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Mathematical

Formulas

6th Edition

Murfreesboro, TN

Updated April 16, 2009

Water Treatment Math Formulas – Fleming Training Center

Index

Area ..............................................................................3

Carbonate and Noncarbonate Hardness ....................14

Chemical Feeders ................................................11, 12

Chlorination ..........................................................12, 13

Coagulation/Flocculation ..............................................8

Conversion Factors ......................................................1

Corrosion Control .......................................................17

Density .......................................................................12

Detention Time ...........................................................12

Dosage .........................................................................5

Filtration ......................................................................10

Flow ..............................................................................3

Flow Conversion Chart .................................................4

Fluoridation .................................................................16

Jar Testing ....................................................................9

Lime Dosage ................................................................9

Metric Conversions .......................................................2

Mixing Energy ...............................................................9

Pounds .........................................................................5

Pounds/gal to mg/mL Conversions ...............................2

Power ...........................................................................6

Preliminary Treatment ..................................................8

Pumps ......................................................................6, 7

Sedimentation.............................................................10

Softening ....................................................................15

Solution Preparation .....................................................7

Specific Gravity...........................................................12

Substitution of Bleach for HTH, etc.............................13

Temperature .................................................................1

Volume .........................................................................3

Well Formulas...............................................................5

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Conversion Factors

Length

1 yard (yd) ....................................................... 3 feet (ft)

1 mile (mi) ................................................. 5,280 feet (ft)

Area

1 acre (ac) ................................. 43,560 square feet (ft2)

1 square foot (ft2) ....................... 144 square inches (in2)

Volume

1 ft3 ..................................................... 7.48 gallons (gal)

1 gallon ........................................ 231 cubic inches (in3)

1 gallon .................................................. 3.785 Liters (L)

1 liter ...............................................1,000 milliliters (mL)

1 acre/foot (ac-ft) ..........................43,560 cubic feet (ft3)

1 acre-foot (ac-ft) ....................... 325,828.8 gallons (gal)

Weight and Mass

1 gallon of water ................................. 8.34 pounds (lbs)

1 cubic foot of water (ft3) .................................... 62.4 lbs

1 pound (lb) ......................................... 453.6 grams (g)

1 kilogram (kg) ...................................... 1,000 grams (g)

1 gram ......................................... 1,000 milligrams (mg)

1% ............................. 10,000 milligrams per liter (mg/L)

1 mg/L ..................................... 0.0584 grains per gallon

1 grain per gallon ........................................ 17.118 mg/L

1 foot of head.............. 0.433 pounds per square in (psi)

1 pound per square inch (psi) .............. 2.31 feet of head

Temperature Conversions

C ............................................................ 0.556 (F-32)

F ............................................................... 1.8(C) + 32

Power

1 Horsepower ................................................. 746 watts

1 Horsepower ......................................... 0.746 kilowatts

Water Treatment Formulas 1

Fleming Training Center

Metric Conversions

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Area

Rectangle: Area, ft 2 (Length, ft)(Width, ft)

2

Circle:

Volume

Rectangle, ft3: Volume, ft 3 (Length, ft)(Width, ft)(Depth, ft)

2

Cylinder, ft3:

Diameter , ft

Volume, ft 3 1.333 (Height) 0.608 (Length, ft)

2

Segment of Cylinder, ft3:

Height, ft

Wedge: Volume, ft 3

2

3 3

Volume, gallons =

Flow

Q AV OR Q (Area) (Velocity)

2

Velocity, ft/sec 2

(0.785 ) (Diameter )

Distance, ft

Velocity, ft/sec

Time, sec

Average Daily Flow, MGD

Number of Daily Flows

Annual Average Daily Flow, MGD

Number of Monthly Average Daily Flows

Daily Flow, gal/day/capita

Total Number of People Served

Fleming Training Center

Flow Conversions

cfm = cubic feet per minute gpm = gallons per minute

cfd = cubic feet per day gpd = gallons per day

To use this diagram: First, find the box that coincides with the beginning units (i.e. gpm). Then,

find the box that coincides with the desired ending units (i.e. cfs). The numbers between the

starting point and ending point are the conversion factors. When moving from a smaller box to a

larger box, multiply by the factor between them. When moving from a larger box to a smaller

box, divide by the factor between them.

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Dosage

Chemical Feed Rate, lb/day

Dosage, mg/L

(Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Dosage, mg/L

(Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Dosage, mg/L

(Flow, gal/min) (3.785 L/gal)

Pounds

Chemical Fed, lbs (Dose, mg/L) (Volume, MG) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Chemical Fed, lbs

Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal

Feed Rate, lbs/day

Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal

Feed Rate, lbs/day

(Time Pumped, min) (1,000 mg/g) (453.6 g/lb)

Well Formulas

Volume, gal

Well Yield, gal/min

Time, min

Specific Capacity, gal/min/ft

Drawdown, ft

Fleming Training Center

Power

Power, watts (Volts) (Amps)

Amps, single - phase

(Volts) (Efficiency, %, as decimal) (Power Factor)

Amps, three - phase

(1.732)(Volts) (Efficiency, %, as decimal) (Power Factor)

(Volts )(Amps)

Horsepower

(746 watts/HP)

Kilowatts, single - phase

1,000 watts/kil owatt

Kilowatts, three - phase

1,000 watts/kil owatt

Watts

Power Factor

(Volts)(Amps)

Pumps

Volume, gal

Pumping Rate, gal/min

Time, min

Pumping Rate, gal/min

Time, min

2

(0.785) (Diameter, ft) (Depth, ft)(7.48 gal/ ft 3 )

Pumping Rate, gal/min

Time, min

Tank Volume, gal

Time to Fill, min

Flow Rate, gal/min

(Flow, gal/min) (Head, ft)

Water HP

3960

(Flow, gal/min) (Head, ft)

Brake HP

(3960) (Pump Efficiency, %, expressed as a decimal)

Water Treatment Math Formulas

(Flow, gal/min) (Head, ft)

Motor HP

(3960) (Pump Eff., %, expressed as decimal) (Motor Eff., %, expressed as decimal)

(Water Horsepower )

Brake HP

Pump Efficiency, %, expressed as a decimal

(Brake Horsepower)

Motor HP

Motor Efficiency, %, expressed as a decimal

Brake Horsepower

Motor Efficiency, % X 100%

Motor Horsepower

Water Horsepower

Pump Efficiency, % X 100%

Brake Horsepower

Horsepower Output

Efficiency, % X 100%

Horsepower Supplied

Water Horsepower

Overall Efficiency, % X 100%

Motor Horsepower

Wire - to - Water Efficiency, % (Pump Eff., %, as decimal) (Motor Eff., %, as decimal) (100%)

Static Head, ft Suction Lift, ft Discharge Head, ft

Friction Loss, ft (0.1) (Static Head, ft) **use this formula in absence of other data

Solution Preparation

Weight of Chemical, lbs

Percent Strength, % (by weight) X 100%

(Weight of Water, lbs Weight of Chemical, lbs)

Concentrat ion, % X 100%

Density, lbs/gal

Chemical, lbs

(100% - Desired Concentrat ion, %)

Water Volume, gal

(Desired Concentrat ion, %) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Fleming Training Center

Preliminary Treatment

Total Alkalinity<50 mg/L as CaCO3 : Copper Sulfate, lbs (0.9 lbs/acre - ft)(Volume , acre - ft)

Total Alkalinity>50 mg/L as CaCO3 : Copper Sulfate, lbs (Surface Area, acre)(5.4 lbs/acre)

Copper Sulfate, lbs (as Copper)

(Copper, %, expressed as a decimal)

Citric Acid, lbs

2

Area, acres

43,560 ft 2 / acre

Pond Volume, acre - ft

43,560 ft 2 / acre

2

Coagulation/Flocculation

Design Criteria

(Volume, gal) (1,440 min/day) (60 sec/min)

Detention Time, sec

Flow, gal/day

Detention Time, min

Flow, gal/day

Lime Dosage

Lime Dosage, mg/L (Alum Dosage, mg/L) (0.37)

(Lime Dosage, mg/L) (Flow, MGD) (3.785 L/gal)

Lime Feed Rate, grams/min

(1,440 min/day) (1,000 mg/gram)

Lime Dosage, lbs/day

Commercial Purity, % , expressed as a decimal

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Mixing Energy

(550) (P) Where: P = (hp)(0.90)

Mechanical Mixers G

( )(V)

= density of water, (lbs)(sec)/ft2

V = volume of flash mix, ft3

Hydraulic Jump G

( )(T) = density of water, (lb)(sec)/ft2

T = time, sec

(G1 )

Variable Speed G2 3/2 Where: G2 = velocity gradient at N2 rpm, sec-1

N1

N G1 = max velocity gradient unit can achieve, sec-1

2

N1 = maximum rpm

N2 = new rpm

(G2 ) (T2 )

Jar Test RPM T1 Where: T1 = Time to equate velocity gradient correction, sec

Correction G1

G2 = calculated velocity gradient, sec-1

T2 =detention time for unit process, sec

G1 = maximum G for jar test machine, sec-1

Settling Velocity, cm/min

(1440 min/day)(929 cm2 / ft 2 )

Jar Testing

Liquid Solution, grams required

Liquid Solution, gram

Concentration, % , expressed as a decimal

Concentration, mg/mL

3,785 mL/gal

Dose, L

(Specific Gravity)(Concentration, %, expressed as a decimal)

Dosage, mg/L

(Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Fleming Training Center

Sedimentation

(Volume, gal) (24 hr/day)

Detention Time, hr

Flow, gal/day

Flow, gal/day

Surface Overflow Rate (SOR), gal/day/ft 2

Surface Area, ft 2

Flow, gal/day

Weir Overflow Rate (WOR), gal/day/lineal ft

Weir Length, ft

Filtration

Hook Gauge

Volume, gal (Filter Bay Length, ft)(Filter Bay Width, ft)(Water Drop, ft)(7.48 gal/ ft3 )

Average Time, sec

Number of Tests (n)

Average Time, min

60 sec/min

Volume, gal

Filtration Rate, gal/min

Average Time, min

Filtration Rate, gal/min/ ft 2

Sand Area, ft 2

Filter Production Rate, gal/min (Filtration Rate, gal/min/ ft 2 )(Filter Area, ft 2 )

Filter Production Rate, gal/day (Filtration Production Rate, gal/min) (1,440 min/day)

Backwash Water Volume, gal (Backwash Rate, gal/min/ ft 2 )(Backwash Time, min)(Filter Area, ft 2 )

Backwash Water, % X 100%

Water Filtered, gal

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Dry Feeders

Feeder Calibration

Sample 1 , grams Sample 2 , grams Sample n , grams

Average Sample Mass, grams

n (number of samples)

Average Feed Rate, grams/min

Sample Collection Time, min

Average Feed Rate, lbs/day

453.6 grams/lb

Feeder Setting, grams/min

(1,440 min/day) (1,000 mg/gram)

Liquid Feeders

Feeder Calibration

Sample 1 , mL Sample 2 , mL Sample n , mL

Average Sample Volume, mL

n (number of samples)

Average Feed Rate, mL/min

Sample Collection Time, min

Feed Rate, gal/day

3,785 mL/gal

Feeder Setting, mL/min

(Concentration, mg/mL) (1,440 min/day)

Feeder Setting, gal/day

Concentration, lbs/gal

Feeder Setting, gal/day

(Concentration, %, expressed as a decimal) (Specific Gravity)

Fleming Training Center

Liquid Chemical Characteristics

Density, lbs/gal (Specific Gravity)(8.34 lbs/gal)

Specific Gravity

8.34 lbs/gal

Concentration, mg/mL

3,785 mL/gal

Concentration, lbs/gal

Concentration, % X 100%

Density, lbs/gal

Detention Time

(Volume, gal) (24 hrs/day) ( 60 min/hr) (60 sec/min)

Detention Time, sec

Flow, gal/day

Detention Time, min

Flow, gal/day

Detention Time, hr

Flow, gal/day

Volume, gal

Detention Time, days

Flow, gal/day

Chlorination

Chlorine Demand, mg/L Chlorine Dose, mg/L - Chlorine Residual, mg/L

Total Chlorine Residual, mg/L Combined Residual, mg/L Free Residual, mg/L

Free Chlorine Residual, mg/L Total Residual, mg/L - Combined Residual, mg/L

Combined Chlorine Residual, mg/L Total Residual, mg/L - Free Residual, mg/L

Chlorine Feed Rate, lbs/day

Chemical Purity, %, expressed as a decimal

Dosage, mg/L

(Flow, MGD)(8.34 lbs/gal)

Water Treatment Math Formulas

General Bleach Formulas

(Bleach Fed, gal/day) (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal)

Chlorine Dose, mg/L

Flow, MGD

(Chlorine Dose, mg/L) (Flow, MGD)

Hypochlorite Feed Rate, gal/day

Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal

Bleach Dilutions

Desired Available Chlorine Concentrat ion Desired

Volume, gal

Bleach Volume, gal %, expressed as s decimal

Bleach Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal

Available Chlorine, % X 100%

Desired Volume, gal

HTH

HTH, lbs (Desired Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (Desired Volume, gal) (8.34 lb/gal)

(solution mix) HTH Available Chlorine, % expressed as a decimal

HTH Available Chlorine, %

Chlorine Dosage, mg/L expressed as a decimal

(Flow, MGD)(8.34 lbs/gal)

Available Chlorine, % X 100%

(Hypochlorite Solution, gal) (8.34 lb/gal)

Chlorine, lb (Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (Bleach Volume, gal) (8.34 lbs/gal)

Chlorine, lb

HTH, lb

Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal

HTH, lb

HTH, Available Chlorine, %, expressed as a decimal

Chlorine, lb

Bleach, gal

(Bleach Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (8.34 lb/gal)

Bleach, gal

(Bleach Available Chlorine, %, expressed as decimal) (8.34 lb/gal)

Fleming Training Center

Noncarbonate

Laboratory Results Carbonate Lime Dosage

Hardness

TH = Total Hardness Hardness Formula

(Lime & Soda Ash

TA = Total Alkalinity (Lime only used) To be Used

used)

(2) TH = TA 0 TH I

Chemical Required, lbs/day

(% Commercial Purity, expressed as a decimal)

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Softening

Alkalinity Constituents

Alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3

P=0 T 0 0

P=½T 0 (2)(P) 0

P=T 0 0 T

T = total alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3

Alkalinity

(A)(N)(50,000)

Phenolphth alein Alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO3

Sample Volume, mL

Total Alkalinity, mg/L as CaCO 3

Sample Volume, mL

B = total mL of titrant used

N = acid normality

Fleming Training Center

Fluoridation

Purity (AFI)

Chemical Formula Percent Decimal Percent Decimal

Sodium Fluoride NaF 98% 0.980 45.2% 0.452

Sodium

Na2SiF6 98.5% 0.985 60.7% 0.607

Fluorosilicate

Feed Rate, lbs/day

(AFI, expressed as decimal) (Purity, expressed as a decimal)

Feed Rate, lbs/min

(1,000,000) (AFI, expressed as decimal) (Purity, expressed as a decimal)

Feed Rate, grams/min

(1440 min/day)

Saturator Feed Rate, gal/min

(18,000 mg/L)

Calculated Dosage, mg/L

(Flow, MGD) (8.34 lbs/gal)

(Saturator) (Flow, gal/dayl)

Water Treatment Math Formulas

Corrosion Control

Langelier Index (LI) pH - pHs

pH of Saturation (pHS ) A B - log Calcium Hardness - log Total Alkalinity

Temperatures, C as CaCO3 in mg/L

Temperature, C A mg/L log10

0 2.34 10 1.00

5 2.27 20 1.30

10 2.2 30 1.48

15 2.12 40 1.60

20 2.05 50 1.70

25 1.98 60 1.78

30 1.91 70 1.84

40 1.76 80 1.90

50 1.62 90 1.95

60 1.47 100 2.00

200 2.30

Values for “B” for various levels of 300 2.48

TDS, mg/L B 400 2.60

0 9.63 500 2.70

50 9.72 600 2.78

100 9.75 700 2.84

200 9.8 800 2.90

400 9.86 900 2.95

800 9.94 1,000 3.00

1,600 10.04

Moderately Aggressive - 2.0 to < 0.0 10.0 to < 12.0

Non-aggressive > 0.0 > 12.0

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