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NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 3- Lecture 19

Design of Controller using Root Locus Method

D Bishakh
Dr. Bi h kh Bhattacharya
Bh tt h

Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering

IIT Kanpur

Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc - Funded by MHRD


NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 3- Lecture 19

TheLectureContains

ParametersofEngineControl

CascadedCompensators

LagCompensator

Joint Initiative of IITs and IISc - Funded by MHRD


NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 3- Lecture 19

Parameters for Engine Control

FuelFlow Thrust
StatorVane Metal
Angle Temperatures
NozzleArea Flows
NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 3- Lecture 19

Cascaded Controller
CascadedControllers/Compensatorsareprovidedintheforwardloopitselfas
shownbelow.

Controller Plant

TypesofCompensators:Lag
Types
TypesofCompensators:LagCompensator,LeadCompensator,Lead
of Compensators: Lag Compensator,LeadCompensator,Lead
Compensator Lead Compensator LeadLag
Lag
Compensator,NotchFilter
Welldefinedrelationbetweenprimaryandsecondaryvariables,fasterinner
loop disturbances and uncertainties in the inner loop
loop,disturbancesanduncertaintiesintheinnerloop
NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 3- Lecture 19

Lag Filter/Compensation

Introduce a set of Pole and Zero, Overall there is a reduction of


phase in the system. You may remember that addition of a pole
reduces the phase (phase lag) and a zero increases the phase
(phase lead). In this case we introduce a dominant pole and a
non-dominant
d i t zero to
t the
th system.
t

Improves Steady State Performance if the Pole is very near to


the origin and the zero is little away in the left side from the
pole.

K0 (uncompensated) = Kz1z2/p1p2.

K (compensated) = Ko zc/pc
NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 3- Lecture 19

Design of a Lag filter


Consider a Plant with open loop poles at -1,-2
and -10,
-10 Find Kp, Improve steady state error by a
factor of 10 and get the closed loop poles.
Damping ratio should be around 0.174.
Kp = 8.23 (Dominant Pair Gain/p1p2p3)
e= 1/1+Kp=.108
Desired e =.0108,
= 0108 Kp= 91.59
91 59
zc/pc = 91.59/8.23 = 11.13, Use pc=0.01,
zc = 10
10*p
pc = 0.111
0 111
The root-loci of the uncompensated and the
compensated plants follows:
NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 3- Lecture 19

Root Loci for the two systems

1
tf1
( s 1)(s 2)(s 10)
( s 0.11)
tf 2
( s 0.01)(s 1)(s 2)(s 10)

There salmostnoeffect
Theres almost no effect
ofcompensatoronthe
transientbehaviorand
stabilityofthesystem

JointInitiativeofIITsandIISc Fundedby
7
MHRD
NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 3- Lecture 19

Steady State Response of the two


systems
t

1
tf1
( s 1)(s 2)(s 10)
( s 0.11)
tf 2
( s 0.01)(s 1)(s 2)(s 10)

Youmayhaveobservedthat
You may have observed that
thesteadystateresponsehas
increasedmorethanfivetimes.

JointInitiativeofIITsandIISc Fundedby
8
MHRD
NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 3- Lecture 19

Structure of Cascaded Lag Compensation

A Cascaded Lag Compensation may be symbolically represented as

K c (s a)
Gc ( s )
sb
Where, Kc , a and b are positive constants and a>b.
Where a>b A proportional integral (PI)
compensator is a special case of this system, where b=0.

The error constant of an uncompensated system [ Gp (s) , K] may be written


as:
K u K lim s i G p ( s )
s 0

The error constant gets modified after the introduction of Gc (s) such that:
a
K comp K c K ( ) lim s i G p ( s )
b s 0

JointInitiativeofIITsandIISc Fundedby
9
MHRD
NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 3- Lecture 19

Practical Realization of a Lag Compensator


ThefigurebelowshowsthepracticalrealizationofaLag
Compensatorwiththehelpofresistorsandcapacitor.Intermsof
mechanicalelementswecanrealizethesamebyusingdashpot
andsprings.Justreplacettheresistorsbydashpotsandcapacitor
byspring.

JointInitiativeofIITsandIISc Fundedby
10
MHRD
NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 3- Lecture 19

Assignment

A Plant is having the following form

1
G p (s) , K 5
s ( s 2)( s 4)

Design a suitable lag compensator such that the error constant is improved by
a factor of 10.

JointInitiativeofIITsandIISc Fundedby
11
MHRD
NPTEL >> Mechanical Engineering >> Modeling and Control of Dynamic electro-Mechanical System Module 3- Lecture 19

Special References for this lecture

Feedback Control of Dynamic Systems, Frankline, Powell and Emami, Pearson

Control Systems Engineering Norman S Nise, John Wiley & Sons

Design of Feedback Control Systems Stefani,


Stefani Shahian,
Shahian Savant,
Savant Hostetter

Oxford

JointInitiativeofIITsandIISc Fundedby
12
MHRD