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Water Treatment

Mathematical
Formulas
6th Edition

Fleming Training Center


Murfreesboro, TN
Updated April 16, 2009
Water Treatment Math Formulas – Fleming Training Center

Index
Area ..............................................................................3
Carbonate and Noncarbonate Hardness ....................14
Chemical Feeders ................................................11, 12
Chlorination ..........................................................12, 13
Coagulation/Flocculation ..............................................8
Conversion Factors ......................................................1
Corrosion Control .......................................................17
Density .......................................................................12
Detention Time ...........................................................12
Dosage .........................................................................5
Filtration ......................................................................10
Flow ..............................................................................3
Flow Conversion Chart .................................................4
Fluoridation .................................................................16
Jar Testing ....................................................................9
Lime Dosage ................................................................9
Metric Conversions .......................................................2
Mixing Energy ...............................................................9
Pounds .........................................................................5
Pounds/gal to mg/mL Conversions ...............................2
Power ...........................................................................6
Preliminary Treatment ..................................................8
Pumps ......................................................................6, 7
Sedimentation.............................................................10
Softening ....................................................................15
Solution Preparation .....................................................7
Specific Gravity...........................................................12
Substitution of Bleach for HTH, etc.............................13
Temperature .................................................................1
Volume .........................................................................3
Well Formulas...............................................................5

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Water Treatment Math Formulas

Conversion Factors
Length
1 yard (yd) ....................................................... 3 feet (ft)
1 mile (mi) ................................................. 5,280 feet (ft)
Area
1 acre (ac) ................................. 43,560 square feet (ft2)
1 square foot (ft2) ....................... 144 square inches (in2)
Volume
1 ft3 ..................................................... 7.48 gallons (gal)
1 gallon ........................................ 231 cubic inches (in3)
1 gallon .................................................. 3.785 Liters (L)
1 liter ...............................................1,000 milliliters (mL)
1 acre/foot (ac-ft) ..........................43,560 cubic feet (ft3)
1 acre-foot (ac-ft) ....................... 325,828.8 gallons (gal)
Weight and Mass
1 gallon of water ................................. 8.34 pounds (lbs)
1 cubic foot of water (ft3) .................................... 62.4 lbs
1 pound (lb) ......................................... 453.6 grams (g)
1 kilogram (kg) ...................................... 1,000 grams (g)
1 gram ......................................... 1,000 milligrams (mg)
1% ............................. 10,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L)
1 mg/L ..................................... 0.0584 grains per gallon
1 grain per gallon ........................................ 17.118 mg/L

Pressure and Head


1 foot of head.............. 0.433 pounds per square in (psi)
1 pound per square inch (psi) .............. 2.31 feet of head

Temperature Conversions
C ............................................................ 0.556 (F-32)
F ............................................................... 1.8(C) + 32
Power
1 Horsepower ................................................. 746 watts
1 Horsepower ......................................... 0.746 kilowatts
Water Treatment Formulas 1
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Converting lbs/gal to mg/mL

Metric Conversions

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Water Treatment Math Formulas

Area
Rectangle: Area, ft 2  (Length, ft)(Width, ft)

Area, ft 2  (0.785) (Diameter, ft)


2
Circle:

Volume
Rectangle, ft3: Volume, ft 3  (Length, ft)(Width, ft)(Depth, ft)

Volume, ft 3  (0.785) (Diameter, ft) (Depth or Length, ft)


2
Cylinder, ft3:

 Diameter , ft 
Volume, ft 3  1.333 (Height)  0.608  (Length, ft)
2
Segment of Cylinder, ft3:
 Height, ft 

(Length, ft)(Width, ft)(Depth, ft)


Wedge: Volume, ft 3 
2

Volume, gal  ( Volume, ft )(7.48ga / ft )


3 3
Volume, gallons =

Flow
Q  AV OR Q  (Area) (Velocity)

Q (Channel), ft3 / sec  (Width, ft)(Depth, ft)(Velocity, ft/sec)

Q (Pipeline), ft 3 / sec  (0.785) (Diameter, ft) (Velocity, ft/sec)


2

Flow, ft3 / sec


Velocity, ft/sec  2
(0.785 ) (Diameter )

Distance, ft
Velocity, ft/sec 
Time, sec

Sum of All Daily Flows, MGD


Average Daily Flow, MGD 
Number of Daily Flows

Sum of All Monthly Average Daily Flows, MGD


Annual Average Daily Flow, MGD 
Number of Monthly Average Daily Flows

Water Used, gal/day


Daily Flow, gal/day/capita 
Total Number of People Served

Water Treatment Formulas 3


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Flow Conversions

cfs = cubic feet per second gps = gallons per second


cfm = cubic feet per minute gpm = gallons per minute
cfd = cubic feet per day gpd = gallons per day

To use this diagram: First, find the box that coincides with the beginning units (i.e. gpm). Then,
find the box that coincides with the desired ending units (i.e. cfs). The numbers between the
starting point and ending point are the conversion factors. When moving from a smaller box to a
larger box, multiply by the factor between them. When moving from a larger box to a smaller
box, divide by the factor between them.

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Water Treatment Math Formulas

Dosage
Chemical Feed Rate, lb/day
Dosage, mg/L 
(Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

(Chemical Feed Rate, lbs/day) (Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal)


Dosage, mg/L 
(Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

(Feed Rate, grams/min) (1,000 mg/gram)


Dosage, mg/L 
(Flow, gal/min) (3.785 L/gal)

Pounds
Chemical Fed, lbs  (Dose, mg/L) (Volume, MG) (8.34 lbs/gal)

(Dose, mg/L) (Volume, MG) (8.34 lbs/gal)


Chemical Fed, lbs 
Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal

Feed Rate, lbs/day  (Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)


Feed Rate, lbs/day 
Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal

(Concentra tion, mg/mL)(Vol ume Pumped, mL) (1,440 min/day)


Feed Rate, lbs/day 
(Time Pumped, min) (1,000 mg/g) (453.6 g/lb)

Well Formulas
Volume, gal
Well Yield, gal/min 
Time, min

Drawdown, ft  Pumping Water Level, ft - Static Wat er Level, ft

Well Yield, gal/min


Specific Capacity, gal/min/ft 
Drawdown, ft

Water Treatment Formulas 5


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Power
Power, watts  (Volts) (Amps)

(746 watts/HP) (Horsepowe r)


Amps, single - phase 
(Volts) (Efficiency, %, as decimal) (Power Factor)

(746 watts/HP) (Horsepower)


Amps, three - phase 
(1.732)(Volts) (Efficiency, %, as decimal) (Power Factor)

(Volts )(Amps)
Horsepower 
(746 watts/HP)

(Volts) (Amps) (Power Factor)


Kilowatts, single - phase 
1,000 watts/kil owatt

(Volts) (Amps) (Power Factor) (1.732)


Kilowatts, three - phase 
1,000 watts/kil owatt

Watts
Power Factor 
(Volts)(Amps)

Pumps

Volume, gal
Pumping Rate, gal/min 
Time, min

(Length, ft)(Width, ft)(Depth, ft)(7.48 gal/ ft3 )


Pumping Rate, gal/min 
Time, min
2
(0.785) (Diameter, ft) (Depth, ft)(7.48 gal/ ft 3 )
Pumping Rate, gal/min 
Time, min
Tank Volume, gal
Time to Fill, min 
Flow Rate, gal/min
(Flow, gal/min) (Head, ft)
Water HP 
3960
(Flow, gal/min) (Head, ft)
Brake HP 
(3960) (Pump Efficiency, %, expressed as a decimal)

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Water Treatment Math Formulas
(Flow, gal/min) (Head, ft)
Motor HP 
(3960) (Pump Eff., %, expressed as decimal) (Motor Eff., %, expressed as decimal)
(Water Horsepower )
Brake HP 
Pump Efficiency, %, expressed as a decimal

(Brake Horsepower)
Motor HP 
Motor Efficiency, %, expressed as a decimal

Brake Horsepower
Motor Efficiency, %  X 100%
Motor Horsepower
Water Horsepower
Pump Efficiency, %  X 100%
Brake Horsepower
Horsepower Output
Efficiency, %  X 100%
Horsepower Supplied
Water Horsepower
Overall Efficiency, %  X 100%
Motor Horsepower
Wire - to - Water Efficiency, %  (Pump Eff., %, as decimal) (Motor Eff., %, as decimal) (100%)
Static Head, ft  Suction Lift, ft  Discharge Head, ft

Static Head, ft  Discharge Head, ft - Suction Head, ft

Friction Loss, ft  (0.1) (Static Head, ft) **use this formula in absence of other data

Total Dynamic Head, ft  Static Head, ft  Friction Losses, ft

Cost, $/hr  (Motor Horsepower) (0.746 kW/HP)(Cos t, $/kW - hr)

Solution Preparation
Weight of Chemical, lbs
Percent Strength, % (by weight)  X 100%
(Weight of Water, lbs  Weight of Chemical, lbs)

Concentrat ion, lbs/gal


Concentrat ion, %  X 100%
Density, lbs/gal

(Concentration1 ) (Volume1 )  (Concentration 2 ) (Volume 2 )

(Normality1 ) (Volume1 )  (Normality 2 ) (Volume 2 )

(Water Volume, gal X 8.34 lbs/gal) (Desired Concentrat ion, %)


Chemical, lbs 
(100% - Desired Concentrat ion, %)

(Chemical, lbs) (100% - Desired Concentrat ion, %)


Water Volume, gal 
(Desired Concentrat ion, %) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Water Treatment Formulas 7


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Preliminary Treatment
Total Alkalinity<50 mg/L as CaCO3 : Copper Sulfate, lbs  (0.9 lbs/acre - ft)(Volume , acre - ft)

Total Alkalinity>50 mg/L as CaCO3 : Copper Sulfate, lbs  (Surface Area, acre)(5.4 lbs/acre)

(Dosage, mg/L) (Volume, MG) (8.34 lbs/gal)


Copper Sulfate, lbs (as Copper) 
(Copper, %, expressed as a decimal)

(Copper Sulfate, lbs)


Citric Acid, lbs 
2

(Length, ft)(Width, ft)


Area, acres 
43,560 ft 2 / acre

Volume, acre - ft  (Area, acres) (Depth, ft)

(Length, ft)(Width, ft)(Depth, ft)


Pond Volume, acre - ft 
43,560 ft 2 / acre

Pond Volume, gal  (Volume, acre - ft)( 43,560ft / acre)(7.48gal / ft3 )


2

Pond Volume, gal  (Area, acres)(Depth, ft)(43560 ft 2 / acre )(7.48 gal/ ft 3 )

Coagulation/Flocculation
Design Criteria
(Volume, gal) (1,440 min/day) (60 sec/min)
Detention Time, sec 
Flow, gal/day

(Volume, gal) (1,440 min/day)


Detention Time, min 
Flow, gal/day

Lime Dosage
Lime Dosage, mg/L  (Alum Dosage, mg/L) (0.37)
(Lime Dosage, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (3.785 L/gal)
Lime Feed Rate, grams/min 
(1,440 min/day) (1,000 mg/gram)

(Alum Feed Rate, lbs/day) (0.37)


Lime Dosage, lbs/day 
Commercial Purity, % , expressed as a decimal

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Water Treatment Math Formulas
Mixing Energy
(550) (P) Where: P = (hp)(0.90)
Mechanical Mixers G
(  )(V)
 = density of water, (lbs)(sec)/ft2
V = volume of flash mix, ft3

(62.4) (H) Where: H = head loss or drop, ft


Hydraulic Jump G
(  )(T)  = density of water, (lb)(sec)/ft2
T = time, sec

(G1 )
Variable Speed G2  3/2 Where: G2 = velocity gradient at N2 rpm, sec-1
 N1 
N  G1 = max velocity gradient unit can achieve, sec-1
 2
N1 = maximum rpm
N2 = new rpm

(G2 ) (T2 )
Jar Test RPM T1  Where: T1 = Time to equate velocity gradient correction, sec
Correction G1
G2 = calculated velocity gradient, sec-1
T2 =detention time for unit process, sec
G1 = maximum G for jar test machine, sec-1

(SOR, gpd/ ft 2 )(3785 cm3 / gal)


Settling Velocity, cm/min 
(1440 min/day)(929 cm2 / ft 2 )

Jar Testing
Liquid Solution, grams required
Liquid Solution, gram 
Concentration, % , expressed as a decimal

(Concentration, lb/gal)(453,600 mg/lb)


Concentration, mg/mL 
3,785 mL/gal

(Dose, mg/L)(Jar Test Beaker Volume, L)


Dose, L 
(Specific Gravity)(Concentration, %, expressed as a decimal)

Chemical Feed Rate, lb/day


Dosage, mg/L 
(Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Water Treatment Formulas 9


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Sedimentation
(Volume, gal) (24 hr/day)
Detention Time, hr 
Flow, gal/day

Flow, gal/day
Surface Overflow Rate (SOR), gal/day/ft 2 
Surface Area, ft 2
Flow, gal/day
Weir Overflow Rate (WOR), gal/day/lineal ft 
Weir Length, ft

Length of CIrcular Weir, ft  (3.14) (Weir Diameter, ft)

Length of Rectangula r Weir, ft  (2)(Weir Length, ft)  ( 2)(Weir Width, ft)

Filtration
Hook Gauge
Volume, gal  (Filter Bay Length, ft)(Filter Bay Width, ft)(Water Drop, ft)(7.48 gal/ ft3 )

Test1, sec  Test 2, sec ...  Test n, sec


Average Time, sec 
Number of Tests (n)

Average Time, sec


Average Time, min 
60 sec/min

Sand Area, ft 2  (Sand Bed Length, ft)(Sand Bed Width, ft)

Volume, gal
Filtration Rate, gal/min 
Average Time, min

Filtration Rate, gal/min


Filtration Rate, gal/min/ ft 2 
Sand Area, ft 2

Filter Production Rate


Filter Production Rate, gal/min  (Filtration Rate, gal/min/ ft 2 )(Filter Area, ft 2 )

Filter Production Rate, gal/day  (Filtration Production Rate, gal/min) (1,440 min/day)

Filter Backwash Rate


Backwash Water Volume, gal  (Backwash Rate, gal/min/ ft 2 )(Backwash Time, min)(Filter Area, ft 2 )

Backwash Water, gal


Backwash Water, %  X 100%
Water Filtered, gal

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Water Treatment Math Formulas

Dry Feeders

Feeder Calibration
Sample 1 , grams  Sample 2 , grams  Sample n , grams
Average Sample Mass, grams 
n (number of samples)

Total Sample Mass, grams


Average Feed Rate, grams/min 
Sample Collection Time, min

(Average Feed Rate, grams/min) (1,440 min/day)


Average Feed Rate, lbs/day 
453.6 grams/lb

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, gal/day) (3.785 Liters/gal)


Feeder Setting, grams/min 
(1,440 min/day) (1,000 mg/gram)

Liquid Feeders

Feeder Calibration
Sample 1 , mL  Sample 2 , mL  Sample n , mL
Average Sample Volume, mL 
n (number of samples)

Total Sample Volume, mL


Average Feed Rate, mL/min 
Sample Collection Time, min

(Average Feed Rate, mL/min) (1,440 min/day)


Feed Rate, gal/day 
3,785 mL/gal

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, gal/day) (3.785 Liters/gal)


Feeder Setting, mL/min 
(Concentration, mg/mL) (1,440 min/day)

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)


Feeder Setting, gal/day 
Concentration, lbs/gal

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD)


Feeder Setting, gal/day 
(Concentration, %, expressed as a decimal) (Specific Gravity)

Water Treatment Formulas 11


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Liquid Chemical Characteristics
Density, lbs/gal  (Specific Gravity)(8.34 lbs/gal)

Density of Solution, lbs/gal


Specific Gravity 
8.34 lbs/gal

Concentration, lbs/gal  (Density, lbs/gal)(Concentration, %, expressed as a decimal)

(Concentration, lbs/gal)(453,600 mg/lb)


Concentration, mg/mL 
3,785 mL/gal

Concentration, lbs/gal
Concentration, %  X 100%
Density, lbs/gal

Detention Time
(Volume, gal) (24 hrs/day) ( 60 min/hr) (60 sec/min)
Detention Time, sec 
Flow, gal/day

(Volume, gal) (24 hrs/day) (60 min/hr)


Detention Time, min 
Flow, gal/day

(Volume, gal) (24 hr/day)


Detention Time, hr 
Flow, gal/day

Volume, gal
Detention Time, days 
Flow, gal/day

Chlorination
Chlorine Demand, mg/L  Chlorine Dose, mg/L - Chlorine Residual, mg/L

Total Chlorine Residual, mg/L  Combined Residual, mg/L  Free Residual, mg/L

Free Chlorine Residual, mg/L  Total Residual, mg/L - Combined Residual, mg/L

Combined Chlorine Residual, mg/L  Total Residual, mg/L - Free Residual, mg/L

(Dosage, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)


Chlorine Feed Rate, lbs/day 
Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal

(Chlorine Feed Rate, lbs/day)(Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal)


Dosage, mg/L 
(Flow, MGD)(8.34 lbs/gal)

12 Water Treatment Formulas


Water Treatment Math Formulas
General Bleach Formulas
(Bleach Fed, gal/day) (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal)
Chlorine Dose, mg/L 
Flow, MGD
(Chlorine Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD)
Hypochlorite Feed Rate, gal/day 
Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal

Bleach Dilutions
Desired Available Chlorine Concentrat ion  Desired 
   Volume, gal
Bleach Volume, gal   %, expressed as s decimal  
Bleach Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal

(Bleach, gal) (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal)


Available Chlorine, %  X 100%
Desired Volume, gal

HTH
HTH, lbs (Desired Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (Desired Volume, gal) (8.34 lb/gal)

(solution mix) HTH Available Chlorine, % expressed as a decimal

(HTH Feed Rate, lb/day)


HTH Available Chlorine, % 

Chlorine Dosage, mg/L   expressed as a decimal 
(Flow, MGD)(8.34 lbs/gal)

(HTH, lb) (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal)


Available Chlorine, %  X 100%
(Hypochlorite Solution, gal) (8.34 lb/gal)

Substitution of HTH or Chlorine for Bleach, etc


Chlorine, lb  (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (Bleach Volume, gal) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Chlorine, lb  (HTH, lb) (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal)

Chlorine, lb
HTH, lb 
Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal

(Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (Bleach, gal) (8.34 lb/gal)


HTH, lb 
HTH, Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal

Chlorine, lb
Bleach, gal 
(Bleach Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (8.34 lb/gal)

(HTH Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (HTH, lb)


Bleach, gal 
(Bleach Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (8.34 lb/gal)

Water Treatment Formulas 13


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Hardness, Carbonate and Noncarbonate

Noncarbonate
Laboratory Results Carbonate Lime Dosage
Hardness
TH = Total Hardness Hardness Formula
(Lime & Soda Ash
TA = Total Alkalinity (Lime only used) To be Used
used)

(1) TH less than TA 0 TH I

(2) TH = TA 0 TH I

(3) TH greater than TA TH – TA TA II

( ) means “concentration of”

I Lime Dosage, mg/L  (C0 2 )  (Total Hardness)  (Mg)  (Excess)

II Lime Dosage, mg/L  (C0 2 )  (HCO 3 )  (Mg)  (Excess)

Soda Ash Dosage, mg/L  (Total Hardness) - (HCO 3 )  (Excess)

Total Hardness  (Calcium Hardness)  (Magnesium Hardness)

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)


Chemical Required, lbs/day 
(% Commercial Purity, expressed as a decimal)

14 Water Treatment Formulas


Water Treatment Math Formulas

Softening
Alkalinity Constituents
Alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3

Titration Results Bicarbonate Carbonate Hydroxide

P=0 T 0 0

P is less than ½ T T – (2)(P) (2)(P) 0

P=½T 0 (2)(P) 0

P is greater than ½ T 0 (2)(T) – (2)(P) (2)(P) – T

P=T 0 0 T

Where P = phenolphthalein alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3


T = total alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3

Alkalinity

(A)(N)(50,000)
Phenolphth alein Alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3 
Sample Volume, mL

(B) (N) (50,000)


Total Alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO 3 
Sample Volume, mL

Where: A = mL of titrant used to reach pH 8.3


B = total mL of titrant used
N = acid normality

Water Treatment Formulas 15


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Fluoridation

Available Fluoride Ion


Purity (AFI)
Chemical Formula Percent Decimal Percent Decimal
Sodium Fluoride NaF 98% 0.980 45.2% 0.452
Sodium
Na2SiF6 98.5% 0.985 60.7% 0.607
Fluorosilicate

Fluorosilicic Acid H2SiF6 23% 0.230 79.2% 0.792

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)


Feed Rate, lbs/day 
(AFI, expressed as decimal) (Purity, expressed as a decimal)

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, gal/min) (8.34 lbs/gal)


Feed Rate, lbs/min 
(1,000,000) (AFI, expressed as decimal) (Purity, expressed as a decimal)

(Feed Rate, lbs/day) (453.6 grams/lb)


Feed Rate, grams/min 
(1440 min/day)

(Dose, mg/L) (Flow, gal/min)


Saturator Feed Rate, gal/min 
(18,000 mg/L)

(Fluoride, lbs) (AFI, expressed as decimal) (Purity, expressed as decimal)


Calculated Dosage, mg/L 
(Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Calculated Dosage, mg/L (Solution Fed, gal/day) (18,000 mg/L)



(Saturator) (Flow, gal/dayl)

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Water Treatment Math Formulas

Corrosion Control
Langelier Index (LI)  pH - pHs
pH of Saturation (pHS )  A  B - log Calcium Hardness - log Total Alkalinity

Aggressive Index (AI)  pH  log Calcium Hardness  log Total Alkalinity

Values of “A” for various Values of log of Ca or Alkalinity


Temperatures, C as CaCO3 in mg/L
Temperature, C A mg/L log10
0 2.34 10 1.00
5 2.27 20 1.30
10 2.2 30 1.48
15 2.12 40 1.60
20 2.05 50 1.70
25 1.98 60 1.78
30 1.91 70 1.84
40 1.76 80 1.90
50 1.62 90 1.95
60 1.47 100 2.00
200 2.30
Values for “B” for various levels of 300 2.48
TDS, mg/L B 400 2.60
0 9.63 500 2.70
50 9.72 600 2.78
100 9.75 700 2.84
200 9.8 800 2.90
400 9.86 900 2.95
800 9.94 1,000 3.00
1,600 10.04

Corrosivity Characteristics as Addressed by Indices

Corrosive Characteristics Langelier Index (LI) Aggressive Index (AI)

Highly Aggressive < - 2.0 < 10.0


Moderately Aggressive - 2.0 to < 0.0 10.0 to < 12.0
Non-aggressive > 0.0 > 12.0

Water Treatment Formulas 17