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Abstract

Solar based power plant can be installed in places with no other use, such as roofs and deserts, or
they can produce electricity for remote locations, where there is no electricity network. The work
carried out in this thesis give emphasis on how to reduce the temperature of PV module so as to
increase the efficiency and reduce the losses which were happen due to thermal losses.
Increasing efficiency is a key aspect, as it will increase the incomes; reduce the installation cost
of power generated. Due to certain limitation efficiency of other component used was not
increase so we adopt a novel method to cool the temperature by using back water tube to cool the
temperature of PV module. The conversion efficiency of a PV plant is affected by three factors:
the conversion efficiency of the PV panel (8-15%) which depends upon the material used, the
efficiency of the inverter (95-98%) and the efficiency of the maximum power point tracking
algorithm (which is over 98%) if used.

The cooling rate model is used to minimize the cooling time .Its give us a time period in which
solar panel gets cool down after reaching to maximum allowable temperature .we should also
focused on to minimizing the amount of water used and energy required for cooling purpose. The
heating rate and the cooling rate models are validated experimentally. The MAT is determined
based on the heating rate and the rate models, such that it can lead to the maximum.

It is pointless to use a more expensive or more complicated method if with a simpler and less
expensive one similar results can be obtained. This is the reason why some of the proposed
techniques are not used. The practical and efficient utilization of solar energy is an important
trail which can deal with the worldwide energy emergency at present. In order to decrease the
cost of solar power, study & development of system for improving the efficiency of solar power
factor is very essential. Based on various transverse comparison research methods, this thesis
proposed ways to improve the efficiency of solar power by reducing the operating temperature of
PV module, and conducted test setup based calculation and analysis for this methods. Analysis
show that to increase the efficiency of solar power generation by minimizing temperature of
module by using back water cooling tubes fitted at the back side of module over a aluminium
plate, where aluminum plate provide more surface area for cooling tube to dissipate heat from
panel .we can study the technical aspects of the conversion efficiency of solar panels, and
various previous work to reduce the temperature of PV module. .It can be concluded that using
water as coolant is found to be more effective than using air, Thus the main objective of this
thesis is to designed a water based cooling system to solve the overheating problem of solar PV
modules with the minimum amount of water and energy. Due to density difference of hot and
cold water is circulated in the cooling tube using natural convection method so no extra energy is
used to feed and circulate water inside cooling tube which is our main idea behind cooling tube
technique, which can strengthen the solar energy generation methods, and give way to work for
future research direction to improve the efficiency of solar power. Practice has proved that the
use of these technologies can effectively improve the efficiency of solar power generation
CONTENT

TITLE PAGE NO.


CERTIFICATE i
APPROVAL CERTIFICATE ii
DECLARATION iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT iv
ABSTRACT v
TABLE OF CONTENTS vi
LIST OF FIGURES ix
LIST OF TABLES x
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS xi

TABLE OF CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION [5]


1. Introduction [6]
1.1 Overview of Work [6]
1.2 Facts about solar energy [7]
1.2.1 Basics of Solar cells [8]
1.3 Introduction to Photovoltaic (Solar) Cells [8]
1.4 Photovoltaic Operating Principle [10]
1.5 Photovoltaic Cell electric model [10]

CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW [13]


2.1 Review of Earlier Work [14]
2.2 Factors Affecting Conversion Efficiency [15]
2.3 Determining Conversion Efficiency [18]

CHAPTER 3: EXPERIMENTAL SETUP [19]

3.1 Project Objectives and General Procedures [20]


3.2 Instrumentation and Data Collection [20]
3.3 Experimental Test setup and Measurement Consideration of PV Module [20]
3.4 Basic Principle to follows when designing a Quality PV system [24]
3.5 Overheating effect of PV module Efficiency [27]
3.6 Steps of site identification & Project pre feasibility [28]
3.6.1 Temperature Measurement Considerations [28]
3.6.2 I-V Curves for Modules [28]
3.7 Testing Photovoltaic Cells [29]
3.7.1 Forward-Bias (Illuminated) Test [29]
3.7.1 Forward-Bias (Illuminated) Test [29]
3.7.2 Reverse-Bias (Dark) Test [29]
3.7.3 Ambient Condition Considerations [29]

CHAPTER 4: RESULT & DISCUSSION [30]


4.1 Experimental result Performance Enhancements [31]
4.2 Discussion [31]
4.3 Solar Module Currently Available In the Market [32]
4.4 Types of solar cell [33]
4.5 Photovoltaic System Performance [34]
4.6 Module Performance Measurements [35]
4.7 PV System Description [36]
4.7.1 Electrical Data [36]
4.7.2 Photovoltaic Module Specification (SUI-030P-36) [36]
4.7.3 Mechanical Data [37]
4.8 Final Comments and Recommendation [37]
4.9 Basic Terms Used In Solar PV Power System [39]

CHAPTER 5: PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENTS [41]


5.1 Performance enhancement [42]
5.2 Temperature Related Modification [42]
5.2.1 Natural Convection [42]
5.2.2 Fins [43]
5.2.3 Back water tubes fro cooling PV module [44]
5.3 Forced Convection [44]
5.4 Conduction [45]
5.5 Irradiance Related modification [45]
5.6 Data collection for 14 days Average data per Day [46]
5.7 Transposition Factors as function of the plane orientation/ Global/Diffuse reading [46]
5.7.1 Solar Radiation on A Tilted Surface [47]
5.8 Temperature and Irradiance Effects [49]
5.9 Energy Storage and specification [50]
5.9.1 Battery storage [51]
5.9.2 Determining the Batteries [51]
5.9.3 Determining Battery Size [52]
5.9.4 Determining the Number of PV Modules [53]

CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSION [54]


6.1 Conclusion [55]

CHAPTER 7: PAPER PUBLICATION IN DIFFERENT JOURNALS [57]


Research paper 1 [58]

Research paper 2 [59]

CHAPTER 8: REFRENCE AND BIBILOGRAPHY [60]


Appendix A: References

Appendix B: Plagrism Report


LIST OF FIGURES
Figure: 1 Typical solar PV power plants System (source: 19) [6]
Figure: 2 Equivalent Circuit of PV cell with I-V Characteristics (source: 19) [7]
Figure: 3 Cross-Section of a PV Cell [8]
Figure: 4 Solar Panel Configurations [9]
Figure: 5 Schematic of Solar Cell [10]
Figure: 6 Electrical Equivalent circuit of the PV cell [10]
Figure: 7 Effect of Diverging Rs & RSH from Ideality [11]
Figure: 8 Obtaining Resistances from the I-V Curve [12]
Figure: 9 I-V Curve of Solar Cell without Light Excitation [12]
Figure:10 Block diagram representation of factor affecting power plant Performance [15]
Figure: 11 Effect of temperature on output V vs I for a fixed light intensity in a solar cell [16]
Figure: 12 weighted Histogram by irradiance for a lightly shaded installation [16]
Figure: 13 Front side of Experimental Test setup and Measurement [20]
Figure: 14 water tank fitted with fins to cool water in Experimental setup [21]
Figure: 15 Back side of Experimental Test setup fitted with water tube [21]
Figure: 16 Output power and Temperature by PV panel [22]
Figure: 17 Output Voltage and Current by PV panel [23]
Figure: 18 Picture showing taking reading of Output Voltage and Current by PV [24]
Figure: 19 Operating temp. Comparison b/w cooling and without cooling to the PV panel [26]
Figure: 20 power outputs between cooling and without cooling to the PV panel [27]
Figure: 21 P-V characteristics of solar module as a function of module temp [27]
Figure: 22 Temperature Effect on I-V Curve [28]
Figure: 23 natural convection to cool solar PV panel (source: 19) [28]
Figure: 24 comparison of hourly temp. Of solar module cooling by air and with water [31]
Figure: 25 comparison of hourly temp. Of solar module cooling by air and with water [32]
Figure: 26 Comparison of hourly output efficiency of PV Panel cooling by air and by back water
cooling tube [32]
Figure: 27 PV Technology Classes [33]
Figure: 28 I vs V curve at various irradiance levels & the corresponding Mpp [39]
Figure: 29 Shows the power vs voltage characteristics at four different irradiance level [40]
Figure: 30 Optimum tilt for fixed and tracking system [41]
Figure: 31 natural convection to cool solar PV panel (source: 19) [43]
Figure: 32 Types of Fins [44]
Figure: 33 Back water tube filled with water to cool solar PV panel [45]
Figure: 34 water tank for natural convection to cool solar PV panel [46]
Figure: 35 forced convection to cool solar PV panel by using Pump [47]
Figure: 36 Module tilt parameter with respect to solar radiation [49]
Figure: 37 solar isolation as a function of latitude and module angle [51]
Figure: 38 solar isolation as a function of latitude (38 N) and module angle (45 degree) [51]
Figure: 39 V-I and V-P curves at constant temp. (25C) and different insolation values [52]

LIST OF TABLES
Table: 1 Crystalline (Wafer-Based) and Thin-Film Photovoltaic Cells [8]
Table: 2 cooling rate from day 1 in May 2017 [24]
Table: 3 cooling rate from day 1 in June 2017 [25]
Table: 4 I-V readings without water flow in June 2017 [25]
Table: 5 I-V readings with water flow in June 2017 [26]
Table: 6 PV Module Characteristics for Standard Technologies [32]
Table: 7 Characteristics of some PV Technology classes [33]
Table: 8 Electrical character tics data of PV module [36]
Table: 9 Electrical characteristics of solar module used [36]
Table: 10 PV module Mechanical Data specification data table [37]
Table: 11 values of module tilt with angle of elevation of sun [37]
Table: 12 values of module V and I with different irradiance and radiation intensity [43]
Table: 13 Data collection for 14 days Average data per Day [46]
Table: 14 Transposition Factors values of site [46]
Table: 15 values of module tilt with angle of elevation of sun [48]