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January 6, 2014

Gomez, Alyssa Abigael C. – 2LM3

I. Environment of pre-colonial Philippines in terms of political and socio-cultural

Pre-colonial Philippines is the period prior the arrival of the Spanish conquerors in the
Philippines in the year 1521. During this period, Filipinos has already established their own
culture and a systematic way of living which are very similar to those of other countries closely
situated in the Philippines. This phenomenon of having cultural resemblances to other countries
around the Philippines is a possible result of the early trading that existed during those times and
due to that, cultural diffusion took place. Cultural diffusion is the spreading of varied cultural
elements and complexes from one society to another through contact whether direct or
indirect. (Annotations to Morga's 1609 Philippine History)

After the Tabon men, ancient Filipinos lived along the coasts in huts made up of bamboo,
nipa or cogon like those living in rural areas today. The villages around Cebu, Jolo and Butuan
are the bigger ones because trading vessels from other parts of Asia make regular visits in these
places. Due to this, income for a better living is more feasible to the villagers around those areas.
For a more systematic way of life, early Filipinos have established their own socio-political
order. There existed different “brangays” or the early communities which is lead by a “Datu”.
A “barangay” is composed of 30-100 families and it serves as the basic unit of government in
the pre-colonial Philippines. The concept of “barangay” is derived from a name of a boatload of
men, women and children wherein the captain is also called “Datu”.

During this time, the “Datu” basically holds an absolute power wherein he takes control
over the implementation, interpretation and composition or making of laws. Laws at that time
may be written or unwritten. The “Datu” belongs to a rich or chiefly class called “Kadangyan”
which basically shows a glimpse of the early social status in the Philippines. Below the chiefly
class is the “Maharlikas” or the noblemen. Although they are free, they are still subjected to the
orders of the “Datu” sending them to different wars. These people are basically the soldiers and
they are also exempted from paying taxes. Next to the “Maharlikas” are the “Timawa” or the
freemen. They are considered as the middle class. Then the lower class is divided into two. First


Yes.” Even the name “Philippines” has a Spanish origin. it will give the Philippines a more defined identity and a recognizable one. it is still undeniable that the colonization that has happened benchmarked a far more cultured and refined way of living among Filipinos. Furthermore. Filipinos inherited from this 2 .is the “aliping namamahay” (serfs). Could colonialism be justified from the point of view of Philippine historical. However. Moreover. They may have aided the early Filipinos in discovering what they have in a fleet of time but it could have been better if they allowed the Filipinos to discover all of it on their own. Marriages between people of different classes are discouraged though not against their Laws. The aim of the Westerners in colonizing the Philippines is not to guide and to teach the Filipinos how to have a more orderly society but it is to extend their territory and exploit the abundant resources in the Philippines. Colonialism has indeed given the Philippines tons of useful contributions that aided it to become what it is today. Filipino customs are always associated with that of the Westerners. This social stratification suggests that economy and lifestyle is already a concern of early Filipinos and there is already a system of wealth distribution among some Filipino people. the end will never justify the means. pre-colonial Philippines is not as cultured as it should be but given the fact that there is already some sort of system happening during that time only proves that the Philippines is already getting there and is already on its way of having its own civilized society. very few of which or hardly any can be called “our very own. It may take some time but surely. Second is the “alipin saguiguilid” who are basically the slaves who live in the houses of their Lords because of their incapacity to pay debts or because they are captives of wars or because they have inherited the debts of their fathers. Sadly. II. colonialism is also the one responsible for the depleting identity of the Filipino nation. political and social climate in the past? While it is true that some sort of civilization existed prior the arrival of the Westerners in the Philippines. This country should not have been a pitiful chameleon blending its colour to the culture imposed and forcibly dictated upon it. They are required to render services to a lord. This is because of the fact that when the Philippines is on its journey of building the foundations of a sophisticated life there came the Spanish rule and interfered with what was supposed to flourish. Today.

Ma-i is identified to be the trading point which is Mindoro. mangkok (bowl).D. frugality and more also has a Chinese origin. Lim. Therefore. III. tiani (tweezers) and more . Furthermore. likha (creation). One of which is the Chinese influence in the languages of native Filipinos which is used up until today like the words sangko (elder brother). lakambini (princess) and more.phenomenon a vice that is getting far too irreversible and that is “dependency” and lack of initiative. susi (key).. (2010). Indian influences to native Filipinos Indian culture also rendered a good amount of impact to the native Filipinos. India also influenced the native Filipinos’ 3 . Other values like love for family. The Chinese also influenced the native Filipinos in terms of using porcelain as well as some methods in mining. Chinese influences to native Filipinos In circa 960 A. their sarong (skirt). surnames of great Filipino families also have Chinese origin like Cojuangco. Many. puri (honor). the use of metal in decorative art is also of Indian heritage. colonialism is not and shall never be justified even considering the social and whatsoever climate existing in the past. Moreover. Even the lose clothing of early Tagalogs and the sleeved jackets and loose trousers of Moro women also have Chinese heritage. if not all Filipinos are too dependent and they have been part of the so-called self-incurred minority. According to Harold Hisona. pansit (noodles). What was the significant impact of early Chinese. petsay (Chinese for cabbage). sumasampalataya (worshipping). trade relations with China have become very rampant and more prominent which paved the way for a more constant exchange of goods between China and the Philippines. Juico and Ongsiako. there are 150 Philippine words that originated from Sanskrit and 64% of which appear in Tagalog. their putong (turban) and their embroidered shawls that can still be seen among Muslim Filipino women up until today. b. Trade relations encompass not only an exchange of goods but also of culture and traditions. respect for elders. Few of which are Bathala (supreme God). Tan. These are greatly seen among Muslim Filipino women’s way of dressing. Indian and Arabian interaction and influence on the early Filipino native society? a. Native Filipinos also acquired arrangement of marriages by the parents of the prospect bride and groom to the Chinese.

Constantino.).html Jose Rizal. Retrieved Januaruy 2014. (1963). A. is the time when Islam was first introduced in Sulu by Sheik Karimul Makdum through the first Islamic missionary. Retrieved January 2014.philippinealmanac. Arabian influences to native Filipinos The most widespread bequest of Arab culture in the Philippines is the religion Islam. Furthermore. The Age of Discovery:Impact on Philippine Culture and Society SECOND EDITION. Chapter XII. The Cultural Influences of India. Some problems in Philippines Linguistics: Asian Studies. Monoa. The Maranaw epic Darangan has both Indian plot and Indian Characters. Hisona. 1380 c. D. Arabia. H. E. c.literature. Aquino. July 14). ( 528. T. t. Works Cited Belinda A. Honolulu : Hawaii Correctional Industries.philippinealmanac.htm 4 Muhammad’s daughter. Up until today the people in the southern part of the Philippines specifically the Mindanao Island are mostly Muslims and adheres to the principles of Islam. (1992). the royals of Sulu and Mindanao encompass a direct bloodline with Fatimah. b. and Japan . from Annotations to Morga's 1609 Philippine History: http://joserizal. China. from Philippine Almanac: http://www.See more at: 528. ( Another contribution of the Arabs is the practice of circumcision and also some words like salamat (giving thanks) alamat (legend) and more. The tale of Ifugao’s legendary hero Balituk is very much alike to the Arjuna’s exploit of the Mahabharata (the great Hindu Epic).