C A S E S T U D Y N O .

8

THE MAGNES COLLECTION OF JEWISH ART AND LIFE

University of California, Berkeley

Warren Hellman Gallery
Charles Michael Gallery

August 29–December 15, 2017 and
January 23–June 29, 2018
1
The Invisible Museum
HISTORY AND MEMORY OF MOROCCO

Case Study No. 8

THE MAGNES COLLEC TION OF JEWISH ART AND LIFE
University of California, Berkeley
2121 Allston Way, Berkeley California 94720
magnes.berkeley.edu

Warren Hellman Gallery & Charles Michael Gallery
August 29–December 15, 2017 & January 23–June 29, 2018 Following its inception in 1962, the former Judah L. Magnes
Galleries open TUE–FRI 11am–4pm Museum distinguished itself by collecting beyond the focus
(closed on Winter Break, December 16, 2017–January 22, 2018) on European Jewish culture and history that was prevalent
http://bit.ly/invisible-museum among American Jewish museums at the time. During the
1970s and 1980s, its founders, Seymour and Rebecca Fromer,
actively corralled an informal team of activist collectors and
Exhibition team:
supporters. Together, they were able to bring to Berkeley
CUR ATOR
art and material culture from North Africa, the Middle
Francesco Spagnolo
East, and the Indian subcontinent. Their legendary “rescue
FACULT Y ADVISOR
Emily Gottreich missions”—collecting trips aimed at retrieving Jewish
CUR ATORIAL ASSISTANT
cultural objects in locations where Jews had once thrived—
Zoe Lewin were further complemented by careful acquisitions carried
UNDERGR ADUATE CUR ATORIAL ASSISTANT out by exploring the catalogs of major and lesser-known
Sarah Klein (URAP) auction houses, and especially by visiting art dealers in Israel,
RESEARCH where many Jews from the lands of Islam had resettled.
Noam Sienna (University of Minnesota); Anat Mooreville (UC Davis)
These collecting patterns are particularly evident in the
REGISTR ARS
Julie Franklin and Rebecca Hisiger case of the stunning holdings that document the history
PREPAR ATOR
and memory of Jewish communities in Morocco. The
Ernest Jolly Fromers and their supporters visited tourist shops near
MARKETING AND SOCIAL MEDIA and far across the Moroccan centers where Jews once
Lisa Davis lived: Tétouan, Tangier, Casablanca, Fez, and Marrakech,
DESIGN and made their way into the remote locations of the Atlas
Gordon Chun Design mountains that separate the Mediterranean and Atlantic
coastlines of Morocco from the Sahara desert. The hundreds
Acknowledgements: of ritual objects, textiles, illustrated marriage contracts, and
Major funding for The Magnes comes from the Helzel Family Foundation, manuscripts that they collected and now reside permanently
Koret Foundation, Magnes Leadership Circle, Magnes Museum Foundation, at The Magnes are the bearers of a narrative that is at once
Walter & Elise Haas Fund, and The Office of the Chancellor at the very ancient and extremely modern. Heirs to a history
University of California, Berkeley.
that harkens back to antiquity, the Jewish communities of
Support for this exhibition was provided by the Koret Foundation, the Morocco carry many layers of memory and change, from
Maurice Amado Foundation in memory of Bernice Labé Amado (z’l), and
her parents Theodore and Reina Labé (z’l), made upon the recommendation
the rise of Islam to the expulsion of Jews from the Iberian
of Honey, Theodore, and Ellen Amado, and the Hon. and Mrs. Stuart R. Peninsula, the European colonization of Africa, and the
Pollak. Holocaust. Most Moroccan Jews abandoned their ancestral
Research for this project was made possible in part by funds and resources home en masse during the 1950s, with smaller numbers
provided by the Undergraduate Research Apprentice Program (URAP) at remaining through the 1960s and 70s, relocating primarily to
the University of California, Berkeley.
Israel, France, and North America (especially Francophone
Quebec). What they left behind, along with an important
network of intercultural relations and memories of their
ancient presence, included communal buildings, and, most
significantly, many objects. Brought out of Morocco, these
remains display a diaspora within the diaspora, a museum of
BACK COVER IMAGE:
the invisible, the texture of which is preserved in public and
Torah mantle for a scroll dedicated by Rabbi David Filo
Morocco, 5688 (1927–1928) (See No. 1, page 6) private collections worldwide.

2 3
The Invisible Museum project started with a multi-year
explo­ration of the Moroccan holdings at The Magnes.
The resulting exhibition offers a probing insight into
how cultural objects— once the cherished belongings of
individuals, families, and communities—may be abandoned
in the process of migration or sold by immigrants seeking
to rebuild their lives in a new land before they become part
of a museum collection.

~Francesco Spagnolo

Esther scroll with text framed by arch motifs (No. 3)

CASE A

VISUAL LANDSCAPES OF
MAGHREBI CULTURE

1. Synagogue tile decorated with Moorish motif and inscribed
with the Hebrew word atah (you)
Morocco, 18th century
Glazed terracotta with whitewash
Gift of Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 77.275

2. Rafael bar Shlomoh Aznati (Algeria and Palestine,
19th century)
sefer orah ve-simchah (The Book of Light and Gladness)
Sefrou, Morocco, 1812–1813
Ink and pigment on laid paper
Gift of Seymour Fromer, 2008.11.2

Manuscript including liturgical poems and Talmudic
excerpts for the Purim festive meal. Title page decorated
with an architectural frame around the text; star-shaped
cartouches with figures depicting a bird on first and last
leaves.

3. Esther scroll with text framed by arch motifs
Morocco, 18th century
Ink on parchment, with wood roller
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Siegfried S. Strauss
collection, 67.1.11.4

4. Hanging Hanukkah lamp with rooster-shaped chamsa
inlaid with six-pointed star
Morocco, 20th century
Brass
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Hanging Hanukkah lamp with rooster-shaped hamsa inlaid with six-pointed Seymour Fromer, honoring the 40th wedding anniversary of
star (No. 4) Fay and Sol Friedman, 75.250

4 5
ABANDONED MOROCCAN SYNAGOGUES
PHOTOGRAPHED BY DAVID R. COWLES

5. David R. Cowles (b. 1950, United States and Canada)
Keter Torah, Assayag
Tangiers, Morocco, 2002
Gold-toned gelatin chloride photograph on printing out paper
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 2004.2.3

6. David R. Cowles (b. 1950, United States and Canada)
Bet Ha-Knesset Rabbi Mimoun Mansano
Fez, Morocco, 1995
Gold-toned gelatin chloride photograph on printing out paper
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 2004.2.4

Hanging synagogue lamp inscribed for a man named
Mosheh ben Chayyim, deceased on 29 Adar II, 5698
(April 1, 1938), (No. 2)

CASE B

FRAGMENTS OF SYNAGOGUE LIFE

1. Torah mantle for a scroll dedicated by Rabbi David Filo
Morocco, 5688 (1927–1928)
Cotton velvet, metallic embroidery floss and metal sequins over
padded wool applique with glass paste jewels and gold plated
brooch, lining: silk and cotton
Torah finials (No. 7)
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Sandor Burstein, 75.183.98

2. Hanging synagogue lamp inscribed for a man named
Mosheh ben Chayyim, deceased on 29 Adar II, 5698 7. Torah finials
(April 1, 1938) Morocco, 20th century
Tiznit, Morocco, 20th century (inscribed in 1938) Silver
Brass with gold enamel paint on glass oil well The Peachy and Mark Levy Family Judaica collection,
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 74.58 a–b 2015.6.53 a–b

3. Synagogue plaque with birkat ha-gomel (thanksgiving 8. Torah finials
blessing) Hebrew text Morocco, 19th century
Morocco, ca. 1940 Brass
Ink on paper, with metal and glass Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Bernard Kimmel collection,
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 77.98 67.226 a–b

4. Torah binder 9. Torah finials
Morocco, 20th century Morocco, 19th century
Cotton or linen with partial silk warp Brass
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase (acquired in Morocco), 86.0.9 a–b
75.183.344

6 7
10. Memorial lamp (kandil)
Morocco, ca. 1900
Brass
Gift of Seymour Fromer, 71.2

11. Memorial lamp (kandil) inscribed for a woman named
Habibah Dahan
Morocco, 19th century
Brass
Gift of Herbert and Nancy Bernhard, 2001.24.6

12. Torah pointer inscribed in memory of a woman named
Frechah Shetrit [Chetrit]
Morocco, 19th century
Silver
The Peachy and Mark Levy Family Judaica collection, 2015.6.44
Prayer shawl bag inscribed to Mordekhai bar Rafa el [be]n Simchon
13. Torah pointer with feline paw at tip (No. 2)
Morocco, 19th century
Brass with silver plating, braided cord
CASE C
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 71.3

14. Torah pointer with feline paw at tip MODERN EFFECTS: DECORATED PRAYER
Morocco, 19th century
Brass SHAWL BAGS FOR THE BAR MITZVAH
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 71.4
Until the 1930s, the Bar Mitzvah ceremony was celebrated
15. Torah pointer with floral motif by Moroccan families when a boy reached age ten or eleven.
Morocco, 19th century In the 20th century, through the “modernizing” influences
Brass, copper and silver plate with leather strap of colonial French Jewish organization, especially the
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 71.5 educational initiatives of the Alliance Israélite Universelle,
the celebration was held closer to age thirteen, sometimes
16. Shofar
with a festive gathering held six months before a boy’s
Morocco, n.d.
birthday. The Bar Mitzvah boy would recite parts of his
Horn
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Bernard Kimmel collection, speech before the Rabbi and family guests, and the parents
68.10 would commission a red or green velvet bag to hold the
prayer shawl, decorated with the child’s name in gold or
silver threads. Emphasis would be placed on wearing tefillin
(phylacteries). Accord­ingly, the celebration would take place
on a Monday or Thursday, rather than on the Sabbath. In
parts of North Africa, the coming of age also signified a time
when a boy could start to work, or an opportunity to have his
first cigarette.

1. Prayer shawl bag inscribed to “servant of God Avraham
Saqrozah 5710”
Morocco, 1949–1950
Velvet over paperboard with goldwork embroidery, metal closure
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase (acquired in Israel), 75.183.171

2. Prayer shawl bag inscribed to “servant of God Reuven [be]n
Anqav”
Morocco, 20th century
Velvet over paperboard with goldwork embroidery, metal closure
Gift of Max Eis, 83.30.1

3. Prayer shawl bag inscribed to “servant of God Avraham
bar Ya’aqov Gazlan”
Morocco, 20th century
Velvet over paperboard with silverwork, metal closure
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase (acquired in Israel), 75.183.170

8 Torah pointers (Nos. 12–15) 9
4. Prayer shawl bag inscribed to Mordekhai bar Rafael [be]n
Simchon
Morocco, 20th century
Velvet over paperboard with silverwork embroidery, cotton lining
and metal closure
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase (acquired in Israel), 75.183.168

5. Prayer shawl bag inscribed to “servant of God Ya[h]udah
bar Avraham Albo”
Morocco, 20th century
Cutout silver and engraved, with cotton velvet, silverwork cord
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase (acquired in Israel), 75.183.142

6. Prayer shawl bag inscribed to “servant of God Shim’on
Wachnun 5695”
Demnate, June 1943 (No. 11)
Morocco, 1934–1935
Velvet over paperboard with goldwork embroidery, metal closure
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase (acquired in Israel), 75.183.145 ELIAS HARRUS PHOTOGRAPHS
7. Embroidered prayer shawl bag with rooster motif and six- Elias Harrus was born on September 19, 1919, in Beni-
pointed star on back Mellal, Morocco. As a prominent leader of the Alliance
Morocco, 20th century Israélite Universelle (AIU) educational network in Morocco,
Velvet over paperboard with goldwork embroidery, metal closure
he was formally trained in pedagogy and agriculture in
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase (acquired in Israel), 75.183.143
France and Algeria. After serving as director of the AIU
8. Prayer shawl bag inscribed to “servant of God Mosheh school in Demnate from 1940 to 1945, he became director
Ankonina” of the AIU’s École Professionnelle Agricole (Vocational
Morocco, 20th century Agricultural School) in Marrakech in 1946. He continued in
Velvet over paperboard with goldwork embroidery, metal closure this post until 1958, but at the same time was also responsible
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Zaleznik collection, 78.4.44 for founding and supervising AIU schools throughout the
Atlas Mountains and the Saharan oases. His photographs
9. Prayer shawl bag inscribed to “servant of God Yosef Edr’i”
of the Berber Jews in these regions (1941–1981) have been
Velvet over paperboard with silverwork, woven trim and
brocade lining
exhibited internationally.
Morocco, 20th century
10. Elias Harrus (1919–2008)
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase (acquired in Morocco),
75.183.167 Tinghir, November 1950
Tinerhir, Morocco, 1950
Photographic reproduction
Gift of Elias Harrus, made possible by Beth Hatefutsoth
(The Museum of the Jewish People), with the authorization of
the Library of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, 1999.0.31g

Girls (aged eleven to thirteen) rejected from the newly
opened school of the Alliance Israélite Universelle in
Tinerhir (a city in south east Morocco) for being too old.

11. Elias Harrus (1919–2008)
Demnate, June 1943
Demnate, Morocco, 1943
Photographic reproduction
Gift of Elias Harrus, made possible by Beth Hatefutsoth
(The Museum of the Jewish People), with the authorization of the
Library of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, 1999.0.31p

Youth playing with water following the water ritual
outside the synagogue at the end of the Shavuot prayers in
Demnate, central Morocco.

Prayer shawl bag inscribed to “servant of God Ya[h]udah bar
Avraham Albo” (No. 5)

10 11
CASE D

HANUKKAH LAMPS
1. Hanukkah lamp
Tangiers, Morocco, ca. 1900
Brass
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 75.287.2

Hanging oil lamp, depicting six-pointed and eight-pointed
stars.

2. Hanukkah lamp
Morocco, ca. 1950
Silver
The Peachy and Mark Levy Family Judaica collection, 2015.6.86

Hanging oil lamp, depicting a tree, flanking birds, and the
amuletic Hebrew word, shaday.

3. Hanukkah lamp
Morocco, 18th century
Brass
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 75.0.10

Hanging oil lamp, decorated with gates and arabesques.

4. Hanukkah lamp
Tangier, Morocco, ca. 1920
Brass with copper rivets
75.0.3

Hanging oil lamp, with oil wells added to a pre-existing
plate, decorated with flanking birds and six-pointed stars.

5. Hanukkah lamp
[Fez], Morocco, ca. 1920
Silver
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 83.46

Hanging oil lamp, decorated with floral motifs, flanking
roosters, and a six-pointed star.

6. Hanukkah lamp
Morocco, ca. 1900
Brass
75.0.8

Hanging oil lamp, decorated with floral motifs.

Hanukkah lamps (Above: No. 1, and Below: No. 3)

12 13
CASE E

AMULETS

The Jewish amulet (Heb., kamea’) in Morocco took a wide
Mezuzah cover embroidered
variety of forms, drawing on different traditions. The texts with God’s name shaday, and
used in amulets can include biblical verses and psalms, divine a woman’s name, Rina Malka
names, and invocations of powerful figures like angels, the (No. 1)

biblical Patriarchs and Matriarchs, and holy saints and rabbis.
The Jewish mystical tradition, including the Kabbalah, is
central to these artifacts. The imagery of a­ mulets can be
uniquely Jewish (such as the hands of the Priestly Blessing, or
Psalm 67 written in the shape of a menorah), as well as shared
with non-Jewish neighbours (such as fish, scorpions, or the
chamsa hand). Amulets were usually written or inscribed
by skilled rabbis and magician-healers, and by the late 19th
century, also printed by Hebrew presses in major cities in
Morocco and Tunisia. They were worn on one’s person, 3. Mezuzah cover, in eight-pointed star shape
placed in homes, and used at moments of vulnerability and Tangiers, Morocco, 20th century
transition, like childbirth or marriage. Velvet over paperboard with goldwork and silverwork with linen
backing
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Zaleznik collection, 78.4.75
HOUSEHOLD PROTECTION
4. Mezuzah cover, heart-shaped
A mezuzah (Heb., “doorpost”) is a parchment scroll contain- Morocco, 20th century
ing portions of Deuteronomy 6 and 11 written in twenty-two Velvet over paperboard with goldwork and silverwork
lines and often placed in a box or container, either affixed on Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Zaleznik collection, 78.4.18
a building or encased in a niche, following the command-
5. Mezuzah cover with inlaid chamsa, six-pointed star, and
ment in Deuteronomy 6:9 and 11:20: “and thou shalt write
God’s name, shaday
[these words] upon the doorposts [mezuzot] of thy house and
Morocco, 20th century
upon thy gates.” The back of the scroll is inscribed with the
Brass
Hebrew word, shaday, a name for God meaning “almighty,” Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 91.49
and an acronym for shomer daltot yisrael (Heb., “Guardian of
the doors of Israel”). A mezuzah serves two primary func-
tions: it is a reminder of the Jewish covenant with God, and
a marker for a Jewish household. It can also be understood to
have amuletic and apotropaic qualities. Uniquely, Moroccan
mezuzah covers are highly ornate embroidered textiles, as
opposed to the wooden or metal tubes-like structures famil-
iar in the European diaspora. Brides would embroider their
name below the word shaday, and present the textile as a gift
to their bridegrooms.

1. Mezuzah cover embroidered with God’s name shaday, and
a woman’s name, Rina Malka
Morocco, 20th century
Velvet over paperboard with goldwork and silverwork
Gift of Ruth Eis (acquired in Morocco), 75.183.362

2. Mezuzah cover
Tétouan, Morocco, 20th century
Velvet over paperboard with goldwork and silverwork
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.19

Mezuzah cover with inlaid chamsa, six-pointed star,
and God’s name, shaday (No. 5)

14 15
PERSONAL PROTECTION: THE CHAMSA

The chamsa, literally “five” (known in Moroccan Arabic as
khmissa, or “little five”), refers to a stylized hand thought to
carry protective and beneficial powers. Common through-
out the Mediterranean and Middle East, it is particularly
prevalent in Morocco, and some have theorized that it has
roots in ancient North African Punic symbols. Used by both
Jews and Muslims (and, in some areas, Christians as well),
the chamsa appears on a wide variety of materials, including
metal amulets, jewelry, embroidery, woven textiles, and even
furniture. In Jewish contexts, it is often merged with another
symbol, the hands of the Priestly Blessing, or combined with
protective texts from the Hebrew Bible and the Kabbalistic
tradition.

6. Amulet for personal protection, chamsa
Morocco, 20th century
Silver
Gift of Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 77.33

7. Amulet for personal protection, chamsa, with bird and
floral motifs
Morocco, 19th century
Silver
Gift of Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 77.32

8. Amulet for personal protection, with name of Rabbi
Amram ben Diwan Amulet for personal protection, chamsa, with bird and
Morocco, early 20th century floral motifs (No. 7)
Ink on paper, leaded glass frame
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.40

9. Amulet for personal protection, featuring divine names and
permutations of the four rivers of the Garden of Eden
Morocco, 20th century
Silver
Gift of M. S. Sopher, 79.42.5

10. Amulet for personal protection with mystical symbols
Morocco, 18th century
Silver
Gift of M.S. Sopher, 79.42.7

11. Amulet inscribed with kabbalistic acronyms and names of
angels
Morocco, 18th century
Silver
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Siegfried S. Strauss
collection, 67.1.1.7

Hebrew inscription includes kabbalistic acronyms for the
prayer, ana be-koach, and the last letters of the first five
verses of Genesis 1, as well as names of angels (Yechiel,
Rafael, Uriel, Gavriel). Amulet inscribed with kabbalistic acronyms and
names of angels (No. 11)
12. Amulet case with floral motif
Morocco, 20th century
Silver with silk textile encasing organic matter
Gift of M. S. Sopher, 79.42.3

16 17
DRAWER ONE 2. Arthur Leipzig (1918–2014, United States)
Wedding Casablanca, Morocco, 1981
MAGIC United States, Women’s American ORT, n.d.
Offset lithograph
[sha’ar ha-ahavot] Gift of Karen Flanders, 92.63.8
Hebrew, Aramaic, and Arabic
Morocco, n.d. (20th century) 3. Marcelin Flandrin (1889–1957, Algeria and Morocco)
Ink on paper, bound with paper covered card and cotton twine Morocco Jewish grocery, ca. 1935
Morocco Ms. 21.1
Jerusalem, The Israel Museum, 1984
Manuscript containing amulets and folk recipes concerning Offset lithograph
the protection of households, erotic magic, fertility, and Gift of Alice Prager, 92.74.1
medical remedies; Hebrew, Aramaic, Arabic, 20th century.
4. Félix-Jacques Moulin (1802–1875, France)
DRAWER TWO Jewish women from Tétouan, ca. 1875
Jerusalem, The Israel Museum, 1984
Offset lithograph
ESTHER SCROLLS Gift of Alice Prager, 92.74.5

1. Blessings and texts for the Esther Scroll
Hebrew
Morocco, n.d. (20th century) DRAWER FOUR
Ink and gouache on parchment
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 69.19
MAGIC
Manuscript containing texts recited before and after the
reading of the Scroll of Esther in the synagogue on Purim. Amulet for the protection of newborn children
Hebrew
2. Esther scroll Morocco, n.d. (ca. 1940)
Hebrew Lithograph
Morocco, n.d. (20th century) Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Ink on parchment, linen attachment with wood stave Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.50
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 75.101a–c

DRAWER THREE

POSTCARDS AS COLONIAL KEEPSAKES

Postcards reproducing the work of three photographers
between the late 19th and the late 20th century. Arthur
Leipzig (1918–2014, an American Jewish street photogra-
pher), Marcelin Flandrin (1889–1957, a pied-noir from Algeria
who resettled in Morocco), and Félix-Jacques Moulin (1802–
1875, a French national), leveraged the colonizing potential
of photography by constructing a Europeanized vision of
Moroccan society. Their photographs were reproduced as
postcards in the 1980s by the Women’s ORT (est. 1922) and
by the Israel Museum in Jerusalem. Flandrin, whose work
was commissioned by the French Protectorate of Morocco
(1912–1956), focused on the city of Casablanca, and was a
prolific producer of postcards in Morocco. Moulin, an agent
of the French empire, created reportage-style images for a
French audience.

1. Arthur Leipzig (1918–2014, United States) Old Age Home Casablanca, Morocco, 1981 (No. 1)

Old Age Home Casablanca, Morocco, 1981
United States, Women’s American ORT, n.d.
Offset lithograph
Gift of Karen Flanders, 92.63.1

18 19
CHARLES MICHAEL GALLERY

CYCLES OF MOROCCAN JEWISH LIFE

Painted Homes: Jewish Marriage Contracts
from Tétouan

The ketubbah (Heb., “written thing”; pl. ketubbot) is a Jewish
marriage contract that stipulates the duties of a husband
towards his wife, and guarantees a wife’s financial rights in
case of divorce or her husband’s death. It lists the place and
date of the wedding, the names of the bride and groom, and
is signed by witnesses. North African ketubbot are often heav-
ily decorated, and reflect local visual aesthetics as well as a
strong influence from medieval Iberian art carried to North
Africa by Sephardic exiles. A popular element drawn from
this tradition is the horseshoe-shaped arch, used to frame the
text of the contract. Different areas of Morocco developed
unique decorative traditions: ketubbot from central Morocco
may include dense vegetal and arabesque motifs, while those
from southern Morocco display stark geometric patterns in
black and white ink. Northern Moroccan documents are the
most strongly influenced by Sephardic traditions, and are
almost always arch-shaped, with a colourful floral border.
They also often include a pair of birds (a symbol of love and
fertility, as well as protection for the new couple) or hand Ketubbah (marriage contract) for Mosheh ben Shlomoh Algozi,
(combining the representation of the Priestly Blessing with and Simchah bat Mosheh Chadjwel [Hatchouel] (No. 6)
the Maghrebi protective symbol known as the chamsa). One
unique Northern Moroccan element is that the Hebrew
word, chai (meaning “life,” whose numeric value is used in 3. Ketubbah (marriage contract) for Yitzchaq ben Mas’ud
describing the dowry as a multiple of eighteen) is written in [Massoud] Chadjwel [Hatchouel], and Mas’udah
very large letters, to emphasize the blessings wished for the [Massouda] bat Shema’yiah ben Yosef Rofe
couple as they begin their new life together. Hebrew, Aramaic
Tétouan, Morocco, Wednesday, December 7, 1870
The majority of the marriage contracts from Tétouan in Pigment and ink on parchment
The Magnes Collection were purchased in Israel in the Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 75.0.5
1970s, and reveal a network of close family relations.
4. Ketubbah (marriage contract) for Reuven ben David Ben-
Zimrah, and Yaqut bat Mosheh Chadjwel [Hatchouel]
On display during Fall 2017 Hebrew, Aramaic
Tétouan, Morocco, Wednesday, September 22, 1875
Gouache and ink on parchment
1. Ketubbah (marriage contract) for Mosheh ha-kohen Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 71.0.11
ben Yehudah Alhadad [Alhaddad], and Klara bat Yosef
Abudarham [Aboudaram] 5. Ketubbah (marriage contract) for Makhluf ben Shemuel
Hebrew, Aramaic
Attedghi [Ettedgui], and Tamu [Tamou] bat Avraham
Tétouan, Morocco, Wednesday, January 3, 1906 Nahon
Tempera, ink and graphite on parchment Hebrew, Aramaic
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by Tétouan, Morocco, Wednesday, February 28, 1849
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.15 Ink and pigment on parchment
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 71.0.3
2. Ketubbah (marriage contract) for Shlomoh ben Ya’aqov
Atiah, and Simchah bat Yehudah Aviqatzitz [Abecassis] 6. Ketubbah (marriage contract) for Mosheh ben Shlomoh
Hebrew, Aramaic Algozi, and Simchah bat Mosheh Chadjwel [Hatchouel]
Tétouan, Morocco, Wednesday, May 27, 1857 Hebrew, Aramaic
Pigment, ink and metallic paint on parchment Tétouan, Morocco, Wednesday, June 10, 1885
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 71.0.9 Ink, pigment and metallic paint on parchment
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 71.0.6

20 21
On display during Spring 2018 JEWISH LIFE IN TEXTILES

1. Ketubbah (marriage contract) for David ben Avraham 1. Bridal dress
Aviqatzitz [Abecassis] and Rachel bat Yehudha Aviqatzitz
a. Bodice
[Abecassis]
Tangiers, Morocco, 20th century
Hebrew, Aramaic Cotton velvet and goldwork; lined with linen
Tétouan, Morocco, Wednesday, June 28, 1876 Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Zaleznik collection, 78.4.21a
Ink and pigment on parchment
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 71.0.5 b. Modesty panel
Tétouan, Morocco, 20th century
2. Ketubbah (marriage contract) for Avraham ben David
Cotton and silk velvet and goldwork; lined with linen
Tzarfati [Sarfati] and Simchah bat Avraham Nahon Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Zaleznik collection, 78.4.24
Hebrew, Aramaic
Tétouan, Morocco, Wednesday, June 20, 1832 c. Belt
Ink and pigment on parchment Morocco, 20th century
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 71.0.7 Silk and gold wrapped thread
88.0.4.2
3. Ketubbah (marriage contract) for Yosef ben Shlomoh
ben-Tatah ben-Tzoltan [Bentata Bensoultan] and Lidisiya d. Skirt
[Letitia] bat Yehudah Nahon Tangiers, Morocco, 20th century
Hebrew, Aramaic Cotton velvet with goldwork; linen with cotton
Tétouan, Morocco, Wednesday, June 18, 1828 Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Zaleznik collection, 78.4.21b
Ink, pigment and paper decals on parchment
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 71.0.10 e. Shawl
Tangiers or Tétouan, Morocco, 20th century
4. Ketubbah (marriage contract) for Avraham ben Shemuel Silk and gold and silver wrapped thread textile
Nahon and Leah bat Avraham Nahon Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Zaleznik collection, 78.4.27
Hebrew, Aramaic
Tétouan, Morocco, Wednesday, May 11, 1831
Ink, and pigment on parchment
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 71.0.8 2. Child’s Vest

5. Ketubbah (marriage contract) for Yehudah ben Avraham Child’s vest for festivals and celebrations
Aviqatzitz [Abecassis] and Lidisiya [Letitia] bat Avraham Fez, Morocco, ca. 1920
Nahon Silk and cotton velvet with goldwork; lined with linen
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 75.249
Hebrew, Aramaic
Tétouan, Morocco, Wednesday, June 6, 1838
Ink, and pigment on parchment
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 71.0.4 3. The Groom
6. Ketubbah (marriage contract) for Yosef ben Avraham Groom’s robe
Gabizon and Simchah bat Yitzchaq Khalfon [Halfon]
Morocco, 20th century
Hebrew, Aramaic, and Judeo-Spanish Wool with corded silk embellishment
Tétouan, Morocco, Wednesday, June 2, 1886 Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Zaleznik collection, 78.4.49
Ink, pigment and silver leaf on paper
Bernard Kimmel collection, 2009.18.2

4. Bridal shoes

a. Tangiers, Morocco, 20th century
Leather, cotton velvet and goldwork
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Zaleznik collection,
78.4.71 a–b

b. Morocco, 19th century
Leather, cotton velvet and goldwork
Gift of Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 80.37.2 a–b

22 23
5. Bridal dress

a. Bodice
Tangiers, Morocco, 19th century
Silk and linen brocade with goldwork, lined with silk and linen
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Zaleznik collection, 78.4.22a

b. Modesty panel
Tangiers, Morocco, 20th century
Silk and cotton velvet with gold work on linen backing
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Zaleznik collection, 78.4.25

c. Skirt
Tangiers, Morocco, 19th century
Silk taffeta with goldwork, lined with printed cotton
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Zaleznik collection, 78.4.22b

6. Dressing Grooms & Torah Scrolls

a. Groom’s vest
Tétouan, Morocco, 20th century
Silk and cotton velvet with gold work on lined with silk and linen
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 75.183.41
Groom’s vest (No. 6a)
b. Torah mantle donated by Simchah bat Ya’aqov Qaro in
memory of Zahra and David Qaro [Caro]
Tangiers, Morocco, 28 Tammuz [5]689 (August 5, 1929)
Silk and cotton velvet with gold work on lined with silk brocade
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 75.183.350 (on display during
Fall 2017)

c. Mantle for a Torah Scroll dedicated by Shlomoh ‘Aqrish
[Akrish] and his wife Mira
Tangiers, Morocco, 8 Tishri [5]663 (October 9, 1902)
Silk and cotton velvet with gold work on lined with cotton
Gift of Dr. and Mrs. Sandor Burstein, 75.183.99 (on display during
Spring 2018)

7. Clergy’s Head Coverings

a. Cantor’s hat
United States, Adam Hats Corporation, 20th century
Silk
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, Zaleznik collection, 78.4.66

b. Man’s head covering
Morocco, 20th century
Cotton and silk velvet, goldwork, cotton and silk lining
Zaleznik collection, 80.37.1

Torah mantle (No. 6b)
24 25
8. Bridal dress

a. Bodice
Tétouan, Morocco, 20th century
Cotton and silk velvet, goldwork, cotton and silk lining
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 75.183.30a

b. Modesty panel
Morocco, 20th century
Cotton and silk velvet and goldwork;
lined with linen
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase,
Zaleznik Collection, 75.183.166b

c. Belt
Morocco, 20th century
Hardwoven cotton, silver belt loop
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase,
75.183.357

d. Skirt
Tétouan, Morocco, 20th century
Cotton and silk velvet, goldwork, cotton and
silk lining
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase, 75.183.30b

9. Bridal dress

a. Bodice
Rabat, Morocco, 20th century
Cotton and silk velvet, goldwork, cotton
and silk lining (cotton underarm pouches
filled with plant matter)
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase,
75.183.31a

b. Modesty Panel
Rabat, Morocco, 20th century
Cotton and silk velvet, goldwork,
cotton and silk lining
Judah L. Magnes Museum
purchase, 75.183.31b

c. Belt
Morocco, 20th century
Polished cotton, silk and gold
wrapped thread
88.0.4.1

d. Skirt
Rabat, Morocco, 20th
century
Cotton and silk velvet,
goldwork, cotton and silk
lining
Judah L. Magnes
Museum purchase,
75.183.31c

Bridal dress (No. 9a–d)

26 27
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.9

SNAPSHOTS OF JEWISH LIFE IN FEZ, 9. Untitled [Communal meal]
MOROCCO Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Silver gelatin print
Photographs taken between circa 1915 and 1960 by Joseph Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Bouhsira, Elie Bouhsira, and Cohen & Diaz Studio, printed Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.10
by Studio ABC in Fez, Morocco, acquired by The Magnes
10. Untitled [Scene from a reception for the Chief Rabbi of
in 1978. Joseph Bouhsira (1890–1943), a Jewish-Moroccan
photographer, established his first studio in the Mellah
France, Isaïe Schwartz, 1948]
(Jewish quarter) of Fez in 1910, and remained active Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 1948
Silver gelatin print
throughout the 1930s, founding studios across the country Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
and training ­relatives and others in photographic techniques. Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.11

1. Untitled [Jewish cemetery] 11. Untitled [Group photo at the reception for the Chief Rabbi
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century of France, Isaïe Schwartz, 1948]
Silver gelatin print
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 1948
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Silver gelatin print
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.1
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.12
2. Untitled [Dar al-Magana]
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century 12. Maman Abouhsira, Fez
Silver gelatin print
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Silver gelatin print
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.2
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.13
3. Untitled [Family group]
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century 13. Untitled [Family portrait]
Silver gelatin print
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Silver gelatin print
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.4
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.14
4. Joseph Bouhsira (1890–1943)
Chef de la Hebra Kadisha Mr. Haïm Halevy, 1917–1940 14. Untitled [Family portrait]
(Head of the Burial Society, Mr. Haim Halevy, 1917–1940) Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century Silver gelatin print
Silver gelatin print Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.15
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.5
15. Untitled [Hebrew school classroom]
5. Untitled [Purim parade] Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century Silver gelatin print
Silver gelatin print Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.16
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.6
16. Untitled [Street parade for Simchat Torah or Synagogue
6. Untitled [Youth performance] Inauguration]
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Silver gelatin print Silver gelatin print
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.7 Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.17

7. Joseph Bouhsira (1890–1943) 17. Untitled [Group photo for Bar Mitzvah celebration]
Rab Vidal Hassarfati [(V), 1862–1921, Chief Rabbi of Fez] Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 1943
Silver gelatin print
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Silver gelatin print
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.18
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.8
18. Cohen & Diaz
8. Untitled [Funeral Procession] Rabbi Salomon Aben Danan (1847–1928), President of the
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century Rabbinic Tribunal of Fez [Photographic reproduction]
Silver gelatin print Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by Silver gelatin print
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
28 Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.19 29
19. Untitled [Wedding]
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Silver gelatin print
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.20

20. Elie Bouhsira
Untitled [Bar Mitzvah celebration]
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Silver gelatin print
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.21

21. Untitled [Bar Mitzvah and Havdalah ceremony]
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Silver gelatin print
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by Untitled [Street parade for Simchat Torah or Synagogue Inauguration]
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.22 (No. 16)

22. Untitled [Shammash by open Torah Ark at Em ha-banim 29. Untitled [Morning prayers at Em ha-banim synagogue]
synagogue]
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century Silver gelatin print
Silver gelatin print Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.31
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.23a
30. Untitled [Group portrait featuring Jewish clergy, with
23. Untitled [Portrait of elderly man] French flags in background]
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Silver gelatin print
Silver gelatin print
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.24
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.32
24. Untitled [Portrait of elderly man] 31. Untitled [Group portrait featuring Jewish clergy]
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Silver gelatin print
Silver gelatin print
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.25
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.33
25. Untitled [Simchat Torah] 32. Untitled [Group portrait featuring young women seated on
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century floor with tea]
Silver gelatin print
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Silver gelatin print
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.26
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
26. Untitled [Rabbis Yosseph Abihsira, Sahdia Monsonego, Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.34
Maimon Miyara]
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Silver gelatin print
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.28

27. Rohama Zekry
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Silver gelatin print
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.29

28. Untitled [Morning prayers at Hebrew School]
Fez, Morocco, Studio ABC, 20th century
Silver gelatin print
Judah L. Magnes Museum purchase with funds provided by
Dr. Elliot Zaleznik, 78.4.46.30

Untitled [Group photo for Bar Mitzvah celebration] (No. 17)
30 31
32