................... 10
Flow ..............................................................................3
Flow Conversion Chart .................................................4
Fluoridation ................................................................. 16
Jar Testing ....................................................................9
Lime Dosage ................................................................9
Metric Conversions .......................................................2
Mixing Energy ...............................................................9
Pounds .........................................................................5
Pounds/gal to mg/mL Conversions ...............................2
Power ...........................................................................6
Preliminary Treatment ..................................................8
Pumps ...................................................................... 6, 7
Sedimentation ............................................................. 10
Softening .................................................................... 15
Solution Preparation .....................................................7
Specific Gravity ........................................................... 12
Substitution of Bleach for HTH, etc ............................. 13
Temperature .................................................................1
Volume .........................................................................3
Well Formulas ...............................................................5

Water Treatment Math Formulas
Water Treatment Formulas 1
Conversion Factors
Length
1 yard (yd) ....................................................... 3 feet (ft)
1 mile (mi) ................................................. 5,280 feet (ft)
Area
1 acre (ac) ................................. 43,560 square feet (ft
2
)
1 square foot (ft
2
) ....................... 144 square inches (in
2
)
Volume
1 ft
3
..................................................... 7.48 gallons (gal)
1 gallon ........................................ 231 cubic inches (in
3
)
1 gallon .................................................. 3.785 Liters (L)
1 liter ............................................... 1,000 milliliters (mL)
1 acre/foot (ac-ft) .......................... 43,560 cubic feet (ft
3
)
1 acre-foot (ac-ft) ....................... 325,828.8 gallons (gal)
Weight and Mass
1 gallon of water ................................. 8.34 pounds (lbs)
1 cubic foot of water (ft
3
) .................................... 62.4 lbs
1 pound (lb) ......................................... 453.6 grams (g)
1 kilogram (kg) ...................................... 1,000 grams (g)
1 gram ......................................... 1,000 milligrams (mg)
1% ............................. 10,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L)
1 mg/L ..................................... 0.0584 grains per gallon
1 grain per gallon ........................................ 17.118 mg/L

Pressure and Head
1 foot of head .............. 0.433 pounds per square in (psi)
1 pound per square inch (psi) .............. 2.31 feet of head

Temperature Conversions
°C ............................................................ 0.556 (°F-32°)
°F ............................................................... 1.8(°C) + 32°
Power
1 Horsepower ................................................. 746 watts
1 Horsepower ......................................... 0.746 kilowatts
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2 Water Treatment Formulas
Converting lbs/gal to mg/mL





Metric Conversions


Water Treatment Math Formulas
Water Treatment Formulas 3
Area
Rectangle: ft) ft)(Width, (Length,
ft
Area,
2
=
Circle: ft) (Diameter, (0.785)
ft
Area,
2
2
=

Volume
Rectangle, ft
3
: ft) ft)(Depth, ft)(Width, (Length,
ft
Volume,
3
=
Cylinder, ft
3
: ft) Length, or Depth ( ft) (Diameter, (0.785)
ft
Volume,
2
3
=
Segment of Cylinder, ft
3
: ft) (Length, 608 . 0
ft , Height
ft , Diameter
(Height) 1.333
ft
Volume,
2
3

÷ =
Wedge:
2
ft) ft)(Depth, ft)(Width, (Length,

ft
Volume,
3
=
Volume, gallons = ) ft / ga 48 . 7 )( ft Volume, ( gal Volume,
3 3
=

Flow
AV Q = OR (Velocity) (Area) Q=
ft/sec) ty, ft)(Veloci ft)(Depth, (Width, sec /
ft
(Channel), Q
3
=
ft/sec) (Velocity, ft) (Diameter, (0.785) sec /
ft
, (Pipeline) Q
2
3
=
) Diameter ( ) 785 . 0 (
sec /
ft
Flow,
ft/sec Velocity,
2
3
=
sec Time,
ft Distance,
ft/sec Velocity, =
Flows Daily of Number
MGD Flows, Daily All of Sum
MGD Flow, Daily Average =
Flows Daily erage Monthly Av of Number
MGD Flows, Daily erage Monthly Av All of Sum
MGD Flow, Daily Average Annual =
Served People of Number Total
gal/day Used, Water
pita gal/day/ca Flow, Daily =

Fleming Training Center
4 Water Treatment Formulas
Flow Conversions

cfs = cubic feet per second gps = gallons per second
cfm = cubic feet per minute gpm = gallons per minute
cfd = cubic feet per day gpd = gallons per day

To use this diagram: First, find the box that coincides with the beginning units (i.e. gpm). Then,
find the box that coincides with the desired ending units (i.e. cfs). The numbers between the
starting point and ending point are the conversion factors. When moving from a smaller box to a
larger box, multiply by the factor between them. When moving from a larger box to a smaller
box, divide by the factor between them.

Water Treatment Math Formulas
Water Treatment Formulas 5
Dosage
lbs/gal) (8.34 MGD) (Flow,
lb/day Rate, Feed Chemical
mg/L Dosage, =
lbs/gal) (8.34 MGD) (Flow,
decimal) a as expressed %, Purity, (Chemical lbs/day) Rate, Feed (Chemical
mg/L Dosage, =
L/gal) (3.785 gal/min) (Flow,
mg/gram) (1,000 grams/min) Rate, (Feed
mg/L Dosage, =

Pounds
lbs/gal) (8.34 MG) (Volume, mg/L) (Dose, lbs Fed, Chemical =
decimal a as expressed %, Purity, Chemical
lbs/gal) (8.34 MG) (Volume, mg/L) (Dose,
lbs Fed, Chemical =
lbs/gal) (8.34 MGD) (Flow, mg/L) (Dose, lbs/day Rate, Feed =
decimal a as expressed %, Purity, Chemical
lbs/gal) (8.34 MGD) (Flow, mg/L) (Dose,
lbs/day Rate, Feed =
g/lb) (453.6 mg/g) (1,000 min) Pumped, (Time
min/day) (1,440 mL) Pumped, ume mg/mL)(Vol tion, (Concentra
lbs/day Rate, Feed =

Well Formulas
min Time,
gal Volume,
gal/min Yield, Well =
ft Level, er Static Wat - ft Level, Water Pumping ft Drawdown, =
ft Drawdown,
gal/min Yield, Well
gal/min/ft Capacity, Specific =






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6 Water Treatment Formulas
Power
(Amps) (Volts) watts Power, =
Factor) (Power decimal) as %, y, (Efficienc (Volts)
r) (Horsepowe watts/HP) (746
phase - single Amps, =
Factor) (Power decimal) as %, y, (Efficienc lts) (1.732)(Vo
r) (Horsepowe watts/HP) (746
phase - three Amps, =
watts/HP) (746
)(Amps) (Volts
Horsepower =
owatt watts/kil 1,000
Factor) (Power (Amps) (Volts)
phase - single Kilowatts, =
owatt watts/kil 1,000
(1.732) Factor) (Power (Amps) (Volts)
phase - three Kilowatts, =
ps) (Volts)(Am
Watts
Factor Power =
Pumps

min Time,
gal Volume,
gal/min Rate, Pumping =
min , Time
)
ft
gal/ ft)(7.48 , Depth ( ft) ft)(Width, (Length,
gal/min Rate, Pumping
3
=
min , Time
)
ft
gal/ ft)(7.48 , Depth ( ft) (Diameter, (0.785)
gal/min Rate, Pumping
3
2
=
gal/min Rate, Flow
gal Volume, Tank
min Fill, to Time =
3960
ft) (Head, gal/min) (Flow,
HP Water =
decimal) a as expressed %, , Efficiency (Pump (3960)
ft) (Head, gal/min) (Flow,
HP Brake =
Water Treatment Math Formulas
Water Treatment Formulas 7
decimal) as expressed %, Eff., (Motor decimal) as expressed %, Eff., (Pump (3960)
ft) (Head, gal/min) (Flow,
HP Motor =
decimal a as expressed %, , Efficiency Pump
) Horsepower (Water
HP Brake =
decimal a as expressed %, , Efficiency Motor
) Horsepower (Brake
HP Motor =
100% X
Horsepower Motor
Horsepower Brake
% , Efficiency Motor =
100% X
Horsepower Brake
Horsepower Water
% , Efficiency Pump =
100% X
Supplied Horsepower
Output Horsepower
% , Efficiency =
100% X
Horsepower Motor
Horsepower Water
% , Efficiency Overall =
(100%) decimal) as %, Eff., (Motor decimal) as %, Eff., (Pump % , Efficiency Water - to - Wire =
ft Head, Discharge ft Lift, Suction ft Head, Static + =
ft Head, Suction - ft Head, Discharge ft Head, Static =
ft) Head, (Static (0.1) ft Loss, Friction = **use this formula in absence of other data
ft Losses, Friction ft Head, Static ft Head, Dynamic Total + =
hr) - $/kW t, kW/HP)(Cos (0.746 ) Horsepower (Motor $/hr Cost, =
Solution Preparation
100% X
lbs) Chemical, of Weight lbs Water, of (Weight
lbs Chemical, of Weight
) (by weight % Strength, Percent
+
=
100% X
lbs/gal Density,
lbs/gal ion, Concentrat
% ion, Concentrat =
) (Volume ) tion (Concentra ) (Volume ) tion (Concentra
2 2 1 1
=
) (Volume ) (Normality ) (Volume ) (Normality
2 2 1 1
=
%) ion, Concentrat Desired - (100%
%) ion, Concentrat (Desired lbs/gal) 8.34 X gal Volume, (Water
lbs Chemical, =
lbs/gal) (8.34 %) ion, Concentrat (Desired
%) ion, Concentrat Desired - (100% lbs) (Chemical,
gal Volume, Water =
Fleming Training Center
8 Water Treatment Formulas
Preliminary Treatment
Total Alkalinity<50 mg/L as CaCO
3
: ft) - acre , ft)(Volume - lbs/acre (0.9 lbs Sulfate, Copper =
Total Alkalinity>50 mg/L as CaCO
3
: lbs/acre) acre)(5.4 Area, (Surface lbs Sulfate, Copper =
decimal) a as expressed %, (Copper,
lbs/gal) (8.34 MG) (Volume, mg/L) (Dosage,
Copper) (as lbs Sulfate, Copper =
2
lbs) Sulfate, (Copper
lbs d, Citric Aci =
acre /
ft
43,560
ft) ft)(Width, (Length,
acres Area,
2
=
ft) (Depth, acres) (Area, ft - acre Volume, =
acre /
ft
43,560
ft) ft)(Depth, ft)(Width, (Length,
ft - acre Volume, Pond
2
=
)
ft
/ gal 48 . 7 )( acre / 43,560ft ft)( - acre (Volume, gal Volume, Pond
3 2
=
)
ft
gal/ 48 . 7 )( acre /
ft
ft)(43560 th, acres)(Dep (Area, gal Volume, Pond
3 2
=


Coagulation/Flocculation
Design Criteria
gal/day Flow,
sec/min) (60 min/day) (1,440 gal) (Volume,
sec Time, Detention =
gal/day Flow,
min/day) (1,440 gal) (Volume,
min Time, Detention =
Lime Dosage
(0.37) mg/L) Dosage, (Alum mg/L Dosage, Lime =
mg/gram) (1,000 min/day) (1,440
L/gal) (3.785 MGD) (Flow, mg/L) Dosage, (Lime
grams/min Rate, Feed Lime =
decimal a as expressed , % Purity, Commercial
(0.37) lbs/day) Rate, Feed (Alum
lbs/day Dosage, Lime =



Water Treatment Math Formulas
Water Treatment Formulas 9
Mixing Energy
Mechanical Mixers
)(V) (
(P) (550)
G
u
=


Hydraulic Jump
)(T) (
(H) (62.4)
G
u
=

Variable Speed
3/2
2
1
1
2
N
N
) (G
G

=


Jar Test RPM
1
2 2
1
G
) (T ) (G
T =




Jar Testing
decimal a as expressed , % ion, Concentrat
required grams Solution, Liquid
gram Solution, Liquid =
mL/gal 3,785
mg/lb) 3,600 lb/gal)(45 tion, (Concentra
mg/mL , ion Concentrat =
decimal) a as expressed %, on, oncentrati Gravity)(C (Specific
L) Volume, Beaker Test mg/L)(Jar (Dose,
L Dose, = u
lbs/gal) (8.34 MGD) (Flow,
lb/day Rate, Feed Chemical
mg/L Dosage, =
Where: P = (hp)(0.90)
u = density of water, (lbs)(sec)/ft
2
V = volume of flash mix, ft
3

Where: H = head loss or drop, ft
u = density of water, (lb)(sec)/ft
2
T = time, sec
Where: G
2
= velocity gradient at N
2
rpm, sec
-1

G
1
= max velocity gradient unit can achieve, sec
-1
N
1
= maximum rpm
N
2
= new rpm
Where: T
1
= Time to equate velocity gradient correction, sec
G
2
= calculated velocity gradient, sec
-1

T
2
=detention time for unit process, sec
G
1
= maximum G for jar test machine, sec
-1

Correction
)
ft
/
cm
29 min/day)(9 1440 (
) gal /
cm
3785 )(
ft
gpd/ (SOR,
cm/min , y Velocit Settling
2 2
3 2
=
Fleming Training Center
10 Water Treatment Formulas
Sedimentation
gal/day Flow,
hr/day) (24 gal) (Volume,
hr Time, Detention =
2
ft Area, Surface
gal/day Flow,

2
gal/day/ft (SOR), Rate Overflow Surface =
ft Length, Weir
gal/day Flow,
ft neal gal/day/li (WOR), Rate Overflow Weir =
ft) Diameter, (Weir (3.14) ft Weir, CIrcular of Length =
ft) Width, 2)(Weir ( ft) Length, (2)(Weir ft Weir, r Rectangula of Length + =
Filtration
Hook Gauge
)
ft
gal/ ft)(7.48 Drop, ft)(Water Bay Width, ft)(Filter Length, Bay (Filter gal Volume,
3
=
(n) Tests of Number
sec ,
n
Test ... sec ,
2
Test sec ,
1
Test
sec Time, Average
+ +
=
sec/min 60
sec Time, Average
min Time, Average =
ft) Width, Bed ft)(Sand Length, Bed (Sand
ft
Area, Sand
2
=
min Time, Average
gal Volume,
gal/min Rate, Filtration =
ft
Area, Sand
gal/min Rate, Filtration

ft
gal/min/ Rate, Filtration
2
2
=
Filter Production Rate
)
ft
Area, Filter )(
ft
gal/min/ Rate, n (Filtratio gal/min Rate, Production Filter
2 2
=
min/day) (1,440 gal/min) Rate, Production n (Filtratio gal/day Rate, Production Filter =
Filter Backwash Rate
)
ft
Area, Filter ( min) Time, Backwash )(
ft
gal/min/ Rate, (Backwash gal Volume, Water Backwash
2 2
=

100% X
gal Filtered, Water
gal Water, Backwash
% Water, Backwash =

Water Treatment Math Formulas
Water Treatment Formulas 11
Dry Feeders

Feeder Calibration
samples) of (number n
grams , Sample grams Sample grams , Sample
grams Mass, Sample Average
n 2 1
, + +
=
min Time, Collection Sample
grams Mass, Sample Total
grams/min Rate, Feed Average =
grams/lb 453.6
min/day) (1,440 grams/min) Rate, Feed (Average
lbs/day Rate, Feed Average =
mg/gram) (1,000 min/day) (1,440
) Liters/gal (3.785 gal/day) (Flow, mg/L) (Dose,
grams/min Setting, Feeder =

Liquid Feeders

Feeder Calibration
samples) of (number n
mL Sample mL Sample mL , Sample
mL Volume, Sample Average
, ,

n 2 1
+ +
=
min Time, Collection Sample
mL Volume, Sample Total
mL/min Rate, Feed Average =
mL/gal 3,785
min/day) (1,440 mL/min) Rate, Feed (Average
gal/day Rate, Feed =
min/day) (1,440 mg/mL) tion, (Concentra
) Liters/gal (3.785 gal/day) (Flow, mg/L) (Dose,
mL/min Setting, Feeder =
lbs/gal ion, Concentrat
lbs/gal) (8.34 MGD) (Flow, mg/L) (Dose,
gal/day Setting, Feeder =
Gravity) (Specific decimal) a as expressed %, tion, (Concentra
MGD) (Flow, mg/L) (Dose,
gal/day Setting, Feeder =




Fleming Training Center
12 Water Treatment Formulas
Liquid Chemical Characteristics
lbs/gal) .34 Gravity)(8 (Specific lbs/gal Density, =
lbs/gal 8.34
lbs/gal Solution, of Density
Gravity Specific =

decimal) a as expressed %, on, oncentrati lbs/gal)(C (Density, lbs/gal ion, Concentrat =
mL/gal 785 , 3
mg/lb) 53,600 lbs/gal)(4 tion, (Concentra
mg/mL ion, Concentrat =
100% X
lbs/gal Density,
lbs/gal ion, Concentrat
% ion, Concentrat =


Detention Time
gal/day Flow,
sec/min) (60 min/hr) 60 ( hrs/day) (24 gal) (Volume,
sec Time, Detention =
gal/day Flow,
min/hr) (60 hrs/day) (24 gal) (Volume,
min Time, Detention =
gal/day Flow,
hr/day) (24 gal) (Volume,
hr Time, Detention =
gal/day Flow,
gal Volume,
days Time, Detention =
Chlorination
mg/L Residual, Chlorine - mg/L Dose, Chlorine mg/L Demand, Chlorine =
mg/L Residual, Free mg/L Residual, Combined mg/L Residual, Chlorine Total + =
mg/L Residual, Combined - mg/L Residual, Total mg/L Residual, Chlorine Free =
mg/L Residual, Free - mg/L Residual, Total mg/L Residual, Chlorine Combined =
decimal a as expressed %, Purity, Chemical
lbs/gal) (8.34 MGD) (Flow, mg/L) (Dosage,
lbs/day Rate, Feed Chlorine =
lbs/gal) MGD)(8.34 (Flow,
decimal) a as expressed %, Purity, hemical lbs/day)(C Rate, Feed (Chlorine
mg/L , Dosage =
Water Treatment Math Formulas
Water Treatment Formulas 13
General Bleach Formulas
MGD Flow,
decimal) a as expressed %, Chlorine, (Available gal/day) Fed, (Bleach
mg/L Dose, Chlorine =

decimal a as expressed %, Chlorine, Available
MGD) (Flow, mg/L) Dose, (Chlorine
gal/day Rate, Feed te Hypochlori =
Bleach Dilutions
decimal a as expressed %, Chlorine, Available Bleach
gal Volume,
Desired

decimal s as expressed %,
ion Concentrat Chlorine Available Desired
gal Volume, Bleach

=

100% X
gal Volume, Desired
decimal) a as expressed %, Chlorine, (Available gal) (Bleach,
% Chlorine, Available =

HTH
decimal a as expressed % Chlorine, Available HTH
lb/gal) (8.34 gal) Volume, (Desired decimal) as expressed %, Chlorine, Available (Desired

mix) (solution
lbs HTH,
=

lbs/gal) MGD)(8.34 Flow, (
decimal a as expressed
% Chlorine, Available HTH
lb/day) Rate, Feed (HTH
mg/L Dosage, Chlorine
|
.
|

\
|
=
100% X
lb/gal) (8.34 gal) Solution, ite (Hypochlor
decimal) as expressed %, Chlorine, (Available lb) (HTH,
% Chlorine, Available =

Substitution of HTH or Chlorine for Bleach, etc
lbs/gal) (8.34 gal) Volume, (Bleach decimal) as expressed %, Chlorine, (Available lb Chlorine, =
decimal) as expressed %, Chlorine, (Available lb) (HTH, lb Chlorine, =
decimal as expressed %, Chlorine, Available
lb Chlorine,
lb HTH, =
decimal a as expressed %, Chlorine, Available HTH,
lb/gal) (8.34 gal) (Bleach, decimal) as expressed %, Chlorine, (Available
lb HTH, =
lb/gal) (8.34 decimal) as expressed %, Chlorine, Available (Bleach
lb Chlorine,
gal Bleach, =
lb/gal) (8.34 decimal) as expressed %, Chlorine, Available (Bleach
lb) (HTH, decimal) as expressed %, Chlorine, Available (HTH
gal Bleach, =
Fleming Training Center
14 Water Treatment Formulas
Hardness, Carbonate and Noncarbonate

Laboratory Results
TH = Total Hardness
TA = Total Alkalinity
Noncarbonate
Hardness
(Lime & Soda Ash
used)
Carbonate
Hardness
(Lime only used)
Lime Dosage
Formula
To be Used
(1) TH less than TA 0 TH I
(2) TH = TA 0 TH I
(3) TH greater than TA TH – TA TA II

( ) means “concentration of”

I (Excess) (Mg) Hardness) (Total ) (C0 mg/L Dosage, Lime
2
+ + + =
II (Excess) (Mg) ) (HCO ) (C0 mg/L Dosage, Lime
3 2
+ + + =
Excess) ( ) (HCO - Hardness) (Total mg/L Dosage, Ash Soda
3
+ =
Hardness) (Magnesium Hardness) (Calcium Hardness Total + =
decimal) a as expressed Purity, Commercial (%
lbs/gal) (8.34 MGD) (Flow, mg/L) (Dose,
lbs/day Required, Chemical =

Water Treatment Math Formulas
Water Treatment Formulas 15
Softening
Alkalinity Constituents
Alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO
3

Titration Results Bicarbonate Carbonate Hydroxide
P = 0 T 0 0
P is less than ½ T T – (2)(P) (2)(P) 0
P = ½ T 0 (2)(P) 0
P is greater than ½ T 0 (2)(T) – (2)(P) (2)(P) – T
P = T 0 0 T

Where P = phenolphthalein alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO
3
T = total alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO
3

Alkalinity
mL Volume, Sample
000) (A)(N)(50,

CaCO
as mg/L y, Alkalinit alein Phenolphth
3
=
mL Volume, Sample
(50,000) (N) (B)
CaCO as mg/L y, Alkalinit Total
3
=

Where: A = mL of titrant used to reach pH 8.3
B = total mL of titrant used
N = acid normality





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16 Water Treatment Formulas
Fluoridation


decimal) a as expressed (Purity, decimal) as expressed (AFI,
lbs/gal) (8.34 MGD) (Flow, mg/L) (Dose,
lbs/day Rate, Feed =

decimal) a as expressed (Purity, decimal) as expressed (AFI, ) (1,000,000
lbs/gal) (8.34 gal/min) (Flow, mg/L) (Dose,
lbs/min Rate, Feed =

min/day) (1440
grams/lb) (453.6 lbs/day) Rate, (Feed
grams/min Rate, Feed =

mg/L) (18,000
gal/min) (Flow, mg/L) (Dose,
gal/min Rate, Feed Saturator =

lbs/gal) (8.34 MGD) (Flow,
decimal) as expressed (Purity, decimal) as expressed (AFI, lbs) (Fluoride,
mg/L Dosage, Calculated =


gal/dayl) (Flow,
mg/L) (18,000 gal/day) Fed, (Solution

) (Saturator
mg/L Dosage, Calculated
=
Chemical Formula
Purity
Available Fluoride Ion
(AFI)
Percent Decimal Percent Decimal
Sodium Fluoride NaF 98% 0.980 45.2% 0.452
Sodium
Fluorosilicate
Na
2
SiF
6
98.5% 0.985 60.7% 0.607
Fluorosilicic Acid H
2
SiF
6
23% 0.230 79.2% 0.792
Water Treatment Math Formulas
Water Treatment Formulas 17
Corrosion Control
s
pH - pH (LI) Index Langelier =

y Alkalinit Total log - Hardness Calcium log - B A ) pH ( Saturation of pH
S
+ =
y Alkalinit Total log Hardness Calcium log pH (AI) Index Aggressive + + =

Values of “A” for various
Temperatures, °C

Values of log of Ca or Alkalinity
as CaCO
3
in mg/L
Temperature, °C A mg/L log
10

0 2.34 10 1.00
5 2.27 20 1.30
10 2.2 30 1.48
15 2.12 40 1.60
20 2.05 50 1.70
25 1.98 60 1.78
30 1.91 70 1.84
40 1.76 80 1.90
50 1.62 90 1.95
60 1.47 100 2.00
200 2.30
Values for “B” for various levels of 300 2.48
TDS, mg/L B 400 2.60
0 9.63 500 2.70
50 9.72 600 2.78
100 9.75 700 2.84
200 9.8 800 2.90
400 9.86 900 2.95
800 9.94 1,000 3.00
1,600 10.04






Corrosivity Characteristics as Addressed by Indices
Corrosive Characteristics Langelier Index (LI) Aggressive Index (AI)
Highly Aggressive < - 2.0 < 10.0
Moderately Aggressive - 2.0 to < 0.0 10.0 to < 12.0
Non-aggressive > 0.0 > 12.0

........................................................................2 Mixing Energy .............................................12 Detention Time ..............................................6 Preliminary Treatment ................................................................................................................................................................................ 13 Coagulation/Flocculation ...............................8 Pumps ..3 Well Formulas.........................................................................................................11..........................................9 Pounds ..................15 Solution Preparation ......................8 Conversion Factors ......................................2 Power ...........................................................................4 Fluoridation ............................10 Softening ...................3 Flow Conversion Chart ........................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................9 Metric Conversions ..13 Temperature ............................ 12 Chlorination ..........................................................Water Treatment Math Formulas – Fleming Training Center Index Area ................. 7 Sedimentation.....................................17 Density .............................16 Jar Testing ..............................................9 Lime Dosage ......1 Volume ......................................................12........5 Filtration ................6..................................................................................1 Corrosion Control ........................................................10 Flow .12 Dosage .........12 Substitution of Bleach for HTH..........................3 Carbonate and Noncarbonate Hardness ........................................................................14 Chemical Feeders ........5 Water Treatment Formulas i .........................................................................7 Specific Gravity......................................................................... etc.........................................................................5 Pounds/gal to mg/mL Conversions ............................................................................................................

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......................................118 mg/L Pressure and Head 1 foot of head........................ 7...... 3......................................4 lbs 1 pound (lb) ......31 feet of head Temperature Conversions C .......433 pounds per square in (psi) 1 pound per square inch (psi) .............000 milligrams (mg) 1% ....556 (F-32) F ... 8......... 0..............................0584 grains per gallon 1 grain per gallon ....... 453.......... 1...............000 milligrams per liter (mg/L) 1 mg/L .......................6 grams (g) 1 kilogram (kg) .................560 square feet (ft2) 1 square foot (ft2) .Water Treatment Math Formulas Conversion Factors Length 1 yard (yd) ................................34 pounds (lbs) 1 cubic foot of water (ft3) ...................................1............................................43... 231 cubic inches (in3) 1 gallon ................ 1.........746 kilowatts Water Treatment Formulas 1 ......828.............. 144 square inches (in2) Volume 1 ft3 ........ 3 feet (ft) 1 mile (mi) ...................................................... 746 watts 1 Horsepower ............. 2........................................................................... 5....................................... 43... 0.................280 feet (ft) Area 1 acre (ac) ............. 1.......................48 gallons (gal) 1 gallon .................................8(C) + 32 Power 1 Horsepower .. 325........ 10..................................................................000 grams (g) 1 gram ...................560 cubic feet (ft3) 1 acre-foot (ac-ft) .............................8 gallons (gal) Weight and Mass 1 gallon of water .........................................000 milliliters (mL) 1 acre/foot (ac-ft) . 0................................................. 62..785 Liters (L) 1 liter ......................... 17................. 0..........

Fleming Training Center Converting lbs/gal to mg/mL Metric Conversions 2 Water Treatment Formulas .

333 (Height)   2  Diameter . ft/sec  Flow. ft/sec) Q (Pipeline). ft) Height.48ga / ft ) Flow Q  AV OR Q  (Area) (Velocity) Q (Channel). gal/day Total Number of People Served Water Treatment Formulas 3 .785 ) (Diameter ) 2 Velocity. ft 2  (Length. ft )(7. ft)(Width. gal/day/capita  Water Used. ft/sec) 2 Velocity. ft) 2 Volume Rectangle. ft) (Velocity. ft) 2 Volume. ft) Circle: Area. ft)(Depth. ft  Wedge: Volume. ft3: Segment of Cylinder.608  (Length.785) (Diameter. MGD  Daily Flow. ft 3  (Length.785) (Diameter. ft)(Velocity.Water Treatment Math Formulas Area Rectangle: Area. ft3: Cylinder. ft3: Volume. ft 2  (0. ft  0. ft 3 / sec  (0. MGD Number of Daily Flows Sum of All Monthly Average Daily Flows. ft/sec  Distance. ft) (Depth or Length. ft3 / sec  (Width. ft)(Width.785) (Diameter. sec Sum of All Daily Flows. ft)(Depth. ft) 2 3 3 Volume. MGD Number of Monthly Average Daily Flows Average Daily Flow. ft 3  (Length. ft 3  1. MGD  Annual Average Daily Flow. ft)(Depth. ft) Volume. ft 3  (0. ft Time. ft3 / sec (0. gal  ( Volume. ft)(Width. gallons = Volume.

multiply by the factor between them.e. Then. When moving from a smaller box to a larger box.Fleming Training Center Flow Conversions cfs cfm cfd = = = cubic feet per second cubic feet per minute cubic feet per day gps gpm gpd = = = gallons per second gallons per minute gallons per day To use this diagram: First. find the box that coincides with the desired ending units (i. divide by the factor between them. The numbers between the starting point and ending point are the conversion factors. When moving from a larger box to a smaller box. cfs). gpm).e. find the box that coincides with the beginning units (i. 4 Water Treatment Formulas .

34 lbs/gal) Chemical Purity. min) (1. %. lbs/day  (Dose. grams/min) (1.000 mg/g) (453. ft Water Treatment Formulas 5 . gal/min/ft  Well Yield. min Drawdown. mg/mL)(Vol ume Pumped. ft  Pumping Water Level.000 mg/gram) (Flow. gal/min) (3.Water Treatment Math Formulas Dosage Dosage. mL) (1. lbs  (Dose. mg/L  Chemical Feed Rate. MGD) (8. lb/day (Flow.34 lbs/gal) Chemical Fed. expressed as a decimal (Concentra tion.785 L/gal) Dosage. ft . gal Time. lbs/day) (Chemical Purity. mg/L) (Volume.34 lbs/gal) Chemical Purity. mg/L) (Flow.6 g/lb) Feed Rate. lbs  (Dose. lbs/day  Well Formulas Well Yield.34 lbs/gal) Feed Rate. %.440 min/day) (Time Pumped. gal/min  Volume.Static Wat er Level. MG) (8.34 lbs/gal) (Chemical Feed Rate. MG) (8. mg/L) (Flow. %. MGD) (8. mg/L  Dosage. mg/L) (Volume. lbs/day  (Dose. MGD) (8. expressed as a decimal) (Flow. ft Specific Capacity. gal/min Drawdown. MGD) (8. mg/L  Pounds Chemical Fed.34 lbs/gal) (Feed Rate. expressed as a decimal Feed Rate.

732) 1. %. gal/min (Flow. ft) 3960 Brake HP  (Flow. expressed as a decimal) 6 Water Treatment Formulas .000 watts/kil owatt Power Factor  Watts (Volts)(Amps) Pumps Pumping Rate. gal Flow Rate.phase  (Volts) (Amps) (Power Factor) (1. min (Length. three .phase  (746 watts/HP) (Horsepower) (1. min  Water HP  (0. gal/min  Volume. ft)(7. min 2 Tank Volume.Fleming Training Center Power Power. watts  (Volts) (Amps) Amps. gal/min  Pumping Rate.phase  (746 watts/HP) (Horsepowe r) (Volts) (Efficiency. as decimal) (Power Factor) Horsepower  (Volts )(Amps) (746 watts/HP) (Volts) (Amps) (Power Factor) 1. gal/min) (Head. gal/min  Time to Fill.785) (Diameter. ft)(7. gal Time.phase  Kilowatts.732)(Volts) (Efficiency. %. single .000 watts/kil owatt Kilowatts. %. as decimal) (Power Factor) Amps. ft)(Depth.48 gal/ ft 3 ) Time. min Pumping Rate. ft)(Width.48 gal/ ft3 ) Time. gal/min) (Head. ft) (Depth. ft) (3960) (Pump Efficiency. single . three .

34 lbs/gal) (Desired Concentrat ion.1) (Static Head. ft) **use this formula in absence of other data Total Dynamic Head. as decimal) (100%) Static Head. %  Pump Efficiency. %. %  Horsepower Output X 100% Horsepower Supplied Water Horsepower X 100% Motor Horsepower Overall Efficiency..Desired Concentrat ion. expressed as decimal) (Water Horsepower ) Pump Efficiency. %. lbs) Concentrat ion.. %  (Pump Eff..Desired Concentrat ion. %  Wire . %  Concentrat ion. %. ft Cost.Water Treatment Math Formulas Motor HP  Brake HP  (Flow. ft) (3960) (Pump Eff. ft  Discharge Head. ft  Discharge Head. lbs/gal (Concentration1 ) (Volume1 )  (Concentration 2 ) (Volume 2 ) (Normality1 ) (Volume1 )  (Normality 2 ) (Volume 2 ) Chemical. gal  Water Treatment Formulas 7 . lbs  (Water Volume. ft . gal/min) (Head.to .hr) Solution Preparation Percent Strength. %. expressed as a decimal Brake Horsepower X 100% Motor Horsepower Water Horsepower X 100% Brake Horsepower Motor Efficiency. %  Efficiency. expressed as decimal) (Motor Eff. $/kW . % (by weight)  Weight of Chemical. %. %) (8. lbs  Weight of Chemical. gal X 8.34 lbs/gal) Water Volume. %) (Desired Concentrat ion. ft  Friction Losses. %) (100% . expressed as a decimal Motor HP  (Brake Horsepower) Motor Efficiency. ft  Static Head.Suction Head.746 kW/HP)(Cos t.. ft Static Head. as decimal) (Motor Eff. ft  Suction Lift. lbs) (100% . %.Water Efficiency. ft  (0. lbs X 100% (Weight of Water. %) (Chemical. $/hr  (Motor Horsepower) (0. lbs/gal X 100% Density. ft Friction Loss.

440 min/day) (60 sec/min) Flow. acres  (Length.440 min/day) Flow. grams/min  (Lime Dosage. lbs/day  (Alum Feed Rate. lbs (as Copper)  (Dosage. ft) 43.48gal / ft3 ) Pond Volume.37) Lime Feed Rate. acre . mg/L  (Alum Dosage. acre)(5. lbs  (Copper Sulfate.440 min/day) (1. lbs  (0. ft)(Width.560 ft 2 / acre Volume. MGD) (3. ft)(Depth. gal/day Lime Dosage Lime Dosage. gal  (Area. acres)(Depth. expressed as a decimal 8 Water Treatment Formulas . mg/L) (0.ft) Total Alkalinity>50 mg/L as CaCO3 : Copper Sulfate. min  (Volume.ft  (Length.ft)( 43. acre . acre .34 lbs/gal) (Copper. lbs/day) (0.48 gal/ ft 3 ) Coagulation/Flocculation Design Criteria Detention Time. ft)(Width. acre .Fleming Training Center Preliminary Treatment Total Alkalinity<50 mg/L as CaCO3 : Copper Sulfate. lbs) 2 Area. %. mg/L) (Volume.37) Commercial Purity. gal) (1. ft)(43560 ft 2 / acre )(7. MG) (8.560 ft 2 / acre 2 Pond Volume.560ft / acre)(7. gal/day Detention Time. sec  (Volume.ft)(Volume .000 mg/gram) Lime Dosage. ft) 43.9 lbs/acre .4 lbs/acre) Copper Sulfate. gal  (Volume. % . lbs  (Surface Area. expressed as a decimal) Citric Acid. mg/L) (Flow. acres) (Depth.ft  (Area. ft) Pond Volume. gal) (1.785 L/gal) (1.

90)  = density of water. sec G2 = calculated velocity gradient.34 lbs/gal) Dosage. sec G1 = maximum G for jar test machine. sec-1 N1 = maximum rpm N2 = new rpm Jar Test RPM Correction T1  (G2 ) (T2 ) G1 Where: T1 = Time to equate velocity gradient correction. L  (Dose. mg/L)(Jar Test Beaker Volume. ft  = density of water. expressed as a decimal) Chemical Feed Rate. (lb)(sec)/ft2 T = time. cm/min  (SOR. lb/gal)(453. sec-1 Settling Velocity. mg/L  Water Treatment Formulas 9 .4) (H) (  )(T) Where: H = head loss or drop. sec-1 T2 =detention time for unit process. (lbs)(sec)/ft2 V = volume of flash mix. mg/mL  Dose. gpd/ ft 2 )(3785 cm3 / gal) (1440 min/day)(929 cm2 / ft 2 ) Jar Testing Liquid Solution. lb/day (Flow. MGD) (8. % . ft3 Hydraulic Jump G (62. grams required Concentration. gram  Liquid Solution.600 mg/lb) 3.785 mL/gal Concentration. L) (Specific Gravity)(Concentration.Water Treatment Math Formulas Mixing Energy Mechanical Mixers G (550) (P) (  )(V) Where: P = (hp)(0. expressed as a decimal (Concentration. sec-1 G1 = max velocity gradient unit can achieve. %. sec Variable Speed G2  (G1 )  N1  N   2 3/2 Where: G2 = velocity gradient at N2 rpm.

gal  (Filter Bay Length. sec Number of Tests (n) Average Time. ft) Filtration Rate. ft)(Sand Bed Width. ft 2 Filtration Rate. gal/min  Volume. gal/day/lineal ft  Length of CIrcular Weir..  Test n. ft 2 ) Backwash Water. sec  Test 2. ft)(Filter Bay Width. ft)(7. gal 10 Water Treatment Formulas .440 min/day) Filter Backwash Rate Backwash Water Volume. gal/min) (1. gal/min/ ft 2 )(Filter Area. gal/day Surface Area. gal/day Weir Length. ft) Length of Rectangula r Weir. %  Backwash Water. gal X 100% Water Filtered. ft  (3. gal/day  (Filtration Production Rate.14) (Weir Diameter. min  Sand Area. sec  Test1.Fleming Training Center Sedimentation Detention Time. min Filtration Rate. hr  (Volume. sec 60 sec/min Average Time. gal) (24 hr/day) Flow. sec . ft)(Water Drop. ft)  ( 2)(Weir Width. gal/day Flow. ft 2 Flow. gal  (Backwash Rate. ft  (2)(Weir Length. ft 2  (Sand Bed Length. min)(Filter Area. gal Average Time. gal/min Sand Area. ft Surface Overflow Rate (SOR).48 gal/ ft3 ) Average Time. gal/min  (Filtration Rate. ft 2 ) Filter Production Rate. gal/day/ft 2  Weir Overflow Rate (WOR). gal/min/ ft 2 )(Backwash Time. gal/min/ ft 2  Filter Production Rate Filter Production Rate. ft) Filtration Hook Gauge Volume..

grams/min  Average Feed Rate.440 min/day) 3. mL n (number of samples) Total Sample Volume. grams/min) (1.785 mL/gal (Dose. grams  Sample 1 .000 mg/gram) Liquid Feeders Feeder Calibration Average Sample Volume. gal/day) (3. grams  Sample n . mL/min  Feed Rate. mL Sample Collection Time.6 grams/lb Feeder Setting. %. mL  Sample n .785 Liters/gal) (1. mg/L) (Flow. gal/day  (Average Feed Rate.440 min/day) (Dose. mL/min  Feeder Setting.785 Liters/gal) (Concentration. gal/day  Feeder Setting. grams Sample Collection Time. lbs/day  (Average Feed Rate. mL  Sample 1 . gal/day) (3. MGD) (8. mL/min) (1. grams n (number of samples) Total Sample Mass. mg/L) (Flow. mg/L) (Flow. lbs/gal (Dose. gal/day  Water Treatment Formulas 11 .Water Treatment Math Formulas Dry Feeders Feeder Calibration Average Sample Mass. mg/L) (Flow. min Average Feed Rate. expressed as a decimal) (Specific Gravity) Feeder Setting. mg/mL) (1.440 min/day) 453. grams/min  (Dose. mL  Sample 2 .440 min/day) (1. min Average Feed Rate.34 lbs/gal) Concentration. MGD) (Concentration. grams  Sample 2 .

gal) (24 hrs/day) ( 60 min/hr) (60 sec/min) Flow. lbs/gal X 100% Density. lbs/gal  (Specific Gravity)(8. %. sec  (Volume. days  Chlorination Chlorine Demand.Free Residual.34 lbs/gal) 12 Water Treatment Formulas . mg/L . gal Flow. %. mg/L  (Chlorine Feed Rate. mg/L Chlorine Feed Rate. %. mg/L  Chlorine Dose. lbs/gal Detention Time Detention Time. gal/day Detention Time. mg/L Combined Chlorine Residual. mg/mL  (Concentration. MGD) (8. expressed as a decimal) Concentration.785 mL/gal Concentration. mg/L  Combined Residual. lbs/day)(Chemical Purity. lbs/gal)(453. min  Detention Time.Fleming Training Center Liquid Chemical Characteristics Density. gal/day Volume. gal) (24 hrs/day) (60 min/hr) Flow. lbs/day  (Dosage.34 lbs/gal) Specific Gravity  Density of Solution. mg/L  Total Residual.34 lbs/gal Concentration. mg/L Total Chlorine Residual. lbs/gal 8. mg/L) (Flow. expressed as a decimal) (Flow.Chlorine Residual. mg/L Free Chlorine Residual. lbs/gal  (Density. expressed as a decimal Dosage. mg/L . gal/day (Volume. lbs/gal)(Concentration. mg/L  Free Residual.34 lbs/gal) Chemical Purity.600 mg/lb) 3. gal/day (Volume. mg/L . hr  Detention Time. mg/L  Total Residual. MGD)(8.Combined Residual. gal) (24 hr/day) Flow. %  Concentration.

% expressed as a decimal HTH Available Chlorine. %. lb/day)  expressed as a decimal    Chlorine Dosage. mg/L  (Bleach Fed.34 lb/gal) HTH. expressed as decimal) (Bleach. mg/L  (Flow. %. lb) (Available Chlorine. %. %. lb) (Bleach Available Chlorine. %. expressed as decimal) (Bleach Volume. %  (HTH Feed Rate. lb  Chlorine. gal  %. gal  Bleach Available Chlorine. expressed as decimal (Available Chlorine. expressed as s decimal    Bleach Volume. expressed as a decimal) Flow. gal  Bleach. %. %. expressed as a decimal Chlorine. expressed as a decimal Available Chlorine. gal/day  Available Chlorine. expressed as decimal) HTH. expressed as a decimal) X 100% Desired Volume. %. %. expressed as decimal) (8. lb  Bleach. %. gal) (8. expressed as a decimal Bleach Dilutions Desired Available Chlorine Concentrat ion  Desired    Volume. %. expressed as decimal) (8. gal  Water Treatment Formulas 13 . %. gal) (Available Chlorine. %  (HTH.34 lbs/gal) Available Chlorine. lb (Bleach Available Chlorine. MGD)(8.34 lb/gal) Substitution of HTH or Chlorine for Bleach. gal HTH (Desired Available Chlorine. gal) (8. gal) (8. gal) (8. %. expressed as decimal) X 100% (Hypochlorite Solution.34 lb/gal) HTH. expressed as decimal) (Desired Volume. expressed as decimal) (HTH. lb  (HTH. lbs  (solution mix) HTH Available Chlorine. mg/L) (Flow. MGD) Hypochlorite Feed Rate.Water Treatment Math Formulas General Bleach Formulas Chlorine Dose. MGD (Chlorine Dose. lb  (Available Chlorine.34 lbs/gal) Chlorine. Available Chlorine. gal/day) (Available Chlorine. lb) (Available Chlorine.34 lb/gal) HTH. %  (Bleach. %. etc Chlorine.34 lb/gal) (HTH Available Chlorine. lb Available Chlorine.

(HCO 3 )  (Excess) Total Hardness  (Calcium Hardness)  (Magnesium Hardness) Chemical Required.Fleming Training Center Hardness. Carbonate and Noncarbonate Laboratory Results TH = Total Hardness TA = Total Alkalinity Noncarbonate Hardness (Lime & Soda Ash used) 0 0 TH – TA Carbonate Hardness (Lime only used) Lime Dosage Formula To be Used (1) TH less than TA (2) TH = TA (3) TH greater than TA TH TH TA I I II ( ) means “concentration of” Lime Dosage.34 lbs/gal) (% Commercial Purity. expressed as a decimal) I II 14 Water Treatment Formulas . MGD) (8. mg/L) (Flow. mg/L  (C0 2 )  (HCO 3 )  (Mg)  (Excess) Soda Ash Dosage. mg/L  (C0 2 )  (Total Hardness)  (Mg)  (Excess) Lime Dosage. lbs/day  (Dose. mg/L  (Total Hardness) .

mg/L as CaCO3 T = total alkalinity. mg/L as CaCO3 Alkalinity Phenolphth alein Alkalinity.3 total mL of titrant used acid normality Water Treatment Formulas 15 . mg/L as CaCO3  (A)(N)(50. mL Where: A B N = = = mL of titrant used to reach pH 8.000) Sample Volume.Water Treatment Math Formulas Softening Alkalinity Constituents Alkalinity.000) Sample Volume. mL Total Alkalinity. mg/L as CaCO 3  (B) (N) (50. mg/L as CaCO3 Titration Results P=0 P is less than ½ T P=½T P is greater than ½ T P=T Bicarbonate T T – (2)(P) 0 0 0 Carbonate 0 (2)(P) (2)(P) (2)(T) – (2)(P) 0 Hydroxide 0 0 0 (2)(P) – T T Where P = phenolphthalein alkalinity.

980 0.452 0. mg/L) (Flow. lbs/day  (Dose. gal/day) (18.34 lbs/gal) (1. lbs) (AFI. MGD) (8.6 grams/lb) (1440 min/day) Saturator Feed Rate. mg/L  (Fluoride.34 lbs/gal) Calculated Dosage.985 0. mg/L) (Flow.2% 0.7% 79. lbs/min  (Dose.230 Available Fluoride Ion (AFI) Percent Decimal 45. expressed as a decimal) Feed Rate. expressed as a decimal) Feed Rate. expressed as decimal) (Purity. expressed as decimal) (Flow.000 mg/L) (Flow. gal/min) (8.792 Chemical Sodium Fluoride Sodium Fluorosilicate Fluorosilicic Acid Formula NaF Na2SiF6 H2SiF6 Feed Rate.000. MGD) (8. expressed as decimal) (Purity. grams/min  (Feed Rate.000) (AFI.5% 23% 0. gal/min) (18.000 mg/L) Calculated Dosage.34 lbs/gal) (AFI. mg/L) (Flow. expressed as decimal) (Purity. gal/min  (Dose.607 0. mg/L (Saturator)  (Solution Fed.Fleming Training Center Fluoridation Purity Percent Decimal 98% 98.2% 60. gal/dayl) 16 Water Treatment Formulas . lbs/day) (453.

log Calcium Hardness .90 2.60 2.95 3.78 2. C Values of log of Ca or Alkalinity as CaCO3 in mg/L Temperature.000 log10 1.98 1.0 > 12.48 2.72 9. C 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 40 50 60 A 2.2.48 1.62 1.95 2.05 1.86 9.8 9.0 .12 2.0 10.0 > 0.30 1.90 1.27 2.04 Corrosivity Characteristics as Addressed by Indices Corrosive Characteristics Langelier Index (LI) Aggressive Index (AI) Highly Aggressive Moderately Aggressive Non-aggressive < .60 1.76 1.600 B 9.00 2.94 10.00 Values for “B” for various levels of TDS.75 9.2 2.Water Treatment Math Formulas Corrosion Control Langelier Index (LI)  pH .84 1.70 2.pHs pH of Saturation (pHS )  A  B .0 to < 0.0 < 10.47 mg/L 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1.30 2. mg/L 0 50 100 200 400 800 1.78 1.84 2.2.34 2.91 1.0 to < 12.70 1.0 Water Treatment Formulas 17 .00 1.log Total Alkalinity Aggressive Index (AI)  pH  log Calcium Hardness  log Total Alkalinity Values of “A” for various Temperatures.63 9.

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