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Chapter 1

Introduction to :

Control Systems Engineering

Control Systems Engineering

Control Systems

Control

Systems Engineering

Engineering

Assoc. Prof. Ir. Dr. Dirman Hanafi Burhannuddin, [I PM] IEI

Assoc. Prof.

Assoc.

Prof. Ir.

Ir. Dr.

Dr. Dirman

Dirman Hanafi

Hanafi Burhannuddin,

Burhannuddin,

IEI IEI

Assoc. Prof. Ir. Dr. Dirman Hanafi Burhannuddin, [I[I [IPM] PM]

PM] IEI

Basic Concept

A control system consists of subsystems and processes

(or plants) assembled for the purpose of obtaining a

desired output with desired performance, given a

specified input

Basic components :

Input (objective/ desired response)

The excitation applied to a control system from an

external energy source.

control system

output (actual response)

The actual response obtained for a control system.

Basic Concept A control system consists of subsystems and processes (or plants) assembled for the purpose

Purposes of Control System

Power Amplification

Control system is used in many systems to produce power gain or

amplification.

Remote Control

Control system is the key idea for controlling robots and other

automated systems.

Convenience of Input

Control system provides the convenience of input form. For example

we do not have to put in heat to obtain heat for a temperature

control system. For this case, the input is the position on the

thermostat and the output is the heat.

Compensation of Disturbance

Control system can compensate disturbance. For example, in the

case of an antenna which is positioned in a specific direction, the

control system detects any variation in the position due to

disturbance like wind and positions the antenna back to the original

position.

CONTROL SYSTEM
CONTROL SYSTEM
OPEN LOOP
OPEN LOOP
CLOSE LOOP
CLOSE LOOP
The output is not measured. Control system is independent of the output. System cannot compensate
The output is not
measured.
Control system is
independent of the
output.
System cannot
compensate for
disturbance.
Examples : toaster,
washing machine, fan.
System has feedback and output is measured System output has an effect on the control
System has feedback and
output is measured
System output has an
effect on the control
action
system can compensate
for disturbance.
Examples :air conditioner,
robot (arm).

Open Loop System

Example for antenna pointing system

Open Loop System Example for antenna pointing system
Open Loop System Example for antenna pointing system

Open Loop System

Antenna will rotate clockwise and anticlockwise depending on the output signal, negative or positive.

Antenna will stationary if the input signal is

0v.

When the antenna is approaching the desired angle or position, the input signal must approach 0v.

It can be conclude that the control action is independent of the output.

Practical Example of Open Loop

Control System

  • 1. Electric Hand Drier Hot air (output) comes out as long as you keep your hand under the machine, irrespective of how much your hand is dried.

  • 2. Automatic Washing Machine This machine runs according to the pre- set time irrespective of washing is completed or not.

  • 3. Bread Toaster - This machine runs as per adjusted time irrespective of toasting is completed or not.

  • 4. Automatic Tea/Coffee Maker These machines also function for pre adjusted time only.

  • 5. Timer Based Clothes Drier This machine dries wet clothes for pre- adjusted time, it does not matter how much the clothes are dried.

  • 6. Light Switch lamps glow whenever light switch is on irrespective of light is required or not.

  • 7. Volume on Stereo System Volume is adjusted manually irrespective of output volume level.

Close Loop System

Example for antenna pointing system

Close Loop System Example for antenna pointing system
Close Loop System Example for antenna pointing system

Close Loop System

From diagram, if θ 0 = θ i then V 0 =V i so the error signal V e = V i V 0

 

= 0V

( the antenna will be stationary )

If the V 0 not

equal

V i ,V e greater or less than 0V, the

antenna will rotate clockwise, anticlockwise depending on a polarity of V e . This means that the

antenna will continue rotating until V 0 = V i . In this example, the system automatically corrects the output when the system is disturbed. This system is known as ‘automatic control system’.

Practical Example of Closed Open Loop

Control System

  • 1. Automatic Electric Iron – Heating elements are controlled by output temperature of the iron.

  • 2. Servo Voltage Stabilizer – Voltage controller operates depending upon output voltage of the system.

  • 3. Water Level Controller– Input water is controlled by water level of the reservoir.

  • 4. Missile Launched & Auto Tracked by Radar – The direction of missile is controlled by comparing the target and position of the missile.

  • 5. An Air Conditioner – An air conditioner functions depending upon the temperature of the room.

  • 6. Cooling System in Car – It operates depending upon the temperature which it controls

Open Loop Vs Close Loop

Open-loop control system

Closed-loop control system

Advantages

Advantages

  • 1. Simple in construction and

  • 1. Closed loop control systems

design.

are more accurate even in the

  • 2. Economical.

presence of non-linearity.

  • 3. Easy to maintain.

  • 2. Highly accurate as any error

  • 4. Generally stable.

arising is corrected due to

  • 5. Convenient to use as output is

presence of feedback signal.

difficult to measure.

  • 3. Bandwidth range is large.

  • 4. Facilitates automation.

  • 5. The sensitivity of system may

be made small to make

system more stable.

  • 6. This system is less affected by

noise.

Open Loop Vs Close Loop (cont)

Open-loop control system

Closed-loop control system

Disadvantages

Disadvantages

  • 1. They are inaccurate.

  • 1. They are costlier.

  • 2. They are unreliable.

  • 2. They are complicated to

  • 3. Any change in output cannot

design.

be corrected automatically.

  • 3. Required more maintenance.

  • 4. Feedback leads to oscillatory

response.

  • 5. Overall gain is reduced due to

presence of feedback.

  • 6. Stability is the major problem

and more care is needed to

design a stable closed loop

system

Feedback and its effect

Feedback system is a system that maintains a relationship between the output and some reference input by comparing them and using the difference as a means of control.

Feedback is used to reduce the error between reference and the system output .

Feedback effect on performance characteristic:

Stability Overall gain Sensitivity External disturbances

Types of Feedback Control System

Single input single output (SISO)

SISO control system has a single input r and single output y .

Desired

output

response, r + e _ b +
response,
r
+
e
_
b
+

Controller

Measurement

Plant

Types of Feedback Control System Single input single output (SISO) SISO control system has a single

Types of Feedback Control System

Multivariable

(MIMO).

input

Multivariable

output

MIMO system

has

a

……,

r n

,

output, y 1 ,

more than

one input,

r 1 ,

r 2 ,

y 2 ,

……, y n and feedback

signal, b 1 , b 2 , ……., b n .

.

Desired

output

response,

r

r

1

r

2

r n

. .
.
.
b n +
b n
+

b 2

+

.........

..

b 1

+

Types of Feedback Control System Multivariable (MIMO). input Multivariable output MIMO system has a ……, r

Output /

Controlled

variable, y

y 1 y . . 2 . . y n
y
1
y
.
.
2
.
.
y
n

Types of Feedback Control System

Linear

Linear feedback control system is idealized

models fabricated by analyst purely for simplicity of analysis and design . Linear systems do not exist in practice, since all

physical system is nonlinear to some extent . Linear system technique normally used for design and analysis purposes.

Types of Feedback Control System

Non-Linear

In practice nonlinear effect are exist in all physical system.

An example nonlinear spring characteristic, nonlinear friction force or torque between moving

members, and so on.

Nonlinear system usually difficult to treat mathematically, and there are no general methods available for solving a wide class of nonlinear

system.

Types of Feedback Control System

Continuous

 
 

In

a

continuous

control

system,

the

system

 

variables are function of a continuous time t.

Discrete

 
 

A discrete time control system involves one or more variable that are known any at discrete intents of time .

Types of Feedback Control System

Time Varying

 

When the parameter

of

a

control

system

is

 

varying with time the

system is

called a time-

varying system .

 

Most physical system contains elements that drift or vary with time .

Example : the winding resistance of an electric motor will vary when the motor is being first excited and its temperature is rising .

Time Invariant

 

Time-Invariant

system

is

a

system

that the

parameters of a control system are stationary with respect to time during the operation of the

system .

Block Diagram Simplification

Rules & Equivalents

Assoc. Prof. Ir. Dr. Dirman Hanafi Burhannuddin, [IPM] IEI

Rule:1

Rule:1 Rule: 2 (Associative and Commutative Properties)

Rule: 2 (Associative and Commutative Properties)

Rule:1 Rule: 2 (Associative and Commutative Properties)

Rule: 3 (Distributive Property)

Rule: 3 (Distributive Property) Rule: 4 (Blocks in Parallel)

Rule: 4 (Blocks in Parallel)

Rule: 3 (Distributive Property) Rule: 4 (Blocks in Parallel)

Rule: 5 (Positive Feedback Loop)

Rule: 5 (Positive Feedback Loop) Rule: 6 (Negative Feedback loop) http://www.msubbu.in/sp/ctrl/BD-Rules.htm

Rule: 6 (Negative Feedback loop)

Rule: 5 (Positive Feedback Loop) Rule: 6 (Negative Feedback loop) http://www.msubbu.in/sp/ctrl/BD-Rules.htm

http://www.msubbu.in/sp/ctrl/BD-Rules.htm

Example 1

Example 1

Example 1

Example 1