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Industrial Solutions

Gasification
Technologies
We offer the right process
for every feedstock and
end-to-end solutions for
every application.
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The power of true efficiency


The Business Area Industrial Solutions of thyssenkrupp is a world We are at home in many different industries. Along with chemical,
leader for planning, construction and service in the field of industrial fertilizer, coking, refinery, cement and other industrial plants, our
plants and systems. Together with our customers we develop portfolio also includes equipment for open-cast mining, ore proces-
solutions at the highest level and deliver efficiency, reliability and sing and transshipment, as well as associated services. In the naval
sustainability throughout the entire life cycle. Our global network, sector, we are a leading global system supplier for submarines and
with around 19,000 employees at 70 locations, enables us to provi- surface vessels. As an important system partner to our customers
de turnkey solutions worldwide which set new benchmarks with their in the automotive, aerospace and battery industries, we optimize the
high productivity and particularly resource conserving technologies. value chain and improve performance.
C
ontents
04 Syngas applications
05 Our experience in gasification
06 Gasification by Uhde
08 Feedstocks
10 The PRENFLO process (PSG)
12 The PRENFLO process (PDQ)
14 The HTWTM process
16 Major Projects

Range of Services
20 Uhde Technologies
22 Serving our Customers
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Syngas applications

The raw gas produced by gasification needs to be treated before it can be


used for the production of downstream products, such as hydrogen, SNG,
ammonia, methanol, liquid fuels, electricity or direct reduction gas (DRI).

There are various process routes available for obtaining the desired A number of processes are available for desulphurisation and car-
syngas composition, which may be a mixture of carbon monoxide bon dioxide removal, such as: MDEA, aMDEA, Genosorb, Selexol,
and hydrogen or either pure hydrogen or carbon monoxide alone. Sulfinol, Rectisol.

Hydrogen, for example, can be used in the refinery industry to For the production of ammonia synthesis gas, a liquid nitrogen pro-
achieve lighter and cleaner liquid fuels or for new applications such cess can be used for the final cleaning and to obtain the correct mix-
as fuel cells for power generation or cars. ture of hydrogen and nitrogen.

Hydrogen-rich syngas can be produced via the sour CO shift pro- thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions offers all of these process stages
cess. In this case, the CO in the raw gas produced by gasification is and can provide optimised solutions for complete production plants
shifted with steam to form hydrogen and carbon dioxide before the for e.g. fertilisers or liquid fuels as well as for combined hydrogen
sour gas components are removed. and electric power generation with or without carbon dioxide capture,
or for direct reduction in the steel industry (DRI).

DME DME

Diesel
Methanol MTO
Naphtha

Gas
MTG Gasoline
LPG
Naphtha

Uhde
Oil Steam Reformer Ammonia Urea

Orimulsion Diesel
Fischer- Naphtha
Residues Tropsch Waxes
Lubes
Petcoke

PRENFLO H2
Hard Coal Gasification

Lignite SNG

Biomass IGCC/
HTWTM
Power
Gasification
Brown Coal
Reduction
Waste* Gas

*) industrial and municipal waste


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Our experience in gasification

Our gasification history


Different technologies for different applications

2017
6

Gasification by Uhde

Why gasification? Gasification processes offer a number of upstream and


downstream advantages to customers faced with rising oil prices and
dwindling energy reserves as well as a need to meet increasingly stringent
environmental requirements. With proper preparation a variety of carbon-
based materials can be easily gasified to produce synthesis gas (syngas)
for the subsequent production of chemicals, liquid fuels, electricity or direct
reduction gas (DRI). Gasification is particularly clean and efficient.

Gasification is also flexible with respect to feedstock quality and A number of chemical reactions are involved, some exothermic
the use of mixed feedstocks. The gasification of low-value or waste and some endothermic:
materials is an attractive option. Even otherwise problematic ma-
terials can be gasified together with the main feedstock. Exothermic:
C + O2 CO C + O2 CO2
As coal is much more abundant than oil and gas and global avail-
ability ensures security of supply and relative price stability for the Endothermic:
foreseeable future, coal will play an ever greater role in power gen- C + CO2 2 CO C + H 2O CO + H2
eration, the chemical industry (e.g. in India, China and Africa) and
in the production of liquid fuels (gasoline, diesel, etc.). During the gasification process, the sulphur present in the feed-
stock reacts to produce mainly hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and
Gasification technology offers environment-friendly, efficient so- carbonyl sulphide (COS):
lutions for these applications. In power generation, for example,
gasification can achieve high electrical efficiencies and also forms S + H2 H2S
a basis for Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS). S + C + O2 COS

thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions proprietary HTWTM and PRENFLO Sulphur can be readily recovered in its elemental form or as
technology provide tailor-made gasification solutions optimised for sulphuric acid, both marketable commodities.
the respective project-specific application:

HTWTM: fluidised-bed gasification Worldwide Gasification Capacities 2013-2019 (GWth)


PRENFLO with Steam Generation (PSG): entrained-flow gasification
PRENFLO with Direct Quench (PDQ): entrained-flow gasification World Gasification Capacities 2019

Africa/Middle East 31%


What is gasification? China
Asia/Australia ROW
Gasification is mainly a high-temperature partial oxidation process Latin America 69%
for converting carbonaceous materials into a synthesis gas com- Europe
posed mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen. North America

+18% 285
249 268
205

117 139
108

2013F 2014F 2015F 2016F 2017F 2018F 2019F


Source:STM(Worldwide GasificationDatabase)
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Feedstocks

Uhdes gasification technologies are all based on dry feeding prin- Range of feedstocks
ciple, and are thus able to handle all types of coal (hard coal, lignite, Our gasification technologies are suitable for
anthracite, high-ash coals, coals with high-ash melting points) as a wide range of feedstocks, such as:
well as petroleum coke, char and biomass (e.g. wood, chicken litter,
sewage sludge, olive residues, etc.). Petroleum coke
Anthracite coke
In addition to the main product (syngas), gasification produces by- Hard coals (with low and high ash contents)
products of economic value. The gasification of solids produces: Brown coal, lignite
bottom ash, fly ash and, after subsequent gas treatment, elemental Biomass
sulphur or sulphuric acid. Wastes

Different feedstocks require


different gasification technologies

oa l Lignite Hard
ro wn C Co
a t B al
Pe
Pe tco
od ke
o R
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HTW TM PRENFLO
Fluidised-Bed Entrained-Flow
Gasification Gasification

Technology decision tree


Solid Liquid / Gas
Feedstock

High Low
Reactivity
Low Rank Fuels High Rank Fuels
- Lignite - Hard Coal
- Peat - Petcoke
- Biomass - Residues
High Low
Ash Content

High Ash Softening Low


Product Gas
Point
H2 rich / Chemicals CO rich / Power

HTW PRENFLO PDQ PRENFLO PSG Oil gasification


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The PRENFLO Process


with Steam Generation (PSG)

The PRENFLO (PRessurised ENtrained-FLOw) process, which oper- PRENFLO can look back on more than two decades of operating
ates at elevated pressure, can be used to gasify all types of solid experience, providing a wealth of lessons learnt which have formed
feedstocks (coal, petroleum coke and biomass). It is a further devel- the basis for subsequent successful applications.
opment of the Koppers-Totzek process developed in the 1940s, which
operates at atmospheric pressure.

Flow diagram of the


PRENFLO (PSG) process

Main process data:

Gasification pressure:
40 bar and higher

Gasification temperature:
> 2,000C

Gas temperature at
outlet of gasifier:
1,350-1,600C

Carbon conversion:
> 99%

Typical raw gas


composition:
CO+H2 > 85 vol.%
CO2 2-4 vol.%
CH4 < 0.1 vol.%
(if required)
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PRENFLO
gasifier/boiler (PSG)

Process description
First, the feed dust is prepared in the feed preparation unit.
Approximately 80% of the dust is smaller than 0.1 mm. This feed
dust is then gasified in the PRENFLO gasifier using oxygen and
steam as gasification agents. The gasification temperature is higher
than the ash melting temperature, which allows the coal ash to be
removed as slag. The cooled-type gasifier is equipped with multi-
ple, horizontally arranged burners.
Quench
In the PRENFLO Process with Steam Generation (PSG), the raw gas
gas produced, which contains mainly carbon monoxide and hydro-
gen, is cooled in the waste heat boiler, generating steam. The gas
is then dedusted in a candle filter and further treated in a Venturi
scrubber.
Oxygen
Feed
The slag from the gasifier can be used as a construction material
and the fly ash from the candle filter as a base product in the cement
industry.

PRENFLO technology is used at the worlds largest single train,


solid-feedstock-based IGCC power plant in Puertollano, Spain. This
plant operates with a mixture of petroleum coke and coal.

Slag
Single train capacity upto 1,200 MWth

Raw gas

Main features of the PSG process:

Entrained-flow
Dry dust feed for high efficiency
Multiple burners with high availability and
long lifetime
Horizontally arranged burners for high
carbon conversion
Membrane wall with long lifetime
Waste heat boiler for efficient heat recovery
Operates above ash melting point
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The PRENFLO Process


with Direct Quench (PDQ)

The PRENFLO (PRessurised ENtrained-FLOw) Direct Quench (PDQ) membrane wall of the PRENFLO PSG process with a proprietary
process is an optimised design of the proven PSG gasification pro- water quench system which saturates the raw syngas with water for
cess for chemical applications (e.g. ammonia, methanol, hydrogen, subsequent gas treatment.
synthetic fuel) and IGCC plants with Carbon Capture and Storage
(CCS), where hydrogen-rich syngases are required. It combines the Capital-intensive systems, such as the waste heat boiler system, the
technologically advanced dry feed system, multiple burners and dry fly ash removal system and the quench gas compressor, are
therefore no longer required.

Flow diagram of the


PRENFLO (PDQ) process

Main process data:

Gasification pressure:
40 bar and higher

Gasification temperature:
> 2,000C

Gas temperature at outlet


of gasifier/quench:
200-250C (if required)

Carbon conversion:
> 99%

Typical raw gas


composition:
CO + H2 > 85 vol.%
CO2 6-8 vol.%
CH4 < 0.1 vol.%
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PRENFLO gasifier/
Direct Quench (PDQ)

Process description
First, the feed dust is prepared in the feed preparation unit.
Approximately 80% of the dust is smaller than 0.1 mm. This feed Oxygen
Feed
dust is then gasified in the PRENFLO gasifier using oxygen and
steam as the gasification agent. The gasification temperature is
higher than the ash melting temperature, which allows the coal ash
to be removed as slag. The cooled-type gasifier is equipped with
multiple, horizontally arranged burners.

The raw gas produced, which contains mainly carbon monoxide


and hydrogen, is quenched with water in the gasifier/direct quench
and then cleaned in a scrubber.
Raw gas

The filter cake from the slurry filtration system is mainly recycled to
the gasifier via the feed preparation unit.

The slag from the gasifier can be used as a construction material.

Single train capacity upto 1,200 MWth

Slag

Main features of the PDQ process:

Entrained-flow
Dry dust feed for high efficiency
Multiple burners with high availability and
long lifetime
Horizontally arranged burners for high
carbon conversion
Membrane wall with long lifetime
Full water quench for syngas saturation
Shorter supply and construction schedule
Lower investment cost
Operates above ash melting point
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The HTWTM process


Perfect fit for waste, biomass and low rank coal

The fluidized-bed gasification process was developed in the 1920s Rhenish brown coal into methanol. The Berrenrath plant achieved
in Germany by Fritz Winkler. Commercial-scale Winkler gasifiers plant availabilities of over 8,000 hours per year. In 1988, another
were operated in over 40 applications around the world. In the commercial HTWTM gasification plant started-up for Kemira in Oulu,
1970s, thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions together with Rheinische Finland. This plant converted 100% biomass (peat) into ammonia.
Braunkohlenwerke AG commenced with the development of a Within the further development of the HTWTM process for IGCC
pressurised version of the Winkler gasifierthe High-Temperature applications, and the later engineering for the KoBra IGCC plant at
Winkler (HTWTM) gasification process. The HTWTM process enables Hrth, an additional 25 bar HTWTM gasification plant started-up in
shorter residence time, higher reaction velocity, higher reactor 1989 at Wesseling. In the mid-1990s the HTWTM plant at Wesseling
throughput for larger plant capacity, higher carbon conversion rate, was operated using air instead of oxygen as reactant. Carbon con-
higher plant efficiency and improved syngas quality. In 1978, the version efficiencies up to 95% could be achieved. Around the same
HTWTM pilot plant started-up in Frechen, Germany, with a pressure time, the HTWTM plant at Berrenrath ran a programme to add up to
of 10 bar. The operating experience gained therein laid the foun- 30% of MSW/plastic wastes as feedstock to the gasifier. Due to
dation for the design and construction of the HTWTM commercial- the excellent results, Sumitomo Heavy Industries selected the
scale plant at Berrenrath, which started-up in 1986 to convert HTWTM process for a municipal solid waste gasification plant that
started up in Japan in Niihama in 2000.

Flow diagram of the


HTWTM process

Main process data:

Gasification pressure:
1.5-30 bar

Gasification temperature:
700-1,200C
(below ash softening point)

Carbon conversion:
> 95%
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Raw Gas

Process description
In the fluidized bed, a high material and energy transfer rate is
achieved and this ensures a uniform temperature distribution
throughout the gasifier. The temperature is maintained below the
ash softening point.

Screw conveyers or gravity pipes are used for supplying the


feedstock to the HTWTM gasifier. Due to the gasifier pressure, both
the feeding system as well as the bottom ash removal have to be
performed by lock-hopper systems. The gasification agents, steam
and oxygen (or air) are injected at the bottom of the gasifier (here
they serve simultaneously as fluidizing agents for the fluidized
bed) and they are also introduced into the fluidized bed as well as
above the fluidized bed, into the so-called post-gasification zone
Feed
in order to improve the gas quality and the conversion rate due to
the temperature increase.

Feed
Single train capacity upto 700 MWth
Gasification
Agent

Ignition
Burner

Ash
Ash

Main features of the HTWTM process:


Gasification Agent Oxygen + Steam Air
Feedstock Low Ash Lignite High Ash Lignite Fluidised bed
CO vol.% 29.4 20 Operates below ash softening point
H2 vol.% 29.5 15 Dry feeding system
CO2 vol.% 18.8 8.1 Cyclone
Post-gasification zone
CH2 vol.% 4.0 1.7
for tar distruction
N2+Ar vol.% 0.5 46.5 Multiple oxygen nozzles
H2O vol.% 17.5 8.5 for optimum distribution
H2S vol. ppm 1,000 1,000
NH3 vol. ppm 1,500 750
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Major Projects

ELCOGAS S.A.
Puertollano, Spain
Capacity: 181,000 Nm3/h of raw gas (PRENFLO gasification)
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Coal-to-Liquids (MTG) Gasification plant for the production of ammonia and methanol
Jincheng Anthracite Coal Mining, Shanxi, China Modderfontein, South Africa
Capacity: 2,600 barrels per day Capacity: 90,000 m3 (Vn)/h (dry) CO+H2

Gasification plant for the production of oxo gas PRENFLO demonstration plant
Oberhausen, Germany Frstenhausen, Germany
Capacity: 83,000 m3 (Vn)/h (dry) CO+H2 Capacity: 4,200 m3 (Vn)/h (dry) CO+H2

Gasification of peat for the production of ammonia


HTWTM Syngas plant
Kemira Oy, Oulo, Finnland
Capacity: 300 t/day NH3
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Major Projects

Coal-to-Liquids IGCC plant for electric power generation


Wesseling, Germany Puertollano, Spain
Capacity: 100 barrels per day Capacity: 183,000 m3 (Vn)/h (dry) CO+H2

Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) Elcogas IGCC Plant


In combination with Uhdes gasification technologies, different This IGCC plant is based on a highly integrated system in which
process routes for the production of liquids from coal or other car- the total air for the air separation unit is taken from the gas turbine
bonaceous feedstocks, i.e. the Methanol-to-Gasoline (MTG) route compressor. The plant can be divided into three main parts:
or the Fischer-Tropsch synthesis route, can be supplied.
the gasification island, comprising the feed preparation unit,
the PRENFLO gasification unit, the gas treatment unit and
a sulphur recovery unit
the power block, comprising the gas turbine, the heat recovery
steam generator and the steam turbine
the air separation unit (ASU)
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Waste gasification plant The Rheinbraun HTWTM demonstration plant


Niihama, Japan Berrenrath, Germany
Capacity: 48 t/d Municipal solid waste Capacity: 36,000 m3 (Vn)/h (dry) CO+H2

Syngas Cooler
Water Fire Water
Dried Brown Gasier Tube Tube Scrubber
Coal
HTWTM Gasification Shift-Conversion Synthesis Gas
On the basis of the preliminary tests in a bench-scale plant at Lock CO 2
Hopper
Aachen Technical University, a pilot plant has been set up by System Ceramic
Candle Filter
Rheinbraun in their coal processing factory Wachtberg at Frechen
near Cologne in order to test the HTWTM process. This project was Gasication Cooling Screws Sulphur
subsidized by the Federal Ministry for Research and Technology Agents

(BMFT).

to
thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions was responsible for the engineer- Bottom Product Filter Dust Waste Water Treatment Desulphurisation
Sulphur
Recovery
ing, supervision of civil works and erection activities and for com-
missioning the plant.

thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions and Rheinbraun engineers jointly The plant concept
perform the tests and evaluate the resultats. In view of the good results obtained in the pilot plant, Rheinische
Braunkohlewerke AG decided to install a demonstration plant for
The pilot plant was commissioned in summer 1978. the gasification of lignite. The plant started up in 1986 to produce
synthesis gas suitable for methanol production, which was
The test programme covered the evaluation of the process transported by pipeline to the methanol synthesis plant of Union
design parameters, in particular: Rheinische Braunkohlen Kraftstoff AG to demonstrate the feasibility
of methanol production from lignite.
Gasification under pressure
Gasification at evaluated temperature The Berrenrath plant demonstrated excellent performance, high
Improving the carbon conversion rate availability, a robust operation and the ability to co-feed solid waste
Improving the gas quality upto 50%.
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Range of Services
Uhde Technologies

thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions is a full service technology,


engineering and contracting company. We offer our customers a wide
range of cost effective, safe and environment-friendly solutions.

Ammonia & Urea Hydrogen & Nitrates Electrolysis Organic chemicals /


Polymers

Synthesis gas generation Synthesis gas generation Electrolysis Organic chemicals


Steam reforming Steam reforming Chlor-alkali electrolysis Ethylene dichloride (EDC)
Autothermal reforming Autothermal reforming HCI electrolysis Vinyl chloride (VCM)
Combined autothermal Combined autothermal Chlorate electrolysis Vinyl acetate monomer (VAM)
reforming (CAR) reforming (CAR) Ethylene oxide
Bleaching chemicals / Others Ethylene glycol
Synthesis gas products Synthesis gas products Chlorine dioxide (CIO2) Oxo alcohols
Ammonia Hydrogen Ferric Chloride (FeCI2) Propylene oxide
Carbon monoxide
Nitrogenous fertilisers Oxo synthesis gas Polypropylene
Urea Methanol Homopolymers
Copolymers
Mineral acids
Nitric acid Polyethylene
N2O/NOx abatement HDPE
(DeNOx, De-N2O, EnviNOx) LDPE
LLDPE
Nitrogenous fertilisers Copolymers
Ammonium nitrate
(HDAN, LDAN), Polyvinyl chloride
CAN, UAN, ASN, AS S-PVC

Phosphate Fertiliser Others


DAP, NP, NPK Styrene plastics
(ABS, EPS, GPPS/HIPS)
Carboxymethylcellulose (CMC)
Engineering plastics
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Refining Technologies Gas Technologies Coke Plant Technologies

Oil refining Lube oil, waxes and white oil Gasification Coke oven batteries
Crude oil processing Solvent extraction (PRENFLO & HTWTM)
Atmospheric distillation Propane de asphalting Coal / petcoke gasification Gas treatment plants
Vacuum distillation Solvent dewaxing (PRENFLO)
Wax deoiling Oil/residue gasification Coke quenching facilities
Catalytic processing Lube oil hydrofinishing Biomass gasification
Hydrotreating, Lube oil hydrocracking Partial oxidation Coal / coke handling
hydrodesulphurisation, Wax hydroisomerisation
hydrocracking Catalytic dewaxing Synthesis gas applications Heat-recovery coke plants
Catalytic reforming Wax / white oil hydrogenation Gas treatment for synthesis
Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) Lube oil blending gas, hydrogen Emission control systems
Isomerisation Sulphur recovery
Alkylation, dimerisation Aromatics and derivates Coal-to-liquids (methanol-to-
Extractive distillation (BTX) gasoline, Fischer-Tropsch)
Ethers using the Morphylane process Ammonia, methanol
Methyl / ethyl tertiary butyl Reformate hydrogenation DME, DRI
ether (MTBE, ETBE) Pyrolysis gasoline hydrogenation
Selective hydrogenation Coke-oven light oil hydrorefining Olefins
Oxygenate removal Catalytic reforming Propane dehydrogenation
Tertiary amyl methyl ether Xylene isomerisation (STAR process, STAR catalyst)
(TAME) Disproportionation
Dimethyl ether (DME) Toluene dealkylation
Divided wall column fractionation
Ohter processes and offsites Styrene extraction
Gas-to-liquids
(product upgrading) Olefins and solvents
Hydrogen / synthesis gas Alcohols
Gas / LPG separation Isopropanol (IPA)
Thermal cracking Secondary butanol (SBA)
Visbreaking Ketones
Bitumen and asphalt Methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK)
Offsite facilities Methyl ethyl ketone (DMK)
C4 olefins
Butene concentration
(Butenex, Molsieve)
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Range of Services
Serving our Customers

Engineering, Project Management, Procurement, Construction Management,


Quality, Health Environment Safety (HES) and Technologies

thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions is dedicated to providing its The policy of the thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions group and its
customers with a wide range of services and to supporting them subsidiaries is to ensure utmost quality in the implementation of
in their efforts to succeed in their line of business. With our world- our projects. Our head office and subsidiaries worldwide work to
wide network of subsidiaries, associated companies and experi- the same quality standard, certified according to: DIN/ISO 9001/
enced local representatives, as well as first-class backing from our EN29001.
head office, thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions has the ideal quali-
fications to achieve this goal. We remain in contact with our customers even after project com-
pletion. Partnering is our byword.
We at thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions place particular importance
on interacting with our customers at an early stage to combine their By organising and supporting technical symposia, we promote active
ambition and expertise with our experience. communication between customers, licensors, partners, operators
and our specialists. This enables our customers to benefit from the
Whenever we can, we give potential customers the opportunity to development of new technologies and the exchange of experience
visit operating plants and to personally evaluate such matters as as well as troubleshooting information.
process operability, maintenance and on-stream time.
We like to cultivate our business relationships and learn more about
We aim to build our future business on the confidence our cus- the future goals of our customers. Our after-sales services include
tomers place in us. regular consultancy visits which keep the owner informed about the
latest developments or revamping options.
thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions provides the entire spectrum of
services associated with a process-oriented EPC contractor from a thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions stands for tailor-made concepts
single source. and international competence.

Our large portfolio includes: For more information contact one of the thyssenkrupp Industrial
Solutions offices near you, visit:
End-to-end process solutions
Licensing of gasification and down-stream technologies, www.thyssenkrupp-industrial-solutions.com
incl. the basic engineering package (BEP)
Front-end engineering design (FEED) Or contact the sales department of our business line
Feasibility studies Gas Technologies as follows:
Cost estimates
Engineering, procurement, construction Phone: +49 231 5 47-3973
Commissioning and start-up support Fax: +49 231 5 47-3382
Training of operating personnel Email: gasification.uhde@thyssenkrupp.com
After-sales services.
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Industrial Solutions
Fertilizer and Syngas Technologies

thyssenkrupp Industrial Solutions AG


Friedrich-Uhde-Strae 15
44141 Dortmund
Germany
P: +49 231 547 0
F: +49 231 547 10
www.thyssenkrupp-industrial-solutions.com

PT 001/1/e/200/201704/SZ/Printed in Germany