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- 1200 Well to Seismic Tie by Pamela Taneza
- Strata
- Seismic_inversion2.pdf
- Geoview_eLog
- AVO2
- Strata
- Petrel Well Tie Manual
- Depth Conversion of Time Interpretations
- Part Three
- 52 Things Well-Ties
- ppt-130916035721-phpapp01
- 1918_LithoSI.pdf
- Part Two
- Well Logging Mind Build-Up
- Shale Volume Calculation
- UM3_SeismicWellTie.ppt
- Introduction Into Seismic Survey
- AVO1.pdf
- Stochastic Seismic Inversion Applied to Reservoir Characterization
- Wavelets, Well Ties, And the Search

You are on page 1of 62

Dan Hampson

April 22, 2010

Overview

LithoSI.

pre-stack inversion attributes.

examples.

April, 2010 2

The basic problem

It is now routine to

P-Impedance

invert pre-stack data.

S-Impedance

Vp/Vs Ratio

angle gathers into elastic

volumes.

April, 2010 3

The basic problem

relate the derived

volumes back to the

well logs. S-Impedance

Vp/Vs Ratio

April, 2010 4

The basic problem

One way to do this is to cross plot inversion attributes from the logs:

Vp/Vs Ratio

P-Impedance

April, 2010 5

The basic problem

the cross plot:

Vp/Vs Ratio

Gas sand

P-Impedance

April, 2010 6

The basic problem

inversion volume:

Gas sand

April, 2010 7

The basic problem

area depends critically on the size of

the zone:

Gas sand

April, 2010 8

The basic problem

area depends critically on the size of

the zone:

Gas sand

April, 2010 9

The basic problem

Instead of defining an arbitrary sharp

Vp/Vs Ratio

cutoff for the zone, we can define a

probability distribution:

P-Impedance

Gas sand

April, 2010 10

The basic problem

to the inversion volumes using

Bayesian Classification:

April, 2010 11

The basic problem

(4) When applying to the volume, calculate not only the best

zone, but also the probability of occurrence.

April, 2010 12

LithoSI Facies Classification

Lithology Zp Vp/Vs Training set

2000 4000 60001.8 2.2 2.6

Vp/Vs 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400

2.5 2.5

1200 2.5 2.5

2.4 2.4

1250 2.4 2.4

2.3 2.3

1300 2.3 2.3

2.2 2.2

1350 2.2 2.2

2.1 2.1

1400 2.1 2.1

2.0 2.0

1450 2.0 2.0

1.9 1.9

1500 1.9 1.9

1.8 1.8

1550 1.8 1.8

1600 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200

Zp

2300 2400

1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400

data at well locations. distributions.

Oil

Water

gas

p(Class i I p , PR)

Extract probabilities

for each class at

arbitrary locations.

April, 2010 13

Extracting the cross plot data

lithology log in addition to

desired rock properties curves:

Lithology Zp Vp/Vs

1600 2000 2400 1.8 2.2 2.6

1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400

2.4 2.4

1250

2.3 2.3

1300

2.2 2.2

1350 2.1 2.1

1.9 1.9

1450

1.8 1.8

1500

1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400

1550

1600

extracting the cross plot points.

April, 2010 14

Bayes Theorem

Bayes Theorem calculates the probability we have a particular

class, given a particular set of seismic attributes:

p (c ) p ( X | c )

p c| X

p( X )

Where:

c is a class (e.g. Sand).

X is a seismic attributes Vector (e.g. X = (Zp, Vp/Vs)).

p(c) is the a-priori probability for class c (e.g. probability of

getting sand in general).

p(X|c) is the probability of attributes X knowing we are in

class c (e.g. distribution of (Zp, Vp/Vs) in sand).

p(X) is the probability of attributes X.

April, 2010 15

Pdf computation

The cross plot is convolved with a smooth kernel function: p (c ) p ( X | c )

p c| X

p( X )

x

xi (e.g., Zp)

Kernel function K

1 n

x xi

f ( x ) K( )

nh i 1 h

2h

This user parameter controls the smoothing of the distribution

April, 2010 16

Effect of the smoothing parameter

Vp/Vs

Small h

Zp

Large h

April, 2010 17

Probability cube computation

p (c ) p ( X | c )

p c| X

P p( X )

by a priori class proportions

X

Normalisation

1

Probabilities:

Class A 0.34

0.10

N/A

Class B 0.22

0.46

N/A

Class C 0.44

N/A

0

x3 x1 x2

April, 2010 18

Confusion matrix

April, 2010 19

Confusion matrix

April, 2010 20

Confusion matrix

April, 2010 21

Validation using the Confidence matrix

Zp

Lithology Log Classified

Inversion trace

SHALES

HC SAND

SAND

April, 2010 22

Validation using the Confidence matrix

Zp

Lithology Log Classified

Inversion trace How often do we get a HC Sand when

there is actually a HC sand present? 83%

SHALES

HC SAND

SAND

April, 2010 23

Validation using the Confidence matrix

Zp

Lithology Log Classified

Inversion trace How often do we get a shale when there

is actually a sand present? 27%

SHALES

HC SAND

SAND

April, 2010 24

Workflow overview

1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400

1600 2000 24001.8 2.2 2.6

Zp 1200

Vp/Vs

2.5

2.4

2.5

2.4

1250

Zp

1500 1.9 1.9

1600 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400

from wells multivariate

Input data

PDFs

1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400

2.5 2.5

1.0 2.4 2.4

Oil

2.3 2.3

Water

2.2 2.2

2.1 2.1

0.0 gas

2.0 2.0

1.9 1.9

1.8 1.8

p(Class i I p , PR) 1600 1700 1800 1900 2000 2100 2200 2300 2400

April, 2010 25

Example: West Africa

Hz 1

Hz 2

500 ms

Hz 3

Time

1 km

Well3

Complex turbiditic deposit Well3

environment

Well1

35 sqkm Well1

Well2

Several targets in 800ms Hz 1 time map

time window

April, 2010 26

AVA response and lithology / fluid

discrimination

0.5

GR VP VS RHO AVA VSH SW PHIE

6000

Poissons ratio

100 ms

S Impedance

VSH

SAND

0 1

SHALE

0 P Impedance

3000 11000

SW

0 1

1500 P Impedance

3000 11000

April, 2010 27

Seismic data quality and frequency

bandwidth

Near: 12-20 (2-23/28-60Hz)

Near Far Ultra Far Extracted wavelets

500 ms

90

NEAR

FAR

ULTRA

FAR

Ultra far: 36-50(2-12/17-37 Hz)

30

0 Hz 100

April, 2010 28

Simultaneous Elastic Inversion in Stratigraphic

Framework

Structural Framework Initial Layered Model Synthetic Angle Stacks Real Angle Stacks

Simulated Annealing

Model Perturbation < ?

Vp, Vs, and t

Final Model

Final model

April, 2010 29

Initial model for simultaneous inversion

1 Km

100 ms

Vp/Vs

1.6 2.6

Property filling of the Vp, Vs and density attributes performed by kriging within

layers of the corresponding 5-10Hz low pass filtered logs

March, 2010 LithoSI Presentation 30

Inverted Vp/Vs attribute

1 Km

100 ms

Vp/Vs

1.6 2.6

Near seismic residuals (Real Seismic Synthetic Seismic) and VpVs attribute

Vp/Vs

April, 2010 31

1.6 2.6

Inversion QC and validation at well 1

0 VSH 1 VP/VS 5000 IP 10000 IS 0 0 0 0 SW 1

100 ms

Well log Real seismic trace

Initial model Synthetic trace from well

Final inverted model Synthetic trace from inversion results

April, 2010 32

Training Set Computation at Different Scales

Inverted attributes

Logs Upscaled Logs extracted near wells

11x11 traces

Litho Zp PR

Poisson Ratio

Poisson Ratio

P-Impedance

Effect of Smoothing Parameter

0.5

h=3 h= 6 h= 10

Poissons Ratio

Poissons Ratio

0

3000 11000

P impedance

Kernel function K

2h

April, 2010 34

Kernel Density Estimate for Lithology

Prediction

VP VS RHO IP IS SW VSH PR VP/VS

0.5

100 ms

Poisson Ratio

SHALE 0

OIL-SAND 3000 P impedance 11000

April, 2010 35

WATER-SAND

Kernel Density Estimate for Lithology

Prediction

VP VS RHO IP IS SW VSH PR VP/VS

0.5

100 ms

Poisson Ratio

p(Z p , PR oil sand )

SHALE 0

OIL-SAND 3000 P impedance 11000

April, 2010 36

WATER-SAND

Validation: Input data

VP VS RHO IP IS SW VSH PR VP/VS

100 ms

HC SAND

SAND

April, 2010 37

Validation: Classification result at

Well Locations

VP VS RHO IP IS SW VSH PR VP/VS

100 ms

HC SAND from seismic attribute at well location

SAND

April, 2010 38

Litho Probability Cubes

Probability of Shales Probability of Water Sand

1 Km

100 ms

0 1 0 1

VSH SW

Probability of HC Sand Most Probable Facies

SHALES

HC SAND

0 1 SAND

LITHO log

April, 2010 39

3-D Visualization of HC Sands

Vp/Vs

1.6 2.6 HC sand probability

0 1

April, 2010 40

Example 2: Brazeau area, Alberta

2005 study

2003 study

Brazeau

River

Brazeau

South

2007 study

Primary Targets:

Clastics

Belly River, Cardium,

Viking

Carbonates

Elkton/Shunda, Nisku

April, 2010 41

Example 2 dataset

Area - ~100 km2

inversion window, used for the low frequency

initial model.

QC and the lithological interpretation.

April, 2010 42

Petrophysical Analysis - Viking

-160 MV 40 -400 K/M3 100 0.5 V/V 0 1 V/V 0

0

GR_1

GAPI 200 1950

DEN_1

K/M3 2950 0

WIRE.BADHOLE_1

10 0.2

ILD_1

OHMM 2000 0

COAL_1

V/V 1 Viking Sand Oil (Class I)

150

CALI_1

MM 400

DEPTH

METRES 0.45

NPHI

V/V

TOPS

-0.15 1950

WIRE.DEN_4

K/M3 2950 0.2

ILM

OHMM 2000 0

VOL_QUARTZ_6

V/V QUARTZ 1 Gas (Class IIp)

BS DT_1 WIRE.DEN_1 SFL_1 VSH_2

150 MM 400 500 US/M 100 1950 K/M3 2950 0.2 OHMM 2000 0 V/V 1

2519.8

2525

LCRET

2530

2535

VIK

2540

2545

2550

VIKSND

2555

2560

2565 Angle

VIKSSB

JFOU

2570

2576.0 MANN

April, 2010 43

CDP Stack through well locations

Well P Well E

Viking

April, 2010 44

5 degree Angle Stack

April, 2010 45

12 degree Angle Stack

April, 2010 46

20 degree Angle Stack

April, 2010 47

28 degree Angle Stack

April, 2010 48

36 degree Angle Stack

April, 2010 49

Inversion Results Well-P Location

- GR Well Log - IP Well Log - IS Well Log - Rhob Well Log - Seismic Trace - Seismic Trace - Seismic Trace - Seismic Trace - Seismic Trace

- upscaled Log - upscaled Log - upscaled Log - Inverted - Inverted - Inverted - Inverted - Inverted

Synthetic Synthetic Synthetic Synthetic Synthetic

- Inverted IP - Inverted IS - Inverted Rhob

ANGLE 05 ANGLE 12 ANGLE 20 ANGLE 28 ANGLE 36

Viking

April, 2010 50

Inversion Results Well-E Location

- GR Well Log - IP Well Log - IS Well Log - Rhob Well Log - Seismic Trace - Seismic Trace - Seismic Trace - Seismic Trace - Seismic Trace

- upscaled Log - upscaled Log - upscaled Log - Inverted - Inverted - Inverted - Inverted - Inverted

Synthetic Synthetic Synthetic Synthetic Synthetic

- Inverted IP - Inverted IS - Inverted Rhob

ANGLE 05 ANGLE 12 ANGLE 20 ANGLE 28 ANGLE 36

Viking

April, 2010 51

Section through the wells - Initial Model Zp

High

SE P E NW

Viking

Nordegg

Wabamun

Nisku

Ireton

Low

April, 2010 52

Section through the wells Elastic Inversion Zp

High

SE P E NW

Viking

Nisku

Low

April, 2010 53

Section through the wells Elastic Inversion

Density

High

SE P E NW

Viking

Nisku

Low

April, 2010 54

LithoLogs computation

VSH RHOB GR LithoLogs XPLOT QC

A E P

GR

VSH

April, 2010 55

3D Xplot Wells points Viking Mannville

interval

Rho

Vp

Vs

Rho

Vp Vs Sand:

Shale:

April, 2010 56

Distribution Functions computation

Validation at wells:

E P

Rho

Vp

Vs

Rho

Vp Vs Sand:

Shale:

April, 2010 57

Section through the wells

P E 1 P E

Carb

Viking

Shale

Sand

0

E E

P P

Sand

Probability

0 1

3D Visualization - VIKING Horizon

April, 2010 59

3D Visualization of Sand Probability

Sand

Probability

0.2 1

April, 2010 60

CE9 Release of LithoSI

LithoSI is

scheduled to

be released

with the CE9

update in

Q4/2010.

April, 2010 61

Summary

LithoSI.

pre-stack seismic inversion attributes.

release in early 2011.

two examples.

April, 2010 62

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