You are on page 1of 233

CHAPTER I

CITY ASSESSMENT: ANALYSIS OF THE EXISTING


SITUATION
KMA Demographic Feature:

Evolution of Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA)

Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA) that today extends over 1851 sq. km. is
essentially the metropolitan outfit of the city of Kolkata that had housed the capital of
India during a major part of the British colonial rule. The metropolis has evolved over
a very long period of time although history of planning and development of the
metropolis as a single geographical entity is a relatively recent phenomenon.

Kolkata Metropolitan Area has two major components:

The conurbation meaning the continuous stretching in a linear pattern


along the east bank and west bank of the river Hooghly.
The rural areas lying as a ring around the conurbation and acting as
protective green belt.

The concept of KMA (erstwhile CMD of 1960s) was first introduced by the
Calcutta Metropolitan Planning Area (Use & Development of Land) Control Act of
1965.

Through passage of time the boundary of KMA has changed several times.
The present size of KMA and the composition of the different categories of areas are
presented below.

Composition of KMA: 2001

Sl. Categories of Area No. Area in


No Sq. Km.
.
1. Municipal Corporations 3 271.31
2. Municipalities 38 615.49
3. Non Municipal Urban (NMU)/Census 77 200.10
Towns
4 Out Growths 16 18.19
5 Rural Area 445 746.32
Total KMA 1851.41

Area and Population

Size of population and its distribution over space play a very significant role in
spatial planning. According to 2001 Census, 14.72 million people were distributed

I -1
over 1851.41 sq. km. of KolKata Metropolitan Area forming an overall density of
7950 persons per sq. km.

Area category-wise distribution: Kolkata Municipal Corporation, the largest


component of KMA with 197.54 sq. km. of area, accounts for 10.6% of KMAs area
and with 45.73 lakh residents accounts for 31.1% of KMAs population. Other two
municipal corporations viz. Chandannagore and Howrah extend over 3.9 (1.2 +
2.7)% of KMAs land accounting for 7.9 (1.1 + 6.8) % of KMAs population. The 38
municipal towns of KMA extend over 33.2% KMAs land and shelter 45.1% of KMAs
residents. The 77 CTs occupy only 10.8% of KMAs area providing home to 6.7% of
KMAs population. A vast chunk of KMAs land i.e. 40.3% is rural in nature
accounting for only 8.7% of KMAs population.

The significance of the size of KMA can be better appreciated by comparing


the same with some other cities of the world (Table - 1). While Tokyo ranks first
among the major cities of the world in population size, Calcuttas rank is 9th and
Mumbais 5th. But average annual growth rate of Calcutta is higher than that of
Tokyo, as may be seen from Table - 1.

Gross Population Density

The densities of KMA and its constituent units over the period 1961-2001 are
furnished in Table - 2. Gross population density showing the land-man ratio in a
given area at a given time has a great significance from the point of view of planning.
The environmental problems in KMA assume alarming proportion in the areas of
high density but somewhat less complex in areas of low density. Acquisition of land
is much more difficult and relocation of population presents many more intricacies in
high-density areas than in low-density areas. On the other hand, the per-capita cost
of providing urban amenities is likely to be lower in high-density areas. It is in this
context of economic and social planning considerations that the significance of
density variations must be understood. KMA is becoming more and more crowded
as is reflected in its density continuously rising from 3817 persons per sq. km. in
1961 to 7950 persons/sq. km. in 2001. Obviously, KMC is the most congested area

I -2
within KMA with a population density of 23149 persons per sq. km. It was 4.3 times
as densed as KMA in 1961 but has fallen consistently to 2.9 in 2001. One notable
thing is that Chandannagar Municipal Corporation is relatively less dense compared
to other two corporations. It's density of 7362 persons per sq. km. is in fact lower
than that of most of the municipalities. The average density of the municipalities is
10777 persons/sq. km., which is higher than the average density of KMA (7950
persons/ sq. km.). The densities of the other three constituent categories of units,
namely, CT, OG and Rural are 4918, 3891 and 1726 persons per sq. km.
respectively - all below the KMA level.

Though the densities of all the districts have been observed to be increasing
over time, the maximum rise has been seen in Nadia district, where density in 2001
is 4.47 times higher than that in 1961 indicating its growth potential. Gross
population densities of India, WB, KMA and Calcutta City during 1921-2001 are
given in Table - 3. The figures were 142, 394, 3817, and 28147 in 1961 for India,
WB, CMA and Calcutta City respectively. They continued to rise over time and
reached 324, 904, 7950 and 32037 in 2001. Thus the densities for India, WB, KMA
and Calcutta City increased 2.3 times, 2.3 times, 2.1 times and 1.1 times over the
last 40 years.

Finally, while examining the contribution of different constituent units to KMAs


population over time, as may be seen from Table - 4, it could be noted that during
the decades of 1961 and 1971, the three municipal corporations accounted for more
than half of KMAs population, which thereafter gradually fell to 39.0% in 2001. On
the other hand, the percentage of KMA population living in municipalities has been
consistently rising, registering an increase from 31.3% in 1961 to 45.1% in 2001. The
percentage of population living in other units like CTs, OGs and Rural units has also
shown increasing trend over this period, though understandably their contribution
remained very small. District-wise, KMCs share in KMAs population fell
continuously from 46.8% in 1961 to 31.1% in 2001. As opposed to this, the shares of
all other districts except Howrah have risen over time. According to percentage

I -3
share in KMAs population, KMC ranks 1st, North 24.pgs ranks 2nd, Howrah 3rd,
Hooghly 4th South 24-Parganas 5th and Nadia 6th. This ranking has been found to
remain the same throughout the period 1961-2001.

Population Growth Trend:

Demographic Profile of the Municipalities in KMA

The total population of KMA in 2001 was 14.72 million, of which 6.6 million
lived in the 38 Municipalities within KMA. The municipalities within KMA however
greatly vary with respect to area and population-size and the same needs to be
taken into account in the planning and development perspective.

Size of Population: All planning and development programmes are ultimately


intended to increase the welfare of the people. It is therefore just and proper that we
start the analysis with a discussion on the size of the population in the municipalities.
It is interesting to find that municipalities vary greatly in population size. The largest
municipality within KMA is Bhatpara with a population 6442 thousand and the
smallest is Pujali with a population about 34 thousands only, as indicated in Table-7.
The largest municipality thus has a population of about 13 times that of the smallest
municipality. In between them lie the other municipalities scattered over KMA. The
average size of East Bank (of river Hooghly) Municipalities is significantly larger than
that of the West Bank Municipalities. Since trans-municipal development
programmes would cover municipalities located on the same bank, this has an
important planning implication.

Area of the Municipalities: It will appear that out of 1851.41 sq. km. of area
in KMA, the Municipalities occupy 615.49 sq. km. or about 33% of the total area. The
Municipalities differ considerably with regard to size of their areas. Titagarh
Municipality has the smallest with an area of 3.24 sq, km., while Sonarpur-Rajpur
Municipality is the largest Municipality with an area of 57.90 sq. km.

I -4
The size of Municipality area may have implications for certain developmental
interventions and may call for amalgamation of some adjacent Municipalities for
preparing combined programme for all of them together, notwithstanding the fact that
amalgamation of Municipalities may not be politically feasible in all cases.

Density of Population: In some of the Municipalities like Kalyani (3641


persons per sq. km.) or Gayeshpur (1835 persons per sq. km.), the density is very
low and is almost equal to the density in the rural areas of West Bengal. On the other
extreme, in Municipalities like Titagarh (38337 persons per sq. km.), Baranagar
(35220 persons per sq. km), Dum Dum (29276 persons per sq. km) and Kamarhati
(28696 persons per sq. km.) on the east bank, and Serampore (33649 persons per
sq. km.) in the west bank, the density is extremely high and is well above the density
of even Kolkata Municipal Corporation.

Density of population has important implications for planning. Upto a certain


limit an increasing density may lead to a decreasing per-capita cost of development.
Beyond that limit a higher density may lead to an increasing per-capita cost. So far
as housing programmes are concerned, residential accommodation at an equal level
of cost may yield greater amenities in a low-density area than such accommodation
in a high-density area. Density greatly affects the environmental condition of urban
life. The needs for parks, playgrounds and open spaces may be more urgently felt in
high-density areas than in lowdensity areas. The scope for accommodating future

addition to population in high-density areas is much smaller than such scope in low-
density areas. How much of the additional population may be accommodated by
increasing the density or by re-densification of low-density areas, and how much
should be accommodated in new areas depends on the existing pattern of density in
the various Municipalities.

Growth rates of population: Higher growth rates have been observed in


Dum Dum (118.95%), South Dum Dum (68.57%), Bidhan Nagar (64.14%),
Sonarpur-Rajpur (54.04%) and Rajarhat-Gopalpur (57.66%) municipal areas. Lower
growth rates have been noticed in Garulia (-1.23%), North Dum Dum (-7.97%) and
I -5
Champdani (2.16%) municipal towns. As expected, the high-density areas have
experienced a lower rate of growth compared to low-density areas throughout this
period.

Sex Ratio: Sex ratio defined as the number of females per 1000 males is an
important indicator of demographic change and this has a direct bearing with the
population growth, working population, age-sex distribution, fertility and other
population characteristics. Out of 14.72 million people in KMA in 2001 the number of
males and females were 7.84 and 6.88 million respectively thus showing a low sex
ratio of 877 female per 1000 male. This low sex ratio has been the characteristics of
KMA and Kolkata city for the period from 1941-2001. Table 5 indicates the change
in sex ratio in the population of India, WB and KMA during 1941-2001. In case of
India and WB, the sex ratios were 945 and 852 respectively in 1941, which were
much higher than those in KMA (510) and Calcutta city (456). But the trend in the
latter two regions gradually moved in favour of the female, as the sex ratios have
increased to 877 and 796 respectively.

Age-Sex Composition: The age-sex composition in a society is important


both biologically and sociologically. Regions differ greatly in the distribution of their
population over age-sex categories. The demographic characteristics of KMA closely
resemble those of KUA due to the fact that the latter shelters 87.9% of KMAs
population. In view of the above and in the absence of data, the age-sex composition
of KUAs population in 1991 has been considered as proxy for KMA. The same along
with KMCs age-sex distribution is presented in Table - 6. The proportionate shares
in the male and female population in different age groups differ but not significantly
except for age groups of 5 - 14 years and 40 49 years, where a noticeable
difference does exist between the sexes. The age-sex distribution of KUA is closely
analogous to that of KMC.

Dependency Ratio: Dependency ratio is defined as the ratio of population


below 15 years and above 60 years taken together to the population in the age
group 15 - 59. It has an important economic significance. The low dependency ratio
I -6
of a region implies that a low percentage of population depends on its working force
for economic wealth to consume. The dependency ratio for KMA and KMC are found
to be 0.53 and 0.49 respectively.

Composition of Growth:

It would be noted from Table below that the growth of urban population in both
KMA and West Bengal showed a declining trend over the last three decades.
However, the growth in all the three levels of Kolkata Metropolitan Region (KMR),
the population growth showed a rising trend over the last 30 years. In absolute
numbers, the population of KMR increased from 21.67 to 38.91 million between 1971
and 2001, indicating an addition of 13.33 million.

Details of Urbanisation Parameters: 1971-2001


Population Parameters WB KMR Int. KMR IMR KMA
Total
1971 44.31 21.65 18.42 13.32 8.61
1981 54.97 26.87 22.87 16.40 10.49
1991 67.42 30.76 25.92 18.56 12.64
2001 80.22 38.91 33.07 23.80 14.72
Urban
1971 10.97 9.73 8.15 7.58 7.42
1981 14.33 11.57 10.39 9.64 9.19
1991 17.19 13.55 12.45 11.70 11.02
2001 22.44 15.75 14.88 13.76 13.22
Level of Urbanisation (%)
1971 24.75 44.90 44.25 56.90 92.83
1981 26.47 43.10 45.43 58.78 92.44
1991 27.48 44.05 48.03 58.50 91.72
2001 27.97 45.00 48.00 68.80 91.25
Density (Person/sq. km.)
1971 500 934 1136 1758 5596
1981 620 1159 1411 2165 5877
1991 760 1327 1599 2450 7081
2001 904 1678 2040 3146 8246
Decadal Growth (%)
1971 - - - - -
1981 24.06 24.11 24.16 23.12 21.83
1991 22.45 14.48 13.34 13.17 20.48
2001 17.65 26.50 27.58 28.65 16.46

It should be evident from the data in Table-1 that the urban centers at all
levels of metropolitan regions had low density with moderate base population,
although showing high growth rate. This also indicates the potential capacity of the
KMRs to accommodate more population and economic activities.

It is interesting to note that the high degree of unevenness in the distribution


of urban population between the KMA and non-KMA urban centers prevailing till
early seventies has been reduced to some extent during last two decades. This has
been possible due to the policy of decentralized urban development giving special
attention to the small and medium towns. There is still some imbalance in the

I -7
present distribution pattern and this should be improved in future. The planning
exercise made in this regard by KMDA indicates that even with continuing efforts of
decentralized urban development, the share of the KMA in 2025 would be around
50%.

Demographic Pattern of Urbanisation

In terms of percentage of urban population to the total population or the


degree of urbanization, West Bengal occupied fourth position, and stabilized at sixth
rank in the following two decades. The states that preceded West Bengal upto the
dacade of 1961-71 in terms of degree of urbanization were Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu
and Gujarat. In the later two decades, Karnataka and Punjab overtook West Bengal,
pushing it to sixth position. This analysis reveals that West Bengals base level urban
population on which the growth rates are anchored was high relative to most of the
states under reference, which gave lower percentage increase in urban population,
though in absolute terms it was not so low in relation to other states.

From Table below it may be noted that, in 1971, the KMA population was
about 78.5% of urban West Bengal that was reduced to 65.6% in 2001. On the other
hand, the share of KMA-urban constituted 86.2% in 1971 and gradually increased to
89.9%.

Urban Population of West Bengal and KMA

Year West West KMA KMA KMA KMA-urban


Bengal: Bengal: (share in (urban) (share in
Total Urban West West
Bengal Bengal
urban) urban)
1971 44.31 10.97 8.61 78.50 7.42 86.18
1981 54.97 14.33 10.49 73.20 9.19 87.61
1991 67.42 18.71 12.64 67.60 11.02 87.18
2001 80.22 22.43 14.72 65.60 13.22 89.81

However, the process of urban growth in the state has revealed two broad
trends, related to each other. In urban areas of the state outside KMA, the rate of
growth of urban population in a dispersed manner resulted primarily from emergence
of new towns facilitated by agrarian prosperity and also adequate attention paid by
the State Government towards development of the small and medium towns across
the state. By contrast, at the Kolkata Metropolitan Area level, the rate of growth of
population witnessed decline but the absolute size of population and high density
continued to characterize the process of urban growth. The phenomenon of an
expansive urban continuum centering the cities of Kolkata and Howrah can be
observed to have taken place within KMA. It was interesting to note that against the
average urban growth of nearly 17.3% for the overall KMA, the municipal towns
surrounding the metro-core witnessed a sizeable 27% growth in population during

I -8
the 1991-2001 period. The rest of the municipal areas of KMA however experienced
26.9% growth during the same period. Such urban growth in and around Kolkata and
Howrah reflects itself in increasing density of population. It is obvious that the urban
continuum around the cities of Kolkata and Howrah would continue to grow and
should have its impact on the projected population for KMA.

The population of KMA has been projected to be about 17.25 million in 2011,
19.93 million in 2021 and 21.07 million in 2025. This projection takes due cognizance
of the process of urban growth in the entire state. The projected growth would in no
case go without adding to the already big problems of crowding, congestion, squalor
and deprivation. Understandably, there has to be well-directed responses to not only
rehabilitating the cities of Kolkata and Howrah, but also plan for a healthy urban
growth in the entire metropolis.

Urbanisation Trend

West Bengal had 27.97% of its population living in the urban areas in 2001
compared to 27.78% in India, as can be seen from Table - 8. The eastern region is
the least urbanised zone in India. Among the 25 Indian states, West Bengal ranked
15th according to 2001 Census in terms of urbanisation. The relatively high
percentage of urban population in West Bengal compared to the other states in
eastern region is due to the presence of Kolkata metropolis. Out of 22.43 million
urban population in West Bengal, KMA contains 13.43 million i.e. 59.9% of WB
urban population. If KMA is set aside, the percentage of urban population in WB
drops to l3.7%.

Contrary to a popular belief that rapid urbanisation in developing countries is


accompanied by massive migration from rural to urban areas, the migration from to

I -9
rural to urban areas in WB has been found to be small owing to variety of factors of
which the various reform measures in rural sector leading to agrarian prosperity in
rural Bengal has been an important one during the recent decades. The change in
urban population and the percentage share of urban to total population since 1941
for India as well as WB, KMA and Calcutta city are shown in Table - 8. In India the
percentage of urban population increased from 13.85% in 1941 to 27.78% in 2001,
the corresponding change in West Bengal has been from 20.40% in 1941 to only
27.97% in 2001.

The growth of urban population has been 547.2% in India and 376.2% in
West Bengal between 1941 and 2001 and 99.8% in KMA between 1961 and 2001.
The urbanisation in WB is also characterized by regional unevenness. Of the 22.43
million urban population in the state, more than 13 million are headed into about
1100 sq. km. of Kolkata conurbation. Kolkata city alone with its 4.6 million urban
population accounts for 20.4% of total urban population in the state. Barring Kolkata
district, which occupies first position with 100% of its population as urban, there are
only two districts, North 24-Parganas (54%) and Howrah (50%), where urban
population is well above the average. There are three other districts viz. Darjeeling,
Hooghly and Burdwan, where more than 30% of the people live in urban areas. On
the other hand, there are as many as four districts where the proportion of urban
population is less than 10%, of which Malda is the least urbanised district as will be
evident from Table - 9. Of the total urban population in West Bengal, Kolkata
accounts for 20.4%, North 24-Parganas 21.6%, Burdwan 11.4%. On the other hand,
Cooch Behar contributes only 1.0%, Bankura 1.1% and Malda 1.1% to urban WBs
population. Such a skewed distribution of urban population is a consequence of
uneven economic development in the different districts of the state.

Distribution of towns according to size classes and of urban population over


different classes of towns is shown in Table - 10. The distribution for KMA varies
somewhat from that of West Bengal. Out of the total of 382 towns in WB, 44 nos. or
11.5% belongs to bigger Class I towns. For KMA, the share of Class-I towns is
double i.e. 22.4% of the total of 125 towns. On the other hand, the share of Class-III
towns in KMA (4.8%) is far less than that of WB (16.7%). Again there is an
abundance of Class-VI towns in KMA (14.5%) compared to that in WB (5.7%). So far
as the distribution of population over these size classes of towns is concerned, the
shares of Class-II to ClassVI towns in the total population of KMA fall below the
corresponding shares in WB. The share of Class-I town compensates this, which is
higher in KMA. Only 1.6% of total population of KMA lives in Class-III towns,
compared to 10.3% for WB. This is due to lack of Class-III towns in KMA as
observed earlier. Although the percentage of Class-VI towns are more in KMA, their
contribution to the total population is less than that in WB.

Urbanisation in Municipal Areas

It may be observed from Table below that the municipal bodies in KMA yet
continue to account for bulk of total municipal population of the State. Kolkata
municipal area itself accounts foe about one-third of total municipal population. This
merely shows the degree of concentration of municipal population of the State in
KMA and more so in Kolkata city. It is however heartening to note that the trend has
been showing a gradual reversal in terms of the non-KMA municipal bodies

I -10
accounting for increasing share of total municipal population in the State. This is no
doubt a healthy trend indicating dispersal of municipal population. This is happening
owing to conscious policy of the State Government towards attaching more priorities
to development of small and medium countries and thereby preventing inflow of
people from small to large towns. The all round agrarian prosperity across the State
is also a contributory factor to this phenomenon. The trend is also explained by the
fact of reducing growth of population in not only KMA but also a substantial decline in
population growth in Kolkata city during the last few decades.

Percentage distribution of municipal population in West Bengal

Groups of municipal 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001


/urban local bodies
(ULB)
All Municipal bodies 100 100 100 100 100 100
KMA-municipal bodies 78 75 72 70 64 47
Kolkata 45 39 33 28 29 32
Howrah 8 7 8 6 6 7
Non-KMA Municipal. 22 25 28 30 36 53

Bodies
Sources: Census of India, 1951,1961,1971,1981 1991 and 2001

Looking at the figures, it may be seen that the steadily rising percentage of
population in non-KMA municipal areas to total municipal population went up to as
high as 53 percent in 2001 from an average of 22 percent in 1951. By implication,
the growth rate of population in non-KMA municipal area was much faster than that
in KMA municipal areas. This is very much remarkable and noteworthy.

I -11
As may be seen in Table below, the average rate of growth in the KMA
municipal area was, however, pulled down significantly by the very slow growth rate
of Kolkata and lower growth rate of Howrah. Kolkata's population growth has been
stagnating at least from the year 1951-61. Howrahs population growth rate has been
rather erratic in that the average annual rate of 1.8 percent in 1951-61 shoot up to
4.4 percent in 1961-71 and then slow down to 0.09 percent in 1971-81 and again
revive to 2.7 percent in 1981-91, but again drastically drop to 0.6 percent only in
1991-2001.

Annual rates of growth of population in municipal bodies in West Bengal


Groups of municipal 1951- 1961- 1971- 1981- 1991-
bodies 61 71 81 91 2001
Non- Municipal Towns 24.41 3.80 8.88 2.84 -
All municipal bodies 2.50 2.70 1.10 2.26 -
KMA municipal bodies 2.10 2.20 1.10 2.94 2.69
Kolkata 0.80 0.80 0.45 0.63 0.41
Howrah 1.80 4.40 0.09 2.72 0.61
Non-KMA municipal 4.00 3.80 3.80 3.95 -
bodies
Source: Census of India 1951,1961,1971,1981 1991 and 2001

The average annual growth rate of population in the KMA municipal area has
been found to erratic having steadily declined from 2.1 percent in 1951-61 to 1.1
percent in 1971-81 and then increase steadily to 2.7 percent during 1991-2001. On
the other hand, the rate of growth of population in non-KMA municipal areas taken
together remained more or less stable at around 4.0 percent per annum. This
indicates that growth of urbanization in the KMA municipal area has been much
slower that that in the non-KMA municipal areas.

Migration : The contribution of migration to the growth of modern cities of the


world has always been observed to be greater than that of natural increase in the
early period of growth of the cities. Cities like London, New York, Chicago, Tokyo &
Moscow corroborate this observation. This is also the case for cities like Bombay,
Delhi & Kolkata. As a city grows older the contribution of natural growth through birth
& death becomes larger compared to the contribution of migration. Besides, the
impact of migration on the growth of a city varies from one period to another
depending upon the social political and economic condition inside the metropolis and
in the hinterland.

Table - 11 gives the data on migration to Kolkata since 1921. The huge influx
of people during 1941-51 was due to partition of India, creation of two sovereign
nations and communal tension in the then East Pakistan. Similarly, during 1961-71
the civil war in Pakistan and creation of Bangladesh led to a tidy Increase in
migration to the city of Kolkata and its surrounding areas. In the other decades,
however, the contribution of natural growth to the increase in city population has
been greater.

Migrants in KUA and Calcutta City are arranged according to their place of
last residence in Table - 12. Migrants in KUA from other places of West Bengal

I -12
accounted for 40%. In case of Kolkata City, this percentage is 27.9. Migrants in
Kolkata and KUA constitute 45.8% and 33.7% respectively of those who had come
from other states of India. Foreigners contribute 26.3% of the migrants in Kolkata
and 25.9% of migrants in KUA.

Table - 13 classifies the total migrants in Kolkata and KUA according to


duration of residence. Almost 70% of migrants in Kolkata and more than 64% in KUA
resides there for 10 years or more, 21% in Calcutta and 26% in KUA reside there for
1 to 9 years. Only around 1% has came to their present place of residence less than
a year ago.

Table 14 groups the migrant population according to the economic activities


they pursue. Thus while in Calcutta 52% of the migrants are engaged in some kind
of economic activity, the corresponding figure is 41% in KUA. Again in Calcutta
maximum number of migrants, i.e. 13.3% of total are engaged in trade and
commerce. In KUA, maximum proportion i.e., 14.8% is engaged in manufacturing
and processing while 8.8% pursues trades & commerce. Another major activity is
transport and storage where 7% of migrants in Calcutta & 4.4% in KUA are
absorbed.

Social Composition of Population :

The social welfare is conditioned by distribution of income and wealth. The


income distribution in KMA was estimated by KMDA in the report on Socio-Economic
Profile of Households in Kolkata Metropolitan Area: 1996-97. The average per-capita
income was estimated at Rs.10089 for KMA in 1996-97 as against Rs.7880 for the
state as a whole. These figures for 2001-02 have been Rs.15281 and Rs.10376 for
KMA and West Bengal respectively at 1993-94 prices. Thus the average per-capita
income in KMA has been found to be consistently higher than the same for the State
as a whole implying that the incidence of value added economic activities is more in
KMA as compared with the State. Nevertheless, the distribution of income among
the households leaves much to be desired. The study revealed that bottom 50
percent of households of KMA owned 25 percent of the total income. This explains
the skewed pattern of income distribution among households showing inequality in
income distribution. One of the reflections of unequal income distribution is existence
of poverty. On the basis of then defined poverty line of Rs.308.20 or less per-capita,
the report estimated that 19 percent of households in KMA belonged to the category
of poor. However, on the basis of calorie intake criteria, the estimated poverty level
was found to be 34 percent for KMA. The number of urban poor in KMA has
expectedly gone down further as the overall urban poverty in Urban West Bengal
has fallen to 15 percent in 1999-2000, as per 55th Round NSSO survey, from 23
percent in 1993-94. The rate of decline in urban poverty has been found to be fastest
in West Bengal among the major states of India according to a study by the World
Bank.

The manifestation of urban poverty can be observed through existence of a


large number of slums in KMA where around one-third of KMAs population lives.
The slums exhibit abominable living environment in terms of severe deficiencies in

I -13
basic infrastructure and services. Pertinently, improvement of slum settlements has
always received priority attention in KMDA agenda of development.

Access of Slum Dwellers to Basic Services :

Slums are integral component of human settlements in developing countries.


Kolkata Metropolitan Area is no exception to this phenomenon. Around one-third of
KMAs population lives in slums. The slums are to be found in larger number in the
cities of Kolkata and Howrah. The Socio-economic Profile of Households in KMA:
1996-97, a survey carried out by KMDA, revealed that 42 percent and 45 percent
households in Kolkata and Howrah respectively lived in slum like environment. The
origin and development of slum in Kolkata are interesting to study.

The process of industrialization experienced in and around Kolkata during the


late 19th and early 20th Centuries had led to huge influx of migrant labour to Kolkata
from the neighboring states of Bihar, UP and Orissa. Migrants had also come from
the other districts of West Bengal. The industrial labour force comprising migrant
labours mostly looked for low cost shelter on shared basis as majority of them had
their families left in their hometowns. A group of middlemen, called Thika Tenants
were prompt in exploiting the situation. They took lease of chunks of land of various
sizes at different locations from feudal lords and constructed thereupon low-rise high
density housing stock with cheapest available materials. These hutments need not
have the minimum infrastructural services. The slums in Kolkata have thus been
characterized a three-tier ownership system, viz., (a) landowner, (b) hut owner (thika
tenants) and (c) tenants or occupiers of huts. As the pace of industrialization
proceeded the demand for such housing continued to rise and more and more thika
tenants established slums in and around Kolkata. The lands selected for setting up
slums were inferior in variety and as such the thika tenants got them at nominal rent.
As the landowners did not have substantive interest in the land and the hut owners
were after maximizing returns from the business, neither of the parties took any
interest in providing a healthy living environment in the slum settlements. As a result,

I -14
the living environment in slum settlement became deplorable in terms of extreme
deprivation of basic civic services coupled with urban poverty and squalor.

The slum like settlements were not confined to Kolkata city alone and
gradually spread over Howrah and other municipal towns close by. More or less
slum settlements can now be observed to exist in all municipal towns of KMA,
although the tenurial structure may not be the same as that for Kolkata.

The need for developing slum settlements had been realized from the
very beginning of urban development intervention in KMA. The Basic Development
Plan prepared by CMPO in 1966 emphasized upon Bustee Improvement
Programme and recommended that a Master Plan should be prepared for
development of slum settlements in general.

Slum Population : According to 1991 Census, over 2.0 million people live in
the Bustees of KMC. The living condition in many of these slums/ bustees are much
below the level of human habitation and this needs to be addressed.

According 2001 census the total slum population in 41 ULBs of KMA stood as
3.62 million. This is projected to rise to 4.10 million in 2011. The estimated slum
population for 2005 is 3.86 million.

Slum Development Initiatives: The urban environment in KMA and more so


in slum settlements had deteriorated to such an extent that immediate intervention
had to be designed and implemented without waiting for the sectoral master plan to
be prepared in due course. KMDAs development initiatives in KMA in the early

I -15
seventies started with development interventions in slums that had exhibited the
worst environmental disorders among the different categories of habitat.

Initially, KMDA conceived of improvement of physical environment of slums


only. In order to do that, KMDA had experimented with alternative models of slum
improvement viz. slum relocation; slum modernization and slum improvement.

Out of alternative approaches to slum development, the model of providing


environmental improvement to urban slums emerged as the mutually acceptable,
workable and sustainable alternative. This model envisaged provision of basic civic
infrastructure and services at affordable cost. Thus, for the sake of uniformity in
implementation of this model, a set of improvement norms was designed.

Taking all programmes including CUDPs together, the cumulative expenditure


on slum improvement worked out to about Rs.109 crore and the population of slum
dwellers covered by those programmes added up to around 25 lacs until March
2001.

Notwithstanding the fact that the impacts of development of physical


environment in the slums in terms of providing a better living condition and infusing a
sense of community feeling and organization among slum dwellers as a result of the
various physical interventions carried out in the slums, sustainability of development
initiatives seemed to be deficient. In realization of the same, KMDA had taken up
separate programmes for both employment generation and health improvement
among slum dwellers. It was expected that if physical infrastructure development
efforts could be combined with social, economic and cultural upliftment of slum
dwellers, the impacts would be better and more effectively sustained. In course of
CUDP-II and III, KMDA had designed and implemented Small Scale Enterprises
Programme (SSEP) and Health Programme for slum dwellers of KMA.

While a relatively high priority continued to be assigned to slum improvement


across KMA and the necessity for providing a comprehensive and integrated
development of slum settlements was being felt stronger, KMDA planned, designed
and implemented the Calcutta Slum Improvement Programme (CSIP) with
assistance from the Department for International Development (DFID) of UK. The
CSIP was to be designed in a manner so that the inputs of the project were
adequately sensitive to needs and aspirations of slum dwellers. Notably, the project
had four distinct components, namely, (a) physical infrastructure; (b) health care
services; (c) community development and (d) training and evaluation. The project
envisaged to provide (i) rudimentary civic services for a hygienic environment; (ii)
primary health care services including family welfare, immunization and nutrition at
the doorstep of slum dwellers; (iii) economic support for creating/augmenting earning
capacity of slum dwellers; (iv) pre-school/non-formal education centres, literacy and
legal literacy for woman, womens empowerment in terms of imparting vocational
skills; (v) accelerated and effective community participation in planning,
implementation and management of the project components; and (vi) training of the
concerned actors and evaluation for corrective actions.

It has to be borne in mind that the improvement in living conditions of slums in


KMA in the post-CUDP period is accounted for considerably by the inputs from India

I -16
Population Project VIII (IPP-VIII), assisted by the World Bank. IPP-VIII was designed
for urban poor including slum dwellers, basically as an extension of health
intervention designed under CUDP-III. IPP-VIII, started in 1993-94, has also been
completed recently by KMDA covering about 3.5 million urban poor across KMA. The
approach under IPP-VIII remaining more or less the same as that under CUDP-III
Health component, in terms of focusing on preventive health care services especially
for women and children; providing services at doorstep through mobilization of
community volunteers women Honorary Health Workers; and securing community
support in sustaining development initiatives have yielded remarkable success of
IPP-VIII.

I -17
Table - 1

The World's 25 Largest Cities, 1995

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sl. No. Cities Country Population Av. Annual Growth
( million ) rate(1990-95)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1 Tokyo Japan 26.8 1.41
2 Sau Paulo Brazil 16.4 2.01
3 New York USA 16.3 0.34
4 Mexico Mexico 15.6 0.73
5 Bombay India 15.1 4.22
6 Shanghai China 15.1 2.29
7 Los Angeles USA 12.4 1.6
8 Beijing China 12.4 2.57
9 Calcutta India 11.7 1.67
10 Seoul Rep.of Korea 11.6 1.95
11 Jakarta Indonesia 11.5 4.35
12 Buenos Aures Argentina 11 0.68
13 Tinajin China 10.7 2.88
14 Osaka Japan 10.6 0.23
15 Lagos Nigeria 10.3 5.68
16 Rio-de-Janerio Brazil 9.9 0.77
17 Delhi India 9.9 3.8
18 Karachi Pakistan 9.9 4.27
19 Cairo Egypt 9.7 2.24
20 Paris France 9.5 0.29
21 Metro Munik Philipin 9.3 3.05
22 Moscow Russia 9.2 0.4
23 Dhaka Bangladesh 7.8 5.74
24 Istanbul Turkeuy 7.8 3.67
25 Lima Peru 7.5 2.81

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I-18
Table : 2
Disribution of Density during 1961-2001in various status in the Different Districts of
KOLKATA METROPOLITAN AREA
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DISTRICT STATUS D E N S I T Y ( Pop/Sq.Km. )
1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CALCUTTA MC 16740 18813 20891 22273 23149

CALCUTTA SUB TOTAL 16740 18813 20891 22273 23149


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HOOGHLY CT 1056 1503 2186 3103 3932
HOOGHLY M 5489 7044 8890 10878 12876
HOOGHLY MC 3430 4012 5284 6369 7362
HOOGHLY OG 596 1167 1224 1523 1300
HOOGHLY R 672 856 1042 1372 1597

HOOGHLY SUB TOTAL 1937 2487 3170 3993 4734


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HOWRAH CT 2128 2646 3654 4792 5969
HOWRAH M 4047 2277 6176 7895 10170
HOWRAH MC 12251 14261 14388 18369 19473
HOWRAH OG 1881 2383 2944 3634 4071
HOWRAH R 1229 1509 2040 2481 2969

HOWRAH SUB TOTAL 4234 4591 5805 7429 8604


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NADIA M 441 793 1522 2050 2610
NADIA OG 419 504 664 1488 2423
NADIA R 615 514 905 1354 1665

NADIA SUB TOTAL 505 685 1279 1783 2256


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NORTH 24PAR CT 1844 2550 2629 3417 4192
NORTH 24PAR M 4199 6025 8113 10542 13380
NORTH 24PAR OG 1696 2468 2836 3634 5558
NORTH 24PAR R 473 706 996 1383 1651
NORTH 24PAR SUB TOTAL 2964 4256 5687 7415 9385
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SOUTH 24PAR CT 1148 1659 2036 2761 3249
SOUTH 24PAR M 2023 3059 3825 5157 6809
SOUTH 24PAR OG 1478 2194 3195 3291 4417
SOUTH 24PAR R 549 744 911 1201 1593
SOUTH 24PAR SUB TOTAL 1008 1465 1821 2430 3201
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
KMA TOTAL CT 1700 2223 2957 3950 4918
KMA TOTAL M 3595 4826 6620 8543 10777
KMA TOTAL MC 14803 16743 18384 20237 21166
KMA TOTAL OG 1345 1961 2385 2932 3891
KMA TOTAL R 634 827 1062 1401 1726
===================================================================================
KOLKATA METROPOLITAN AREA 3817 4651 5666 6826 7950
===================================================================================

I-19
Table : 3

Gross Population Density in India,West Bengal,


KMA,KUA& Calcutta City during 1921-2001

------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Year Gross Population Density (Pop/sq.km.)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Calcutta
India West Bengal KMA KUA City
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1921 81 197 1291 10128
1931 90 213 1458 11742
1941 103 292 2471 20841
1951 117 296 3077 25947
1961 142 394 3817 10136 28147
1971 177 499 4651 11201 30276
1981 221 614 5666 10788 31779
1991 274 767 6826 12287 32486
2001 324 904 7950 12712 32037
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I-20
Table : 4
Percentage distribution of area and Population in various status in the different
districts of KOLKATA METROPOLITAN AREA during 1961-2001
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DISTRICT STATUS %AREA PERCENTAGESHARE OF POPULATION
1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CALCUTTA MC 10.67 46.80 43.16 39.34 34.81 31.07

CALCUTTA SUB TOTAL 10.67 46.80 43.16 39.34 34.81 31.07


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HOOGHLY CT 3.22 0.89 1.04 1.24 1.46 1.59
HOOGHLY M 4.72 6.79 7.15 7.41 7.53 7.65
HOOGHLY MC 1.19 1.07 1.03 1.11 1.11 1.10
HOOGHLY OG 0.22 0.03 0.06 0.05 0.05 0.04
HOOGHLY R 12.18 2.15 2.24 2.24 2.45 2.45

HOOGHLY SUB TOTAL 21.54 10.93 11.52 12.05 12.60 12.83


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HOWRAH CT 5.29 2.95 3.01 3.41 3.71 3.97
HOWRAH M 2.46 2.61 1.20 2.68 2.84 3.15
HOWRAH MC 2.79 8.97 8.57 7.10 7.52 6.85
HOWRAH OG 0.18 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09 0.09
HOWRAH R 3.46 1.11 1.12 1.24 1.26 1.29

HOWRAH SUB TOTAL 14.18 15.73 14.00 14.52 15.43 15.34


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NADIA M 2.84 0.33 0.48 0.76 0.85 0.93
NADIA OG 0.08 0.01 0.01 0.01 0.02 0.02
NADIA R 1.72 0.28 0.19 0.27 0.34 0.36
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
NADIA SUB TOTAL 4.63 0.61 0.68 1.05 1.21 1.32
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NORTH 24PAR CT 1.54 0.74 0.85 0.72 0.77 0.81
NORTH 24PAR M 16.27 17.90 21.08 23.30 25.13 27.39
NORTH 24PAR OG 0.34 0.15 0.18 0.17 0.18 0.24
NORTH 24PAR R 7.20 0.89 1.09 1.27 1.46 1.50

NORTH 24PAR SUB TOTAL 25.35 19.69 23.20 25.45 27.54 29.93
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SOUTH 24PAR CT 0.76 0.23 0.27 0.27 0.31 0.31
SOUTH 24PAR M 6.95 3.69 4.57 4.69 5.25 5.95
SOUTH 24PAR OG 0.17 0.06 0.08 0.09 0.08 0.09
SOUTH 24PAR R 15.75 2.26 2.52 2.53 2.77 3.16

SOUTH 24PAR SUB TOTAL 23.63 6.24 7.44 7.59 8.41 9.51

I-21
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
KMA TOTAL CT 10.81 4.81 5.17 5.64 6.25 6.69
KMA TOTAL M 33.24 31.31 34.49 38.84 41.60 45.07
KMA TOTAL MC 14.65 56.83 52.76 47.55 43.44 39.02
KMA TOTAL OG 0.98 0.35 0.41 0.41 0.42 0.48
KMA TOTAL R 40.31 6.69 7.17 7.56 8.28 8.75
============================================================================
KOLKATA METROPOLITAN AREA 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00 100.00
============================================================================

I-22
Table : 5

Sex Ratio for India,West Bengal,KMA


& Calcutta City during 1941-2001
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Sex Ratio (Female per 1000 males)
Region ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
India 945 946 941 932 935 927 933

WestBengal 852 865 878 891 911 917 934

KMA 510 624 671 721 792 837 877

Calcutta 456 580 612 636 712 799 796


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Table : 6

Age Sex Distribution of Population for KUA & KMC,1991

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Kolkata urban Agglomeration Kolkata Municipal Corporation
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Age Group Male Female Person Male Female Person
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
0004 7.2306 8.2921 7.7121 6.1795 7.2986 6.6766
0514 18.9119 21.2245 19.9608 17.4271 20.3124 18.7088
1519 9.4475 10.0020 9.6990 9.4000 9.9335 9.6370
2024 9.7772 10.0321 9.8928 10.0813 9.8712 9.9880
2529 9.2832 10.1004 9.6539 9.7534 10.1030 9.9087
3034 8.5715 8.5590 8.5658 8.8168 8.8984 8.8530
3539 8.3780 7.7499 8.0931 8.8409 8.1378 8.5286
4049 13.2229 10.3481 11.9189 13.7218 10.9515 12.4912
5059 8.2053 6.6165 7.4846 8.4729 7.1128 7.8687
6069 4.3675 4.2513 4.3148 4.5920 4.4805 4.5425
7079 1.8680 1.9061 1.8853 1.9835 1.9797 1.9818
80+ 0.7364 0.9181 0.8188 0.7308 0.9204 0.8150
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total 100 100 100 100 100 100
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I-23
Table : 7
Disribution of Area , Population, Density and Growth rate(91-01) in various status
in Different Districts of KOLKATA METROPOLITAN AREA
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
DISTRICT STATUS No.of AREA Population Density Growth
% to
Units (Sq.Km.) 2001 KMA Pop/Sq.Km (91-01)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CALCUTTA MC 1 197.54 4572876 31.07 23149 3.93

CALCUTTA SUB TOTAL 197.54 4572876 31.07 23149 3.93


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HOOGHLY CT 21 59.54 234123 1.59 3932 26.71
HOOGHLY M 9 87.44 1125866 7.65 12876 18.36
HOOGHLY MC 1 22.03 162187 1.10 7362 15.59
HOOGHLY OG 4 4.13 5369 0.04 1300 -14.62
HOOGHLY R 128 225.59 360227 2.45 1597 16.43

HOOGHLY SUB TOTAL 398.73 1887772 12.83 4734 18.58


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
HOWRAH CT 40 97.93 584507 3.97 5969 24.55
HOWRAH M 2 45.53 463041 3.15 10170 28.82
HOWRAH MC 1 51.74 1007532 6.85 19473 6.01
HOWRAH OG 2 3.26 13270 0.09 4071 12.00
HOWRAH R 45 64.01 190069 1.29 2969 19.67

HOWRAH SUB TOTAL 262.47 2258419 15.34 8604 15.82


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NADIA M 2 52.56 137183 0.93 2610 27.33
NADIA OG 1 1.39 3368 0.02 2423 62.78
NADIA R 17 31.83 53005 0.36 1665 22.98

NADIA SUB TOTAL 85.78 193556 1.32 2256 26.58


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
NORTH 24PAR CT 12 28.54 119630 0.81 4192 22.69
NORTH 24PAR M 20 301.26 4030748 27.39 13380 26.91
NORTH 24PAR OG 7 6.31 35073 0.24 5558 52.94
NORTH 24PAR R 83 133.30 220084 1.50 1651 19.36

NORTH 24PAR SUB TOTAL 469.41 4405535 29.93 9385 26.57


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
SOUTH 24PAR CT 4 14.09 45784 0.31 3249 17.68
SOUTH 24PAR M 5 128.70 876275 5.95 6809 32.03
SOUTH 24PAR OG 2 3.10 13693 0.09 4417 34.22
SOUTH 24PAR R 172 291.59 464527 3.16 1593 32.65

SOUTH 24PAR SUB TOTAL 437.48 1400279 9.51 3201 31.73

I-24
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
KMA TOTAL CT 77 200.10 984044 6.69 4918 24.49
KMA TOTAL M 38 615.49 6633113 45.07 10777 26.15
KMA TOTAL MC 3 271.31 5742595 39.02 21166 4.59
KMA TOTAL OG 16 18.19 70773 0.48 3891 32.69
KMA TOTAL RURAL 445 746.32 1287912 8.75 1726 23.14
============================================================================
KOLKATA METROPOLITAN AREA 1851.41 14718437 100.00 7950 16.46
============================================================================

I-25
Table : 8

Percentage of Urban Population in India,West Bengal,KMA


& Calcutta City during 1941-2001
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Percentage of Urban Population in
Region ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1941 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
India 13.85 17.29 17.97 19.87 23.73 26.1 27.78

WestBengal 20.4 23.88 24.45 24.75 26.47 27.5 27.97

KMA 93.31 92.83 92.44 91.72 91.25

Kolkata 100 100 100 100 100 100 100


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I-26
Table . 9
Level of Urbanisation in the different Districts of West Bengal
during 1981and 2001

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Percentage of Urban Population to Total
District 1981 1991 2001
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Coochbehar 6.90 7.81 9.10
Jalpaiguri 14.05 16.36 17.84
Darjeeling 27.55 30.47 32.34
Dakshin Dinajpur 11.17 13.34 13.09
Uttar Dinajpur 12.06
Maldah 4.78 7.07 7.32
Murshidabad 9.46 10.43 12.49
Nadia 21.59 22.63 21.27
North 24-Parganas 51.02 51.23 54.30
South 24-Parganas 11.99 13.30 15.73
Calcutta 100.00 100.00 100.00
Howrah 45.12 49.58 50.36
Hugli 29.53 31.19 33.47
Midnapur 8.49 9.85 10.24
Bankura 7.63 8.29 7.37
Purulia 9.00 9.44 10.07
Bardhaman 29.39 35.09 36.94
Birbhum 8.28 8.98 8.57
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
West Bengal 26.47 27.48 27.97
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I-27
Table : 10

Distribution of Population according to Town Size Classes in West Bengal and KMA, 2001
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
West Bengal K M A
-------------------------------------------------------------------------- ----------------------------------------------------------------
Town Size Class No of Population % of Persons No of Population % of Persons
per
Class Population Towns Population Per Town Towns Population Town
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I 100000 & above 59 16535026 73.73 280255 33 11848928 88.22 359058

II 50000 to 99999 29 1950022 8.69 67242 7 540921 4.03 77274

III 20000 to 49999 56 1690366 7.54 30185 13 359391 2.68 27645

IV 10000 to 19999 80 1150938 5.13 14387 26 365885 2.72 14073

V 5000 to 9999 135 951488 4.24 7048 38 273193 2.03 7189

VI < 5000 38 149411 0.67 3932 17 42207 0.31 2483


----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All Combined 397 22427251 100.00 56492 134 13430525 100.00 100228
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I-28
Table : 11
Migrants to Calcutta City during 1921-91
'--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Total Migrant
Year Population Population Percentage of
( in lakh ) ( in lakh ) Migrants
'--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1921 10.31 3.25 31.52
1931 11.41 3.57 31.29
1941 21.09 6.64 31.48
1951 25.49 13.45 52.76
1961 29.14 7.58 26.01
1971 31.36 10.62 33.86
1981 33.05 9.28 28.08
1991 33.8 7.12 21.06
'--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Table 12
Migrant Population in Calcutta City & KUA
classified by place of last residence

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Place of Last Residence Persons ( % ) Persons ( % )

West Bengal 198853 ( 27.91) 1056254 (40.35 )


( other places )

Other States in India 326253 (45.78) 882136 (33.70)

Outside India 187291 (26.28) 678476 (25.92)

Unclassifiable 220 ( 0.03) 760 ( 0.03)

Total Migrants 712617 (100.00) 2617626 (100.00)


---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I-29
Table: 13
Distribution of Migrants according to Duration of Residence in Calcutta City & KUA in 1991
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
CalcuttaCIty KUA
Duration of -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Residence Male Female Total Male Female Total
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
less than 1 year 3210 3230 6440 17050 17123 34173
0.75 1.12 0.9 1.23 1.38 1.31

1-4 years 41540 32370 73910 167744 176398 344142


9.77 11.26 10.37 12.15 14.27 13.15

5-9 years 47380 32340 79720 162790 173905 336695


11.15 11.25 11.19 11.79 14.07 12.86

10 years & above 298362 198664 479026 909478 778366 1687844


70.19 69.08 69.75 65.85 62.95 64.48

Period not stated 34561 20960 55521 124095 90677 214772


8.13 7.29 7.79 8.98 7.33 8.2
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
All duration 425053 287564 712617 1381157 1236469 2617626
100 100 100 100 100 100
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I-30
Table : 14
Distribution of Migrants according to Economic Activities in Calcutta city & KUA in 1991
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Calcut taCity KUA
Duration of -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Residence Male Female Total ( % ) Male Female Total ( % )
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1. Cultivator 220 10 230 (0.03) 1850 242 2092 (0.08)
2. Agricultural
Laborers 210 60 270 (0.04) 8909 1007 9916 (0.38)
3. Livestock,Forestry
Fishing Etc. 2206 70 2276 (0.32) 9546 385 9931(0.38)
4. Mining &Quarring 745 44 789 (0.11) 1578 76 1654 (0.06)
5. Manuf. & Process
in H.H. industry 1682 151 1833 (0.26) 7821 1746 9567 (0.37)
6. Manuf & Process
in O.T. HH ind. 79848 2521 82369 (11.56) 373497 13513 387010(14.78)
7. Construction 13452 397 13849 (1.94) 39987 1356 41343(1.58)
8. Trade &
Commerce 91896 2608 94504 (13.26) 223538 7066 230604(8.81)
9. Transport & Storage 49476 1054 50530 (7.09) 112247 2719 114966(4.39)
123069
10. Other Services 95775 27294 (17.27) 209321 62812 272133(10.40)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
370719
Total Mig. Workers 335510 34209 (52.02) 988294 99922 1079216(41.23)
341898
Non Workers 89543 253355 (47.98) 392863 1145547 1538410(58.77)
Total Migrants 425053 287564 712617 1381157 1236469 2617626
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

I-31
Economic Profile in KMA:
Introduction
The importance of Economic Profile of a state or of a region in unfolding a
vision for preparation of a perspective plan document can hardly be exaggerated.
The obvious indicators for prosperity of a state or for that matter, of a country are the
wealth of the nation. This wealth generates out of some broad economic sectors
including primary, secondary and tertiary. All development programs need to be
aimed at generation of income and employment opportunities and raising the
standard of living of the residents depending on that economy.

The main objective of this chapter is the study of economic profile of Kolkata
Metropolitan Area (KMA) so as to be able to make an assessment of the
infrastructural need in the different sectors of services within KMA. In the backdrop of
the present scenario, one is eager to look at how KMAs economy is going to
perform in the next twenty-five years in the light of performance of the state and the
adjoining region. It may be revealed that the economy is potentially capable of
performing better. The KMA obviously has a history as well as a future. The
economic profile will refer to the past and the present performance to project the
future economic profile of KMA, especially in broad economic sectors like
manufacturing, construction, transport and communication, trades and commerce,
real estate, services etc.

I -32
The base on which one can benchmark the performance analysis are the
recent available documents like the Statistical Abstract - both of West Bengal and
India, Economic Census, NSSO, CSO, Economic Reviews etc. The economic
preponderance of KMA in the non-agricultural economy of the state in terms of
States Domestic Product (SDP) can be gauged from Table I below :

Table-I
State Domestic Product in West Bengal & KMA by major sectors

Area/Item Year Primary Secondary Tertiary Total


West Bengal 1985-86 3613.25 3037.77 3749.43 10400.45
1993-94 5597.79 4462.53 7160.36 17220.68
2001-02 7766.55 7310.76 14802.16 29879.47
KMA 1985-86 65.46 1312.5 1790.07 3168.03
1993-94 74.23 1514.92 2413.08 4002.23
2001-02 50.14 2362.18 5586.96 7999.28
KMA's Share in 1985-86 1.81 43.21 47.74
West Bengal (%) 1993-94 1.33 33.95 33.70
2001-02 0.65 32.31 37.74
Distribution of SDP 1985-86 2.07 41.43 56.50 100.00
in
KMA by Sector (%) 1993-94 1.85 37.85 60.29 100.00
2001-02 0.63 29.53 69.84 100.00
Source: Statistical Abstract, 2001-02, BAE&S, GoWB

I -33
Recent Trends in KMA Economy

There have been signs of structural changes in the economy of KMA with the
share of Primary sector falling and those of Secondary Tertiary sectors increasing.
The Tertiary sector witnessed a phenomenal increase of SDP growth of 11.1 percent
per annum between 1993-94 and 2001-02 (refer Table-II). This rate of growth was
found to be even higher than that (9.5 percent per annum) for West Bengal. The
corresponding rate of growth for KMA was 3.8 percent between 1985-86 and 1993-
94. Another interesting revealation has been that both the Secondary and Tertiary
sectors of KMA had exhibited remarkable growth in SDPs in the period
between 1993-94 and 2001-02, as against the rates of growth during 1985-86 to
1993-94 period. This phenomenon could be explained partly by the process of
economic liberalization that had set in the entire country since the early nineteen
nineties.
Table-II
Annual average growth rate of SDP for KMA & West Bengal by major sectors

KMA West Bengal


Sector Av Annual Growth (%) Av Annual Growth (%)
85-86 to 93-94 93-94 to 01-02 85-86 to 93-94 93-94 to 01-02
Primary 1.58 -4.79 5.62 4.18
Secondary 1.81 5.71 4.92 6.36
Tertiary 3.8 11.06 8.42 9.5
Total 2.96 9.04 6.51 7.13

Secondary Sector

Manufacturing industries and construction activities constitute the core of


secondary sector activities in a metropolitan area. The manufacturing industries
within KMA have not only laid the foundation of economic strength of the state but
also hold the key to a healthy economic future of the metropolis.

The KMAs industrial profile is dominated by basic metal and alloy industries;
metal products and parts; machinery and machine tools; rubber and plastic
industries; jute textile; cotton textile; and leather and leather products, in terms of
accounting for not only the number of registered working factories but also
employment.

However, the rate of growth in the number of registered working factories in


the KMA-districts has fallen from 3.4 percent per annum in 1985-86 to 1993-94
period to 2.1 percent per annum in the years between 1993-94 and 2001-02,
indicating a higher rate of growth of industries outside KMA, vide Table-III.

I -34
Table-III
No. of Registered Factories and Employment: West Bengal & KMA
Item 1986 1994 2002
Unit Emp Unit Emp Unit Emp
KMA-districts 6658 718878 8666 708436 10250 696039
West Bengal 8064 900790 10431 912569 12641 890689
KMA as % of
82.56 79.81 83.08 77.63 81.09 78.15
West Bengal
Growth : 1986-1994 1994-2002
KMA-Districts 3.35 -0.18 2.12 -0.22
West Bengal 3.27 0.16 2.43 -0.30
Source: Statistical Abstract, 2001-02, BAE&S, GoWB
The Annual Survey of Industries data (Refer Table - IV) show that 1990-91
onwards there has been a significant increase in the quantum of Productive Capital 1
base of KMA-districts, registering a growth of about 35.5 percent per annum in the
KMA-districts, as against a much lower rate of growth of 19.7 percent per annum for
the state as a whole. Interestingly, the average annual growth in Productive Capital
base of KMA-districts was far lower at 8.3 percent per annum between 1985-86 and
1990-91. Therefore, investment in manufacturing industries in KMA-districts
has shown perceptible increase in recent years. This is also corroborated by the
data supplied by Commerce & Industries Department, Government of West Bengal,
showing that KMA-districts accounted for an investment of Rs.5591 crores in the
large and medium industry projects implemented between 1991 and 2002. This
constituted 25 percent of total investment of Rs.22,101 crores in West Bengal during
the same period (Refer Table-VI).

Further, the Net Value Added by factories in KMA-districts showed a


substantial increase at about 31.5 percent per annum between 1990-91 and 1997-
98, shooting up from 10.5 percent per annum during 1985-86 and 1990-91 period,
vide Table below. The State, however, experienced a much lower rate of growth in
Net Value Added during the corresponding periods at 18.5 percent per annum and
7.8 percent per annum respectively. This implies that the value addition in
manufacturing industries in KMA-districts in recent years has been
significantly higher than the preceding years.
Table - IV
Growth of Productive Capital and Net Value Added for West Bengal &
KMA-districts
Area Productive Capital Net Value Added
(Rs in thousand) (Rs in thousand)
1985-86 1990-91 1997-98 1985-86 1990-91 1997-98
KMA 16007239 23799501 199586699 12716082 20972863 68839845

West Bengal 38752985 101828763 358049077 19179158 27862029 91654900

1
Represents summation of Fixed Capital and Working Capital including cash balances.

I -35
Annual Growth (%) Annual Growth (%)
1985-86 to 1990-91 to 1985-86 to 1990-91 to
1990-91 1997-98 1990-91 1997-98
KMA 8.3 35.5 10.5 31.5
West Bengal 21.3 19.7 7.8 18.5

Source: Annual Survey of Industries, CSO, GoI

On the contrary, the labour-output ratios have experienced a declining trend


during the decade of nineteen nineties in both the state as well as in KMA-districts. It
should be interesting to note that the labour-output ratio for KMA-districts recorded a
fall from as high as 0.79 in 1985-86 to 0.19 in 1996-97, vide Table - V. Actually, this
could be explained by increasing adoption of capital-intensive or labour-saving
technologies in manufacturing processes.
Table-V
Labour Output Ratios
Gross Output Workers/Labour Labour-Output
Area (Rs. Lacs) (No.) Ratio
1985-86 1996-97 1985-86 1996-97 1985-86 1996-97
KMA-districts 574128 2278096 452600 426515 0.79 0.19
West Bengal 954393 3447749 634426 585642 0.66 0.17

As far as the recent trend in large and medium industries is concerned, as


discernible from the data on the number of units set up in KMA-districts between
1991 and 2002, vide Table VI, and also the attendant investments, it seems that
certain types of industries have been attracted more to KMA than other areas
in the state. More than 80 percent of units in Drugs & Pharmaceuticals, Electrical &
Electronics, Engineering, Leather & Rubber, Metallurgical (without steel), Plastic,
Software & Telecom and Textiles (jute, wool, silk, ready garments etc.) industries
have been set up in the KMA-districts between 1991 and 2002. In terms of
investment, however, the trend is not the same in that the KMA-districts have
accounted for as high as 94 percent of investments in the state in Service Industries
like Hotel, Hospital, Printing, Multi-media, despite the proportion of number of units
being less than 80 percent. On the other hand, Plastic industry in the KMA-districts
accounted for 27 percent only of the States investment, in spite of recording as high
as 80 percent of total number of units in the state.

A Brief Review of Major Manufacturing Industries within KMA

It should now be in order to have brief review of the major industries operating
in KMA. Stagnation in the major traditional industries in KMA like jute, engineering,
cotton and chemicals had been caused by a number of factors including the

I -36
ownership structure of industries, the national policy of freight equalization for iron
and steel, promotion of similar industries in other parts of the country to achieve
regional balance etc. However, despite the fact that many of the big houses were
making profit, no significant investment had been made by them on growth and
development of industries over the years.

Jute Textile industry is one of the traditional industries of KMA. KMA


accounted for almost all the Jute manufacturing units in the state as well as in the
country. The decline of this industry started after it was exposed to stiffest
competition from synthetic substitutes developed in the west around 1970. The
export demand for jute fell sharply, leading to disruption in functioning of the industry
as a whole. Sometime later, the indigenous demand for jute products recorded
substantial rise so as to more than compensate for the loss in export demand. But,
the industry couldnt rise to the occasion because of the very structure of capital
engaged in the industry.
Table-VI
No. of Large & Medium Industry units & Investment therein from 1991 to 2002
West Bengal & KMA-districts
Share of KMA
West KMA-
Industry Item in West Bengal
Bengal districts
(%)
1. Cement. Glass,
No. of Unit 43 15 34.9
Ceramics & Fly Ash Bricks
Investment (Rs. Crore) 843.11 456.16 54.1
2. Chemicals,
Petrochemicals Industrial No. of Unit 50 22 44.0
Gases etc.
Investment (Rs. Crore) 9143.79 263.69 2.9
3. Drugs, Pharmaceuticals
No. of Unit 17 14 82.4
and toilet Goods.
Investment (Rs. Crore) 172.98 94.98 54.9
4. Electrical and
No. of Unit 37 36 97.3
Electronics
Investment (Rs. Crore) 818.42 368.42 45.0
5. Engineering No. of Unit 43 36 83.7
Investment (Rs. Crore) 267.3 205.45 76.9
6. Food Products No. of Unit 106 46 43.4
Investment (Rs. Crore) 658.9 403.09 61.2
7. Hotel, Hospital, Service
No. of Unit 28 19 67.9
Sector, Multimedia etc.
Investment (Rs. Crore) 637.48 600.84 94.3
8. Leather & Rubber No. of Unit 9 9 100.0
Investment (Rs. Crore) 94.05 94.05 100.0
9. Metallurgical Products No. of Unit 6 5 83.3
Investment (Rs. Crore) 250.01 245.01 98.0
10. Paper Wood, Plywood
No. of Unit 9 5 55.6
and Board

I -37
Share of KMA
West KMA-
Industry Item in West Bengal
Bengal districts
(%)
Investment (Rs. Crore) 57.06 39.27 68.8
11. Plastic Goods No. of Unit 34 27 79.4
Investment (Rs. Crore) 368.91 100.51 27.2
12. Software & Telecom No. of Unit 36 33 91.7
Investment (Rs. Crore) 328.31 293.81 89.5
13. Steel Ingots, Alloys,
Sponge Iron, Steel No. of Unit 142 80 56.3
Products
Investment (Rs. Crore) 6768.21 1245.66 18.4
14. Textile (wool, silk,
knitted goods, jute, ready No. of Unit 56 48 85.7
garments, yarn)
Investment (Rs. Crore) 1210.32 931.66 77.0
15. Miscellaneous No. of Unit 42 28 66.7
Investment (Rs. Crore) 482.3 248.43 51.5
Total No. of Unit 658 423 64.3
Investment (Rs. Crore) 22101.15 5591.03 25.3
Source: Annual Report, 2002-03, Commerce & Industries Department, GoWB

Instead of registering increase in production to match with increasing demand,


the same had stagnated. The total production of jute goods declined form 1084
thousand tonnes in 1960 to 954 thousand tones in 1970 and then marginally
increased only to 1115 thousand tonnes in 1993. However, a reckonable increase in
the trend of production can be observed thereafter, owing to a variety of measures

I -38
taken especially with a focus on diversifying the manufactured jute products to cater
to changing demands in both domestic and export markets. The total production in
1995 was 1435 thousand tones and has been hovering around 1400 thousand tones
since then. The stagnation in jute industries during the decades of nineteen
seventies and nineteen eighties could also be noticed in terms of number of units
and average daily employment. As per the available data from IJMA, the total
number of units declined from as many as 96 in 1960 to 70 in 1971 and further to 51
in 1995. However, the number of units began to rise thereafter and there are as
many as 59 units now. Interestingly, the average daily employment is found to exhibit
a declining trend excepting showing an increase from 198 thousand in 1960 to 239
thousand in 1965 and then gradually declining to 174 thousand in 1995 and further
declining to 128 thousand in 2000. Thus the trend of increasing production in recent
years coupled with declining employment can be partly explained by adoption of
modern technology in jute industry.

The higher capacity utilization and modernization of jute industry is need of


the hour to keep pace with ensuing rising internal and external demand resulting
from enforcement of the Jute Packaging Materials Act, 1987, mandating compulsory
use of jute in packing of commodities. In recent years diversification of jute industries
is also noticed. A number of recent studies have revealed that the jute-diversified
industries hold a great promise in the KMA districts. New investments in jute sector
are being noticed after many years and a large number of diversified jute product
units have already been set up in the state and many more are in the pipeline. The
Champdani Industries Limited has been able to develop very fine fibre from jute
blended with other fibres for production of high quality light count yarns.

Engineering industry such as casting, forging, metallic articles, machinery,


generators, transformers, electric motors, ships and vessels and related accessories,
railway wagons and coaches and accessories thereof had been among the dominant
traditional industries in KMA in terms of contributing substantially to state domestic
product and also providing considerable employment. More than 3 lakh persons are
employed in this industry in the state. The metal-based foundry industry and a large

number of small engineering units in Howrah has been the oldest and heritage
industry of India. This industry manufactures a wide range of products and serves
the requirement of automobile industries, railways, agriculture, mining, various parts
and components of jute, cotton, cement, rolling mills etc. and it is highly labour
intensive in nature. This industry has been passing through severe crisis due to a

I -39
number of reasons, important among them being decentralization of procurement by
Indian Railways, shortage of inputs like coal, lack of technological upgradation and
diversification and freight equalization policy of the Government of India. Although
the number of units is seen to be rising in recent years, the need for modernization of
this industry to render itself more competitive cannot be overestimated.

West Bengal was the leader in production of both Chemicals and Drugs &
Pharmaceuticals. Till the 1950s, drugs & pharmaceuticals industry claimed nearly
70 percent of total pharmaceutical production in India. But it slowly lost its leadership
to other states in the western part of the country. Notably, close to cent percent of
the drugs & pharmaceuticals units and employment therein were located in KMA.
While the national industrial licensing policy was largely responsible for the decline of
Chemical and drugs & pharmaceuticals industries in West Bengal, the process of
globalization and WTO related agreements have aggravated the situation for the
industries in general. Nevertheless, the increasing popularity of herbal drugs
provides a great opportunity for drugs & pharmaceuticals industry in the State and
also in KMA. The recently established Haldia Petrochemicals Complex a little south
of KMA has opened up opportunity for both chemical and drugs & pharmaceuticals
industries within KMA. In order to regain its lead role, the chemical and
pharmaceutical industries must modernize and upgrade technologies to be globally
competitive.

HPL Downstream industries

The setting up of Haldia Petrochemicals Ltd. in Medinipur district has been


one of the gigantic steps towards industrialization in West Bengal. As fallout of the
same, a large number of downstream industries are coming up in and around KMA.
As many as 483 units in a total of 537 units in the state have been set up in the
KMA-districts between 1998 and 2003. Further, direct employment to the tune of
10,591 has been generated in the KMA-districts as against 13,171 in the state as a
whole. Interestingly, the KMA-districts account for nearly 90 percent of total HPL
Downstream units and 80 percent of employment therein in West Bengal.

IT and ITES

The knowledge based IT and ITES industries have witnessed year on year
higher growth in terms of both annual turnover and exports. West Bengal registered
a steady growth in the IT sector during recent years dominated by export
performance. West Bengal has registered a remarkable 115 percent compound
annual growth rate in the IT sector in the period 1996 to 2001. The rates of annual
growth of exports had been 90 percent, 96 percent, 71 percent, 40 percent and 54
percent during 1999-2000, 2000-01, 2001-02, 2002-03 and 2003-04 (upto December
2003) respectively. The declining rates of growth has to be looked at in the context of
increasing absolute magnitude of exports rising from Rs.350 crore in 1999-2000 to
Rs.1200 crore during 2002-03 and further to Rs.1600 crore in 2003-04. The software
exports accounted for a bulk of this growth. The state government attaches high
priority to growth of IT & ITES industries in the State and had announced in January

I -40
2001 the Information Technology Policy 2000. WEBEL is the facilitator for
development of Information Technology (IT) and IT Enabled Services (ITES) in the
state, besides being the nodal agency for development of electronic industries.
WEBEL has already distributed 177 acres of land for IT and ITES industries in and
around sector V at Salt Lake. For setting up of ITES infrastructure, WEBEL has
signed a MoU with HIDCO for 200 acres of land at New Township of Rajarhat for
development of IT and related industries. The space requirement of built space and
consequently the requirement of land for IT and ITES industries are small. Therefore,
vertical integration of these industries is possible within an industrial complex. The
KMA has an abundant supply of skilled persons to suit these industries and also
provides lowest cost of operation, cheapest power, lowest attrition, and lowest cost
of living.

Sector-V at Salt Lake within KMA is the fastest growing software technology
park in the country to-day, registering a compound annual growth rate of 119 percent
during 2002-03. Currently, there are 185 IT companies in Sector-V of Salt Lake
employing more than 15,000 IT professionals. With virtual saturation of Salt Lake
SectorV, a new IT Hub near Eastern Metropolitan Bye Pass, called The Sunrise
City, has been conceived by KMDA over an area of 40 acres.
Construction Industry constitutes the second major activity in the secondary
sector. It is observed from the SDP generated in this sector in KMA-districts between
1994-95 and 2000-01 registered an annual average rate of growth of around 6.3
percent. A major part of the construction activities in KMA is accounted for by real
estate and infrastructure development activities. Real estate activities have
witnessed a significant jump in recent years within KMA. The year 1998-99 and
1999-2000 deserve special mention when this industry experienced a boom with the
Construction-SDP showing an annual growth of 7.8 percent and 9.5 percent.

I -41
The growth of registered Small Scale Industry (SSI) units has been
observed to be higher in KMA-districts than in the State during recent years. Upto
1999-2000, total number of registered SSI units in KMA is reported to be 5848 with
employment of 32,552. The major small-scale units in KMA are noticed to be metal-
based engineering, leather, chemicals and food based industries. Curiously, more
than 90 percent of Haldia Downstream Industry units that were set up between 1998
and 2003 in the KMA-districts belonged to SSI category. The problems so far faced
by these industries have been inadequate supply of raw materials, absence of
application of modern technology and lack of institutional financing facility. The
decline in SSI units in Haora district can be attributed to closure and sickness of
small-scale engineering units in Haora caused by a variety of factors including
absence of technological upgradation. Thus, majority of the small-scale industries
need to be encouraged to focus on technological advancement, R & D efforts, quality
control, and market development including export possibilities.

Tertiary Sector
It appears from Table-VII that the SDP growth in tertiary sector in KMA has
been remarkable shooting up from 3.8 percent per annum during 1985-86 to 1993-
94 period to 11.1 percent in the 1993-94 to 2001-2002 period, as against the
corresponding. This phenomenon can be partly explained by overpowering entry and
expansion of banking, insurance and real estate activity into the economy in the
latter period as a fallout of the various reforms carried out in the economy in the
wake of economic liberalization.

I -42
The Banking & Insurance and Transport sub-sectors in KMA-districts have
shown considerable increase in SDP Growth in recent years, vide Table below. The
simple average annual rate of growth of SDP for Banking & Insurance increases
from 15.5 percent between 1994-95 and 1997-98 to 24.1 percent between 1997-98
and 2000-01 and the corresponding figures for Transport & Communications have
been 7.9 percent and 10.7 percent. The Real Estate sub-sector has been growing at
a fast rate showing an average annual increase of around 12.5 percent between
1994-95 and 2000-01. However, for Trades and Commerce sub-sector, which
accounts for a considerable proportion of the tertiary sector SDP, has recorded a
slower rate of annual growth of SDP - falling from 10.9 percent between 1994-95 and
1997-98 to 9 percent between 1997-98 and 2000-01. It should be noted that a major
share of this sub-sector activity is accounted for by Wholesale Trade.
Table-VII
Rate of growth of SDP - Tertiary Sector
KMA-district Item 1994-95 SDP 1997-98 2000-01
Trades & Commerce 310491 423767 548736
Total Banking & Insurance 177983 274452 524025
Real Estate etc. 146501 205336 297115
Transport etc. 191025 239903 325743
1994-95 1997-98
to to
1997-98 2000-01
Annualised Growth (%) Trades & Commerce 10.9 9.00
Banking & Insurance 15.5 24.1
Real Estate etc. 11.9 13.1
Transport etc. 7.9 10.7
Source: Statistical Abstract, 2001-02,BAE&S, GoWB
Some of the major wholesale markets of West Bengal are located in KMA.
The intra-state and inter-state inflow of goods into the metropolitan core of the city of
Kolkata in most cases end up in wholesale markets located in the city of Kolkata.
These markets deal with about thirty major commodities and the existing transport
infrastructure like the National Highways, Railways terminals, Airports and Kolkata
Port are being used for movement of these goods. The important among the
wholesale markets in Kolkata are Burrabazar (for fruits, onions, sugar, flower,
pulses, mustard oil and spices), Sealdah (for eggs, vegetables and paper)
Shyambazar (for pulses, timber, coal), Cossipore (for cement), Shobhabazar (for
hosiery), Jagannathghat (for flower), Bandhaghat (for cotton and timber).

The average daily total number of trucks entering and leaving KMA is about
31,000, as revealed by the Transport Survey carried out by KMDA in 1998. The
corresponding goods load carried by these trucks per day is about 3100 tonnes. The
Kolkata dock system, which consists of Kidderpore dock, Netaji Subhas Dock and
Petroleum wharves at Budge Budge, handled a total cargo of 10.31 million tonnes in
the year 1999-2000. The total goods traffic handled annually by Eastern Railway
increased from 4.55 million tonnes in1994-95 to 7.04 million tonnes in 1997-98 and
the same increased from 1.84 million tonnes in1998-99 to 2.23 million tonnes in
1999-2000.

I -43
The role of the banking system in KMA is crucial to facilitating economic
growth in the different sub-sectors. The large-scale entry into and expansion of
banking and insurance sector due to globalization has contributed to substantial
growth of tertiary sector activity. The banking sector has witnessed a number of
major operational reforms. The nationalized banks now have to compete with private
banks through a process of operational restructuring and use of modern methods.
There has been a steady growth in banking activities after 1991. The number of
scheduled commercial bank offices in the KMAdistricts rose form 1,109 in 1993 to
1,231 in 1996 and further to 1,332 in 2001. The deposit mobilized by these banks
also registered a steady growth of 7.2 percent per annum between 1993 and 1996
and moving up to 16.3 percent per annum between 1996 and 2001. The advances
by the scheduled commercial banks has maintained a steady growth of around 11
percent per annum between 1993 and 2001 in the KMA-districts showing vibrancy of
the KMA economy. Interestingly, the trends as observed for KMA-districts closely
conform to those observed for Urban West Bengal.

I -44
Financial Profile in KMA

Both Revenue Receipt and Revenue Expenditure have registered increase in


recent years and the overall revenue
accounts indicate a position of revenue
surplus for most of the KMA-ULBs.
However, this is the position excluding the
Kolkata and Howrah Municipal Corporation
scenarios. Nevertheless, there is not much
room for complacency, as the receivables
and payables do not get totally reflected in
the present system of municipal
accounting. The salaries and wages
component in municipal revenue account
yet constitutes around two-thirds of total
municipal revenue expenditure per annum,
despite the declining trend observed during
the last few years.
(Rs. Lacs)
Year Total Revenue Total Revenue Revenue Surplus /
Receipt Expenditure Deficit (-)
1999-2000 10543.18 9685.93 857.25
2000-2001 12779.65 10488.43 2291.22
2001-2002 14044.52 11785.15 2259.37
2003-2004 13438.51 11700.10 1738.41
2004-2005 15251.96 12359.91 2892.05

Capital Receipt in the form of capital grants and capital expenditure account
for the last five years indicate that the ULBs had been deficit implying that the
deficiency in infrastructure compelled the ULBs, to spent more that what they receipt.
However, the practice of single entry cash based system of accounting does not
always enable proper distinction between capital and revenue heads a summary
account of the capital account is presented below :
(Rs. Lacs)
Year Total Capital Total Capital Capital Surplus /
Receipt Expenditure Deficit (-)
1999-2000 3763.82 4705.11 -941.29
2000-2001 9060.25 6011.37 3048.88
2001-2002 7860.53 7758.02 102.51
2003-2004 3804.50 6414.68 -2610.18
2004-2005 3629.32 6357.18 -2727.86

The ULB-wise details of revenue and capital accounts are furnished in the
following Table.

I -45
Revenu and Capital Account by KMA-ULBs
[ Figures in Rs. Lakhs ]

Total Other Total Other Total


Revenue Designated Revenue Total Total Revenue Revenue Total
Total Other Tax Total Tax Non-Tax from Own Revenue Shared Grants/inco from Govt. Revenue Capital Total Salary & Expenditu Expenditur Capital Revenue Capital Total
Name of ULBs Years Population Property Tax Revenue Revenue Revenue Fund Grants Taxes me Fund Income Grants Receipts Wages re e Capital Expenditure Expenditure Surplus/Deficit Surplus/Deficit Surplus/Deficit
Current Arrears Total Water Sup Swerage SWM Roads Drain Srt. Lights Others

1999-00 262000 82.07 49.04 131.11 2.02 133.13 81.28 214.41 420.16 54.45 0.00 474.61 689.02 126.70 815.72 576.35 179.18 755.53 28.34 2.71 5.33 82.18 9.59 65.78 193.93 -66.51 -67.23 -133.74
2000-01 262000 141.45 113.54 254.99 1.82 256.81 72.16 328.97 607.28 28.95 0.00 636.23 965.20 283.61 1248.81 599.65 167.54 767.19 32.38 0.76 1.74 121.41 37.71 1.25 42.27 237.52 198.01 46.09 244.10
2001-02 262000 116.29 112.51 228.80 2.49 231.29 96.14 327.43 724.03 56.51 0.00 780.54 1107.97 376.00 1483.97 595.48 369.23 964.71 114.34 0.11 3.22 235.79 50.78 3.74 100.48 508.46 143.26 -132.46 10.80
1 Bally
2002-03 262000 135.91 163.74 299.65 10.09 309.74 117.16 426.90 509.60 39.52 0.00 549.12 976.02 104.38 1080.40 597.61 324.10 921.71 90.98 7.01 148.21 55.73 3.46 74.25 379.64 54.31 -275.26 -220.95
2003-04 262000 153.67 147.26 300.93 11.60 312.53 151.86 464.39 516.85 53.25 0.00 570.10 1034.49 163.74 1198.23 542.81 325.13 867.94 115.38 3.31 0.11 44.16 4.17 2.87 87.70 257.70 166.55 -93.96 72.59

1999-00 199000.00 10.21 10.78 20.99 1.85 22.84 12.45 35.29 70.55 37.67 33.17 141.39 176.68 223.85 400.53 57.84 62.13 119.97 14.73 6.17 0.00 136.74 0.00 4.10 123.13 284.87 56.71 -61.02 -4.31
2000-01 202000.00 5.88 13.39 19.27 2.16 21.43 12.34 33.77 175.07 43.86 34.03 252.96 286.73 390.25 676.98 63.96 63.99 127.95 16.55 9.15 0.00 176.42 0.00 9.16 65.82 277.10 158.78 113.15 271.93
2001-02 205000.00 9.57 10.05 19.62 2.22 21.84 18.93 40.77 125.84 88.34 68.83 283.01 323.78 525.28 849.06 67.26 73.01 140.27 24.12 33.39 0.00 362.14 0.00 15.07 75.03 509.75 183.51 15.53 199.04
2 Uluberia
2002-03 208000.00 11.73 27.44 39.17 2.60 41.77 13.34 55.11 98.81 38.08 25.19 162.08 217.19 114.20 331.39 68.96 85.58 154.54 40.09 22.18 0.00 174.34 0.00 30.70 50.21 317.52 62.65 -203.32 -140.67
2003-04 211000.00 9.95 11.76 21.71 3.39 25.10 17.44 42.54 116.19 82.09 49.23 247.51 290.05 141.70 431.75 75.25 85.83 161.08 30.13 41.89 0.00 357.49 0.00 19.71 63.99 513.21 128.97 -371.51 -242.54

1999-00 122865 4.03 10.02 14.05 0.69 14.74 5.86 20.60 138.66 22.22 22.22 183.10 203.70 63.67 267.37 201.78 32.90 234.68 9.48 1.36 0.00 7.92 3.27 2.56 39.43 64.02 -30.98 -0.35 -31.33
2000-01 126118 8.79 28.37 37.16 0.70 37.86 7.19 45.05 169.63 23.10 26.50 219.23 264.28 298.99 563.27 251.44 46.09 297.53 32.23 8.13 0.00 27.92 7.40 7.54 51.57 134.79 -33.25 164.20 130.95
2001-02 129270 18.29 32.73 51.02 1.55 52.57 9.92 62.49 159.30 26.34 14.39 200.03 262.52 207.83 470.35 250.47 22.38 272.85 4.78 7.20 0.58 59.36 21.58 8.16 45.67 147.33 -10.33 60.50 50.17
3 Kanchrapara
2002-03 132502 15.47 17.55 33.02 4.57 37.59 36.74 74.33 151.43 22.68 10.56 184.67 259.00 85.24 344.24 281.33 35.44 316.77 19.95 21.03 4.01 25.85 11.16 4.28 51.04 137.32 -57.77 -52.08 -109.85
2003-04 135814 15.73 19.67 35.40 5.04 40.44 40.96 81.40 148.16 13.61 11.61 173.38 254.78 78.86 333.64 307.02 38.96 345.98 17.78 11.16 16.26 26.78 12.24 2.59 52.19 139.00 -91.20 -60.14 -151.34

1999-00 120000 28.02 77.28 105.30 3.73 109.03 23.31 132.34 156.69 14.03 0.61 171.33 303.67 114.65 418.32 166.33 108.24 274.57 42.81 29.94 0.00 41.43 26.20 12.00 22.12 174.50 29.10 -59.85 -30.75
2000-01 124000 31.79 10.59 42.38 2.04 44.42 64.19 108.61 186.69 24.38 0.90 211.97 320.58 346.86 667.44 193.26 126.05 319.31 48.60 46.42 0.00 67.23 36.14 19.26 27.55 245.20 1.26 101.66 102.93
2001-02 128000 33.95 16.31 50.26 3.50 53.76 51.49 105.25 189.73 38.91 0.42 229.06 334.31 245.11 579.42 212.26 109.89 322.15 56.25 42.18 0.00 78.13 42.13 18.92 35.95 273.56 12.16 -28.45 -16.29
4 Halisahar
2002-03 132000 51.71 52.88 104.59 3.70 108.29 49.37 157.66 185.65 27.20 0.58 213.43 371.09 105.84 476.93 194.65 171.97 366.62 32.18 20.22 0.00 42.72 18.36 12.18 32.07 157.73 4.47 -51.89 -47.42
2003-04 136000 60.02 24.45 84.47 3.82 88.29 66.30 154.59 192.37 35.95 0.70 229.02 383.61 87.74 471.35 195.31 187.00 382.31 36.82 18.12 0.00 46.19 20.12 10.52 20.96 152.73 1.30 -64.99 -63.69

1999-00 174000 15.57 8.76 24.33 4.67 29.00 13.05 42.05 267.85 3.44 16.07 287.36 329.41 203.92 533.33 319.23 9.92 329.15 5.75 0.00 0.00 2.30 2.14 0.24 133.94 144.37 0.26 59.55 59.81
2000-01 174000 14.98 5.77 20.75 4.82 25.57 10.95 36.52 335.06 0.00 36.58 371.64 408.16 388.64 796.80 303.88 43.72 347.60 3.92 0.00 1.30 4.31 0.00 1.92 291.21 302.66 60.56 85.98 146.54
2001-02 215000 11.41 6.58 17.99 7.26 25.25 12.28 37.53 324.59 0.00 32.59 357.18 394.71 292.07 686.78 324.42 19.82 344.24 2.06 0.00 1.23 0.00 2.57 0.00 213.63 219.49 50.47 72.58 123.05
5 Naihati
2002-03 215000 12.38 7.41 19.79 13.81 33.60 28.32 61.92 293.14 0.00 32.77 325.91 387.83 106.04 493.87 322.98 64.20 387.18 0.59 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.16 194.79 195.54 0.65 -89.50 -88.85
2003-04 215000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1999-00 429000 56.42 54.15 110.57 6.61 117.18 79.11 196.29 529.08 39.11 40.63 608.82 805.11 80.02 885.13 632.63 243.33 875.96 15.14 17.13 6.30 28.33 2.29 10.13 71.90 151.22 -70.85 -71.20 -142.05
2000-01 436000 63.06 37.66 100.72 8.00 108.72 97.19 205.91 642.71 64.50 56.89 764.10 970.01 147.70 1117.71 668.78 247.33 916.11 48.19 16.66 2.85 184.02 2.63 33.91 148.44 436.70 53.90 -289.00 -235.10
2001-02 442000 64.04 43.76 107.80 37.86 145.66 66.17 211.83 601.12 51.11 57.92 710.15 921.98 60.93 982.91 670.65 234.00 904.65 65.21 8.15 8.17 203.35 57.26 24.06 79.87 446.07 17.33 -385.14 -367.81
6 Bhatpara
2002-03 450000 97.92 111.58 209.50 11.58 221.08 77.49 298.57 567.25 67.12 53.72 688.09 986.66 37.80 1024.46 662.18 272.88 935.06 64.17 0.00 4.13 160.70 50.02 2.62 29.94 311.58 51.60 -273.78 -222.18
2003-04 456000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1999-00 81000 5.76 7.51 13.27 1.52 14.79 7.44 22.23 111.66 24.65 94.43 230.74 252.97 35.87 288.84 112.50 134.39 246.89 15.41 0.00 0.00 13.48 4.41 0.00 0.00 33.30 6.08 2.57 8.65
2000-01 80000.00 10.62 11.63 22.25 3.28 25.53 9.00 34.53 135.93 13.24 131.82 280.99 315.52 129.17 444.69 123.39 173.89 297.28 23.11 0.00 0.00 23.88 28.40 0.00 0.00 75.39 18.24 53.78 72.02
2001-02 80000.00 14.92 17.64 32.56 4.37 36.93 11.69 48.62 170.81 28.93 76.14 275.88 324.50 157.73 482.23 124.77 204.74 329.51 52.92 0.00 0.00 55.43 47.61 0.00 0.00 155.96 -5.01 1.77 -3.24
7 Garulia
2002-03 80000.00 17.96 16.74 34.70 4.77 39.47 22.13 61.60 123.64 30.61 51.77 206.02 267.62 56.77 324.39 125.86 138.54 264.40 30.42 0.00 0.00 10.81 6.93 6.48 0.00 54.64 3.22 2.13 5.35
2003-04 80000.00 14.00 6.67 20.67 4.23 24.90 17.07 41.97 89.01 12.59 46.55 148.15 190.12 37.07 227.19 101.11 100.73 201.84 20.12 0.00 0.00 15.67 9.66 0.72 0.00 46.17 -11.72 -9.10 -20.82

1999-00 115990 34.77 11.17 45.94 8.78 54.72 69.96 124.68 152.38 2.53 34.17 189.08 313.76 74.81 388.57 184.88 71.09 255.97 1.92 0.00 0.00 6.41 3.34 0.00 0.00 11.67 57.79 63.14 120.93
2000-01 118773 32.38 17.61 49.99 8.95 58.94 68.49 127.43 175.28 19.26 43.06 237.60 365.03 251.34 616.37 223.59 66.18 289.77 1.38 0.00 0.00 3.52 1.82 0.00 0.00 6.72 75.26 244.62 319.88
2001-02 123668 39.20 22.40 61.60 10.44 72.04 69.87 141.91 169.54 41.02 46.20 256.76 398.67 281.57 680.24 229.23 57.17 286.40 2.65 0.00 0.00 1.56 1.00 0.00 0.00 5.21 112.27 276.36 388.63
8 North Barrackpur
2002-03 126636 38.28 20.88 59.16 12.72 71.88 70.11 141.99 176.48 22.53 27.84 226.85 368.84 143.78 512.62 252.15 53.29 305.44 0.20 0.00 0.00 3.24 0.30 0.00 0.00 3.74 63.40 140.04 203.44
2003-04 129675 35.34 37.99 73.33 12.94 86.27 138.91 225.18 180.22 29.75 44.98 254.95 480.13 128.00 608.13 260.20 67.55 327.75 0.45 0.00 0.00 1.30 0.85 0.00 0.00 2.60 152.38 125.40 277.78

1999-00 144331 69.23 21.74 90.97 2.11 93.08 101.56 194.64 192.94 12.49 0.00 205.43 400.07 182.70 582.77 246.91 94.44 341.35 11.66 0.00 0.08 31.54 8.04 0.09 109.59 161.00 58.72 21.70 80.42
2000-01 144331 69.94 9.85 79.79 2.49 82.28 85.96 168.24 234.60 20.40 0.00 255.00 423.24 389.32 812.56 273.23 98.62 371.85 33.38 0.00 2.12 82.88 19.99 4.08 136.25 278.70 51.39 110.62 162.01
2001-02 144331 67.54 16.04 83.58 3.11 86.69 114.01 200.70 232.68 29.67 0.00 262.35 463.05 272.57 735.62 271.01 106.56 377.57 23.81 0.00 2.39 99.62 63.17 18.30 94.31 301.60 85.48 -29.03 56.45
9 Barrackpur
2002-03 144331 66.41 21.15 87.56 4.23 91.79 142.39 234.18 250.50 22.76 0.00 273.26 507.44 224.24 731.68 261.64 99.04 360.68 19.61 0.00 1.85 48.56 36.42 40.45 76.38 223.27 146.76 0.97 147.73
2003-04 144331 109.00 37.05 146.05 9.24 155.29 184.40 339.69 235.25 30.90 0.00 266.15 605.84 207.36 813.20 255.05 133.48 388.53 22.48 0.00 0.00 41.61 11.42 42.43 30.90 148.84 217.31 58.52 275.83

1999-00 113831 10.31 7.72 18.03 60.49 78.52 6.09 84.61 193.47 23.16 6.41 223.04 307.65 238.14 545.79 184.29 105.36 289.65 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 175.77 175.77 18.00 62.37 80.37
2000-01 113831 11.30 3.58 14.88 59.39 74.27 5.71 79.98 211.78 103.98 3.87 319.63 399.61 612.89 1012.50 236.17 107.42 343.59 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 507.52 507.52 56.02 105.37 161.39
2001-02 124195 25.49 6.53 32.02 54.35 86.37 13.41 99.78 202.82 49.17 10.78 262.77 362.55 406.70 769.25 285.39 79.34 364.73 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 293.25 293.25 -2.18 113.45 111.27
10 Titagarh
2002-03 124226 22.02 6.60 28.62 54.31 82.93 40.92 123.85 188.70 34.37 8.23 231.30 355.15 296.24 651.39 252.76 15.56 268.32 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 373.14 373.14 86.83 -76.90 9.93
2003-04 124255 9.56 33.75 43.31 59.04 102.35 54.12 156.47 199.52 31.13 8.26 238.91 395.38 99.92 495.30 270.80 121.86 392.66 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 180.35 180.35 2.72 -80.43 -77.71

1999-00 113000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00


2000-01 116000 42.38 47.32 89.70 2.25 91.95 30.33 122.28 218.35 15.58 21.80 255.73 378.01 266.61 644.62 193.46 58.80 252.26 0.00 125.75 266.61 392.36
2001-02 118000 53.96 13.00 66.96 2.63 69.59 38.12 107.71 158.86 24.36 53.25 236.47 344.18 178.62 522.80 273.70 62.06 335.76 0.00 8.42 178.62 187.04
11 Khardah
2002-03 119000 39.05 15.49 54.54 4.95 59.49 69.98 129.47 159.35 17.04 70.78 247.17 376.64 67.95 444.59 217.89 59.94 277.83 0.00 98.81 67.95 166.76
2003-04 122000 48.05 11.44 59.49 24.12 83.61 78.65 162.26 159.55 10.21 34.65 204.41 366.67 89.95 456.62 220.31 99.99 320.30 0.00 46.37 89.95 136.32

1999-00 340280 58.28 42.45 100.73 22.01 122.74 112.64 235.38 274.25 0.00 69.73 343.98 579.36 275.12 854.48 363.13 227.89 591.02 66.38 2.11 1.00 122.00 49.75 0.53 39.55 281.32 -11.66 -6.20 -17.86
2000-01 348379 63.07 40.50 103.57 52.06 155.63 66.02 221.65 373.98 35.49 31.49 440.96 662.61 610.87 1273.48 388.71 203.61 592.32 59.97 53.44 0.26 153.01 43.21 3.51 23.42 336.82 70.29 274.05 344.34
2001-02 355346 65.62 55.54 121.16 79.72 200.88 102.68 303.56 364.77 61.18 47.88 473.83 777.39 402.33 1179.72 452.67 211.03 663.70 66.61 10.23 0.00 309.49 86.65 2.81 49.21 525.00 113.69 -122.67 -8.98
12 Panihati
2002-03 362453 64.88 30.90 95.78 136.94 232.72 113.08 345.80 348.89 42.78 18.01 409.68 755.48 163.04 918.52 411.07 296.09 707.16 91.48 2.31 0.00 231.01 96.03 1.34 25.53 447.70 48.32 -284.66 -236.34
2003-04 371514 61.40 22.50 83.90 114.20 198.10 89.88 287.98 369.22 23.55 72.07 464.84 752.82 213.45 966.27 454.73 276.82 731.55 62.14 3.15 1.00 163.01 45.11 0.11 65.57 340.09 21.27 -126.64 -105.37

I-46
Total Other Total Other Total
Revenue Designated Revenue Total Total Revenue Revenue Total
Total Other Tax Total Tax Non-Tax from Own Revenue Shared Grants/inco from Govt. Revenue Capital Total Salary & Expenditu Expenditur Capital Revenue Capital Total
Name of ULBs Years Population Property Tax Revenue Revenue Revenue Fund Grants Taxes me Fund Income Grants Receipts Wages re e Capital Expenditure Expenditure Surplus/Deficit Surplus/Deficit Surplus/Deficit
Current Arrears Total Water Sup Swerage SWM Roads Drain Srt. Lights Others

1999-00 266276 94.80 23.04 117.84 16.27 134.11 119.56 253.67 436.24 22.12 10.98 469.34 723.01 272.75 995.76 585.53 234.53 820.06 44.50 2.83 0.00 209.04 35.12 0.00 13.52 305.01 -97.05 -32.26 -129.31
2000-01 314507 101.84 45.86 147.70 17.02 164.72 75.44 240.16 532.34 84.52 20.61 637.47 877.63 545.94 1423.57 573.23 231.48 804.71 40.27 5.96 1.00 222.68 38.80 0.00 22.66 331.37 72.92 214.57 287.49
2001-02 314507 99.46 29.11 128.57 17.75 146.32 95.28 241.60 485.47 96.42 39.45 621.34 862.94 414.91 1277.85 587.64 240.30 827.94 38.33 4.94 0.25 301.97 123.07 0.40 44.08 513.04 35.00 -98.13 -63.13
13 Kamarhati
2002-03 314507 137.25 39.74 176.99 33.72 210.71 114.33 325.04 458.07 57.24 27.53 542.84 867.88 202.29 1070.17 602.78 230.92 833.70 39.18 4.49 0.00 223.83 37.87 16.15 20.89 342.41 34.18 -140.12 -105.94
2003-04 314507 154.70 98.84 253.54 55.98 309.52 166.04 475.56 482.26 43.61 20.90 546.77 1022.33 160.57 1182.90 558.84 324.81 883.65 45.38 9.38 0.00 211.12 23.31 8.19 39.74 337.12 138.68 -176.55 -37.87

1999-00 224000 78.55 66.86 145.41 8.80 154.21 42.34 196.55 444.38 0.30 24.04 468.72 665.27 89.86 755.13 619.60 115.96 735.56 89.86 89.86 -70.29 0.00 -70.29
2000-01 250600 91.56 51.96 143.52 7.19 150.71 38.53 189.24 537.41 21.73 4.41 563.55 752.79 259.36 1012.15 669.60 126.16 795.76 259.36 259.36 -42.97 0.00 -42.97
2001-02 253500 23.67 11.49 35.16 2.23 37.39 21.96 59.35 490.39 64.36 4.36 559.11 618.46 383.76 1002.22 649.60 144.00 793.60 383.76 383.76 -175.14 0.00 -175.14
14 Baranagar
2002-03 256400 27.79 14.39 42.18 2.97 45.15 44.57 89.72 464.50 59.86 524.36 614.08 147.26 761.34 703.60 141.86 845.46 147.26 147.26 -231.38 0.00 -231.38
2003-04 259300 118.90 62.65 181.55 31.90 213.45 191.58 405.03 496.51 31.20 1.35 529.06 934.09 146.88 1080.97 719.60 141.26 860.86 146.88 146.88 73.23 0.00 73.23

1999-00 149000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00


2000-01 149000 163.91 176.11 340.02 15.62 355.64 166.71 522.35 205.00 16.85 74.67 296.52 818.87 401.89 1220.76 225.13 295.39 520.52 23.65 0.00 0.00 356.67 62.55 0.00 5.04 447.91 298.35 -46.02 252.33
2001-02 162000 62.50 31.55 94.05 15.96 110.01 177.00 287.01 219.12 21.85 68.27 309.24 596.25 268.16 864.41 225.47 247.90 473.37 20.93 0.00 0.00 268.44 47.60 0.00 7.02 343.99 122.88 -75.83 47.05
15 North Dum Dum
2002-03 220000 97.33 79.46 176.79 22.39 199.18 196.33 395.51 215.17 27.58 65.88 308.63 704.14 212.57 916.71 281.24 236.27 517.51 22.93 0.00 0.00 139.55 86.68 1.34 213.75 464.25 186.63 -251.68 -65.05
2003-04 225000 100.53 37.38 137.91 37.51 175.42 303.82 479.24 143.54 37.35 76.37 257.26 736.50 293.36 1029.86 252.34 323.52 575.86 28.48 0.00 0.00 111.25 18.34 0.38 252.69 411.14 160.64 -117.78 42.86

1999-00 392150 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00


2000-01 392150 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2001-02 392150 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
16 South Dum Dum
2002-03 392150 117.67 122.94 240.61 0.27 240.88 223.50 464.38 377.53 41.31 418.84 883.22 123.52 1006.74 326.09 107.33 433.42 129.90 42.03 126.91 218.96 16.32 534.12 449.80 -410.60 39.20
2003-04 392150 180.00 195.00 375.00 0.92 375.92 272.95 648.87 424.74 15.00 439.74 1088.61 167.33 1255.94 307.82 185.50 493.32 85.00 35.00 150.00 125.00 35.00 430.00 595.29 -262.67 332.62

1999-00 92605 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00


2000-01 92605 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2001-02 101238 47.76 20.09 67.85 13.16 81.01 135.52 216.53 191.99 16.23 208.22 424.75 113.70 538.45 359.41 87.45 446.86 14.22 9.30 3.29 81.45 0.97 34.05 143.28 -22.11 -29.58 -51.69
17 Dum Dum
2002-03 101238 65.58 122.33 187.91 8.94 196.85 199.18 396.03 182.91 11.26 194.17 590.20 115.74 705.94 433.32 71.28 504.60 17.58 4.36 3.48 108.17 2.91 55.53 192.03 85.60 -76.29 9.31
2003-04 101238 70.83 47.92 118.75 29.63 148.38 230.64 379.02 197.47 6.72 204.19 583.21 110.13 693.34 374.95 111.49 486.44 14.71 3.37 3.67 76.65 6.24 42.87 147.51 96.77 -37.38 59.39

1999-00 222260 27.45 35.11 62.56 9.34 71.90 72.84 144.74 116.89 14.76 40.56 172.21 316.95 173.11 490.06 167.43 139.55 306.98 30.60 0.00 0.47 165.67 16.64 12.78 52.82 278.98 9.97 -105.87 -95.90
2000-01 231521 41.61 26.75 68.36 14.86 83.22 92.71 175.93 176.88 23.56 44.39 244.83 420.76 336.98 757.74 187.93 97.68 285.61 27.04 0.00 41.69 155.38 14.61 7.47 23.92 270.11 135.15 66.87 202.02
2001-02 240782 31.15 36.29 67.44 15.64 83.08 95.86 178.94 180.97 41.85 40.98 263.80 442.74 365.10 807.84 214.24 181.22 395.46 4.16 9.97 2.45 133.59 24.60 8.88 115.49 299.14 47.28 65.96 113.24
18 Barasat
2002-03 250413 39.98 34.82 74.80 17.24 92.04 173.10 265.14 162.39 29.79 25.76 217.94 483.08 136.06 619.14 221.61 108.92 330.53 16.89 20.43 4.76 184.54 15.35 5.78 152.86 400.61 152.55 -264.55 -112.00
2003-04 260430 69.34 37.22 106.56 19.47 126.03 195.33 321.36 183.78 39.30 52.84 275.92 597.28 132.85 730.13 229.87 171.79 401.66 15.63 0.42 2.80 156.65 12.17 2.78 24.45 214.90 195.62 -82.05 113.57

1999-00 167000 43.91 32.24 76.15 1.90 78.05 90.53 168.58 88.80 8.93 97.73 266.31 151.65 417.96 86.28 73.36 159.64 12.11 0.00 11.18 74.86 37.18 3.30 138.63 106.67 13.02 119.69
2000-01 167000 43.91 26.43 70.34 0.21 70.55 197.15 267.70 140.62 14.22 154.84 422.54 408.40 830.94 133.25 72.33 205.58 35.87 0.00 11.32 93.79 86.60 3.28 160.76 391.62 216.96 16.78 233.74
2001-02 167000 52.83 58.40 111.23 0.14 111.37 174.48 285.85 170.60 24.33 194.93 480.78 536.54 1017.32 199.56 147.99 347.55 39.55 0.00 1.93 126.32 135.26 7.92 270.16 581.14 133.23 -44.60 88.63
19 Madhyamgram
2002-03 167000 72.52 48.29 120.81 1.76 122.57 200.00 322.57 135.53 22.91 158.44 481.01 181.67 662.68 235.79 70.08 305.87 31.87 0.00 4.35 142.50 94.65 11.93 166.70 452.00 175.14 -270.33 -95.19
2003-04 167000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1999-00 271000 25.11 24.48 49.59 16.19 65.78 209.20 274.98 124.33 166.25 96.79 387.37 662.35 108.34 770.69 55.58 173.97 229.55 43.51 60.27 1.44 174.65 0.00 31.99 34.49 346.35 432.80 -238.01 194.79
2000-01 271000 30.17 25.03 55.20 13.59 68.79 190.57 259.36 153.89 274.40 18.11 446.40 705.76 361.09 1066.85 62.04 241.09 303.13 30.27 42.09 2.20 197.17 0.00 15.21 20.34 307.28 402.63 53.81 456.44
2001-02 271000 44.31 39.89 84.20 12.04 96.24 263.56 359.80 186.07 505.40 29.35 720.82 1080.62 134.57 1215.19 63.43 442.19 505.62 39.12 126.51 2.66 201.43 0.00 2.27 16.97 388.96 575.00 -254.39 320.61
20 Rajarhat-Gopalpur
2002-03 271000 36.56 37.93 74.49 13.26 87.75 275.60 363.35 137.14 353.61 8.19 498.94 862.29 180.18 1042.47 92.72 440.29 533.01 13.86 60.21 3.00 131.65 0.00 8.22 35.48 252.42 329.28 -72.24 257.04
2003-04 271000 42.91 53.16 96.07 15.87 111.94 434.35 546.29 193.28 495.50 16.54 705.32 1251.61 274.78 1526.39 98.60 520.41 619.01 20.26 99.16 1.37 287.64 0.00 14.98 8.09 431.50 632.60 -156.72 475.88

1999-00 63187 10.77 5.60 16.37 2.22 18.59 32.94 51.53 80.28 6.89 0.00 87.17 138.70 100.84 239.54 75.13 19.25 94.38 18.90 0.00 0.89 47.68 8.77 26.88 103.12 44.32 -2.28 42.04
2000-01 83183 10.94 4.93 15.87 2.01 17.88 31.29 49.17 119.60 11.24 0.00 130.84 180.01 304.65 484.66 67.49 15.15 82.64 29.76 0.00 0.44 78.51 47.47 46.73 202.91 97.37 101.74 199.11
2001-02 84183 12.57 6.75 19.32 2.77 22.09 41.44 63.53 94.63 19.19 0.00 113.82 177.35 263.35 440.70 67.73 24.91 92.64 23.92 0.00 0.00 38.34 19.13 5.64 129.19 216.22 84.71 47.13 131.84
21 New Barrackpur
2002-03 85193 13.01 6.30 19.31 3.62 22.93 100.54 123.47 90.16 13.44 0.00 103.60 227.07 114.41 341.48 73.74 20.30 94.04 12.34 0.00 4.62 30.14 13.50 0.08 122.43 183.11 133.03 -68.70 64.33
2003-04 86213 23.05 4.62 27.67 4.18 31.85 94.74 126.59 96.59 18.15 0.00 114.74 241.33 148.24 389.57 65.36 16.94 82.30 12.50 0.00 0.00 47.48 56.18 95.33 211.49 159.03 -63.25 95.78

1999-00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00


2000-01 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2001-02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
22 Bidhan Nagar
2002-03 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
2003-04 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1999-00 73578 88.93 15.17 104.10 18.30 122.40 11.30 133.70 169.87 5.21 5.61 180.69 314.39 161.24 475.63 272.56 7.73 280.29 11.89 4.94 2.19 51.45 5.35 33.84 109.66 34.10 51.58 85.68
2000-01 75465 101.26 9.39 110.65 18.71 129.36 15.62 144.98 217.88 7.83 8.92 234.63 379.61 210.19 589.80 296.49 18.07 314.56 16.37 8.33 19.08 73.44 6.12 40.39 163.73 65.05 46.46 111.51
2001-02 77352 111.32 64.99 176.31 15.59 191.90 22.35 214.25 232.16 31.93 88.74 352.83 567.08 233.19 800.27 320.71 19.02 339.73 6.38 10.26 0.26 95.69 0.37 40.82 153.78 227.35 79.41 306.76
23 Budge Budge
2002-03 79286 161.93 49.21 211.14 27.01 238.15 28.01 266.16 263.75 22.32 29.52 315.59 581.75 112.23 693.98 327.34 32.50 359.84 19.05 7.52 0.89 59.63 1.19 37.55 125.83 221.91 -13.60 208.31
2003-04 81268 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1999-00 300000 60.84 25.72 86.56 4.31 90.87 41.98 132.85 141.57 19.89 152.84 314.30 447.15 332.68 779.83 141.55 45.52 187.07 44.18 38.88 5.84 298.86 0.00 22.11 0.00 409.87 260.08 -77.19 182.89
2000-01 323000 69.04 40.99 110.03 6.44 116.47 78.25 194.72 183.87 40.28 241.24 465.39 660.11 517.35 1177.46 158.84 55.05 213.89 47.61 83.21 2.75 203.91 0.00 29.95 0.00 367.43 446.22 149.92 596.14
2001-02 338000 76.81 32.20 109.01 14.16 123.17 98.88 222.05 184.26 74.04 236.44 494.74 716.79 453.49 1170.28 166.97 69.20 236.17 54.42 125.99 3.23 370.07 0.00 26.90 0.00 580.61 480.62 -127.12 353.50
24 Rajpur-Sonarpur
2002-03 354000 83.73 39.61 123.34 18.98 142.32 105.36 247.68 170.17 50.13 273.77 494.07 741.75 194.87 936.62 177.05 92.36 269.41 28.18 91.39 0.74 366.47 0.00 11.75 0.00 498.53 472.34 -303.66 168.68
2003-04 371000 100.30 30.46 130.76 21.22 151.98 141.37 293.35 175.73 69.75 269.74 515.22 808.57 156.10 964.67 182.55 108.23 290.78 56.85 156.50 16.22 436.44 0.00 10.20 0.00 676.21 517.79 -520.11 -2.32

1999-00 45000 7.72 3.95 11.67 4.37 16.04 0.45 16.49 41.45 4.53 0.43 46.41 62.90 48.94 111.84 58.06 13.05 71.11 2.40 3.00 0.20 13.55 0.00 3.00 2.80 24.95 -8.21 23.99 15.78
2000-01 45000 8.75 6.49 15.24 5.72 20.96 12.66 33.62 50.56 5.36 4.81 60.73 94.35 102.66 197.01 62.10 21.59 83.69 4.58 4.76 1.24 36.47 0.00 4.28 5.89 57.22 10.66 45.44 56.10
25 Baruipur 2001-02 45000 9.06 4.89 13.95 13.35 27.30 17.33 44.63 51.67 16.73 2.35 70.75 115.38 113.29 228.67 60.10 37.92 98.02 1.32 2.53 0.00 37.15 0.00 4.10 10.91 56.01 17.36 57.28 74.64
2002-03 45000 9.93 8.66 18.59 26.18 44.77 9.41 54.18 30.38 12.92 0.82 44.12 98.30 61.48 159.78 67.15 39.84 106.99 1.87 10.49 0.40 30.97 0.00 3.40 2.38 49.51 -8.69 11.97 3.28
2003-04 45000 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

I-47
Total Other Total Other Total
Revenue Designated Revenue Total Total Revenue Revenue Total
Total Other Tax Total Tax Non-Tax from Own Revenue Shared Grants/inco from Govt. Revenue Capital Total Salary & Expenditu Expenditur Capital Revenue Capital Total
Name of ULBs Years Population Property Tax Revenue Revenue Revenue Fund Grants Taxes me Fund Income Grants Receipts Wages re e Capital Expenditure Expenditure Surplus/Deficit Surplus/Deficit Surplus/Deficit
Current Arrears Total Water Sup Swerage SWM Roads Drain Srt. Lights Others

1999-00 33863 50.50 0.10 50.60 0.22 50.82 2.13 52.95 20.64 3.03 12.74 36.41 89.36 59.50 148.86 11.65 45.94 57.59 9.57 0.00 0.00 81.58 0.00 0.14 24.22 115.51 31.77 -56.01 -24.24
2000-01 33863 75.28 16.69 91.97 0.67 92.64 9.19 101.83 22.25 5.18 17.63 45.06 146.89 136.51 283.40 37.28 47.74 85.02 3.21 0.00 0.00 29.85 0.00 0.00 112.21 145.27 61.87 -8.76 53.11
2001-02 33863 50.51 25.19 75.70 1.34 77.04 3.72 80.76 39.57 14.69 7.05 61.31 142.07 93.77 235.84 43.50 42.87 86.37 1.52 0.00 0.00 95.87 0.00 0.33 38.66 136.38 55.70 -42.61 13.09
26 Pujali
2002-03 33863 84.82 54.19 139.01 1.04 140.05 2.58 142.63 36.93 10.37 4.92 52.22 194.85 53.48 248.33 43.73 58.44 102.17 13.66 0.00 0.00 72.12 0.00 4.21 90.27 180.26 92.68 -126.78 -34.10
2003-04 33863 109.44 26.23 135.67 0.82 136.49 4.23 140.72 39.74 13.61 11.52 64.87 205.59 64.93 270.52 43.09 49.84 92.93 8.71 0.00 0.00 47.80 0.00 1.86 87.63 146.00 112.66 -81.07 31.59

1999-00 389214 7.20 7.20 5.64 12.84 23.83 36.67 188.77 35.50 80.99 305.26 341.93 398.90 740.83 153.51 118.19 271.70 15.00 53.35 0.00 222.09 0.00 9.15 124.83 424.42 70.23 -25.52 44.71
2000-01 389214 27.61 27.61 9.83 37.44 96.29 133.73 222.95 0.00 147.67 370.62 504.35 745.05 1249.40 137.97 234.90 372.87 5.29 26.75 0.00 139.47 0.00 2.73 231.70 405.94 131.48 339.11 470.59
2001-02 389214 80.35 80.35 11.52 91.87 65.04 156.91 221.72 99.56 85.80 407.08 563.99 732.21 1296.20 150.52 187.89 338.41 22.05 135.41 0.00 266.02 0.00 14.02 280.06 717.56 225.58 14.65 240.23
27 Maheshtala
2002-03 389214 151.32 151.32 20.28 171.60 135.28 306.88 146.66 69.31 78.00 293.97 600.85 285.82 886.67 158.63 234.74 393.37 19.86 59.76 0.00 161.25 0.00 1.55 352.79 595.21 207.48 -309.39 -101.91
2003-04 389214 127.35 127.35 18.58 145.93 107.80 253.73 301.23 93.02 81.04 475.29 729.02 253.63 982.65 163.59 243.89 407.48 150.37 152.00 0.00 219.79 0.00 32.44 201.92 756.52 321.54 -502.89 -181.35

1999-00 80000 181.73 33.07 214.80 2.33 217.13 0.74 217.87 108.71 14.27 0.00 122.98 340.85 22.60 363.45 230.14 10.31 240.45 45.69 20.14 0.00 15.36 0.00 1.58 0.00 82.77 100.40 -60.17 40.23
2000-01 81996 201.93 36.75 238.68 2.60 241.28 0.83 242.11 124.18 25.94 0.00 150.12 392.23 16.61 408.84 255.74 11.45 267.19 50.76 22.38 0.00 18.06 0.00 1.67 0.00 92.87 125.04 -76.26 48.78
2001-02 83000 224.36 40.84 265.20 2.89 268.09 11.15 279.24 214.51 16.54 0.00 231.05 510.29 134.93 645.22 188.91 12.73 201.64 56.40 24.86 0.00 18.96 0.00 2.07 0.00 102.29 308.65 32.64 341.29
28 Kalyani
2002-03 85400 111.70 51.42 163.12 4.11 167.23 12.25 179.48 142.96 15.50 0.00 158.46 337.94 31.71 369.65 198.24 14.42 212.66 10.34 39.66 0.00 71.32 0.00 1.82 0.00 123.14 125.28 -91.43 33.85
2003-04 88000 148.48 60.72 209.20 5.14 214.34 13.87 228.21 135.10 19.16 0.00 154.26 382.47 79.36 461.83 237.76 10.67 248.43 0.00 0.00 0.00 52.73 0.00 1.62 0.00 54.35 134.04 25.01 159.05

1999-00 52000 18.73 27.26 45.99 0.63 46.62 15.62 62.24 72.72 5.11 2.26 80.09 142.33 106.67 249.00 92.41 44.50 136.91 29.38 0.00 0.00 8.01 8.24 22.90 33.78 102.31 5.42 4.36 9.78
2000-01 52000 17.47 31.53 49.00 0.87 49.87 11.24 61.11 90.80 8.36 4.20 103.36 164.47 189.46 353.93 99.31 54.38 153.69 10.15 0.00 0.00 22.45 20.21 0.20 12.77 65.78 10.78 123.68 134.46
2001-02 55000 10.60 29.72 40.32 1.34 41.66 20.50 62.16 94.80 16.19 33.02 144.01 206.17 136.77 342.94 108.37 78.95 187.32 6.46 0.00 0.00 80.86 14.25 2.83 19.31 123.71 18.85 13.06 31.91
29 Gayeshpur
2002-03 55000 18.52 22.90 41.42 2.16 43.58 33.14 76.72 89.96 11.32 5.22 106.50 183.22 56.73 239.95 114.38 48.58 162.96 3.54 0.00 0.00 49.77 23.55 0.00 27.50 104.36 20.26 -47.63 -27.37
2003-04 55000 8.03 44.09 52.12 1.82 53.94 20.19 74.13 87.20 15.27 4.64 107.11 181.24 82.50 263.74 115.92 57.56 173.48 5.46 0.00 0.00 27.42 17.33 0.00 32.16 82.37 7.76 0.13 7.89

1999-00 103000 35.16 118.84 154.00 0.54 154.54 24.38 178.92 153.87 10.34 34.00 198.21 377.13 91.28 468.41 186.49 152.66 339.15 28.81 0.00 0.00 28.77 16.05 0.77 56.78 131.18 37.98 -39.90 -1.92
2000-01 104000 41.70 2.81 44.51 0.54 45.05 21.28 66.33 195.41 19.80 48.39 263.60 329.93 203.47 533.40 183.51 151.26 334.77 21.86 0.00 0.00 69.23 4.44 0.78 27.27 123.58 -4.84 79.89 75.05
2001-02 105000 46.23 3.54 49.77 0.56 50.33 22.51 72.84 252.41 16.74 44.64 313.79 386.63 63.11 449.74 234.40 137.63 372.03 9.98 0.00 0.00 69.81 5.75 1.92 40.34 127.80 14.60 -64.69 -50.09
30 Bansberia
2002-03 107000 35.45 13.03 48.48 0.67 49.15 30.31 79.46 183.66 23.02 41.17 247.85 327.31 285.09 612.40 192.56 140.31 332.87 31.07 0.00 0.00 61.71 8.64 1.78 45.13 148.33 -5.56 136.76 131.20
2003-04 108000 66.80 15.80 82.60 0.74 83.34 40.83 124.17 189.64 0.00 62.19 251.83 376.00 83.65 459.65 192.56 140.31 332.87 31.07 0.00 0.00 61.71 8.64 1.78 45.13 148.33 43.13 -64.68 -21.55

1999-00 179000 62.25 19.60 81.85 12.87 94.72 47.80 142.52 281.36 15.30 34.36 331.02 473.54 93.75 567.29 361.12 154.13 515.25 51.24 0.00 0.00 62.78 2.15 0.21 40.38 156.76 -41.71 -63.01 -104.72
2000-01 184000 60.53 21.09 81.62 12.31 93.93 56.98 150.91 347.28 24.89 82.61 454.78 605.69 289.37 895.06 392.73 200.50 593.23 29.84 0.00 10.67 79.43 6.42 0.00 43.92 170.28 12.46 119.09 131.55
2001-02 188000 71.87 26.95 98.82 15.29 114.11 68.33 182.44 408.35 41.99 45.86 496.20 678.64 280.03 958.67 497.47 217.40 714.87 28.66 0.00 0.00 105.52 32.21 8.09 72.46 246.94 -36.23 33.09 -3.14
31 Hugli-Chinsurah
2002-03 193000 73.94 27.36 101.30 19.85 121.15 90.66 211.81 348.58 29.35 41.26 419.19 631.00 114.92 745.92 402.44 208.15 610.59 17.41 0.00 5.02 67.47 8.91 0.15 49.80 148.76 20.41 -33.84 -13.43
2003-04 198000 64.61 29.37 93.98 38.00 131.98 94.14 226.12 345.68 153.40 48.42 547.50 773.62 110.96 884.58 383.59 376.86 760.45 40.44 0.00 0.90 91.62 21.93 8.01 68.79 231.69 13.17 -120.73 -107.56

1999-00 100839 31.69 16.54 48.23 2.19 50.42 52.30 102.72 163.56 10.63 33.81 208.00 310.72 99.41 410.13 215.33 94.84 310.17 11.12 1.34 1.62 22.26 24.94 2.36 19.23 82.87 0.55 16.54 17.09
2000-01 103360 34.32 18.65 52.97 7.86 60.83 51.86 112.69 197.43 17.45 31.80 246.68 359.37 251.68 611.05 243.51 112.00 355.51 3.48 10.33 0.84 74.10 16.46 23.14 56.98 185.33 3.86 66.35 70.21
2001-02 105944 56.50 12.74 69.24 2.60 71.84 69.74 141.58 257.99 27.46 40.53 325.98 467.56 249.53 717.09 306.38 136.12 442.50 36.55 0.19 2.57 55.15 23.12 0.44 65.47 183.49 25.06 66.04 91.10
32 Bhadreswar
2002-03 108593 53.21 10.96 64.17 3.56 67.73 107.43 175.16 187.47 19.20 21.02 227.69 402.85 146.53 549.38 249.64 144.94 394.58 23.52 0.12 2.32 67.36 25.83 0.50 96.10 215.75 8.27 -69.22 -60.95
2003-04 111308 49.19 19.10 68.29 15.93 84.22 119.61 203.83 207.62 11.45 49.15 268.22 472.05 203.95 676.00 259.88 209.78 469.66 30.85 0.06 8.19 42.71 8.27 0.15 141.50 231.73 2.39 -27.78 -25.39

1999-00 105526 18.29 15.00 33.29 6.30 39.59 34.10 73.69 146.33 8.63 12.20 167.16 240.85 22.76 263.61 266.33 20.57 286.90 3.45 0.00 0.00 13.96 1.81 0.13 16.04 35.39 -46.05 -12.63 -58.68
2000-01 108231 19.99 17.45 37.44 8.16 45.60 53.63 99.23 178.73 15.73 20.95 215.41 314.64 143.35 457.99 324.84 20.45 345.29 5.81 0.00 0.00 24.52 6.29 0.00 21.28 57.90 -30.65 85.45 54.80
2001-02 110946 19.30 16.11 35.41 24.79 60.20 80.69 140.89 164.97 12.63 15.24 192.84 333.73 211.12 544.85 425.59 25.93 451.52 16.16 0.00 0.00 86.46 8.82 0.00 12.72 124.16 -117.79 86.96 -30.83
33 Baidyabati
2002-03 113720 17.01 29.40 46.41 26.41 72.82 24.45 97.27 164.54 17.16 11.31 193.01 290.28 52.06 342.34 271.93 33.90 305.83 12.59 0.00 0.00 54.12 13.45 0.08 12.20 92.44 -15.55 -40.38 -55.93
2003-04 116563 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

1999-00 101067 17.22 20.29 37.51 1.05 38.56 14.91 53.47 186.71 11.75 0.00 198.46 251.93 91.72 343.65 279.57 9.85 289.42 16.66 2.47 30.07 4.36 0.00 0.00 8.75 62.31 -37.49 29.41 -8.08
2000-01 103232 33.80 10.48 44.28 1.17 45.45 14.56 60.01 200.48 0.00 0.00 200.48 260.49 192.27 452.76 295.08 6.42 301.50 27.68 0.00 0.00 0.55 13.39 5.21 12.19 59.02 -41.01 133.25 92.24
2001-02 103232 19.31 16.96 36.27 1.28 37.55 19.98 57.53 189.91 32.94 0.00 222.85 280.38 198.32 478.70 279.19 106.82 386.01 14.62 3.11 0.36 51.61 15.74 5.43 15.26 106.13 -105.63 92.19 -13.44
34 Champdani
2002-03 103232 28.76 11.33 40.09 1.78 41.87 23.88 65.75 196.90 23.04 0.00 219.94 285.69 54.25 339.94 300.58 26.33 326.91 6.12 1.75 3.71 22.81 18.47 10.87 15.27 79.00 -41.22 -24.75 -65.97
2003-04 103232 29.42 9.80 39.22 0.78 40.00 26.08 66.08 221.69 13.05 0.00 234.74 300.82 90.19 391.01 299.74 33.45 333.19 12.60 1.81 2.35 41.39 170.70 8.93 4.58 242.36 -32.37 -152.17 -184.54

1999-00 137026 28.73 25.78 54.51 3.82 58.33 154.32 212.65 287.11 15.59 0.00 302.70 515.35 118.03 633.38 412.54 60.96 473.50 2.98 0.00 0.38 0.00 0.00 9.27 206.55 219.18 41.85 -101.15 -59.30
2000-01 137026 33.62 72.54 106.16 4.63 110.79 89.52 200.31 361.32 26.16 0.00 387.48 587.79 403.72 991.51 419.01 76.58 495.59 7.16 0.00 0.59 0.00 0.00 12.74 125.62 146.11 92.20 257.61 349.81
2001-02 197955 41.13 23.86 64.99 4.06 69.05 79.10 148.15 332.61 33.57 0.00 366.18 514.33 304.71 819.04 437.29 73.43 510.72 4.02 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 10.14 199.84 214.00 3.61 90.71 94.32
35 Serampur
2002-03 197986 46.59 30.68 77.27 15.62 92.89 101.45 194.34 305.17 27.32 0.00 332.49 526.83 116.65 643.48 465.31 88.03 553.34 2.01 0.00 1.11 0.00 0.00 8.01 272.65 283.78 -26.51 -167.13 -193.64
2003-04 198017 36.17 22.16 58.33 20.70 79.03 76.20 155.23 208.50 6.17 0.00 214.67 369.90 108.82 478.72 345.33 98.85 444.18 3.84 0.00 0.73 0.00 0.00 4.80 108.57 117.94 -74.28 -9.12 -83.40

1999-00 110994 84.02 10.30 94.32 2.22 96.54 32.65 129.19 80.46 10.68 122.25 213.39 342.58 101.99 444.57 276.46 74.91 351.37 28.17 0.00 0.00 43.02 8.60 3.44 62.49 145.72 -8.79 -43.73 -52.52
2000-01 113259 70.60 13.49 84.09 4.00 88.09 22.94 111.03 224.78 16.47 26.75 268.00 379.03 316.32 695.35 308.21 83.50 391.71 50.03 0.00 0.00 83.39 16.68 16.68 40.93 207.71 -12.68 108.61 95.93
2001-02 115524 76.77 13.68 90.45 3.30 93.75 48.90 142.65 243.64 0.40 24.56 268.60 411.25 214.52 625.77 298.97 99.32 398.29 53.42 0.00 0.15 89.03 17.80 17.80 37.85 216.05 12.96 -1.53 11.43
36 Rishra
2002-03 117834 85.43 22.39 107.82 7.09 114.91 84.08 198.99 224.67 22.03 26.90 273.60 472.59 102.54 575.13 337.87 127.55 465.42 45.60 0.00 0.00 74.98 15.00 14.98 50.19 200.75 7.17 -98.21 -91.04
2003-04 120191 75.88 33.78 109.66 11.92 121.58 103.57 225.15 244.90 12.55 33.74 291.19 516.34 131.72 648.06 335.93 139.96 475.89 32.77 0.00 0.00 54.61 10.92 10.92 59.04 168.26 40.45 -36.54 3.91

1999-00 0.00
2000-01 0.00
2001-02 0.00
37 Konnagar
2002-03 0.00
2003-04 0.00

1999-00 147000 31.54 16.72 48.26 2.56 50.82 43.51 94.33 164.92 10.91 14.24 190.07 284.40 51.80 336.20 178.23 88.06 266.29 17.56 2.20 0.00 118.26 0.00 0.00 0.00 138.02 18.11 -86.22 -68.11
2000-01 150000 46.36 28.16 74.52 3.23 77.75 41.40 119.15 288.23 20.90 28.44 337.57 456.72 279.80 736.52 218.11 91.37 309.48 8.33 0.00 0.00 182.72 0.00 4.71 0.00 195.76 147.24 84.04 231.28
2001-02 154000 53.85 31.95 85.80 10.31 96.11 58.32 154.43 206.99 37.05 40.01 284.05 438.48 284.89 723.37 214.22 169.10 383.32 10.91 0.00 2.58 186.92 0.00 6.24 0.00 206.65 55.16 78.24 133.40
38 Uttarpara
2002-03 158000 57.99 35.47 93.46 11.03 104.49 60.87 208.28 186.03 28.02 41.70 255.75 464.03 87.56 551.59 225.26 188.47 413.73 13.98 5.26 9.21 124.49 4.52 18.00 175.46 50.30 -87.90 -37.60
2003-04 162000 59.23 27.69 86.92 10.04 96.96 75.65 172.61 194.98 15.95 63.28 274.21 446.82 113.19 560.01 218.06 242.74 460.80 19.73 0.00 8.89 153.37 0.80 0.00 5.82 188.61 -13.98 -75.42 -89.40

I-48
Total Other Total Other Total
Revenue Designated Revenue Total Total Revenue Revenue Total
Total Other Tax Total Tax Non-Tax from Own Revenue Shared Grants/inco from Govt. Revenue Capital Total Salary & Expenditu Expenditur Capital Revenue Capital Total
Name of ULBs Years Population Property Tax Revenue Revenue Revenue Fund Grants Taxes me Fund Income Grants Receipts Wages re e Capital Expenditure Expenditure Surplus/Deficit Surplus/Deficit Surplus/Deficit
Current Arrears Total Water Sup Swerage SWM Roads Drain Srt. Lights Others

1999-00 162000 52.43 7.27 59.70 6.95 66.65 108.43 175.08 705.19 12.48 0.00 717.67 892.75 115.08 1007.83 771.70 179.20 950.90 12.80 0.00 0.00 31.90 10.82 2.70 72.27 130.49 -58.15 -15.41 -73.56
2000-01 162000 63.91 13.39 77.30 3.52 80.82 102.03 182.85 789.98 20.00 0.00 809.98 992.83 397.32 1390.15 789.28 146.06 935.34 61.02 0.00 0.00 205.63 22.58 11.79 74.48 375.50 57.49 21.82 79.31
2001-02 162000 85.80 36.68 122.48 11.09 133.57 154.03 287.60 872.26 31.23 0.00 903.49 1191.09 277.44 1468.53 967.98 222.37 1190.35 20.46 0.00 1.22 178.86 2.44 6.11 66.08 275.17 0.74 2.27 3.01
39 Chandannagore MC
2002-03 162000 90.58 25.58 116.16 18.63 134.79 214.46 349.25 765.71 22.41 0.00 788.12 1137.37 200.42 1337.79 833.57 326.14 1159.71 19.29 0.85 0.00 108.28 39.82 3.08 69.52 240.84 -22.34 -40.42 -62.76
2003-04 162000 94.33 12.91 107.24 29.76 137.00 290.90 427.90 776.71 51.05 0.00 827.76 1255.66 129.16 1384.82 844.02 378.63 1222.65 16.64 1.96 0.00 51.20 6.57 4.72 109.14 190.23 33.01 -61.07 -28.06

1999-00 0.00
2000-01 0.00
2001-02 0.00
40 Howrah MC
2002-03 0.00
2003-04 0.00

1999-00 2935975 836.74 444.23 1280.97 98.66 1379.63 1029.17 2408.80 3330.62 944.37 685.23 4960.22 7369.02 3250.83 10619.85 4147.06 1956.17 6103.23 416.13 346.91 40.66 1651.89 226.78 93.91 1266.50 4042.78 1265.79 -791.95 473.84
2000-01 4086480 1153.68 572.45 1726.13 219.82 1945.95 1461.87 3407.82 4930.08 844.76 835.39 6610.23 10018.05 5101.07 15119.12 5823.22 2588.83 8412.05 414.59 273.45 25.30 1862.22 187.31 128.83 1746.49 4638.19 1606.00 462.88 2068.88
2001-02 4374235 1510.55 656.13 2166.68 292.86 2459.54 2084.29 4543.83 6502.30 1297.68 849.58 8649.56 13193.39 6772.19 19965.58 7124.73 3335.77 10460.50 544.07 492.73 29.47 2553.26 276.70 150.12 2235.93 6282.28 2732.89 489.91 3222.80
Total
2002-03 2898586 1071.05 416.76 1487.81 175.77 1663.58 1111.99 2818.49 4402.33 596.29 486.65 5485.27 8303.76 4142.35 12446.11 5391.66 1956.25 7347.91 361.80 189.32 25.57 1579.72 253.43 120.63 1850.02 4380.49 955.85 -238.14 717.71
2003-04 3844983 1353.20 626.51 1979.71 270.01 2249.72 1573.19 3822.91 5643.75 612.29 565.38 6821.42 10644.33 3407.91 14052.24 6840.39 2867.45 9707.84 546.83 223.13 40.41 1611.85 388.34 170.69 1731.91 4713.16 936.49 -1305.25 -368.77

I-49
Infrastructural Profile :

Traffic & Transportation:


Existing Transport Infrastructure: The transport Infrastructure in KMA
primarily consist of:
Highway and Street network
Railway network
Water transportation facilities.

Highway and Street Network: The existing highway and street network
within KMA is inadequate. The total road length of the highways and arterial roads
within KMA was estimated to the about 500 km. of which 400 km is in Metropolitan
Centre and 100 km in the rest of the metropolis. The existing street and highway
network may be categorised under the following heads in the following Table.

I-50
State Highways and District Roads linking hinterland

Diamond Harbour Road Barasat Taki Road


Garia Sonarpur Road Howrah Amta Road
Benaras Road Tarakeswar Road
Dhaniakhali Road Budge Budge Road
Talpukur Road Lauhati Road
B. N. Dey Road Amtala Road
T.N. Mukherjee Road Kanchrapara Haringhata
Road
Sonarpur Chakberia Road
Hatisal Amta Road
Bandel Polba Road
Serampur Antpur Road

Metropolitan highway system: While the National Highways and the State
and District roads provide the regional link with the region, a number of roads
function as arteries of the metropolis as metropolitan highway system, and serve
both through traffic and local traffic, as noted in the Tavble noted below. In most of
the cases these roads have uncontrolled access from abutting properties.

Metropolitan Highways

Madhusudan Banerjee Road Sodepur Road


Barrackpur Barasat Road Budge Budge Road
Barrackpore Trunk Road BarrackporeKalyani
Ghoshpara Road Expressway
Eastern Metropolitan By Pass G.T. Road
Andul Road Kona Expressway
Kazi Nazrul Islam Avenue Foreshore Road (Howrah)
Cossipore Road Jessore Road
Dum Dum Road Krishnarampur Road

Major Arterial Roads: About 40 major important arterial roads could be


identified, which function as the major arteries within the city of Kolkata and Howrah
in the metro core area.

I-51
Railway Network

There are in total 12 nos. rail alignments within the KMA and the suburban
services extend to Burdwan, Katwa, Krishnanagar, Bongaon on the north, Diamond
Harbour, Budge Budge, Lakshmikantapur and Port Canning on the south,
Tarakeswar on the west and Kharagpur on the south west. There are 105
suburban passenger railway stations within the area placed at an average interval of
2 to 2.5 K.M. The most important passenger terminals are the Sealdah and Howrah
Stations. Apart from the above two major terminal stations, there are 8 junction
stations within the area and they are at:
Ballygunge,
Dum Dum,
Naihati,
Bandel,
Sheoraphuli,
Sonarpur,
Baruipur,
Barasat,
Santragachi

I-52
The Eastern Railway Line and Stations: Of the above mentioned railway
alignments, except for the section from Howrah Railway Station to Kharagpur, the
remaining rail network within the KMA belongs to the Eastern Railway. The number
of stations of the Eastern Railway in KMA is 93.

The Junction stations mentioned above are located on the Eastern Railway
Network. The suburban servics of the Eastern Railway operate both from the
Sealdah and the Howrah Railway Stations.

The railway line from Kankurgachi to Park Circus, by-passing the Sealdah
Station, mostly carry goods trains and belong to the Eastern Railway. A suburban
service with very few trains operates through this line connecting Budge Budge and
Naihati.

South Eastern Railway Line: The rail network from Howrah to Kharagpur
section belongs to the South Eastern Railway and the suburban services of the
South Eastern Railway are provided through this line. There are twelve (12) stations
on this section lying within the metropolis.

There is a railway line between Andul and Dankuni, which is known as Andul-
Dankuni Chord Line and is used only for movement of goods trains. This line also
belongs to the South Eastern Railway.

A newline is also in operation under S. E. Railways connecting Howrah


Station with Bargachia.

I-53
Circular Railway Line and Stations: The total length of the proposed
Circular Railway is a little over 34 km. of which 16 km. is over the existing suburban
route of Majerhat Ballygunge Dum Dum via Kankurgachi Chord of Sealdah
Division and the remaining 18 kilometres is mostly over old Kolkata Port Trust
Railways and Eastern Railways Chitpur Yard. At present the Circular services
operate on two routes, one from Dum Dum Junction Stn. to Princep Ghat and the
other Budge Budge to Naihati by passing the Sealdah stn. Via the Kankurgachi
Chord. The stations along the section, Dum Dum to Princep Ghat are the following:-
Patipukur
Ultadanga Road
Tala
Baghbazar
Sovabazar
Burrabazar
B.B.D. Bag
Eden Gardens
A very few trains operate on this section daily.

Metro Railway and Stations: The 16.43 km. long metro-rail from Dum Dum
in the north and Tollygunge in the south has been under operation. There are 17
stations in this section between Dum Dum and Tollygunge, namely, Dum Dum,
Belgachia, Shyambazar, Sovabazar, Girish Park, Mahajati Sadan, Central, Chandni
Chowk, Esplanade, Park Street, Maidan, Rabindra Sadan, Bhowanipur, Jatindas
Park, Kalighat, Rabindra Sarobar and Tollygunge.

I-54
Water Transportation Facilities

Kolkata Port System: The Kolkata Port system under the control of the
Kolkata Port Trust comprises the Kolkata Dock system that handles a fairly high
volume of ships containing cargoes in the berths under the Kidderpore Dock and
Netaji Subhas Dock. There are in total 18 nos. berths under the Kidderpore Dock
(KPD) and 14 nos. berths under the Netaji Subhas Dock (NSD). The quantity of
goods traffic handled by the Kolkata Dock system in the year 1992-93 was about
5.157 million Metric Tons. The quantity of goods traffic transported to and from the
Kolkata Port area by Rail in the year 1999-2000 was about 10.31 million tonnes. The
number of goods vehicles including trucks (10 tonnes capacity), bigger trucks (20
tonnes capacity) and trailers (of length 40 to 50 ft.) arriving and leaving the Kolkata
Dock System for the inward transportation of goods were about 15,000 per month
during the year 1999-2000.

I-55
Inland Water Transport: Central Inland Water Transport Corporation
(CIWTC), a Govt. of India Undertaking operates river services carrying goods
between Kolkata and Assam via Bangladesh. It is operating river services between
Kolkata and Farakka and Kolkata and Cachar. The other activities of CIWTC include
ship building and ship repairing.

The total amount of goods carried by CIWTC on 9 number routes was


about 2.51 lakh Tonnes in 1999-2000.

The West Bengal Inland Water Transport Corporation (WBIWTC), set up by


the Govt. of West Bengal with the objective of operating ferry services,
implementation of plan, schemes in the I.W.T. Section, setting up of infrastructure,
terminal facilities and of initiating and carrying out of the promotional activities for
growth and development of inland water transport in West Bengal, is also
responsible for the transport of cargoes and passengers through the river Hooghly.

Passenger Ferry Services: The Passenger Ferry Services are operated


from 58 Ferry Crossing Points located on river Hooghly within KMA. Out of 58 Ferry
Crossing Points, the Motorised Launches operate from 30 Points and mechanically
operated country boats operate from 28 points. In the year 2000 about 2,49,000
passengers were carried across the river Hooghly by the Ferry Services within KMA.

A high-speed passenger Ferry along the river Hooghly is also in operation


between Kolkata & Haldia. The Catamaran Service operates from the Silver Jet Jetty
located south of the crossing of Koilaghata Street and Strand Road with one up trip
and one down trip daily.

I-56
Surface Transport System

The Surface Transport System in KMA consists of the Buses, the Mini Buses,
the Trams and para transit system.

The Bus services are operated by both public sector agencies as well as
private owners. The Bus services in KMA under the public sector are operated by the
Calcutta State Transport Corporation (CSTC), West Bengal Surface Transport
Corporation, Calcuta Tramways Company (CTC). In the year 1998-99, the public
sector agencies in KMA operated daily about 1350 Buses carrying a daily passenger
volume of 12 lakh. The private Bus operators operated about 6,000 Buses daily in
the year 1998-99 carrying and average daily passenger volume about 80 lakh.

The Mini Buses are also operated by private owners and in the year 1998-99
about 1500 Mini Buses were operated daily, carrying a passenger volume of about
12 lakhs within the KMA.

About 180 Trams were operating daily on 30 Tram Routes in Kolkata in the
year 1998-99 and carried about 1.6 lakhs passengers daily.

A number of Chartered Buses are operating within the KMA area on non-
schedule routes and are becoming popular particularly to the office going population.
In 1998-99 about 2000 Chartered Buses operated in KMA area carrying about 2.5
lakh passengers per day.

The paratransit vehicles also constitute the surface transport system of the
metropolis. The Taxis, Auto Rickshaws, Cycle Rickshaws, Handpulled Rickshaws,
Cycle Vans and Trekkers constitute the paratransit system. In 1998-99 about 20,000
Taxis were operated daily in the area carrying a passenger volume of about 10

I-57
lakhs. About 25,000 Auto Rickshaws were operated in the area carrying a daily
passenger volume of about 15 lakhs. About 26,000 Cycle Vans & Trekkers operated
in KMA in the year 1998-99 and carred about 7.8 lakhs passengers per day. The
modal distribution of transit passenger trips on an average weekday within KMA
have been indicated in the following Table.

Movement of Passengers within KMA

Modal Distribution of transit passenger trips


Average Weekday 1998-99
Bus (Figures in Lakh)
1. Private Bus - 80.00 (6000)
2. Public Bus 12.00 (1350)
C.S.T.C.
C.T.C.
Surface Transport
Corporation
3. Tram - 1.60 (200)
4. Minibus - 12.00 (1500)
5. Ferry Service - 2.20
6. Chartered Bus - 2.50 (2000)
Sub Total : 110.30
Rail
Suburban Rail - 32.00
Metro Rail - 1.75
Circular Rail - 0.15
Sub Total - 33.90
Paratransit
Taxi - 10.00 (20000)
Autorickshaws - 15.00 (25000)
Cyclerickshaw, Rickshaw, - 7.80 (26000)
Cyclevan
Sub Total - 32.80
Grand 177.00
Total -
(1 to 8)
N.B.: Figures within brackets indicate the number of vehicles.

I-58
Passenger and Goods Movement by Railways

Suburban Railway System: The total number of passengers carried by the


suburban railway network of the Eastern Railways and the South-Eastern Railways
in the metropolis was about 32.00 lakhs per day in the year 1998-99 out of which for
the share of the South Eastern Railway was about 4.00 lakhs per day. The total
number of EMU trains operated daily from Howrah and Sealdah Stations in the year
1998-99 was 940 of which 550 EMU trains operated from Sealdah station and 390
EM.U. trains operated from the Howrah Station. Of the 390 E.M.U. trains 252 nos. of
trains were operated by the Eastern Railway and the remaining 138 nos. of trains
were operated by the South Eastern Railway.

In the year 1998, the number of passengers using the Sealdah and Howrah
Railway Terminals daily were 15.80 lakhs and 11.30 lakhs respectively.

Goods Movement by Railways: The total quantity of goods handled at the


Goods terminals of the South Eastern Railways in 1999-2000 was about 2.23 million
tons.

Passenger and Goods Movement by Air transport:

The International Airport Authority of India handles the passenger services as


well as goods/cargo movement at Kolkata Airport, Dum Dum. The Airport system is
connected with highway network linking the various parts of KMA and hinterland.
The Airport at present has no direct linkage with railway system in KMA.

Passenger Traffic handled by Kolkata Airport


(1995-96 to 1998-99)

Year International Domestic Total


1995-96 5,30,127 20,34,990 25,65,117
1996-97 6,11,072 19,65,499 25,76,571
1997-98 6,20,380 18,92,379 25,12,759
1998-99 6,20,400 18,90,000 25,10,400

Goods Traffic handled by Kolkata Airport


(1995-96 to 1998-99)

Period International Domestic Total


1995-96 19,135 M.T 22,741 M.T. 41,876 M.T.
1996-97 19,845 M.T 23,496 M.T 43,341 M.T
1997-98 22,361 M.T 25,023 M.T 47,384 M.T
1998-99 22,420 M.T 25,184 M.T 47,604 M.T

Travel Speed on Major Arterial Roads in Kolkata and Howrah


The travel speed of vehicular traffic is an indicator of the quality of flow
and traffic load on a particular road. The speed profile of major arterial roads
in Kolkata & Howrah are given below:

I-59
Speed Profile of Major Arterial Roads In Kolkata
(Average Weekday)

Sl. Average Travel Total Length Percentage Cumulative


No. Speed (km/hr) (km) Percentage
1. Less than 5 15.2 4.93 4.93
2. 5.0 to 9.0 7.4 2.40 7.33
3. 10.0 to 14.0 38.8 12.60 19.93
4. 15.0 to 19.0 94.0 30.52 50.45
5. 20.0 to 24.0 68.7 22.30 72.75
6. 25.0 to 29.6 40.8 13.24 85.99
7. 30.0 to 34.0 22.7 7.38 93.37
8. 35.0 and above 20.4 6.63 100.00
Total: 308.0 100.00

Speed Profile of The Major Arterial Roads In Howrah


(Average Weekday)

Sl. Average Travel Total Length Percentage Cumulative


No. Speed (Km/Hr) (Km) Percentage
1. Less than 5 0.72 1.43 1.43
2. 5.0 to 7.5 10.40 20.60 22.03
3. 7.5 to 9.0 12.76 25.29 47.32
4. 9.0 to 12.0 9.44 18.70 66.02
5. 12.0 to 15.0 6.80 13.48 79.50
6. > 15.0 10.34 20.50 100.0
Total 50.46 100.00

Traffic Accidents in Kolkata and Howrah

The present scenario of traffic accidents in Kolkata and Howrah has been
given below.

I-60
Traffic accidents in last five years in Howrah

Year No. of traffic Injury Death


accidents
occurred

1995 (1st eight months) 7302 1777 314

1996 (1st six months) 5724 1403 237

1999 (12 months) 14555 2805 442

2000 (12 months) 15463 2730 435

Traffic accidents in last four years in Howrah

Year No. of Traffic Accidents occurred


1995 577

1996 511

1997 485

1998 569

1999 602

Parking of Cars and Goods Vehicles

The car parking survey conducted in 7 areas in Kolkata in 1998-99 indicate


that about 3000 cars were parking on street in BBD Bag and adjoining areas on
weekdays. About 1500 cars were found to be parking on streets in areas around
Park Street. About 500 cars were observed to be parking on roads in and around
Gariahat Are. The percentage of effective carriageways occupied by parked vehicles
on the roads in areas mentioned above were in the range of 24-38%

The goods vehicle parking survey conducted on 20 roads in Burrabazar and


adjoining areas indicated that about 2400 trucks and tempoes were parking on the
roads and occupying effective carriageway widths ranging between 42-91%.

In the year 1998-99 about 375 trucks were observed to be parking at a


particular time in daytime in and around the Kolkata Dock Area.

I-61
Vehicles entering and leaving KMA

The total number of vehicles observed to be entering or leaving KMA on


average weekdays in 1997-98 were about 1, 24, 000. The ratio of slow: fast vehicles
was 60:40.

Number of Trucks entering and leaving KMA: About 40,600 trucks were
found to be entering or leaving KMA area daily through the 22 roads connecting the
area with the hinterland.

No. of passengers entering and leaving KMA by road: In the year 1998
about 3,40,000 passengers were found to be entering or leaving KMA during the
period 8 A.M. to 8 P.M. through the connecting roads. About 85% of the passengers
were transported by bus and the remaining 15% by other modes.

Household Travel Characteristics in KMA

A household interview survey for more than 21,000 households within the
Metropolitan Area was conducted by KMDA in 1997-98.
It has been observed that on an average weekday about 22.6 million trips
were generated within KMA of which 11.06 million were transit passenger trips and
6.29 million trips were walking trips. The work trips were found to be 53.70% and the
educational trips were 25.43% of total trips, indicating that about 80% of total trips
were generated for the above-mentioned purposes.

Amongst the factors affecting the choice of mode, the cost of journey was the
predominant factor and about 76% of the total trips were guided by the cost of travel
for a particular mode.

The vehicle ownership pattern within the area in 1997-98 indicates that 61%
of the households in the area did not have any vehicle and about 30% of the
households had bi-cycles only. The motorcar and the two-wheelers constituted
1.73% and 5.67% respectively of the total number of households.

The distribution of total trips generated in KMA indicates that 72.47% of the
total trips were performed by the male residents and 27.53% trips were performed by
the female residents.

I-62
Water Supply :

Present Scenario

To overcome the disconsolate predicament multi various


activities, in line with the recommendations of the Master Plan (1966-
2001), so far been rendered by different Organizations within the limited
financial resources have resorted this metropolis from crisis to a more
or less stable condition no doubt, but there remains a huge back log
requires to be wiped out on urgent basis taking into consideration the
changed scenario that have taken place during the intervening period
since 1966.

KMA has got its twofold water source viz: (a) Surface water from
the only source of river Hooghly and (b) Ground water source. Out of
these two sources, the water from river Hooghly is being treated and
supplied to a very limited areas of KMA through the treatment plants
and infrastructures that has so far been constructed leaving the vast
majority of remaining KMA to depend on the source (b) i.e. Ground
water.

I-63
Ground Water Resource

As it has not yet been possible to extend treated surface water supply to the
majority of KMA, inhabitants of these areas are forced to depend on ground water.
This good quantity of ground water is found to become unpredictable day by day due
to over withdrawal by the huge number of haphazardly placed deep tube wells
resulting in fall of piezometric level, ground subsidence, trace of arsenic in some
places and other adverse effects. In this context the recommendations of different
studies on ground water made by different Organizations are narrated below.

Master Plan (1966 2001): For preparation of this Master Plan detailed
studies on ground water source was made to ascertain its characteristics with
regards to quantity, quality, feasibility of withdrawal etc. The main findings of
such study may be viewed as follows.

Ground water occurs throughout the study area in a very thick zone
of saturation from within a few feet below the ground level to an
unknown depth.
Because of the existence of extensive aquifers above a depth of
500 ft. and the generally acceptable quality of the waters found in
these aquifers, largescale development and utilization of ground
water is highly practicable in the Northern CMD area. The areas
found most suitable for the future development of well fields.
In the central & southern CMD areas relatively in-extensive aquifer
bodies are found. In the central CMD area, ground water quality
varies considerably and in certain locations highly saline content
water occurs. The southern CMD area is generally characterized by
ground water of poor quality. For these reasons extensive
development of ground water resource in the Central and Southern
areas of CMD is not feasible. Hence, the Hooghly River will serve
as the primary source of supply for the Central and Southern CMD
areas.

i. Study by Geological Survey of India and Geo-Scientific


Studies (1985): The main findings were: -

i. Decline of piezometric level due to over withdrawal of water from


closely spaced deep tube-wells.
ii. Decline of yields of tube-wells may also be related to choking of
slots of strainers and improper spacing of tube-wells resulting
interference of cone of depressions.
iii. Tapping of ground water should be done judiciously through
properly designed gravel Shrouded tube wells as well as spacing
and withdrawal rate to be kept within safe limit.

Quality of Underground Water Resource: The reduced rate of


recharging of aquifer and trace of arsenic contamination in places has become
the added challenging task to combat with on urgent basis. The presence of huge
iron is causing deposition of Fe ion on the inner surface of the water carrying

I-64
conduits thereby chocking and/or reducing the capacity of the entire conveyance
lines.
It is therefore, high time that necessary plans/ methods be sorted out to switch
over to the surface water system.

A large part of KMA is yet served by ghround water source through Deep
Tubewells and network of pipeline and reservoirs connected to the deep tubewells.
An account of the ground water usage is noted in the Table below.
Table 3.4.1 GROUND WATER EXPLORATION BY DIFFERENT LOCAL BODIES
Sl. Municipality / Area in Population Total Total Rate of
No. Corporation sq. km. (in lacs) No. of yield in supply
Census 2001 DTWs MGD LPCD
1. South Dum Dum 19.53 4.33 51 4.284 44.98
2 Dum Dum 9.72 1.62 23 2.944 82.61
3 North Dum Dum 26.45 2.20 22 3.388 70.01
4 New Barrackpore 16.89 0.83 14 2.100 115.02
5 Madhyamgram 20.81 1.56 26 2.987 87.04
6 Barasat 34.50 2.32 14 1.680 32.92
7 Baranagar 7.12 2.51 16 1.920 34.77
8 Kamarhati 10.90 3.14 28 3.640 52.70
9 Panihati 19.40 3.48 29 4.389 57.33
10 Khardah 6.87 1.16 17 2.550 99.93
11 Titagarh 3.24 1.24 13 3.413 125.12
12 Barrackpore 11.65 1.44 24 4.056 128.08
13 North Barrackpopre 12.22 1.22 21 3.150 117.38
14 Garulia 6.48 0.76 14 2.520 150.74
15 Bhatpara 31.12 4.44 50 8.00 81.91
16 Naihati 6.67 2.15 27 3.888 82.21
17 Kanchrapara 9.07 1.26 20 2.880 103.91
18 Gayeshpur 22.00 0.57 15 1.440 114.85
19 Kalyani 29.14 0.82 36 4.320 239.50
20 Halisahar 8.28 1.25 25 5.100 185.84
21 Pujali 8.28 0.34 . . .
22 Budge Budge 9.06 0.76 . . .
23 Maheshtala 42.72 3.89 14 0.784 9.16
24 Rajpur-Soanrpur 55.34 3.36 15 0.900 12.18
25 Baruipur 9.07 0.45 7 0.525 53.04
26 Rajarhat-Gopalpur 28.00 2.72 7 0.525 8.77
27 Bidhannagar 28.24 1.70 20 3.20 85.57
28 Kolkata Municipal Corpn. 185.39 45.81 335 35.18 34.91
29 Bansberia 9.07 1.05 19 3.42 148.07
30 Hooghly Chinsurah 17.29 1.84 31 3.10 76.59
31 Chandannagar M.C. 30.24 1.90 .. .. ..
32 Bhadreswar 10.01 1.16 20 4.00 156.76
33 Champdani 6.47 1.03 21 2.65 116.96
34 Baidyabati 9.06 1.16 11 1.32 52.00
35 Serampore 14.50 1.98 19 2.57 59.01
36 Rishra 6.67 1.13 17 1.90 76.44
37 Konnagar 4.69 0.72 18 1.64 103.55
38 Uttarpara Kotrang 18.69 1.89 16 1.92 46.18
39 Bally 11.81 2.62 12 2.11 36.61
40 Uluberia 33.31 2.02 3 0.255 5.74
41 Howrah M.C. 51.74 11.19 . . .
Total 134.648

I-65
Surface Water Resource

Though the quality aspect of any source of water generally relates for deciding its
suitability for treatment process, KMA has got no other alternative but to accept the
only surface water resource as River Hooghly regardless of its quality. To assess
the different process of treatment and the degree of treatment required at each
stage, it is necessary to have a look at the quality of raw water resource. For this
purpose the quality of water of River Hooghly was ascertained through a thorough
investigation made by National Environmental Engineering Research Institute
(NEERI) in September 2001.

Hindrances in Transportation: To make the treated surface water available


to the furthest corner of KMA mainly involves areas of the Rural, Out Growths and
NMUs, which together comprises of 16% KMA population residing in a scattered
way, isolated from each other, over 49% area of KMA yielding a population density
of only 10 ppa. These areas being situated at a long distance from the source (river
Hooghly) requires laying of huge length of pipe lines. To implement such pipe
network system for a very nominal percentage of population, various forms of
physical hindrances are to be taken care of due to topographical features of the land
causing a severe impact on the social cost benefit ratio. Moreover, the prevailing
norms does not recommend piped water supply to areas having population density
less than 25 ppa.

I-66
Considering the above aspects, the Sector Committee, Water Supply, KMPC,
has taken the decision to cover these areas through spot source with consideration
of using Arsenic removal Kits where necessary.

Major Completed Water Supply Schemes

Augmentation of Palta Water Works- The capacity of the Plant, located


about 20 km away from the north of the city, has been augmented to 220 mgd to
serve the central and northern part of KMC area, Bidhannagar, South Dum Dum and
North Dum Dum Municipal areas. Construction of an additional UGR (7 MG) at
Tallah is also a part of it.

Augmentation of Garden Reach Water Treatment Plant- For serving the


Southern part of KMC and Budge Budge, Pujali and Maheshtala Municipal areas,
one 60 mgd treatment plant was constructed at Garden Reach within Maheshtala
Municipality. The capacity of the Plant has been augmented to 120 mgd. But at
present the Plant cannot be run to its optimum capacity for non-completion of
secondary storage reservoirs along with necessary Primary Grids, some of which
have been taken up and are in advance stage of completion.

Howrah Water Treatment Plant- Construction of one 30 mgd treatment plant


has been completed at Padmapukur Jala in South Howrah for the areas of Southern
part of Howrah and part of Bally Municipality.

Baranagar-Kamarhati Water Treatment Plant- Construction of one 30 mgd


treatment plant has been completed in Kamarhati Municipality for supplying water to
six municipal areas viz. Baranagar, Kamarhati, Panihati, Khardah, Titagarh and

I-67
North Dum Dum. But the full capacity of the plant is not being generated at present
for non-completion of the secondary reservoirs at the respective municipal zone.

Serampore Water Treatment Plant- At Serampore Municipal Area one 20


mgd treatment plant has been completed to cater eight municipal areas viz.
Bhadreswar, Champdani, Baidyabati, Serampore, Rishra, Konnagar, Uttarpara-
Kotrung and Bally (P).

Chandannagar Water Treatment Plant- The 0.48 MGD capacity treatment


plant constructed in French regime for Chandannagar Municipal Corporation has
been augmented to 1.00 mgd at present.

Bansberia water Treatment Plant- For serving the Bansberia and Hooghly-
Chinsurah municipal areas, one 0.6 mgd treatment plant was constructed long back.

The above-mentioned generation along with other particulars is furnished in


the following Table.

Present Generation of water & Locations being served

Existing Area Population


Name of the Capacity served served Locations
Plants (MGD) (Sq. Km) (Lakh)
Palta 220 197.54 45.81 KMC (P),
Bidhannagar, S. Dum
Dum & Dum Dum
BKTP 30 77.54 15.40 Baranagar,
Kamarhati, Panihati,
Khardah, Titagarh &
N. Dum Dum.
Bhadreswar,
Champdani,
Baidyabati,
Serampore 20 40.84 6.83
Serampore, Rishra,
Konnagar, Uttarpara-
Kotrung & Bally (P).
Bansberia 0.6 20.07 1.89 Bansberia & Hooghly-
Chinsurah
Chandannag 1.0 22.03 1.62 Chandannagar M.
ar Corporation
Southern part of
KMC, Maheshtala,
GRWW 120 53.00 4.64
Budge Budge &
Pujali.
Howrah 30 62.74 11.60 HMC & Bally (P)
Total 421.60 473.76 87.79

Apart from the field of generation, several other works for its transmission
have also been completed. In addition, various ground water based water supply
I-68
schemes has been completed for the areas, which could not be considered under
treated surface water at present. Major works of this category may be observed as
follows:

1. Improvement of Calcutta District System for stabilization and up


gradation of the distribution network within the city to provide more
equitable supply.
2. Improvement of Tallah-Palta System.
3. Laying Primary & Secondary Grids in different parts of Howrah for up
gradation of distribution network system for supply from Howrah Water
Treatment Plant.
4. Underground Reservoir (UGR) with Boosting Stations at Raja Subodh
Mullick squire, Auckland Squire and Mohammad Ali Park.
5. Surface Water Supply to Bidhannagar, Dum Dum and South Dum Dum
by laying dedicated mains from Tallah, 2 nos. UGR at Salt Lake and
Lake Town including integration with the existing municipal distribution
network system.
6. Municipal Water Supply Scheme under CUDP in different municipal
towns viz. Kanchrapara, Halisahar, Bhatpara, Garulia, North Dum
Dum, Dum Dum, South Dum Dum, Baranagar, Kamarhati, Garden
Reach, South Suburban, Budge Budge, Bansberia, Chandannagar,
Konnagar for providing piped water supply through ground water
sources.
7. Municipal Water supply Schemes under Mega city in the municipal
towns of Madhyamgram, Rajpur-Sonarpur (Ph-I), and Baruipur (Ph-I)
for providing piped water supply through ground water source.
8. Emergency Water Supply Scheme, Phase I, II, III in different parts of
municipal and non-municipal areas for providing water supply through
ground source.

Fringe Area Water Supply Scheme (FAWS) for different non-municipal urban
fringes within Kolkata Metropolitan Area through ground water source.

I-69
Major on-going Water Supply Schemes

Besides the completed schemes, several on going projects are also


contributing a part to the changed scenario. These are mainly as follows:

1. Augmentation of Howrah Water Treatment Plant from 30 to 60 mgd.


2. New 30 mgd Water Treatment Plant at Kalyani, Ph-I.
3. Augmentation of Palta WTP from 220 to 260 mgd.
4. Augmentation of BKTP from 30 to 70 mgd.
5. Augmentation of Serampore WTP from 20 to 50 mgd.
6. Augmentation of Chandannagar WTP from 1 to 3.5 mgd.
7. Improvement of Water Supply in Jadavpur & Behala Units of KMC.
8. UGR at Garfa, Ranikuthi, Bansdroni, Kasba, Kalighat.
9. UGR-cum-Boosting Station at Dakghar under Maheshtala Municipality.
10. Stabilization and Extension of Primary Grid under GRW W, Ph-II.
11. Integration of primary Grid with Secondary Grid for BKTP, Interim phase.
12. Piped Water Supply Schemes at Rajarhat, Maheshtala, Barasat, Dankuni.

From above, it is observed that the present capacity of the plants in operation
is 421.60 MGD. Augmentation process for another 142.50 MGD is going on and the
net output will be 564.10 MGD within a few years.

I-70
Drainage and Sewerage :

Drainage Basins of KMA

Existing Drainage: Based on the recommendations given in the greater


Calcutta Master Drainage Plan 1953 for the east bank areas of Hooghly river and the
proposals of Irrigation & Waterways Department, Govt. of West Bengal for the West
Bank areas of Hooghly river, the drainage proposals of previous Master plan (1966-
2001), present topography & land use pattern and outfall system of the proposed
catchment areas are divided into 25 (twenty five) nos. of drainage basins within
KMA. The Kolkata Metropolitan Area has a detailed existing Drainage network,
though the system is too old. There are various Drainage Basins, canals, channels,
etc. for easy disposal of the same. There exists 25 nos. of Drainage basins as
mentioned below.

Drainage Basins (25 nos)


East Bank (18 Nos.) West Bank (7 Nos.)
Bager, Nowai, Ichapur, Khardah, North West Reparian,
Bagjola, Ghia-Kunti, Dankuni,
Sunti, Kolkata, Northern Salt Lake, Konnagar, Howrah,
Manicktola, Boinchita, Barajola, Rajapur
Southern Salt Lake
Tollygunge-Panchannagram,
Tollys Nullah
Monikhali, Churial, Keorapukur,
Mograhat,
Sonarpur-Arapanch.

I-71
Sewerage Zones of KMA

Existing Sewerage: Based on the recommendation of the sewerage


proposals of previous Master plan (1966-2001), existing & proposed water supply
facilities, topography of the command area, locational advantageous for present &
future land use patterns and available facilities of water bodies for discharge of
treated effluents on the entire metropolitan area of KMA, have been divided into 20
nos. of sewerage zones. These sewerage zones are as follows:

Sewerage Zones
East Bank (14 Nos.) West Bank (6 Nos.)
Kalyani, Bhatpara, Barrackpur, Bansberia,
Titarah, Khardah, Barasat, Dum Chandannagar,
Dum, Manicktala, Salt Lake, Serampur, Konnagar,
Kolkata Tollygunge, Rajpur, Howrah, Uluberia
Garden Reach, Budge Budge

The sewerage zones of KMA have been phased as per the recommendations
of previous Master Plan (1966 - 2001).
The existing sewerage system or KMA is divided into 20 Sewerage Zones. The
KMA is dealing with its sewerage network for more than a century though there are
instances of sewerage congestion due to weak O&M practices. There are various
sewerage systems like Kolkata combined sewerage system, Bhatpara municipal
sewerage system, Titagarh municipal sewerage system etc., which are many
decades old.

I-72
Kolkata Municipal Combined Sewerage System

Existing Drainage & Sewerage Facilities of Kolkata System: The system


comprises mainly the following Drainage Basins:

Kolkata Basin covering of mainly the following Drainage Basins


Manicktala - Ultadanga Basin
Tollygunge-Panchannagram Basin
Bagjola Basin (Part) covering Cossipore-Chitpore Area
Tollys Nullah Basin

General Gradient and Flow of Sewage: The general elevation of Kolkata


above Khidderpore Old Dock Sill (KODS) is between 19 and 22 ft. as obtained from
the existing report. The average slope in general, is from west to east - from the
east bank of the Hooghly River to the Salt Lakes. Netaji Subhas Road near the
Hooghly River is a (+) 22.0 KODS, where Salt Lake City is at (+) 18.5 KODS.

The trunk sewers laid along the east-west direction carry the wastewater and
storm runoff from the western part of the City east to the different pumping stations
like Palmers Bridge Pumping Station (PBPS), Ballygunge Drainage Pumping
Station (BDPS) and Dhapa Lock Pumping Station (DLPS) where water is pumped
to the dry weather flow (DWF) channel and storm water flow (SWF) channel for
disposal into the Kulti River almost 36 km away from the City. The major part of the
sewer network carries combined flow whereas in few areas partially separate
drainage systems are present. There is no sewage treatment plant in the system at
present.

Town system: In this system, the average invert level of the trunk sewers
near the Hooghly River is (+) 13.5 KODS, and at the pumping station end is (+)
3.61 KODS producing a 10-foot fall approximately.

I-73
The sewer network of the Town System is comprised of the following trunk
sewers:

Baghbazar Street Sewer


Sobhabazar Street - Grey Street Sewer
Nimtola Ghat Street - Beadon Street Sewer
Kolutola Street - Mirzapore Street Sewer
Lenin Sarani Sewer
A. P. C. Roy Road Sewer
A. J. C. Bose Road Sewer

Suburban System: The Suburban System area is bounded by AJC Bose


Road and Convent Road in the north, Eastern Railway Line on the south and east
and the dock area on the west covering an area of about 25.69 sq. km. There are
three trunk sewers running west to east carrying the combined flow of the area and
finally discharge to the Ballygunge Drainage Pumping Station (BDPS). The Trunk
Sewers are:

Rashbehari Avenue Trunk Sewer


Hazra Road Trunk Sewer
Padmapukur Road Trunk Sewer

Two other trunk sewer running from north to south carry the discharge from CIT
Road area and Tiljala area and discharge to BDPS. These are:

CIT Road Trunk Sewer


Tiljala Road Trunk Sewer

Another trunk sewer that carries the storm discharge from a part of Town
System and discharge to BDPS is Park Street Trunk Sewer. All of these sewers are
of circular sections.

These trunk sewers that carry the storm discharge from a part of Town system
and discharge to BDPS is Park Street Trunk Sewer. All of these sewers are of
circular sections. These trunk sewers receive discharge from a network of branches
and lateral sewers made of brick masonry or of RCC, Stoneware pipe etc.

Apart from the BDPS there are five other lifting pumping stations within the
Suburban System that discharge to the BDPS for disposal. These are:

Chetla Lock Pumping Station,


Mominpur Pumping Station,
Jodhpur Park Pumping Station,
Nimak Mahal Pumping Station.
Kalighat Pumping Station.

The Suburban areas are served by the following:

Maniktala Ultadanga System

I-74
Tangra -Topsia System
Bhatpara Municipal sewerage system
Titagarh Municipal system
Panihati Municipal Sewerage System
Khardah Municipal sewerage system
Baranagar Kamarhati Municipal Sewerage System
Kalyani Municipal Sewerage system
Howrah Municipal Sewerage system
Bally Municipal Sewerage System
Serampore Municipal Sewerage system
HooglyChinsurah Municipal Sewerage system
Chandannagar Municipal Sewerage System

Existing Sanitation

Sanitation implies ensuring an environment that will not affect the public
health and socio-environmental system in general. Thus the sanitation aims at the
creation of such conditions of living, which will not result into serious outbreak of
epidemic. In other words, it is the preventive measure for the preservation of health
of the individual & the community. The existing conditions & situations of the
sanitation of the Kolkata Metropolitan Area are different in various towns & cities
and also in the adjoining non-municipal areas. Now a day, the conventional off site
excreta disposal system alongwith a STP is going to be discarded due to its high
expenditure. Hence, the practices of using the several alternative low cost on-site
disposal methods having more or less same health benefits are being welcomed.
The disposal of wastes is categorized into two:
On-site sanitation.
Solid Waste Management

On Site Sanitation: There exist several methods of on-site sanitation in PHE


scenario. In KMA, only the following two on-site sanitation methods are in practice
for disposal of excreta: -

Septic Tank Method


Pour Flush Water Seal Latrine Method

Solid Waste Management

The multifarious types of wastes arising from human and animal activities that
are normally solid in nature and are being discarded as useless are considered as
Solid Waste. Now Solid Waste Management is defined as the method to solve some
specific problems of solid waste with its different functional elements. In the modern
cities of developing countries like urban areas of KMA, have four steps of Solid
Waste Management. The steps are like:

Waste Generation
On site storage
Collection
Disposal

I-75
Basic Collection Systems of Solid Wastes: There are four base methods of
collections of Solid Waste which are evolved in relation to the work done by
householders / occupiers given as follows:

Communal storage collection which may require delivery of the


wastes by the householder / occupiers over a considerable distance.
Block collection, where the householders / occupiers deliver. The
wastes to the vehicle at the time of collection.
Door-to-door collection, where the collection enters the premises
and the householder / occupier is not involved in the collection
process.
Kerb site collection, where householder / occupier put out and later
retrieves the bin.

However there are certain problems, which are like:

Bins sorted through by scavengers


Bins stolen
Traffic accidents caused by bins rolling on the road.
Bins turned over by goats or cattle.
Failure of the householder / occupier to retrieve the bin quickly.

In modern Solid Waste Management, the expenditure incurred due to


collection to Solid Waste works out to 45% to 75% of the total SWM System.

I-76
Basic Transportation System of Solid Wastes: The method of transferring
system from primary collection vehicles to secondary collection vehicles is a stage
transportation system.

Solid waste Handled by Handled by Solid waste


at Source / Bin Primary Vehicle Secondary Vehicle Moved to
disposal
ground

For Primary collection of SW: non - motorised vehicle.


For Secondary collection of SW: motorised vehicle.

Categories of Short - Range Transfer System:

Level sites Transfer is effected by manually emptying


small container.

Split level sites Small vehicles are unloaded directly into


large vehicle by gravity

I-77
Transportation Systems for Secondary Collection System

1. Trailers i. Capacity 4 m3
ii. Towed by an agricultural
tractor
2. Smaller Trailers Capacity 2.5 m3
Towed by Jeep
3. Semi trailers (for low density i. Capacity > 10m3
waste)
ii. Hydraulic device for uplifting
4. Skips (for low density waste) i. Capacity > 6m3
ii. Carried by rigid vehicles of
3 MT capacity
5. Rigid open-top vehicles i. Capacity > 10m3
ii. Hydraulic device for up lifting
6. Roll-on containers (for low i. Capacity > 12m3
density waste)
ii. Carried by which-on vehicles

Disposal Systems of Solid Wastes

The collected & transported solid waste are to be safely disposed to the
disposal sites / dumping growing trenching grounds where the solid wastes have a
in various methods depending upon status of the waste. The MSW are disposed to
various fields in the following manners:

Disposal of MSW to open dumping grounds


Disposal of MSW to covered trenching grounds
Disposal of MSW to ordinary Sanitary Landfill sites
Disposal of MSW to Mechanised Sanitary Landfill sites
Disposal of milled MSW to ordinary / mechanised Sanitary landfill
sites.

I-78
Basic Modes of Treatment of Disposed Solid Wastes: There three basic
systems of treatment of the safely disposed solid wastes viz.

Sanitary Landfill: In this system of MSW


are to be disposed of in a process of
compaction in 1st stage and to be covered
with a layer of 150 mm thick soil at the end
of each days operation and with a layer of
600 mm thick soil as the final layer for
decem position of entire solid waste. In
case of Milled MSW no such intermediate
layers of 150 mm thick at the end each
days operations is required.

Composting: In this system in


MSW are to be free from the in organic
parts at the 1st stage. Then the bacferial
conversions take place in the composting
devices and mostly aerobic decomposition
for composting are taken up. In the last
stage the final end product of composting
i.e. compost manures are came out
composting in most popular practices are:

Composting by Windrow method


Vermi composting / worm composting

Incineration: In this thermal process SW treatment air has a very great role
Air required for:

Primary & Secondary Combustion


Turbulence formixing air & MSW.

Incineration takes place with water wall combustion chambers / specially


designed industrial water-wall boilers. Incineration of MSW takes places in the
temperature range of 1000C & discharged incinerator gasses at 300C to
550C. This exothermic reaction is not safe for pollution aspects.

I-79
Typical Drawbacks: There are some typical drawbacks of the three basic
modes of municipal solid waste treatment processes
which are talulised below:

Land Filling: Land is costly and scarce in all the major towns and cities
Transportation cost would rise up considerable if the site is
too far from the city.

Recyclable articles: may cause uneven settlements in the


filling sites.

The practice in the name of Sanitary land Filling often tends


to uncontrolled dumping with inherent environmental
hazards.

Leachate from the filling site may pose serious ground water
pollution.

Composting: Marketing of compost to the farmers is very difficult


particular due to high transportation cost which ultimately
increase the sale price of compost

Quality control of the wastes suitable for composting is


difficult to maintain.

Incineration: Quality of the solid waste is not always compatible with the
system due to its low calorific value as well as low
combustibility

Proper disposal of the residue may not always be feasible.

System may pose serious air pollution problems.

Different Modes of Solid Waste Management

The Solid Waste Management system is effective for municipal areas (911.54
sq.km) of KMA, which cover 124 lakh of population. The SWM system has been
divided into the following three ways:

Municipal Solid Waste Management


Bio-medical Waste Management
Hazardous Waste Management

Municipal Solid Waste Management: The Municipal Solid Waste


(MSW) has several divisions of its own. These divisions are:

Domestic wastes: The SW generated from single & multistoried


residential complexes in the households are the Domestic wastes.

I-80
Commercial Wastes: The SW originated from the offices hole sale &
retail stores, hotels & restaurants, ware houses etc. are considered as
commercial wastes.

Municipal Wastes: The SW generated from municipal activities and


services like street waste (i.e. wastes from street, walkways, alley roads, parks
& vacant lots), dead animals, market wastes abandoned vehicles and sewage
by products from STPs are known as Municipal Wastes.

Institutional Wastes: The SW which are arising from the institutions


like schools, colleges, Universities, hospitals & research organisations are
know as Institutional wastes.

Bulky Waste: The SW which are categorised as Bullky Wastes are the
wastes developed in household complexes, refrigeration & other electronic
workshop, big hotels & restaurants. These wastes are mostly metallic wastes,
rubber & wood product wastes & tree wastes.

Garbages, Rubbish & Ashes: The SW Garbages, Rubbish & Ashes


have a relation within items. The Garbages are resulting from the handling,
storage, sale, preparation, cooking & servicing of food. Rubbish is originated
from domestic, commercial & institutional solid wastes simultaneously. The
Ashes are the residue from burning of wood, coal, charcoal, coke & other
combustable materials.

Construction & Demolition Wastes: The SW generated by the


construction, renovation repair & demolition of houses, commercial buildings &
other multistoried structures are knows as construction & demolition wastes.

I-81
These Solid wastes are the combination of earths, stones, concretes, bricks,
lumbs, roofing materials, heating equipments & Electrical wires.

Industrial Wastes: The SW generated from Industrial processes, the


treatment of liquid effluents and air emissions are known as Industrial Wastes.
The toxic, non-toxic and the ashes are known as industrial wastes.

Chemical Conversion of Municipal Solid Wastes

The Chemical conversion processes that have been used for recovery of
usable conversion products from solid wastes in the developing countries have to
follow several systems. These systems are schematically placed herewith:

Chemical Conversion Processes used


Process Conversion Preprocessing Comment
Product Required
Incineration Energy in the None from of Markets for steam
with heat recovery steam must be available,
proved in
numerous, full-
scale applications,
air quality
regulations may
prohibit use
Supplementar Energy in the Shredding, air if least capital
y fuel firing from of steam separation and investment
magnetic desired, existing
separation boiler must be
capable of
modification, air
quality regulation
may prohibit use
Fluidized-bed Energy in the Shredding, air Fluidized bed
incineration from of steam separation and incineration can
magnetic also be used for
separation industrial sludges
Pyrolysis Energy in the Shredding, Technology
form of gas and magnetic proved only in pilot
oil separation applications, even
though pollution is
minimized, air-
quality regulations
may prohibit use
Hydrolysis Glucose, furfural Shredding, air Technology on
separation laboratory scale
only
Chemical Oil, gas, Shredding, air Technology on
conversion cellulose acetate separation laboratory scale
only

I-82
Bio-Medical Waste Management

The Bio-medical wastes are originated from the medical activities (like
Hospitals / Nurshing Homes / Pathological Laboratories / Health Care Units / Health
Establishments) of Kingdom animalia which are having their high potential powers to
aggregate & transmitate to other animals with several diseases. These Bio-medical
wastes are of hazardous, toxic & sometimes of lethal nature. The right governances
& high level managerial skills are being wanted for active Bio-medical Waste
Management. These Bio-medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules 1988 were
notified under Environment (Protection) Act 1986 and amended twice in 2000. Now
based on SPCB / Schedule - II / Rule - 5 the Bio-medical wastes are categorised as
per prescribed Categorisation accordingly.

Hazardous Waste Management

The Solid Waste developed from the industrial, institutional and consumer
articles with physical, chemical or biological characteristics are being potentially
dangerous to mankind & which have a threat to the environment are noted as
Hazardous Waste. These wastes mostly occur as liquid but sometimes in the form
of solids or sludges also available. As these waste are confined in a solid container
however the state of wastes be liquid or gaseons it mere termed as Solid Waste of
Hazardous nature. There are various types of Hazardous wastes likes:

Hazardous wastes originated from paints, medicines, solvents


cleansing materials & batteries.
Pathological wastes from hospitals & laboratories.
Hazardous wastes generated through various chemicals like bed,
arsenic, mercury, resticies, cadmium & organochlorines. The toxic
chemical has the actue effect & sometimes became total.
The fatality be intensified with the dose of carcinogenic, muta genic &
teratogenic phase of toxic materials.

As the Hazardous wastes are non-biodegradable in nature, the most effective


& time bound management is required to control the effect of these wastes. This is
the Hazardous waste Management.

The Hazardous waste (Management & Handling) rules within KMA came into
force in 1989 with 18 categories. There is an addition of further 5 categories in 1991
and Amendment Rules 2000 has changed it completely by introducing 3 (three)
schedules. Again in May 2003 there is a further amendment of rules.

Disposal of Hazardous Waste

There are two selected sites for common disposal of developed & generated
Hazardous waste of entire KMA are as the like:

Disposal of Hazardous Waste at Dankuni, Hooghly: A common storage


disposal site of Hazardous wastes has been selected at Chakundi, Dankuni, Dist.

I-83
Hooghly for treated chrome-mud arriving out from 6 nos. of Dichromate
manufacturing units of KMA. There are some specific data-base of the disposal site
as under:

Total acquisied are of this site = 1.5 hector


1st cell of this facility with capacity = 6000 MT
1st cell will be ready for operation by 2004.

Disposal of Hazardous Waste at Haldia, Midnapore: Another common


storage treatment & disposal facility for the Hazardous Wastes generated by the
entire West Bengal has been selected at Purba Srikrishnapur, Sutahata, Haldia, Dist.
Midnapore. So we can consider the generated amount of Hazardous wastes for
entire KMA is also coming to this site as it is only place for the same in West Bengal
presently. The data-bases are:

Total hazardas waste for the entire state is = 0.21 X 106 MT/year
Entire site will be ready to operated for whole state = by 2005
The build, Own & Transfer (BOT) system is being introduced through = M/S.
Ramky Enviro Engineers Pvt. ltd., Hyderabad.

I-84
Ganga Action (GAP) Plan swerage treatment :

In February, 1985, Government of India constituted the Central Ganga


Authority with the Prime Minister of India as the Chairman and having the Chief
Ministers of Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal as members along with some
other selected Union Ministers and Secretaries, with the objective to initiate actions
to prevent pollution of Ganga under the scheme named Ganga Action Plan (GAP,.
The survey reports and recommendations made by Central Pollution Control Board
under the title as ABSORBS 7/8283 provided the basis for the Action Plan. An
interdepartmental steering committee was set up for formulate the components of the
Action Plan in detail and to administer and monitor the implementation of the
approved programmes. In June 1985, the Ganga Project Directorate (GPD) was
established as a wing of the Department of Environment, to appraise and clear the
projects prepared by the field level agencies, release funds and co-ordinate various
activities under the Action Plan on a continuing basis.

At state levels, the Urban Development and Environment Departments were


identified as the nodal agencies. Subject to the supervision of the nodal department,
different State Govt. agencies like Public Health Engineering Departments. State
Pollution Control Boards, Development Authorities, Local Bodies etc., were identified
as executing agency.

In west Bengal, Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA), Kolkata


Metropolitan Waster & Sanitation Authority (KMWSA), Kolkata Municipal Corporation
(KMC), Public Health Engineering Department (PHED) & Municipal Engineering
Directorate (MED) worked as executing agencies, KMDA was identified as nodal
department in West Bengal.

Objectives & scope of GAP

Pollution abatement to improve the water quality by:

Interception & diversion of domestic sewage


treatment of sewage with the objective to make it innocuous disposal in the
environment and to effect resource recovery where feasible.

I-85
prevent toxic wastes from identified grossly polluting units entering into the
river.
control of non point pollution from human defecation, throwing of unburnt
and half burnt bodies and agricultural run off.

To conserve the bio diversity of the river and have an integrated river basin
management approach.
To undertake research in consonance with the above objectives.
To gain experience for taking up similar action plans in grossly polluted stretch of
other rivers.

In order to frame suitable schemes to achieve the above objectives, surveys


were carried out to ascertain the status of pollution contributed by each class I city
(Population exceeding one lakh) situated along the bank of the river. Based on these
studies, schemes were framed which could address the problem and result in the
improvement of water quality. Various schemes were categorized as:

Core Sector Schemes

Interception & diversion of domestic waste water including construction and


rehabilitation of intercepting sewers and pump houses (I & D).
Construction of new sewage treatment plants or renovation or argumentation of
existing plants with emphasis on resource recovery (STP).

Non Core Sector Schemes

Low Cost Sanitation (LCS)


Installation of Crematoria (CRE)
River front development (RFD)

I-86
Miscellaneous, such as water quality monitoring, research programmes,
management of wastes from grossly polluting industries, etc. (MISC)

Ganga Action Plan, Phase - I

The Ganga Action Plan, Phase - I was launched in June 1985 and the schedule
date of completion was 31.03.1985. There are 13 (thirteen) nos of towns were
covered in the 1st phase within KMA, stated as follow:

Kalyani
Hooghly Chinsurah
Chandannagar
Bhatpara
Serampore
Titagrah
Khardah
Panihati
Kamarhati
Baranagar
Bally
Howrah
Kolkata

These development schemes were 100% centrally funded. The total project
cost was Rs. 181.86 crores.

Programme under Asian Development Bank (ADB) assistance for sewerage


disposal

The socio-environmental development programme assisted by Asian


Development Bank has various types of development in the West Bengal scenario.
The Kolkata Environmental Improvement Program (KEIP) has two phases of
development programmes:

5 years programme &


Long-term programme.

For Kolkata Municipal Corporation area, the KEIP has taken up 7 (seven) nos
of programme one of which is for the development of Sewerage & Drainage works.
The areas over which the renovation-cum-development of sewerage & drainage
services within KMC are to be taken up are as follows:

Cossipore - Chitpur area [Part of Borough XI (Wards No. 101, 102 & 110) and
borough XII]
South -Subarban area [Borough XIII and parts of Borough X & XI (Wards No.
111 to 114)]
Garden Reach area [Borough XV]
Jadavpur area

I-87
The KEIP is being effective over some salient point that this improvement
programme acts within the jurisdiction of KMC [Wards No. 1 to 6 & 101 to 114 &
Wards No. 56 to 59 & 66 to 67]. The project cost amounts to 15 million dollar and is
effective for 5 years that ends on 31.12.2007.

The development works under KEIP assisted by ADB is now being executed by
KMC and I & W dept. Govt. of W. B. Out of the sanctioned amount of 154 million
dollar the amount under execution by I & W Dept. is Rs.117.26 crores.

I-88
Unlike water, it is difficult to relate the provisions of other infrastructures like sewerage,
drainage, sanitation, roads, streetlights etc. to individual persons/residents. Non-
excludability being one of the attributes of public good by definition, these facilities
differ from water supply in that excludability can be feasible for water supply provision
and in some cases it is so practiced. But the excludability in case of provision of
sewerage, drainage, sanitation, roads, streetlights etc. may be difficult to practice.
Further, water is a single dimensional commodity, the quantum of which can only be
varied. But in case of other infrastructures like sewerage, drainage, sanitation etc., the
services have multiple dimensions. Like for sewerage, it could be on-site sanitation or
off-site one involving underground network of sewers connected to individual houses
through house connections and the network leading to STP before finally discharging into
rivers/canals. Alternatively, it could be a network of open drains carrying the sewage to a
discharging point. The sewage effluents could be treated through STP or oxidation ponds.
All these options are more area specific than individual resident specific. In case of roads,
there could be several categories of roads like arterial/trans-municipal, district roads,
local roads etc. There could be several technical specifications for roads; also there could
be roads varying in widths and extent of connectivity.

Nevertheless, there are certain standard norms, which are considered while designing the
service provisions for infrastructures of this kind. For instance, in case of an area where
piped water supply system exists, 70 percent of the supply could be taken as the volume
of domestic sewage to be disposed of by adoption of an appropriate technology. Again,
for SWM, depending on the population density and economic activities carried out in the
town, a per-capita generation of solid waste varying between 210-250 gms/head/day for a
town with population below 1 lac; between 250-350 gms/head/day for a town with
population ranging from 1-5 lacs; and between 400-500 gms/head/day for a town with
population more than 5 lacs; is considered for design of SWM interventions. In case of
SWM, the aspect of hazardous waste deserves special merit and calls for specialized
interventions, distinct from the ones meant for disposal of domestic solid waste.
Moreover, disposal of solid waste some time involves trans-municipal efforts.

I-88A
Infrastructure development and efforts to make the infrastructures
self sustaining in O&M :

Over the last 35 years so, KMDA has carried out a series of investment
programmes on development of the basic infrastures and facilities by incurring a
good deal of investment. The investments in the major infrastructure sectors under
taken by KMDA in the last five years are furnished in the table below. It may be
noted that the annual investment has been to the tune of Rs.130 crore on an
average. However, this annual investment during the last five years should not be
taken as implementation capacity of KMDA. KMDA is capable of undertaken larger
doses of investment given its inherent technique strength and prolonged
esxparience.
Year-wise Expenditures in Rs. Lacs
Sector
04 - 05 03 04 02-03 01-02 00-01
Water Supply 4427.61 2751.41 2291.67 3147.44 3190.77
Traffic & Transportation 2720.90 3607.62 3516.54 4998.45 5156.95
Sanitation including Env Imp. 818.79 972.05 852.98 822.70 877.12
Housing, Area Dev &
Commercial 3410.21 2486.49 3448.89 2421.17 2294.45
Others incl Municipal
Development 322.12 468.13 1338.69 1548.28 2615.29
GRAND TOTAL 11699.63 10285.70 11448.77 12938.04 14134.58
* Subject to finalization of A/Cs.

Given the concern for sustainability of project investment, KMDA has been
trying to initiate measures for recovery of cost against the various infrastructure
services, to the extent possible. In two of its transport sector projects viz.,
Barrackpur-Kalyani Expressway and Kona Truck Terminal, KMDA has earned
Rs.291.56 lacs and Rs.11 lacs respectively through levy of tolls and parking charges.
Similarly monthly water charges are levied on holdings that receive water from
Fringe Area Water Supply (FAWS) schemes. An amount of Rs. 203.32 lacs has
been collected so far from this source.

It may be noted further that the State Govt has recently has issued directive to
all the ULBs to impose water charges @ Rs.3/KL on all domestic connections to
municipal water supply system. Many of the ULBs in KMA have already started
collecting water charges.

I-89
Physical and Environmental Profile

Physical Profile :
Land Use Pattern in KMA

The general development pattern of settlements within the Kolkata Metropolitan


Area (KMA), which accounts for more than 1,785 sq km including Kolkata city
(197.54 sq km), suggests a strong linear bias along the river Hugli which has served
as the spine of this metropolis. Of course, there is a slight variation to this north-
south development wherever development has followed railway alignment.

There are subtle variations in the levels of development: these can be divided
into three broad categories on the basis of physical characteristics alone. First, the
core area, or the relatively compactly built-up zone; second, the intermediate band or
the inner periphery developing zone; and third, the outer land or outer periphery,
which is predominantly undeveloped rural land.

The core area has a high percentage of old pucca buildings, and whatever
municipal services are available within the KMA are mostly limited to this zone.
Slums are a familiar feature. Trade, commerce and industry are all concentrated
within this core. The urban problem is acute here and the attention of urban
planners has been largely confined to this core. While the two municipal
administrative units of Kolkata and Haora constitute the land core, the other
municipalities, or at latest those wards lying between the river and the rail tracks,
constitute the extended core of the Metropolitan Area.

I-90
In fact, isolated settlements sprang up in the KMA at different times along the
banks of the river in response to religion, commerce and administrative
requirements. Over a period of time, these developed further, following the
introduction of rail tracks (from 1857 onwards)until they formed a continuous band
of development around the original settlement points. Of course, in bridging those
gaps and in stretching the limits of metropolitan habitation, the key role was played
by the refugees from East Pakistan after independence. It is their determination to
survive that brought so much undeveloped land and inaccessible areas under
human habitation.

From the administrative point of view, the metropolitan periphery consists of


vast areas under panchayats which account for no less than 50% percent of the
metropolitan area. Within this zone there are two noticeable development patterns.
One may be called the inner periphery or metropolitan fringe which is that twilight
zone where the transformation of rural into urban settlement is constantly taking
place without conforming to any urban development norms.

In the metropolitan fringe rural land is being divided into small plots for
building and this is the most effective breeding ground for future urban chaos. It is
through this process that a crisis of unprecedented magnitude is taking shape on the
urban frontier. Every day the urban sprawl is being extended further into the heart of
the rural hinterland. This means a few scattered huts or half-finished buildings right
in the middle of paddy fields; settlements loosely connected to the main urban
concentration, whose inhabitants depend on the urban centre as their primary source
of livelihood. Unless this trend is arrested in time, it will eventually engulf the whole
Metropolitan District and frustrate attempts of an orderly urban development.

I-91
The phenomenon of urban sprawl with all its characteristics can be clearly
seen in the metropolitan fringe areas. While high prices and exorbitant rents in the
core encourage migration from the core to the periphery, there is also the attraction
of small homestead plots to suit every pocket. Thus, the metropolitan fringe provides
a suitable place for the vast numbers of urban poor who are gradually pushed out of
the old and established urban core of Kolkata.

The significance of the periphery and particularly the metropolitan fringe in the
context of metropolitan development can be gauged from the fact that this is the area
rural-urban continuum where the change from a rural to an urban setting is taking
place unobstructively but decisively and which will ultimately determine our urban
frontier and the future of our cities, where people, unable to bear the high cost of
living of the overcrowded city core, are being pushed out, deprived of the minimum
urban facilities and forced to make an improvised urban living in a rural setting;
where chaos, if not forestalled with effective planning, will spread towards an
unending horizon. This phenomenon of urban Sprawl, i.e. low density scattered
settlement largely spearheaded by the urban leftouts who are thrown out of the city
and settled all along the metropolitan periphery.

Pattern of Land Use

Information on existing land use/land cover pattern is a pre-requisite to


analyse the spatial pattern of urbanisation over time. This information not only helps
in carrying out trend of development of land but necessary inferences for the future
could be drawn on a realistic basis. Land use survey around KMA were conducted
using aerial photographs of 1961-64, 1976-77, and land use maps were prepared on
1:20,000 scale. The land use survey undertaken by KMDA using Spot Satellite Data
in Collaboration with Space Applications Centre, Ahmedabad is the third in the
series. It has been made compatible with the earlier surveys also through
development of a suitable classification system using the spot satellite data. The
term land use cover are closely related and they are inter-changeable. The Remote
Sensing Data recorded information essentially on land cover from which land cover
from which land use data has been deduced and inferred. For example, if Remote
Sensing Data identifies the land covered as buildings it leads to the information that
the land is put either under residential or under industrial or under institution or under
recreational uses but certainly can be termed as a built up use of land.

Employing both visual and digital analysis techniques and with limited field
checks urban land use/land cover maps in the scale 1:25,000 for the entire KMA
shows the spatial distribution of urban uses as classified for the purpose and
indicated in Urban Land Use maps. Land Use Maps on 1:50,000 scale, using
LANDSAT TM/ Spot data show the spatial distribution of land uses within a strip of
about 10 km along the KMA boundary outside it was also prepared.

These maps after modified and corrected upto 1991 to analyse the trend of
land use pattern and draw inferences from the time series data. The first survey
while was assumed to correspond 1961 population and the second one to 1981
population, the present survey being conducted with the help of 1989 Spot data as

I-92
well as 1990 IRS LISS II data could be assumed to correspond the 1991 census
population for the trend analysis purpose.

Even a casual observer can be struck by the contrast in the physical formation
of the Kolkata Metropolitan Area on one hand and those of other Metropolitan cities
like London and the other. While in London and Paris growth has radiated in all
directions from a strong central core or highly developed commercial industrial
Residential complex in KMA the growth has occurred predominantly in a linear form,
extending from Kolkata to Kalyani on the East Bank of the river Hooghly and from
Howrah to Tribeni on the West Bank. There are several factors that explain the
South-North Linear development of this Metropolis. The land in this part of West
Bengal was formed by the deposits of silt carried down by the river Hooghly. The
constricting and confining nature of the topography is thus mainly responsible for
preventing the Kolkata conurbation from extending in the East and West directions.

This fact that Kolkata in the early years developed as a trading and
commercial centre that helped this linear growth. The river Hooghly was used as the
main artery of transport and communication so that the business and industrial
community found it more convenient and economic ventures to set up their business
establishments and industrial factories near the river bank. At a later stage the
construction of two railway lines on the two banks running almost paralleled to the
river at a distance of one or two kilometres accentuated this linear growth. And last
but not the least, the two highways (Barrackpore Trunk Road on the East Bank and
the Grand Trunk Road National Highway 2 on the West Bank), running from South to
North acted as catalyst for further concentration of urban development in the already
established linear shape.

A map of the city and its environs reveals that the densely built up urban
areas exist mainly along the N-S transit corridors on both the banks. A cross
sectional view depicts that the intensity of spatial development extends upto two to
three miles from the river bank in the East and West direction, beyond which the
population density is low and urban development is of a sub-standard quality. The
only exception to this general pattern of linearity are the cites of Kolkata and Howrah
where growth has bulged over a wider area around the strong metropolitan centre
acting as the Central Business District (CBD).

I-93
On the basis of the intensity of Spatial development of the city, KMA would be
classified into three different groups (1) compactly developed central core, (2) less
compact areas surrounding the central core, and (3) sporadic fringe areas which
gradually merge into the adjoining rural areas to give rise to Urban Sprawl. Density
of population is the highest and accessibility is the best in the central core. Away
from the Central Core they gradually decrease towards the periphery. The nature of
development in the urban and suburban towns on the two banks are spontaneous,
unorganised and unplanned with narrow roads, irregular division of plots, deficits in
public utilities, in adequate amenities and storage in housing stock.

Mention may be made hereof an interesting difference in the contour of the


lands on the East and West Banks of the river. Slope of the land is downward, as we
move away from the river on the Eastern Bank but it is reverse on the Western Bank.
However, the slope falls quickly on the East Bank to the low lying seamy marshes
posing difficulties for large scale urban development. Today, with the rapid increase
in population, human settlements have been extending continuously over the
marshes and the low lying areas, in a sporadic manner. This has been causing a
tremendous problem in infrastructure construction programmes of the metropolis
generally and its drainage system particularly.

It would be evident that Kolkata today, is not merely what its own municipal
administrative jurisdiction indicates. The beginning might have been on a modest
scale of a poly nuclear type of development, but has now merged into a gigantic
sprawl giving rise to a conurbation causing a spatial explosion beyond control.

Distribution Pattern of Land Uses

The distribution of urban land use as well as distribution of land use in KMA
indicates that the urban built up land constitutes 54.7% of the total area of KMA and
the rest is under non-urban use. Among the urban uses however, the residential use
is most pre-dominant with about 51% of the total area. The other measure of urban
uses as such, industrial, transportation, public, recreational and open/vacant land
comprise only 28% of the total and the rest 15% is under mixed built up use. The
category of mixed built up use was specifically identified in the areas where no
individual urban land use category pre-dominant e.g. the CPT area of Kolkata;
among the non-urban uses, agricultural land and plantation together constitute about
35% of the total KMA area and the rest is under water bodies and waste land. As far
as the time series analysis is concerned it has been indicated from the table that the
residential use is dominant and there is a significant increase of residential area from
15% in 1961 to 31% in 1990. Other urban land uses as such industrial,
transportation, public, and recreational collectively covered only about 13.5% in 1961
and 14.72% in 1990. It means that there is hardly any notable increase in other
urban land use categories in terms of percentage share of the total built-up land. The
area under non-urban use as decreased from about 71% in 1961 to 45.3% in 1990
indicating a 26% decrease of the total vacant land (non-urban use) in a span of 30
years, it means that roughly about 1% of the total vacant land of CMD is getting
converted for urban uses every year. With this trend a comparative study between

I-94
the growth of built up land and population has also been made. Initially population for
the year 2011 has been extrapolated on the basis of 1951, 1961, 1971 and 1981
data of census of India and 1991 population (United Nation estimate figure) data.
Similarly, the growth of built up land has been projected to the year 2011 on the
basis of 1922, 1960 (survey of India Map) and 1976 and 1990 (Remote Sensing
Data). Both this projected picture are presented in the Fig. From this figure one can
easily note that the present limit of KMD may not be sufficient to accommodate
future urban need.

Distribution of Urban land uses in 1961, 1981 and 1990


Sl. No. Urban land use 1961 1981 1990
1. Residential 203.8 420.0 421.4
(15.1%) (31.11%) (31.21%)
2. Industrial 53.9 62.2 79.5
(3.99%) (4.6%) (5.88%)
3. Commercial 9.2 9.46 -
(0.68%) (0.7%)
4. Recreational 9.2 10.58 12.1
(0.68%) (0.78%) (0.90%)
5. Transportation 67.06 83.66 73.6
(4.96%) (6.19%) (5.45%)
6. Institutional 43.39 38.26 33.6
(3.21%) (2.83%) (2.5%)
7. Mixed Built-up - - 111.6
(8.26%)
8. Vacant 963.69 725.84 611.8
(71.3%) (53.76%) (45.31%)
Total 1350.00 1350.00 1350.00

I-95
The Landuse and control theirof is exercised through the provisions of Landuse
and Development Control Plans (LUDCPs), prepared by KMDA under West Bengal
Town and Country (Planning & Development) Act, 1979 for different zones within
KMA. The enforcement of LUDCPs is largely under taken by ULBs in urban areas
and PRIs in rural areas, excluding certain selected zones where KMDA also does
the enforcement function. The LUDCPs have to passess through the process
prescribed in T&CP Act 1979 before the same are adopted by the State Govt.

Environmental Profile :

As far as the environmental aspecrts are concerned, a host of indicators needs


to be looked into which includes sewerage, drainage & sanitation etc.

Drainage System & Its Effect: Drainage mainly flows gravitationally depending on
the natural gradient & provided gradient. To avoid water logging for the Trio-cities
(i.e. Kolkata, Saltlake, Rajarhat-Gopalpur functioning from West to East) the
following points to be considered.

Bagbazar lockgate is to be opened to rejuvenate the Do aniya nature of the


Belghoria-Krishnapur khal as well as circular canal.
A new canal is to be planned to connect the Bagjola canal with Hoogly river
close to Dakshineswar.
Rejuvenation of the Jamuna river with necessary clearance at the take off point
from the Hoogly river near Tribeni. Hoogly river may be joined with abandoned
cause of Jamuna river near Habra [of 24 Parganas (N)] through a canal to
provide the upland flow of the Biyadhari river/ Kultigung.
The abandoned distibutaries of Adiganga is to be rejuvenated for betterment of
drainage & sewerage system of extended Kolkata city.
Desiltation of the existing system without opening the connections with Hoogly
river will not serve the purpose of rejuvenation of the canal system.
Special attention is to be given for capacity builting of the upland flow of the
Hoogly river through continuous dredging.
Other drainage systems of KMA are following the same pattern with existing
natural river/ canal/ channel sources by augmentation & diversion of the same.

Sewrage System & Its Effect: The situation of sewerage systems of KMA
are not remarkable compared to its entire area of 1785 sq. km. Mostly KMC,
Panihati, Titagarh, Bhatpara, Kalyani on East Bank & HMC, Bally, Serampore,
Chandannagar, Hoogly-Chinsurah on the West Bank are sewered towns out of 41 of
municipal towns, the future aspects the following points are to be considered:

All municipal towns will be sewered within 2025.


Augmentation of sewage treatment plants, sewage pumping station & other
sewage appurtenant structures will be completed by 2025.
Renovations & reconstrutions of existing sewerage systems & their allied works
to be completed by 2025.
Desiltation of existing sewerage network to be done by manual / mechanical
system within 2025.

I-96
Construction of intercepted & diverted sewers as and when necessary will be
provided considering the future perspective.

Sanitation System & Its Effect: Sanitation depends on the community


habits, customs, density of population, living standards & socio-economic
conditions. The scenario of the vast area of KMA (1785 sq. km) is not at all
healthy. It requires high-level various development, providing adequate
weightage in releasing the requisite funds for the same. The scenario should
be:

All municipal towns should be provided with sanitation facilities so that pollution
does not take place.
The ideas On Site sanitation with their present two modes (i.e. septic tank
method & Two pit pourflush latrine method) to be adopted for 13nos of municipal
towns not covered under GAP phase I & II.
All municipal towns should be placed in such a scenario that can have positive
SWM programs for themselves.
The scenario for Bio medical waste management should obey the norms of
BMW (M&H) Act 1988. Specialised treatment plant at Howrah takes care of BMW
of 30,000 beds of KMC, HMC & adjoining other areas by BOO syste
The scenario for Hazardous waste management formulated in such a manner,
maintaining the regulation situpaled by Hazardous waste (Management &
Handling) Act 1988. Generalised special type of treatment plant for entire HW
generated within West Bengal is coming up at Haldia. Method of BOT system
adopted there for tackling 0.21 million tons of Hazardous Waste per year.

Air Pollution

Air pollution denotes a change of quality of air in the natural environment


manifested in terms of identified parameters such as Suspended Particulate Matter
(SPM), sulphur Di-oxide (SO2), Nitrous Oxide (NO2), Carbon Monoxide (CO), Lead,
Poly-nuclear aromatic Hydro-Carbon (PAH), Heavy metals, Respiratory Particulate
Matter (RPM), etc. The Central Pollution Control Board notified National ambient Air
Quality standards (April, 1994) with regard to SPM, SO2, NO2, CO, lead and RPM,
for Industrial area, Residential and other Rural areas and Sensitive Area. The
sensitive areas are to be notified by the state Government/ state Board.

I-97
Source of Air Pollution: The major sources of air pollution due to
anthropogenic activities are :

Industrial emission in different manufacturing processes, viz in


meteorological plants, chemical plants, refineries, thermal power plants,
mineral production and so on, agricultural operation like spraying, husking,
grinding, burning in the field, sewage treatment plant and demolition work.
Fuel burning operation for heat and power generation in residences, in
hotels, clubs, hospital, in different processing of laundries, dry-cleaners,
garages, service stations etc.
Refuse burning operation in different municipalities, industries, residential
apartments, parks and gardens.
Use of fuels for all modes of transport, which includes trucks, buses, motor
vehicles, rail engines, steamers, ships etc., using petrol diesel and gasoline.
Of all the above mentioned sources, in general, the urban areas are
subjected to air pollution to the extent of about 60% total pollution load by
automobile transport system.

Adverse effects: There are many adverse effects of air pollution which
has been given below in summerised form:

Health hazards; Atmospheric pollution will cause health hazards to both men
and animals, Several diseases of respiratory system which is short is known
as Pneumoconiosis are caused due to air pollution. The example of some
such diseases are: Silicosis, Anthrax, Asthma, Tuberculosis, Chalcosis etc.
Damage to properties.
Atmospheric pollutants, when come in contact with buildings and structures,
there will be physical and chemical reaction. The presence of moistures in
the atmosphere, may accelerate these reactions, The main effects would be
discoloration and disintegration of properties,
Damage to vegetation. The atmospheric pollutants will change the contents
of the air which may affect the normal functioning of the trees and plants.
Secondly, the pollutants may be deposited on the leaves of the trees and
plants and choke their pores, which affects the normal growth of the
plantation system.
Obstruction to sight. Air pollution cause the formation haze of smog and the
clear vision of the sight is obstructed. This will cause difficulty in movement
of traffic and there will be more chances of occurrence of accident.

Prevention and Control:. There are number of preventive measure by which


the extent of air pollution can be minimised:

Area Planning: The different Zones for land use on the basis of
meteorological and climatologically studies regarding the wind
direction, wind velocity, formation of wind rose to be considered
during the area planning process. Separation of zones by creating
barriers between residential and industrial areas by providing green
belt or judicious exploitation of the existing topographical features
are some of the methods to be adopted in planning. Efficient

I-98
planning of road layouts, giving scope for faster traffic flow will
create the condition to lesser air pollution due to automobile
exhaust.
Efficient Engine Design: High energy efficient engines both for
automobiles as well as for industries, will make the system fuel
efficient and will discharge better quality emission, thus will reduce
degree of air pollution.
Grade of fue: Higher grade of fuel containing lesser amount of
sulphur, benzene lead etc. in petrol/diesel will help in producing
better quality of industrial emission or automobile exhaust.

Control By Local Separation: There are number of methods by which


impurities discharged through the exhaust system or generated due to other
processing and handling activities can be separated and arrested at source itself.
Air Quality in KMA: The results of analysis of secondary data show that in
the KMA area, the SPM values, although highly variable between stations, are fairly
high in the range of 400 micrograms per cubic meter (NAAQS) put 360 for Industrial
area and 140 for residential area). The annual mean SO2 concentration is
comparatively less variable and is generally below 100 micrograms per cubic meter.
The annual mean NOx concentration indicates an increasing trend, reaching around
100 microgram per cubic meter. AIIPH (1995-96) states that though SPM
concentration is higher than permissible limit, SO2 and NO2 were lower in ambient
air quality of KMC. It is to be noted that due to significant down-wash effect of
monsoon, the annual mean concentration does not reflect the severity of the air
pollution problem (CEMSAP, 1995). According to Central Pollution Control Board,
vehicular emission load in Calcutta (Kolkata) is 312 tons/day with CO at 65%,
Hydrocarbons : 15% Nitrogen Oxides - 17% and others 3%. Between 1992-94, the
trends for SPM, SO2, NO2 at traffic intersections are increasing.

I-99
The studies conducted by School of Environmental Studies (SES), Jadavpur
University, showed that benzene soluble organic matter (BSOM) constitute 15%-
30% of Suspended Particulate Matter and of this nearly 38% is composed of PAH,
which h are known toxic substance and include benzo (A) pyrene - a carcinogen.
The SES studies indicate that level of benzo (A) Pyrene exposure to Calcutta
(Kolkata) Citizens can cause carcinoma. In 15 years, subsequent high concentration
of PAH in KMC studies by CSME (1994-95) reconfirm the high concentration of PAH
in KMC. In Table below, the data on PAH concentration is presented.

Ambient PAH Concentration

Station BSOM PAH


Shyambazar Mean 5.7 23.6
(16) Range 2.9-8.7 6.6-50.3
Bagmari Mean 5.5 19.3
(12) Range 4.3-6.4 7.9-38.7
Satyanarayan Park Mean 5.7 18.1
(14) Range 3.5-7.7 6.9-34.0
Gariahat Mean 6.4 13.4
(14) Range 4.0-9.9 5.4-29.1

BSOM value in %, PAH values in micrograms/cubic meter (Values in


parenthesis refer to the number samples analysed).

Pollution Concentration in Ambient Air

Pollutant Time Concentration in Ambient Air


weighed Sensitive Industria Residential, Method of
Average area l area Rural and measurement
other areas
Respirable Annual* 50 g/m3 120 g/m 60 g/m3 Respirable
3
Particulate pariculate
Matter (RPM) 24 hours** 75 g/m3 150 g/m 100 g/m3 matter
3
size less than sampler
10
Lead (Pb) Annual* 0.50 g/m3 1.0 g/m3 0.75 g/m3 AAS method
24hours** 0.75 g/m3 1.5 g/m3 1.00 g/m3 after sampling
using EMP
2000 or
equivalent
filter paper
3 3 3
Carbon Annual* 1.0 g/m 5.0 g/m 2.0 g/m Non
Monoxide 24 hours** 2.0 g/m3 10.0 g/ 4.0 g/m3 dispersive
3
m Infrared
spectroscopy

I-100
Statutory Obligation: The industries will have to observe certain statutory
obligation so that the quality of emission they are discharging in the atmosphere
should be within the permissible limits, prescribed by the West Bengal Pollution
Control Board.

Environmental Monitoring: For the purpose of ambient air quality monitoring


and control purposes number of observation stations have been set up by West
Bengal Pollution Control Board. These Monitoring Stations are distributed in the
entire Kolkata Metropolitan Area in the manner given below:

Ambient Air Quality Monitoring Station

Outside KMC & HMC area K M C area H M C area

Gayeshpur Hyde Road Baandhaghat


Tribeni Mominpore HMC Building
Rishra Taratala Benaras Road
Dankuni Behala Chowrasta Belilius Road
Uluberia Tollygunge Andul Road
Liluah Garia
Naihati Baishnabghata
Shyamnagar Jadavpur
Barrackpore Tapsia
Khardah Kasba
Barasat Bondel Gate
Belgharia Hazra
Dum Dum Minto Park
Budge Budge Lalbazar
Rajbhawan
Moulali
College Street
Shyambazaar
Beliaghata
Cossipore
Dunlop Bridge
Ultadanga
Salt Lake
E.M. Byepass &
Beliaghata Main Road

Pollution from Licensed Industrial sources: From the data available from
the Kolkata Municipal Corporation, the KMWSA had prepared a report in 1984
showing the locational agglomeration of licensed industrial units within the different
wards of the city.

This study shows the locational agglomeration of licensed industries capable


of polluting environment with variable associated risks. These four maps have been
given relative scales, specific to each one of them, by the number of units found in
each ward. The class limits are shown below.

I-101
Licensed Industries capable of polluting environment

Type of units Class Limits (number of units)


Low Medium High
All industrial units <19 20-39 40 & >
Red-list industries <12 3-4 5&>
Orange-list <3 4-7 8&>
industries
Green-list industries <19 20-39 40 & >

Status of Air Pollution: A study was recently carried out to determine the
current status of roadside air quality as well as ambient air quality in 10 designated
stations in Calcutta (Kolkata). The stations were located at BBD Bag, Haora Bridge
approach (east), Dimond Harbour Road - Taratala Road Crossing, Gariahat Road-
Rashbehari Crossing, Shyambazar five-point Crossing, Hazra Road- S.P. Mukherjee
Road Crossing, Sealdah-Moulali Crossing, College Street-M.G. Road Crossing,
Ultadanga VIP Road Crossing and Sector-V Salt Lake. The results are as follows:

Average for all stations (in micro gram/m3 )

Attributes Roadside Ambient


SDM 830 200
NOX 173 72
SO2 50 17
CO 4788 (4.2PPM) 3900 (3.5 PPM)
Pb 0.23 0.15
HC 300 200

The past data of roadside air quality indicate SPM levels in excess of 1000
micro gram per cu.mt.and NOx and SO2 levels were found to be in the range of 100
to 150 micro gram/m3 each. These figures are annual means.

A composite Air Pollution Index (API) combining the important parameters has
been developed. In terms of this Index the following have been specified:

Air Pollution Index (API)


API Pollution Status
0-25 Clean Air
26-50 Light Air Pollution
51-75 Moderate Air Pollution
76-100 Heavy Air Pollution
More than 100 S evere Air Pollution

The survey results indicate that Haora Bridge Approach (East) and BBD Bag
are the worst polluted area in this city of which the pollution level at Haorah Bridge

I-102
Approach (East) is classed as "Severe". The following Table indicates the API
Numbers.

Air Pollution Number at different test locations


Locations API Status
BBD Bag 90 Heavy
Haora Bridge Approach Road 134 Severe
Taltala 58 Moderate nearing Heavy
Gariahat 73 Heavy
`Shyambazar 79 Heavy
Hazra 80 Heavy
Moulali 78 Heavy
College Street 80 Heavy
Ultadanga 69 Moderate
Salt Lake 47 Light

During this survey, ground level Ozone has been measured for the first time in
Kolkata, and the results are:

Measure of Ozone in Kolkata

Location In microgram per cu.mt


Salt Lake 245
Shyambazar 392
Moulali 343
Ultadanga 343
Note: There is no Indian standard for Ozone level. However, the USEPA
standard is 160 microgram/m3. (hourly average).

This study also tried to find the relationship between the increasing traffic
volumes and increasing pollution levels. A very rough estimate indicates that per
1000 increase in traffic volume will lead an increase in NOx level by 12.5
microgram/m3, 0.125 PPM Carbon Monoxide, 150 microgram per cu. Mt. of SPM
and 15.4 microgram/m3 of Hydro-carbon.

An earlier study indicates that more than 1/3rd of all vehicles in Calcutta
(Kolkata) produce emission beyond permissible limit. The highest polluting group is
taxis of which more than 50% violate emission norms. Trucks as group occupy the
second place with 39.2% violations. Violations in respect of Private Car are 32.6%
while the same for Mini Bus, Auto Rickshaw and Government vehicles are of the
orders of 20%.

The total number of registration of vehicles in KMA is now estimated to be of


the order of 8.5 lakh, there are 98 Auto Emission Testing Centres at present against
a minimum requirement of 147. It has been decided that measurement of pollution
and surveillance will continue.

I-103
Noise Pollution

Noise can cause irritation and multiple health problems. Major health hazards
from noise pollution include loss of hearing, hypertension, annoyance, fatigue and
physiological disorders related to cardiac, digestive and nervous system. Noise may
be caused by a number of business activities related to community life, industry and
transport.
National Ambient Noise Standards

Area Class DayTime (decibels) Night time


(decibels)
Residential 55 45
Commercial 65 55
Industrial 75 70
Silence Zone 50 40
Source : Ministry of Environment and Forest, December, 1981.
Day Time : 6.00 A.M. to 9.00 P.M.(15 hours); Night Time : 9.00 P.M. to 6.00 P.M. (09 Hours).

Areas upto 100 meters around certain premises Hospitals, Educational;


Institutions and Courts may be declared as Silence Zones by the competent
authority; honking of vehicle horns, use of loud speaker, bursting of crackers
hawkers noise should be banded in these zones.

Mixed areas should be declared as one of four aforesaid areas by competent


authority and the corresponding limit be applied.

Instruments of Regulation: The Environment Protection Act 1986 (3rd


Amendment 1889), Schedule III) is a major law for regulatory control of noise level.
Vehicular noise levels are prescribed by Indian Standard (IS 3028) for different
categories of vehicles. In addition, provisions for abatement of noise pollution have
been made in Municipal Corporation Act, Motor Vehicles Act and Police Act and
Rules, in West Bengal. West Bengal Pollution Control Board (WBPCB) and the State
Police Department are empowered to enforce regulatory measures. It is also
prescribed that while conducting Environmental Impact Assessment for obtaining

I-104
clearance for development projects, at State or Central Government levels, noise
has to be monitored by individual project proponent. But such data have never been
compiled either by specific locations or for regions.

Sources of Noise Pollution: Major sources of noise pollution and related


activities are given in the Table below.

Impact of Noise: Although no data is available to highlight the impact of high


level of noise on public health in Calcutta (Kolkata) area, two recent press reports on
impact of noise from bursting of crackers to celebrate events leading to death would
indicate the high risk the human life is subjected to by the impact of noise.
Information provided by ENT specialists and Psychiatrists an upward level of causes
reporting hearing loss, psychotic mental disorder, anxiety etc. The proven impact of
noise of human health, claimed by the ENT specialists, should be noted.

Sources of Noise Pollution (In KMA Areas)

Source Description
Industry/ Commercial activities
Noise generated from numerous large,
small and cottage industries. Recent
AFS noted significant probably caused
by the operation of the relief valve at
the Titagarh power plant. Operations of
diesel generators specially in the
business areas of Gariahat and
Hatibagan. Frequent use of
microphones and stereo used for
advertisement.
Transportation Indiscriminate use of horns including
use of air and multitoned horns which
are banned. Use of poorly maintained
vehicles. Rail and trams running on
steel tracks. Landing of take-off of
aeroplanes at the Netaji Subash
International Airport.
Community Life Use of microphones and stereo boxes
during festivals and public meetings.
Human activities in public places like
vegetable and fish markets, cinemas,
restaurants and shopping areas.
Source : CEMSAP Situation Report, 1995

Noise Monitoring: For the purpose of the noise pollution control measure,
the West Bengal Pollution Control Board has taken up the studies of noise
characteristics as follows:

In around hospitals and schools in KMA,

I-105
Studies of noise characteristics of various sources and its impact on
human health, and
Monitoring of noise levels in the state on special festive days.

Enforcement of Law: The application of Public Litigation Act by citizens


seeking redress from the High Court and action taken by WBPCB and Police
Department during 1996, clearly showed that noise level during normal and specially
during festival period could positively be controlled by enforcement authorities.
Recent media report shows interventions of Hon'ble High Court directing Metro
Railway (June, 1997) to take steps to reduce noise level, further emphasis the point.
The plea to allow places of religion to use microphone for prayer-calls or for
meetings has also been rejected. State-wise enforcement may provide significantly
noise profile in coming years.

Water Pollution

Two types of sources viz., Surfaces and Underground Water Sources are
used for supply of water in KMA. The river Hooghly is used as the Surface Source
with existing/proposed Water Treatment Plants at:

Kalyani,
Garulia,
Palta,
Baranagar and
Garden Reach on the Eastern Bank, and Bansberia,
Chandannagore,
Serampore,
Haorah and
Uluberia on the Western side of river Hooghly.

This source is polluted both by municipal sewage as well as industrial


effluent. Interception and diversion of work for prevention of pollution has been taken
up under Ganga Action Plan.

I-106
The ground water both in terms of quality and quantity is much better in the
northern part of KMA, excepting some localize areas in Barasat; having the problem
of Arsenic contamination. The ground water strata in southern part of KMA are
having low coefficient of transmissibility and, hence, the quantity wise yield of ground
water is less. Secondly, salinity, TDS, Chloride and Sulphate contents are generally
very high, which cause difficulty to maintain the standards required for water quality.

Some important sources of water pollution is given below in tabular form:

Source/Adverse effect of Industrial Pollutant.


Element Possible Sources Effects and Significants
Arsenic Mining By-product, Toxic possible
chemical waste carcinogenic
Copper Metal plating, mining and Essential trace element,
Industrial waste toxic to plants and algae
higher level
Fluorine Natural Geological Prevent tooth decay at
Sources, waste water around 1mg/1, toxic at
additive higher level
Iron Industrial waste, Essential nutrient,
corrosion, microbial damages fixer by
action staining.
Iodine Industrial waste, natural Prevents goiter
brine, sea water intrusion
Lead Industrial waste, fuel Toxic, harmful to wildlife
Manganese Industrial waste, Toxic to plants, damages
microbial fixer by staining
Action
Mercury Industrial waste, coal Toxic, mobilized as
methyl mercury
compounds by anaerobic
bacteria
Molybdenum Industrial waste, natural Essential to plants, toxic
source to animals
Zinc Industrial waste, metal Essential element, toxic
plating, plumbing to plants at higher level

For water quality determination sample collection points at 12 different


locations of river Hooghly have been selected by West Bengal Pollution Control
Board. The Pollution Control Board has also arranged water quality analysis for
Subhas Sarabor, Rabindra Sarabor and some other selected water bodies in
Kolkata. Determination of water quality of different irrigation canals and sewage
canals is also envisaged.

Apart from the aforesaid air, water and noise pollution matters visual and
sound pollution are also need to be abated as far as possible towards attainable
congenial atmospheric environment.

I-107
Environmental Degradation

Domestic activities primarily use fire, water and consumables producing


thermal changes, smoke, sewage, sludge and solid wastes as pollutants which, in
turn, are discharged into the atmosphere, land and water courses. Each of the
environmental components, within limits, absorb some pollutants. However, with
intensification of domestic activities production of pollutants often exceeds the
absorption capacities of the natural elements, thus causing pollution.

Industrial resources are earth materials and chemicals which are useful as
well as are needed by the society. They include minerals, rocks, soil, organic matter,
water and air, resources are mainly of two types:

non-renewable
renewable.

Mans relation with the changing pattern of utilisation of resources became


complex with the advancement of science and technology.

Waste may be defined as any gaseous, or solid or liquid material that is


discarded because apparently it has no further use for the manufacturers, owners,
and consumers. Waste product can produce harmful effects and therefore pollute the
environment. There remains a chain reaction of utilisation of natural resources
through its intermediate stages of production of energy, usable of goods and wastes
and the sum is the total effect of waste within the manufacturing/consumer system of
natural environment.

The types of waste and methods of disposal are totally interconnected within
the biosphere. Wastes, in general, are produced from the eight broad sectors:

Domestic sector,
Commercial and Trade Sector including Government Sector,
Industrial manufacturing sector,
construction industry sector,
Extractive Industry sector,
Agricultural Sector,
Food processing sector, and
Nuclear Energy and Power sector.

As waste is produced continuously, there is a need for some sort of storage


facility prior to disposal of the waste.

The problem of disposal of waste needs to be reviewed from the standpoint of


resource recovery which refers to the process of obtaining usable materials or
energy from residuals. Three main categories of resource recovery are:
reuse,
recycling, and
reclamation

I-108
Interaction of man with the society and environment are immensely complex.
Necessity of accommodating flow of investment, technology, decision making
process are extremely sensitive to environment.

Industrial Pollution Control Measures

Given the extent of possible pollution of environment in KMA a


comprehensive approach to the reduction of such pollution need to be planned and
implemented. This shall comprise a multi-faceted program including pre-emptive,
treatment and ecological techniques.

Pre-emptive measures shall include prevention and/or reduction of pollution


from the different activities. Main component of this will be better housekeeping by
the industries so that industrial inputs e.g. raw materials, chemical especially the
hazardous one are properly stored and accurately accounted for. Leakages and
wastages at any stage of their handlings are to be minimised. Similarly, wetting of
materials and road surfaces can reduce SPM (Suspended Particle Material) in KMA.
Separation at source of hazardous materials from others can also be a notable
preventive step. All these will not only reduce pollution control costs but also improve
the bottom lines of industries balance sheets.

Treatment for pollution control measures will be source specific, e.g. collection
and treatment of domestic wastes and industrial wastes in each specific cases as
also of commercial wastes either separately or jointly with domestic wastes
depending on economy of scale.

I-109
Ecological control measures shall comprise use of natural resources, e.g.
plants and water bodies to reduce pollution. All industrial, commercial and residential
areas shall be totally separated with adequate rows of plants and shrubs specially
those that resist dust and absorb sound.

Industries shall be encouraged to do plantation inside their compounds along


the boundaries in addition to gardening. Genetically, modified seeds are coming to
markets the plants of which can absorb specific chemicals and smoke from the
environment. Use of these shall be encouraged. KMA has only few appropriately
designed modular rainwater harvesting water bodies. More such water bodies should
be created. All these shall be maintained properly to reduce pollution in the
environment.

Keeping in mind all these possibilities the following measures of pollution


control in KMA could be proposed.

Control of environmental pollution by natural means has assumed great


importance in todays world. Industries, motor transport and modern agriculture will
continue to produce pollutants in Kolkata roads. Even domestic activities, creates
environmental pollution. Although appropriate technology exists for controlling
emission of pollutants, in air and water by the industries. A cheaper, yet effective,
way to reduce this pollution is the beauty and aesthetic quality of the areas. In the
present section, a detail discussion has been made to point out the nature of
pollutants likely to be emitted from the different types of industries, the rationale
behind type of industry with respect to their pollution status along with suggestion for
introduction of suitable remedial measures.

I-110
Nature of Type of Pollution Suggestive measures
Industry

Smelting Heavy metal parts of lead, 1. Combination of cyclone


Industry copper, zinc, and noble separator, bag filter would be
metal, which will tend to best suited to minimise fugitive
have profound impacts in emissions.
the atmosphere in the
form of settable and 2. Use of common effluent
suspended dust particles. treatment plant before final
disposal or recycling of their
These metals are liquid waste.
cumulative poisons and
act as carcinogens to 3. Lead emission may be
human health. Some controlled through installation of
water containing toxic sophisticated pollution control
metals will either percolate equipments backed by adequate
the soil and contaminate tree plantation in and around the
ground water or pollute zone.
the surface water source.
LPG storage The expected pollutants, 1. To avoid congestion and to
units and though for the type of ensure smooth transhipment of
other industry usually negligible, vehicle (loaded and unloaded)
chemical may accidentally leak out on the approach road. Separate
industries from the pipe line and truck parking space must be
these may comprise provided.
sulphur dioxide, carbon
monoxide, long chain 2. All aspects of safety should be
hydrocarbons etc. considered for the storage and
installation including spraying of
water, equipments for fire
fighting.

Since the area has high


exploration risk, all requisite
safety facilities, have to be
installed by the individual units.

3. However, to prevent the


spreading of fire to other area, a
buffer of 100m has to be
provided. Vegetation cover
should be provided along the
approach road. Special care
should be taken during
plantation, fire prone species
should be avoided in the
plantation programme. Cactus
and other xerophytes plants may

I-111
Nature of Type of Pollution Suggestive measures
Industry
be the suitable choice.
Chemical All of which deals with 1. Adequate care should be
Processing hazardous chemicals. taken to prevent leakage in the
industries process and during
transportation and handling of
materials. To ensure lesser oil
and grease fraction in the
effluent water, an oil water
separator need to be installed by
the units. In this case common
effluent Treatment Plant (CETP)
ensuring that all hazardous
elements are removed from the
shop floor itself before letting out
the effluent to reach the CETP.
Plastic In these industries, no 1. Liquid and gaseous emission
conversion liquid or gaseous effluents from these industries are not
units other than that cooling significant. However, solid left
water will be generated. over are to be carefully disposed
at hazardous material disposed
site.
Other Air and noise pollution will 1. The different waste products
heavy be high. All generate huge generated, if allowed to let go as
industries amount of solid waste. such will have adverse effects on
like cement, Liquid wastes are the environment. Hence
pig iron etc. generated mainly from adequate pollution control and
floor washing. effluent treatment measures are
essential for these plants. The
solid waste must be dumped in a
specific area.

2. For control of air and water


pollution, electrostatic
precipitators, bag filters, tall
chimneys, dust suppression
system, stacks, wet scrubber are
to be installed.

3. For control of noise, proper


sound insulation partitions, ear
plugs, ear muffs, for working
personnel are some of the safety
gears.

To combat against external air


and noise pollution, in the
ambient environment, due to

I-112
Nature of Type of Pollution Suggestive measures
Industry
industrial and vehicular activities,
road side trees resistant to dust,
SO2 and automobile pollution
should be planted.

I-113
HOUSING

Existing Housing Situation

Shelter is the most vital basic need of human life next only to food and
clothing. Housing also constitute the second largest item of household expenditure
after food. Till early fifties there was virtually no public sector effort to combat the
housing problem as such; only some private sector effort, to meet the high and
middle-income group demand for housing, was apparent. Initiative was noticed in the
seventh five-year plan when meeting provision of basic needs, of which shelter was
one, was obligatory.

The low-income group and the economically weaker section (EWS) however,
accommodated themselves mainly in the slum area of KMA. To accommodate this
increased volume of population, many sub-standard settlements took up their
present shape. It is only then that a number of agencies like Kolkata Improvement
Trust, Howrah Improvement Trust, Housing Board and Housing Directorate and
NGOs etc. had started working to supplement the housing need in the KMA.

In view of the growing need of housing, KMDA has only recently taken up
construction of a number of housing projects in Kalyani, Barrackpore, Baghajatin,
Bishnabghata Patuli, East Calcutta, Golf Green and Salt Lake area. However,
compared to the growing need such efforts are obviously not sufficient.

The prime objective of this section is to ascertain the future need of housing
units in the KMA in relation to the future projected population of 21.07 million for

I-114
2025. On the basis of 2001 census population, the estimated population for 2011,
2021 and 2025 have been shown in the Table below for ready reference. In this
context, the existing housing status and development efforts from all corners need to
be considered and discussed.

Name of Unit Population in million


2001 2011 2021 2025
Kolkata Municipal Corporation 4.57 4.68 4.70 4.68
Hooghly 1.89 2.26 2.64 2.81
Howrah 2.26 2.81 3.41 3.67
Nadia 0.19 0.25 0.31 0.34
North 24 Parganas 4.41 5.48 6.67 7.18
South 24 Parganas 1.40 1.77 2.20 2.39
Total KMA 14.72 17.25 19.93 21.07

The Table below shows population, number of households, number of


houses, ratio of household to houses, persons per household (family) and person
per house for both 1981 and 1991 in India, West Bengal, Kolkata and KMA.

I-115
Population, Household and houses in India, West Bengal, Kolkata and KMA

India West Bengal K M A Kolkata


1991 2001 1991 1991 2001 2001 1991 2001
Population 846.30 1027.01 68.08 80.18 12.52 14.72 4.40 4.57
(Million)
Households 153.20 209.59 12.52 15.87 2.44 3.05 0.88 0.93
(Million)
Houses 148.10 187.06 12.41 15.54 2.41 2.90 0.84 0.91
(Million)
Ratio of 1.03 1.12 1.01 1.02 1.01 1.05 1.05 1.02
Household to
houses
Persons per 5.55 4.90 5.44 5.05 5.14 4.83 5.00 4.91
Household
Persons per 5.71 5.49 5.44 5.16 5.18 5.07 5.24 5.02
house

From the Table above, it is apparent that in 1991 Indias 846.30 million people
were distributed over 153.20 million households and sheltered in 148.1 million
housing units in 1991, while in West Bengal 68.08 million people were sheltered in
12.41 million houses which shows that one house had been provided to a family of
about 6.00 persons. Similarly, in KMA, 12.64 million people were housed in 2.41
million houses, showing 5.24 persons per sheltered unit. Now, according to 2001
census, Indias 1027.01 million people were distributed over 209.59 million
households; and sheltered in 187.06 million houses which shows a distribution of
over 5.49 persons per housing unit. The corresponding figure for WB is 5.16 and the
same for KMA is little less that that of West Bengal which is 5.07.

Type of Accommodation

The Table below is concerned with information on the type of dwelling unit, or
the classification of dwelling units that are shown into 3 (three) broad categories, viz.
pucca, semi-pucca and kutcha based on the material used for their construction.

A Report of Socio Economic Survey (1996-97) conducted by KMDA shows


that in KMA about 51% of total accommodation is of pucca nature and 42% are of
semi-pucca nature as shown in Table below :

Distribution of Household and Population by type of Dwelling Unit

Type of KMC (%) HMC (%) KMA (%)


Dwelling unit Household Persons Household Persons Household Persons
Pucca 50.5 49.8 48.2 48.3 51.3 51.0
Semi-pucca 45.8 46.6 48.2 47.6 42.2 42.4
Kutcha 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.8 6.2 6.4
Not reported 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
I-116
The Table below shows that in the KMC area about 50 percent house hold
are having single room accommodation while the figure is around 37 percent for
KMA.

Distribution of Household by number of Rooms in the Dwelling unit

No. of % of Household Residing in


Rooms KMC HMC OMU NMU RURAL KMA
1 49.0 39.7 31.1 28.5 7.6 37.2
2 19.0 18.8 21.0 25.0 34.4 21.3
3 15.7 19.7 22.5 21.1 37.2 20.4
4 7.8 12.0 15.4 15.4 15.2 12.1
5+ 8.0 9.8 9.8 9.8 5.2 8.8
Not 0.4 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2
reported
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Note : Socio Economic Survey Report, KMDA : 1996 1997

It is further revealed from the Table below that in the crowded urban area of
KMC, about 32% households are residing in dwelling units having a share of equal to
or less than 2.78 sq.m. per person. The corresponding figure for KMA is 23%.

I-117
Distribution of Household by Total Covered Area occupied in Dwelling unit

Covered area % of Household Residing in


per
Person (sqm)
KMC HMC OMU NMU RURAL KMA
2.78 32.5 27.8 18.0 17.3 3.5 23.5
2.79- 4.65 19.4 17.8 17.7 15.4 15.9 18.1
4.66-6.50 8.5 8.5 9.6 8.2 14.1 9.3
6.51-9.29 13.5 15.6 18.5 12.5 23.4 16.0
9.30-18.58 18.0 22.7 26.4 28.0 29.7 23.2
18.59-27.87 5.0 5.8 6.7 10.6 9.9 6.5
27.88-46.45 1.7 1.2 2.2 6.0 2.9 2.3
46.46- 0.8 0.4 0.6 1.6 0.3 0.7
Not reported 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.4
100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Note : Reference Table from Socio Economic Survey Report KMDA : 1996-1997

From the Tables above, one basic fact is clear that a large number of
population (house hold X no of person) in the core urban areas are faced with
actuate shortage of space.

I-118
Institutional Network in KMA
The institutional and organizational matrix in Kolkata Metropolitan Area is a
complex one with multiplicity of organizations working together towards development
of various infrastructure and services.

Among the State Government Departments that undertake various


developmental activities within KMA, the important one are Housing, PWD,
Transport, Power, Environment, Municipal Affairs, Health, Education and last but not
the least Urban Development. The line agencies working under these departments
include West Bengal State Electricity Board, Irrigation & Waterways Directorate,
Public Health Engineering Directorate, West Bengal Housing Board, Housing
Infrastructure Development Corporation, West Bengal Pollution Control Board, West
Bengal Transport Infrastructure Development Corporation, Hooghly River Bridge
Commissioners. In the Power sector, Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation, a private
sector agency, plays a major role in provision of electricity in the KMC and HMC
areas. Another important agency is the West Bengal Industrial Development
Corporation, an outfit under the Commerce & Industries Department, Government of
West Bengal, working for promotion of industries across the State through, inter alia,
provision of organized facilities for setting up of industries. There are a number of
Central Government agencies like Eastern Railways, South Eastern Railways, Metro
Railways, Kolkata Port Trust, Bharat Sanchar Nigam Ltd., Videsh Sanchar Nigam
Ltd., and Central Inland Water Transport Corporation.

KMDA is a para-statal under the Urban Development Department,


Government of West Bengal and accounts for the bulk of interventions in this
metropolis of Kolkata. KMDA is the statutory planning and the development authority
under the West Bengal Town and Country (Planning & Development) Act 1979.
KMDA has two sister organizations viz. Kolkata Metropolitan Water and Sanitation
Authority (KMW&SA) and Kolkata Improvement Trust (KIT). As KMA comprises both
urban municipal and rural areas the elected Urban Local Bodies (Municipalities/
Municipal Corporations) and Panchayat Samities and Gram Panchayat under the
three tier PRI structure are constituent units of KMA and carry out developmental
activities within their respective jurisdictions. It may be noted that the parastatal as
well as the units of local self-government, both urban and rural, are governed by
respective legislations.

It is worth mentioning that as a part of democratically decentralized urban


planning development and governance, the West Bengal Government has been the
first in the country to have established Kolkata Metropolitan Planning Committee
(KMPC), of which two thirds members are from among elected representatives within
KMA and the remaining members nominated. KMPC enlists representation from the
different government departments and agencies that function within KMA. KMDA
functions as Technical Secretariat of KMPC. One of the basic objectives of KMPC is
to ensure co-ordinated planning and development activities within KMA.

In order to provide to the decentralized process of urban development, the


State Government had set up a number of agencies that provide assistance to ULBs
to towards enhancing the capabilities of ULBs. Institute of Local Government and

I-119
Urban Studies (ILGUS) is a state-wide urban research and training body. Numerous
training programmes have been and are being carried out by ILGUS for both officials
and non-officials of ULBs. Municipal Engineering Directorate (MED) has been set up
to extend technical assistance to ULBs in formulation and execution of municipal
level schemes on behalf of ULBs. The Central Valuation Board (CVB) at the State
level undertakes independent assessment of municipal property valuations and is
engaged in periodical valuation of municipal properties, with a view to enhancing
municipal revenue potential from Property Tax, which is the mainstay of municipal
revenue. The most significant step in supporting and sustaining decentralized urban
governance to units of LSGs has been the setting up of two State Finance
Commissions (SFCs) that determine, inter alia, the allocation of fiscal resources
between the State Government and the ULBs. As per the recommendations of the
SFC, the State Government passes on 16 percent of annual revenue of the State to
the ULBs.

KMDA, as the prime development agent in KMA, receives both plan and non-
plan budgetary support from the State Government. KMDA has also been engaged
in implementation of externally aided projects. Apart from the regulatory function
under the West Bengal Town and Country (Planning & Development) Act 1979 in
terms of formulation of Land Use and Development Control Plans (LUDCPs) for
different zones within KMA, KMDA also undertakes preparation of long-range
perspective plan, sectoral master/development plans, short term investment plan
and design and implementation of projects in different sectors of urban infrastructure
and services with a view to realizing the accepted vision and goals and objectives. In
this endeavour, KMDA interacts with the concerned agencies of the State and
Central Governments. The plans and programmes of KMDA should be in conformity
with the broad planning parameters approved by KMPC.

Another major intervention that is now taking place in KMA is the Kolkata
Urban Services for Poor (KUSP), assisted by the Department for International
Development (DFID), Government of UK. KUSP envisions to upgrade the physical
and socio-economic lots of urban poor residing across 40 ULBs of KMA, excepting
Kolkata Municipal Corporation. For implementation of this major project, a Special
Purpose Vehicle (SPV) viz. Change Management Unit (CMU) has been set up under
Municipal Affairs Department of Government of West Bengal. The agencies like
KMDA, ILGUS, MED etc. are acting as support agencies for KUSP.

I-120
Role of Private Sector in Infrastructure Development

City Centre at Salt Lake developed as joint venture commercial complex by KMDA

The State Government envisages to provide a healthy and sustainable living


environment to the people of the state, with a focus on the poor and the socially
disadvantaged. The provision of infrastructure of different kinds would play a key role
in achieving the above vision. It has been amply brought out in various studies and
reports that West Bengal needs to focus on development of various infrastructures,
especially in the context of the accelerated industrial growth envisioned for the state.
Therefore, provision of infrastructure, both physical and social, is a sine qua non for
a healthy progress of the State. Needless to mention that state budgetary support
alone cannot be expected to match with the requirement of infrastructure
development. This is a countrywide phenomenon. According to the India
Infrastructure Report (1996), the Ninth Plan could provide Rs.120 billion only for
urban infrastructure development against an estimated requirement of about
Rs.1400 billion. The Rs.1600-crore Calcutta Megacity Programme, sponsored by
Government of India (GoI), has been facing fund crunch owing to inadequate flow of
fund from Government of India (GoI). The Master Plan for Traffic and Transportation
for KMA, prepared by KMDA only recently, has estimated an investment requirement
of around Rs.16000 crores over a period of 25 years from 2001. All these point to the
need for alternative financing sources, including mobilization of private sector
investment in infrastructure development.

I-121
Given the increasing gap between demand for and supply of infrastructure,
there is a need for providing an increasing allocation of investment to development of
infrastructure. In the context of budgetary constraints, it is imperative for the State
Government to look for alternative sources of financing. Apart from institutional
finances, i.e., loan from domestic financial institutions, such as HUDCO, LICI, ICICI
etc. and also finances from international bodies like the World Bank, the ADB etc.,
the State Government is keen to mobilize private sector investment in infrastructure
development.

In a limited way, the West Bengal Government has already attempted to enlist
private sector participation in infrastructure development. The State Government has
enacted the WB Maritime Board Act, which provides for securing private sector
participation in development of Ports. In the Housing and Commercial development
sector, a number of projects, such as Udayan The Condoville; Hiland Park; and
City Centre, have been taken up with private sector participation. The Leather
Complex project is being implemented by the Commerce & Industries Department of
Government of West Bengal (GoWB) on Build, Operate and Transfer (BOT) basis
through a private sector entity. The Second Vivekananda Bridge is being
implemented by the Ministry of Road Transport & Highways (MORTH), Government
of India and Public Works Department of Government of West Bengal on BOT basis
through private sector participation.

Nevertheless, the experience of the State Government in working with private


sector for infrastructure development has been rather limited. For a wider
involvement of private sector participation in infrastructure development, it is
necessary to instill confidence in the minds of prospective private sector investors
and also to streamline the process of selection of private partners. With a view to
addressing these issues, the State Government has already notified the West
Bengal Policy on Infrastructure Development through Public Private Partnership
(PPP) during August 2003.

It would be worthwhile to mention that KMDA has already completed two


projects viz, City Centre at Salt Lake & HILAND Park at Baghajatin, involving an
investment of more than Rs.260 crore through formation of Joint Venture under PPP
format. Kolkata West International City (West Howrah Township) an integrated
township over 390 acres of land, Kolkata Logistics Hub at Kona in Howrah and
Stadium Based Commercial Complex in East Kolkata Township are under
implementation on PPP basis, involving an investment of more than Rs.4000 crore.
Another nine projects are being processed for taking up under PPP.

I-122
Hiland park developed as joint venture residential complex by KMDA

I-123
CHAPTER II
THE VISION
The Vision is to provide sustained and improved quality of life through basic
urban services in an inclusive manner and create enabling environment for
attracting domestic and international investors to live, work & invest in
Kolkata Metropolitan Area.

II-1
Goals and Objectives

Metropolitan Kolkata shall continue to remain as the strong industrial and


intellectual hub to the country as well as in its regional context not to speak of
the global situation. To reduce dependency of Kolkata for daily, weekly,
monthly, periodic and occasional facilities on other centre in the region.
To take measures to enhance the dependency of the region for facilities on
the central government thus increasing the influence of the region in the
country.
Utilise all resources efficiently including urban land.
Conserve natural reserve and heritage (National, Local & Regional) Provide
sufficient space for Housing and Social Infrastructure for the anticipated and
allocated population in future, including those who will be engaged in the
white color jobs in Kolkata Haldia and other metro regional centre.
Creation of strong fast transportation corridors with the Calcutta Metropolitan
Area (CMA) as delineated for Kolkata, and other parts of the country and also
to ensure uniform spatial accessibility and actual opportunity for all through in
integrated transportation system.
Provide sufficient space for postulated economic growth including locating
high intensity industrial establishments.
Population will be attracted to CMA by providing higher order infrastructure
facilities, namely water supply, sewerage and drainage including garbage
disposal, where industrial township is going to release pressure on Kolkata.
Facilities such as economic activities, social infrastructure, physical
infrastructure, housing and communication of higher order are to be provided.
Provide healthy & sanitary living condition to all.
CMA is to be developed in an environment and eco-friendly manner by
utilising all resources efficiently, conserving natural resource and heritage,
providing healthy and sanitary living condition as well as utilising vast
possibility of primary sectors activities in the Metro region.
Provide social amenities, community facilities and securities to all.
Stabilise urban development at a time horizon for 2025 AD.
Achieve an aesthetically pleasing cohesive urban from.

II-2
Emerging Development Plan Frame

Any large city is dependent on its influence area. The metropolis of Kolkata is
no exception. It is therefore, essential that while preparing a perspective plan for the
metropolis of Kolkata, the outlying areas over which the Metropolis exercises a good
amount of influence should be kept in view. For realistic future planning, it requires
identification of its zone of influence. Therefore, while preparing the development
programs, it is necessary to consider the appropriate development plan frame in a
hierarchical manner as detailed below:

Kolkata Metropolitan Region Influence area of the city as may be defined


through daily commutation for the purpose of supplying workers to the city and the
metropolitan district.

Intermediate Metropolitan Region Influence area of the city as may be


defined mainly through the supply area of fresh vegetable and other perishable food
items to the city and the metropolitan district.

Inner Metropolitan Region The influence area of the city as may be


defined through the area of daily city bus services, milk supply zone as well as from
nearest town criteria of census.

Kolkata Metropolitan Area Kalyani-Budge Budge on east bank and


Bansberia-Uluberia on the west bank of the river Hooghly containing the whole of the
Kolkata Urban Agglomeration along with rural pockets. This is almost similar to the
Kolkata Standard Urban Area as defined by the census authority.

Metro Core Twin city of Kolkata and Howrah; with intensively built up
surrounding areas spreading from Bally-Dakhineswar-Kamarhati to Andul-Garden
Reach-Garia occupying about 34% of the KMA area.

Central Business District (CBD) Major locus of urban activities and covers
about 8% of the citys municipal area and about 1% of the KMA area.

Municipal and Panchayat areas In view of the constitutional mandate


following the provisions of the West Bengal District planning Committee Act 1994
and West Bengal Metropolitan Planning Committee Act 1994, Municipalities and
Panchayats will be responsible to prepare the development plan for their respective
jurisdictions.

The Economic Prospects of KMA

Notwithstanding the public sector efforts towards a spatially balanced


economic development across the state, KMA would continue to play a dominant
role in the economy of the state in the foreseeable future. The demographic
projection for KMA indicates that about 6 million additional people are going to reside
in KMA by 2025. The state government and KMDA aim to provide a healthy living
environment to 21 million people of KMA by 2025. Apart from basic infrastructural
II-3
facilities, these people would also need to have adequate income and employment
opportunities to be able to enjoy a sustained decent living. Millions of people will
have to be provided with shelter, civic services, health and education facilities;
millions of jobs and income need to be generated to stabilise and expand the
economic base of the metropolis. Before a comprehensive plan for development of
infrastructure in KMA is drawn up, it is imperative to anticipate what kinds of
economic activities are likely to come to KMA and where they should come. This
section makes an attempt at that. Owing to various changes in policies such as
Industrial Policy of the State Government and opportunities created by the new
economic policy regime, Kolkata Metropolitan Area is now poised for a dynamic and
revitalised bright future. This requires sustained efforts of planning and development
in the right direction over the coming years.

With the liberalisation of the countrys economy, the economic opportunities


and their scope have expanded to a great extent. The KMA and its hinterland have
been proved to be highly attractive to the investors because of its fundamental
business advantages like the size of its markets, the availability of certain key
resources such as its skilled work force, agro based inputs, political stability,
improved governance together with the State Governments policy on
decentralisation and last but not the least the positive impact of a relatively low
competition intensity which is very vital for any industry to start off.

Apart from the above mentioned advantages, the KMA economy is well
equipped with the transport network for easy and quick movement of people and
goods along with positive intention and sincere effort of the State Government to
achieve a faster rate of industrialization which should be the backbone for sustaining
notable growth in the rural economy following the land reforms in West Bengal
through backward and forward linkages.
The future prospect of KMAs economy in the light of Primary, Secondary and
Tertiary sectors have been discussed below:

Economic Prospects by Sectors


Primary Sector
The SDP generated out of this sector in KMA
can be raised effectively through value addition and
increased production in the areas of horticulture, animal
husbandry, aquaculture etc. It may be mentioned here
that demand for products of these activities would
continue to increase with growth of urban population.
For example, the demand for milk and milk products
like cheese, paneer, curd and sweetmeats is very high
in KMA and the neighbouring urban centres.

Given the rising demand for fish, poultry and


dairy products in KMA, it is necessary to promote and
sustain the related activities within KMA subject to

II-4
limited production possibilities. It may be necessary to think of organising integrated
facilities like the proposed Dugdha Nagari in Dankuni where production as well as
processing of milk products can be done at one site.

There is a good demand in KMA for fruits grown in orchards, many of which
could be seen in Baruipur in the southern fringe and Barasat on the eastern fringe of
KMA producing guava, mango, litchi, melon primarily. There are also orchards in
Hugli producing bananas. All efforts should be made to conserve and upgrade the
orchards.
Urban agriculture activities including those being pursued in eastern periphery
of Kolkata city viz. Dhapa, Bantala and Sonarpur should be promoted to cater to the
large urban markets in KMA at least transport costs. Mushroom cultivation in Hugli is
gaining popularity very fast in view of its export potential particularly in markets of
Far East.

Floriculture is the most promising economic activity in not only KMA but also
the State. Floriculture including ornamental plant production holds a great deal of
export prospects. In and around KMA, Ranaghat (Nadia), Bagnan (Haora),
Thakurnagar (North 24 Parganas) are the major flower producing centres, having a
wholesale market facility at Mallickghat in Haora. With the setting up of wholesale
flower market in Singapore well connected through Kolkata airport, the export
prospect has brightened up.

Secondary Sector

The state of West Bengal is poised for a rapid growth of industries. The
Government of West Bengal now attaches a high priority to growth of manufacturing
and service industries. To facilitate such growth process, the State Government has
enacted its policy titled Policy Statement on Industrial Development, 1994, supported
by an Incentive Scheme 2000 and also a Policy on IT & ITES industries. Based on
recent trends as presented in earlier section and also the resource availability and
the extent of markets, certain industries as mentioned below have been identified as
having growth potential within KMA. On the basis of availability of land its
accessibility and infrastructure provision, a spatial plan for location of the prospective
industries has been drawn up, vide Annexure-1. The location plan may include some
of the Growth Centres already identified in the metropolitan Structure Plan.

IT & ITES
This is the most promising industry group in KMA
as Kolkata city and its neighbourhood offers the
appropriate environment for setting up the units. Apart
from availability of integrated services at the existing and
proposed IT Growth Centres/Hubs, the professionals
required by the industries are in abundance in and
around Kolkata. The availability of transport services and
high-end housing and entertainment facilities in Kolkata
make Kolkata and its neighbourhood an ideal location for

II-5
IT & ITES industries. The IT Policy of the State Government provides for specific
concessions for growth of the industries.

Food Processing

West Bengal is predominantly an agricultural state and has been enjoying


agricultural prosperity since long. The KMA has a rich agricultural hinterland that
offers sufficient agricultural surpluses. Now to add value to this
surplus, we cannot afford to overlook the prospect of food
processing or agro-based industries within KMA. Vegetables
like potato and mushroom and fruits like guava, litchi, mango,
and watermelon grown in the immediate hinterland of KMA
provide enormous opportunities for agro based processing
industries within KMA. Further, KMA offers a vast market for
processed agro-products, as there exists large demand potential
for canned fruits, juices and vegetables including potato based
units like potato powder, potato starch etc. A major Food Park is
coming up at Dankuni in the Hugli district to take care of the
infrastructure requirement of the above units.

Jute
Jute has traditionally been a major industry in KMA along the banks of river
Hugli, providing substantial employment. But over the years there has been a
considerable shrinkage in demand for traditional product made of jute. Opportunities
for jute are likely to lie in its biodegradable properties, as a blending fibre and in new
decorative applications. Rising demand in the developing countries like Germany for
natural environ-friendly products throws up an opportunity towards jute industries
with demand potential not only for packaging materials but also for other value
added products. However, in order to sustain the interest of jute based industrial
activities in KMA, it would be imperative to initiate measures at the appropriate level
to cut down cost including labour cost to make jute products more price competitive.

Garment/Apparel
In recent years the Garment manufacturing industry in West Bengal has been
showing a healthy growth and is poised for further expansion. KMA has the
distinction of having the National Institute of Fashion Technology located in Kolkata
and the scope for attending to changing needs of global markets. Tailoring being one
of the traditional household industries in KMA provides source of skilled labour
supply. All these factors add to the prospect of garment manufacturing industries in
KMA. WBIDC is already planning to set up a garment park in the vicinity of Howrah
city.

II-6
Metal based and Engineering

With increasing demand for consumer durables and household appliances


and spare parts in KMA and the neighbouring region, the growth of metal based
(both ferrous and non ferrous) engineering and metal processing industries holds a
great potential within KMA. It is hoped that with the dismantling of freight equalization
structure, the metal based (ferrous) engineering industries, particularly the foundry
and casting units, would receive a boost. The technological obsolescence of small
and medium engineering industries, especially of those in Haora city, need to be
looked into and corrective steps taken.

Leather Processing and Leather Products

This traditional industry would continue to grow in KMA facilitated by the


organized infrastructure and services arranged at Kolkata Leather Complex in
Bantola within KMA. Many more units under this industry can come up in this well
equipped complex in the coming years. The Kolkata Leather Complex exclusively
devoted to such leather units is expected to revive the moribund and stagnant
leather industry in KMA when there is a growing domestic as well as international
demand for various leather products.

Chemicals, Plastic and Toy Manufacturing

The commissioning of Haldia Petrochemicals Ltd (HPL) has come as a boon


to the KMA and the state as whole, as far as growth of chemical and plastic based
industries are concerned. Certain polymer and chemical industries would have
growth potentiality in KMA as the units could draw the basic raw materials from HPL.
As for the plastic industry, it may be noted that the per-capita plastic consumption in
West Bengal is yet low at 0.8 kg compared to an all India figure of 1.18 kg and world
average of 15 kg. Given the fact that HPL lays the base for setting up of plastic
industry and also the potential for increase in per-capita consumption of plastic, the
prospect of this industry in KMA cannot be overestimated. The industry had
remained in a dormant state for long primarily because of the supply side constraint.
So, there exists a huge untapped potential in this region. With HPL in operation, the
eastern India and for that matter KMA can now look forward to a rapid expansion of
plastic processing industry, especially plastic processing machinery, dyes, moulds
and ancillary equipments.

Again, as an ancillary industry, toy-manufacturing industry is another


promising industry in this region. In order to promote this industry, a Toy Park has
been set up in Salt Lake. The park houses common facilities like mould shops, tool
shops, flatted factories and shops for supply of raw materials for the toy units which
would cater to the growing domestic and export market.

Gems and Jewellery

The State has the distinction of having a large workforce of highly skilled
artisans in manufacture of gems and jewellery. This is an industry that accounts for
high degree of value addition and as such calls for promotion of the industry in KMA
II-7
especially owing to nearness of market. The Gems and Jewellery
park at Salt Lake known as Manikanchan is an endeavour to
bring back a substantial number of highly skilled gold
smith/artisans belonging to this state who left this state in absence
of required infrastructural facilities in their profession. The jewellery
crafted by these artisans is exported under the brand name of
Kolkata Jewellery. Hence the traders of this region can take
advantage of this infrastructure of the park to reach out to the
foreign market. The above park is expected to emerge as a sector
specific export-processing zone.

The above list of prospective industries in KMA is by no


means exhaustive and there are other industries too with different
degrees of promise and may be suitably located within KMA.

A matrix showing the prospective industries and their probable locations is


given in the following Table.

Why a Single Vision for KMA

While formulating the Vision 2025 and Sectoral Master Plan documents, entire KMA
comprising 41 ULBs and intervening Panchayat areas has been considered as single unit.
The reason being that KMDA, apart from implementing certain development scheme for
individual ULBs, has also to implement several trans-municipal schemes. It is also
necessary to ensure synchronization of various municipal schemes among different
municipalities to achieve optimum benefit, as most of the municipalities in KMA are adjacent
to each other. Hence single vision for entire Kolkata Metropolitan Area has been considered
while formulating the CDP.

II-8
Potential Industries and their proposed Spatial Distribution in KMA

Sl
Name of Potential Industries Location/ Growth Center Remarks
No.
1 Electronics/ IT and ITES-Hardware and Saltlake, Rajarhat, Nonadanga Due to non-polluting nature the electronics and IT-based
Software industries can come up in the KMA itself in a big or
small ways. The highly skilled manpower required for
such industries will naturally prefer the city core facilities
and hence will reside in and around Kolkata.
Agro/ Food processing/ Food park Dankuni new township, Barasat-Nabapalli, Using the neighbouring agricultural hinterland indsutries can
Sonarpur-Baruipur flourish in this region and serve both domestic and export
2 market.
Jute Textile/ Diversified Jute Product South Haora, West Haora, Champdani,
Due to proximity to raw material sources, the sacking and
Kalyani/- Gayeshpur
other diversified products like blended fibre, rug, apparel,
3 upholstry material etc. can be produced in this areas.
Garment manufacturing industries/ park East Kolkata, Haora, Barasat-Nabapalli
Ready-made garments has huge market, both national and
international; hence the units / garment park can be set up in
4 areas with excellent road, rail and port network.
Metal-based and engineering Dankuni township, Barasat,Uluberia, The metal processing and other engineering industries (both
5 Sankrail, Kalyani medium and large) can be set up in thes areas.
Leather processing and products/ Leather park Bantola, Dankuni, Sonarpur-Rajpur areas Relocation of existing tanneries from Kolkata to the
integrated Leather Complex in Bantola is already underway
for combating pollution. Due to availibility of rawmaterial
like skins and hides from carcasses around Dugdhada Nagari
proposed in Dankuni and also in Sonarpur-Rajpur ares, leather
6 industries may come up.
Animal Husbandry - Dairy, Goatery etc. Sonarpur-Baruipur, Dankuni Some integrated project like Dugdha nagari(Production as
well as processing of milk products) may come up in and
around areas like Sonarpur-Baruipur where milk is in
7 abundant supply,using the natural hinterland closeby.
8 Foriculture/Horticulture Bagnan, Sonarpur, Barasat, Nees to be backed up by preservation facilities.
9 Chemical & Pharmaceutical industry Sankarail-Abada zone, Dankuni, Uluberia, While small scale phermaceutical industries can come up in a
Kalyani dispersed manner within KMA, HPL down stream chemical
based industries should be located in the proposed industry
zone of Sankarail, Dankuni, Uluberia and Kalyani
10 Plastic/Toy manufacturing industries/ Toy park Saltlake, Kalyani , Dankuni, Snankarail-
Abada area.

II-8
Tertiary Sector

Unlike secondary sector, the tertiary sector activities keep on growing where
there is a planned development with industries and other infrastruc-ture including
improved transport network system.

Trades and commerce, especially wholesale trade, constitute a dominant


economic base of KMA. However, following the State Governments policy of
spatially balanced and eco-friendly urban growth, it is desirable that the wholesale
trade activity should stretch beyond the city and be located around other major towns
of KMA. The Traffic and Transportation Master Plan, prepared by KMDA, provides a
network of truck termini at nine different points of the metropolis, viz. Kona, Dankuni,
South of Rajarhat Township, Noapara, Amtola, Baranagar, Port Area, Budge Budge,
and under the western approach of Vidyasagar Setu. Therefore, it is suggested that
the new wholesale markets be set up and some of the existing markets be shifted
near the location of these proposed truck termini and truck parking zones for easy
movement of goods to and from the markets.

As for the retail markets, the scope for brand retailing has increased in recent
years, as confirmed by a recent study conducted by a consultant of international
repute. The food retailing is also poised for a big business. The ready-to-eat food
category is growing at a very fast rate in urban areas. A number of big retail stores
have already come up in the city, viz. Pantaloons, Westside, Shoppers Stop and so
on. Similar large retail stores and commercial plazas can also come up in the large
and medium towns of KMA in a planned and regulated manner to meet the emerging
clientele.

The increased agro based economic activities such as food and fruit
processing and floriculture and expanding urban market of KMA in diversified forms
are likely to add to the demands for multi-purpose cold storage and modern
warehousing in KMA.

The banking and insurance sector has been playing an important role in
financing the trade, commerce and industry in KMA and the State. With increasing
liberalisation of the domestic economy and financial sector reforms, banking and
insurance businesses are getting diversified and modernized, in which KMA would
have a good share in trying to feed the growing and vibrant economy of KMA.

Projected SDP in KMA

The growth rates of SDP in KMA and West Bengal have been realistically
assumed, with the factors underlying the assumptions noted below:
During the initial years of globalisation, the economy will get a boost and,
therefore, is likely to achieve a SDP growth rate between 8 percent and 9
percent per annum.

II-9
Due to openness of the economy to the world market, the market based
economy is likely to be subjected to ups and downs.
Maintaining a high growth rate may not be feasible in the later years. Hence,
with a conservative view of the SDP growth, it is assumed to settle at around
6 percent per annum.
The rate of growth of SDP for KMA has always been assumed to be lower
than that for West Bengal in view of negligible presence of primary sector
activities and already high base of non-agricultural economic activities.
On the basis of above, the assumed annual SDP growth rates are indicated in
Table below.

Future Growth Rates of SDP

Plan Period SDP Growth SDP Growth Remarks


Rate for West Rate for KMA
Bengal
Tenth 5-Year Plan 8.8 8.5 The figure for West
(2002-07) Bengal obtained from
the Tenth Plan
document of Planning
Commission, Govt. of
India. The figure for
KMA assumed.
Eleventh 5-Year Plan 7.5 7.0 The SDP growth rate
(2007-12) for KMA assumed to
be lower than that for
West Bengal.
Twelfth 5-Year Plan 7.0 6.5 -do-
(2012-17)
Thirteenth 5-Year 6.5 6.0 -do-
Plan (2017-22)
Fourteenth 5-Year 6.5 6.0 -do-
Plan (2022-2025)

Projected SDP (in Rs. crore) in KMA

State Domestic Product at constant (1980-81) prices

Sector/Years 2002 2011 2021 2025

Primary 50.14 110.37 291.80 368.39

Secondary 2326.18 4887.61 9629.50 12157.03

Tertiary 5586.96 10768.50 19259.01 24314.05

Total 7999.28 15766.48 29180.31 36839.48

II-10
It may be noted from the above Table that the total SDP for KMA rises from
about Rs.8000 crore in 2002 to around Rs.36,840 crore in 2025. It is expected that
the share of Primary sector would gradually reach 1 percent of total by 2025.
Similarly, the share of Secondary sector is likely to increase to 33 percent by 2025 of
total KMA-SDP in view of the envisioned process of industrialization, led by IT&ITES
industries. Conversely, the share of Tertiary sector activities is expected to decline to
66 percent of total KMA-SDP by 2025, although the estimated value of SDP of
Tertiary sector would work to be about two times that of Secondary sector SDP in
2025. The estimated SDPs of KMA by sector are noted in the table above for 2025
as well as for some intervening years.

Projected Employment Scenario in KMA

The employment generating potential in future would largely depend on the


labour-output ratios, i.e., the number of labour employed for production of each unit
of output. An examination of the employment elasticity, i.e., the percentage change
in employment due to one percentage change in SDP, reveals that the employment
elasticity has fallen significantly during the period from 1993-94 to 2001-02, as a
contrast to the period between 1985-86 and 1993-94. In KMA, the employment
elasticity has fallen from 0.57 during 1985-86 to 1993-94 period to 0.17 over 1993-94
to 2001-02. Obviously, the major reason for decline in employment elasticity had
been the increasing use of capital-intensive or labour-saving modern methods of
production in the economy in order to gain competitiveness in the liberalized and
globalized economic regime initiated in the country since the early nineteen nineties.
However, for the purpose of future projection, it has been reasonably assumed that
the employment elasticity would register a gradual increase from the present level of
0.17 to 0.18 in 2007 (i.e., by the end of Tenth Plan), then to 0.20 in 2011, and further
to 0.25 by 2025. The underlying explanation for the assumptions being that Tertiary
sector activities are expected to experience a rapid growth, faster than that of
Secondary sector, which would help create an increasing employment opportunities
as the employment absorption potential of Tertiary sector is generally high.

Based on the above assumptions, the employment generation in KMA has


been projected for some years upto 2025 and provided in Table below.

Projected Employment in KMA

Projected rate
Projected
Year of growth of
Employment
Employment
2001-02 1.53 4444567
2010-11 1.40 5069361
2020-21 1.50 5875956
2024-25 1.50 6236526

II-11
Again, the projected employment has been broken down by sector on the
basis of some realistic assumptions about sharing of employment by sectors. The
projected employment by sectors is indicated in Table below.

Percentage Distribution of Projected Employment in KMA by Sector


Year Primary Secondary Tertiary Total
2001-02 1.83 37.14 61.03 100.00
2010-11 1.95 36.00 62.05 100.00
2020-21 2.00 33.00 65.00 100.00
2024-25 2.00 33.00 65.00 100.00

Sectoral Distribution of Projected Employment in KMA

Year Primary Secondary Tertiary Total


2001-02 81536 1650535 2712496 4512569
2010-11 98853 1824970 3145539 5069361
2020-21 117519 1939065 3819371 5875956
2024-25 124731 2058054 4053742 6236526

It may be noted from above that the share of secondary sector in total
employment in KMA falls over time, while that of Tertiary sector rises during the
same period. This is again indicative of the phenomenon of falling labour absorption
capacity of Secondary sector.

The employment projection needs to be examined against the projected


labour force, i.e., persons seeking employment in KMA at different points of time, so
as to be able to make an assessment of the incidence of unemployment. The
number of persons in labour force has been estimated from the available data from
NSSO (National Sample Survey Organization, Government of India) sources
including the 55th Round NSSO data. The NSSO data reveal that the number of
persons in labour force in Urban West Bengal was 378 persons per 1000 people in
1999-2000. Further, the proportion of persons in labour force shows a falling trend in
recet times owing, inter alia, to increased participation in academic pursuits thereby
delaying entry into job markets. The data in Table below provide the relevant
information on the same.
Employment-Unemployment in KMA
In Labour
Year Employment Unemployment %-Unemployment
Force
2010-11 6501509 5069361 1432148 22.03
2020-21 7523853 5875956 1647897 21.90
2024-25 7956026 6236526 1719500 21.61

It may be noted from above that there is going to be a considerable incidence


of unemployment in KMA in the years to come. This would call for, among other

II-12
things, promotion of labour-intensive methods of production in industries in general
and encouragement of small-scale industries and self-employment activities in
particular. All steps will need to be taken to see that the projected rates of SDP-
growth in KMA are not only achieved but also enhanced further if possible. For this
to happen, it would be imperative to provide the necessary infrastructure and
services, especially in areas and growth centres expected to draw industries of
various kinds.

Important Contextual Changes in KMA

There have been qualitative changes in issues, policies and strategies.


Matters like environment, urban agriculture, application of information technology,
and remote sensing satellite images, heritage and urban conservation have gained
prominence and need appropriate treatment in preparation of perspective Plan for
Kolkata.

The main objectives of the state government have been to make the process
of urban growth and development sustainable; to make urban areas more
environment friendly; and to make the urban areas investment friendly, particularly
the metropolitan Kolkata. The State Government has assigned high priority to
democratically decentralised urban governance structure in the state as a whole.
The sustained practice of decentralized urban planning and development as a matter
of policy and strategy has rendered the interventions more sustainable through
better resource allocation between alternativ uses and effective peoples
participation. The establishment of Kolkata Metropolitan Planning Committee
(KMPC), the first of its kind in India, has strengthened the process of democratically
decentralized urban planning.

Kolkata is now a happening city, facilitated both by external and internal


factors. Its importance in the eastern India has always been immense. The
hinterland of Kolkata extends much beyond and also to the neighbouring countries of
Nepal, Bangladesh, and Bhutan. The Kolkata Port and the international Airport in
Kolkata connect Kolkata to the rest of the world. The first spell of industrialisation in
the country had taken place in the areas in and around Kolkata and resultantly the
traditional industries like jute, chemicals, engineering etc. were located in and around
Kolkata. In terms of not only the manufacturing industries, but also the wholesale
and retail trades Kolkata occupies a pre-eminent position in eastern India, primarily
helped by Kolkata Port. Agglomeration of all these major economic activities here
have rendered Kolkata the character of a metropolitan city, which is by far the largest
in eastern India in terms of demographic, social and economic parameters.

A numbr of large and important infrastructure projects like North-south and


East West Corridor under Golden Quadrilateral program, Kolkata Logistics Hub,
West Howrah Township, Rajarhat Township, Second Vivekananda Bridge, Belghoria
Expressway, Kalyani DumDum Expressway, West Howrah Township etc., are likely
to create major direct impact on the developmental scene of KMA. The importance of
KMA would continue to be significant in the context of various other factors. The
Look East Policy of Government of India strives to enhance trade between India and
other countries in the East, especially China, Korea, Myanmar, Bangladesh - the

II-13
neighbouring countries. In implementation of this Policy, the strategic importance of
Kolkata along with Siliguri cannot be underestimated. With China being targeted as a
major trading partner of India, to be facilitated by resumption of trade via Nathu la,
freight traffic to Kolkata port is slated to rise considerably. Kolkata has already seen
a spurt in real estate and service sector industries, especially IT & ITES industries.
The IT&ITES industries have been growing at around 100 percent per annum.

The IT and ITES have opened up vast possibility of introducing egovernance


in ULBs and also in management of infrastructure. The comparative edge of West
Bengal in this area reinforces the possibilities. A number of steps in this direction
have already been initiated by the ULBs. The municipal accounting system is
undergoing a total overhaul.

Another major area of departure in the arena of urban policy has been that of
enlisting private sector participation in infrastructure development and management.
The State Governments Policy on Infrastructure Development through Public Private
Partnership (PPP) has been a notable step in this direction. The PPP Policy provides
for participation of private sector in development and management of power,
telecommunication, transport including roads, bridges, fly-over, waterways, ports,
airports, water supply, drainage & sanitation, township & area development, housing
& commercial complexes, recreational projects etc.

The Population Perspective

Under both laissez faire and centralised planning, the sizes of the current and
future population are key inputs for urban planning exercise. Production programmes
in agriculture, industry, trade and commerce are to be formulated on the basis of the
anticipated population for whom food, employment shelter, transport, and other
amenities are to be planned.

II-14
If this is true for the nation as a whole this is no less true for a city, or a town.
Those who are planning a water supply system for Kolkata Metropolitan Area must
be told how many people the water supply is to be arranged for. This how many is
again linked to the question of how long. Actually the respective lengths of life of the
various components of infrastructure determine the time horizon of infrastructure
planning. So far as our present planning exercise is concerned we have taken a
twenty-five year period 2001-2025 as our time reference.

Actually, to generate projections for the twenty five-year period from 2001 to
2025 is complicated, because even though the economic planning or policy planning
may be done at a micro-regional or local level; population projection for a single
town, say, Dum Dum or Barasat, is much more complicated and involves a much
greater uncertainty than the population projection for KMA as a whole.

When a large area is concerned, the projection of population on the basis of


the past behavior of its various components is the proper scientific approach. But
when a small area is concerned, the policy with regard to allocation of population
distribution becomes more relevant. In such cases, allocation of population depends
on development programmes envisaged or decided upon for the respective areas.
Here is an instance where the physical planners and the social scientists preparing
population estimates have to interact with each other.

Projection for KMA: In absence of adequate data related to the demographic


variable like fertility, mortality and migration for the KMA as well as the age-sex
distribution, it is difficult to estimate future population using the various demographic
methods commonly known. That is why several alternative mathematical projections,
were applied to estimate the future population of KMA using various functions. Out of
seven such projections, Alternative-6, which is a second-degree fitting by the method
of least square, seems to be a more reasonable one and may be considered for our
planning purpose. Based on allocation of the projected population among the
constituent micro units and cross checking of the same with future density and
growth rate, the final projected population figure for KMA for 2025 has been
determined at 21.068 million, vide Table 3.22.

II-15
Projection for the Local Bodies and Panchayat Samities: Now the task is
to apportion the estimated population of KMA over the various Corporations,
Municipalities and Panchayat Samities. Even though the future estimates of
population for small areas are likely to differ for many unpredictable and
unforeseeable reasons and are more dependent on policy issues, still it is essential
and desirable to make such estimates for the purpose of planning. Here again, a
synthesis of the time honoured demographic-mathematical techniques and the
allocative techniques have been adopted. Several alternatives for each of the local
bodies and Panchayat Samities were applied to estimate the future population for
the constituent units. Projected figures were crosschecked in respect of future
density and growth rate. Most likely figures (from different alternatives) were clubbed
together and adjusted to the total projected population of KMA and finally
apportioned. Figures providing the estimated population for the urban local bodies
and Panchayat Samities have been derived.

II-16
Future Spatial Structure for KMA

The urbanization pattern in Kolkata Metropolitan Area and in the region have
been analyzed and described earlier. The metropolitan area over the decades has
been emerging as a poly-nucleated multi-center metropolis. The high density of
population and the high land value in the core areas of KMC and HMC have resulted
in the dispersal of settlements away from the metropolitan core area. Due to the
availability of land at comparatively lower prices and the suburban rail system, the
bus transport system through the newly developing expressways and highways, the
dispersal has been more rapid during the last 20 years. The population of KMC and
HMC area in 1961 was about 57% of the total population of KMA and has reduced to
38% in 2001. This indicates the dispersal of urban settlements in the metropolitan
area.

II-17
The Vision of the future metropolitan structure is important in guiding the
future infrastructure and urban facilities within the area. The spatial distribution of
different categories of the centers in the metropolis depends on a number of
parameters. These parameters have been analyzed in achieving the future
metropolitan structure for KMA. The important considerations in this regard are:

Balanced distribution of centers within the metropolitan area


The present trend of growth of population and related activities within the
metropolitan area
The scenario of developments in the metropolitan region particularly in the vicinity
of the metropolitan area
The findings of the geo-environmental, geo-technical and geo-hydrological
studies conducted in the metropolitan area for ascertaining the proposed
locations for future development
Availability of pre-dominantly vacant land masses with favourable topography,
road linkages and drainage facilities
Development programmes of the State and Central Governments in respect of
highways and railway system, public transport infrastructure mainly extension of
suburban rail, metro rail and LRT, new passenger terminals, flyovers,
underpasses, new industrial growth centers, new retail and wholesale trading
centers, truck terminals, etc.
Environmental considerations particularly conservation of water bodies, wetlands
and the areas identified as natural reserves
Control of unplanned u8rban sprawl in the fringe areas upon the agricultural land
and wetlands
To provide areas for holding increased population and to generate space for
social and economic infrastructures for production and employment generation in
a planned manner
Present trend of urban development with participation of public sector and private
sectors

The future spatial structure for the metropolis has been visualized keeping in
view the existing centers as well as the proposed new centers for accommodating
the projected population and activities in the metropolis upto the horizon year. The
spatial structure of the metropolis has been conceived in the following form:

i) Hierarchy of centers: Three categories of centers have been envisaged:

a) Metro Center 1st order


b) Metro Sub-center 2nd order
c) Major Centers 3rd order
d) Trans metro City System

ii) New settlement areas (New townships)


iii) Industrial growth centers

a) Metro Center Kolkata has been visualized as the 1st order metro
center with the allotted population of about 4.75 million in 2025 and will

II-18
continue to dominate the activities in the metropolis and in the
hinterland.

b) Metro Sub-center Howrah has been considered as the 2nd order


metro center with allotted population of 1.55 million in 2025. Howrah
would also be a dominating center in the metropolis next to Kolkata.

c) Major Centers Apart from Kolkata and Howrah, in total 15 major


centers have been visualized in the metropolis with the population of
each center ranging between 0.5 million and 0.75 million. Most of these
centers are at present existing and with the dispersal of urbanization
within the metropolis, these centers would be important in the context
of the over all functioning of the metropolis. It has been assessed that
in the year 2025 about 9 million population would be accommodated in
these fifteen major centers.

The following existing centers are likely to grow in future to


accommodate population ranging between 0.5 and 0.75 million within
2025.The centers are:
i. Dankuni
ii. Sonarpur
iii. Naihati-Bhatpara
iv. Barrackpur
v. Baranagar Kamarhati
vi. Dum Dum South Dum Dum
vii. Garia Jadavpur
viii. South Suburban
ix. Budge Budge Maheshtala
x. Kona Unsani
xi. Bally Jagacha
xii. Serampur
xiii. Bhadreswar Champdani
xiv. Hooghly Chinsurah
xv. Bansberia

d) Trans metro City System: - Five existing centers within the metropolis
have been identified as the trans-metro city centers in the context that
the anticipated growth of these centers would extend beyond the
metropolitan boundary to the inner metropolitan region. These centers
would also provide urban services to the catchment areas in the inner
metropolitan region.

The following centers within KMA have been identified to function as


trans-metro city system.

i. Kalyani
ii. Barasat
iii. Salt Lake Rajarhat
iv. Baruipur

II-19
v. Uluberia Bagnan

Since the Rajarhat New Town is on the immediate east of the KMA
boundary and adjacent to Salt Lake City, the growth of Salt Lake and
Rajarhat New Towns in future has been visualized as a single trans-
metro city system which would function as the subsidiary metro center
and also would provide urban services to the catchment areas of the
inner metropolitan region in the east.

ii) New settlement areas

These are areas to be developed within the horizon year of 2025


primarily to accommodate the increasing population. These would be pre-
dominantly residential areas with planned provision of physical, social and
economic infrastructures and would be vital in ensuring the arrest of
unplanned urban sprawl in the fringe areas. The locations of these new towns
would depend on the availability of large chunk of vacant land (400 to 500
acres) with natural topography conducive to drainage. The other
considerations for selecting the new towns have been based on geo-
environmental, geo-hydrological and geo-technical studies for the respective
areas. In the context of new trend of urban development, these townships
may be developed by public sector, private sector or under joint venture.

In the total, 14 new settlement areas have been identified. New


township of sizes 400 to 500 acres would be required to be developed in
order to accommodate the projected population in a planned manner within
2025. The proposed new settlement areas are :

1. Bhatpara: The area is located in immediate east of Barrackpur-


Kalyani Expressway. The areas in Panpur Kankinara would be
developed to a new township to accommodate the over spill
population of the Bhatpara municipal area.

2. Barrackpur: This new township would be developed in the east of


Dum Dum Barrackpur Expressway to accommodate the overspill
population of Barrackpur Titagarh municipal areas.

3. New settlement areas at Natagachi, Bonhooghly, Jagdishpur:


These three new settlement areas have been identified to relief the
population pressure of the Rajpur Sonarpur Municipal area to
cater for the future increase in activities and population around the
proposed district headquarters of South 24 Parganas. About 400 to
500 acres has been considered to be developed in a planned
manner for each of the above-mentioned centers.

4. South Suburban: Unplanned developments without adequate


infrastructures are being observed on either side of Diamond
Harbour Road, south of Thakurpukur. The proposed new township
at South Suburban would be able to accommodate about 40000 to

II-20
50000 population with planned infrastructure facilities in the east of
D.H. Road.

5. Mahestala: New township on Budge Budge Road near the crossing


of Biren Roy Road West has been proposed on an area of 400-500
acres to provide planned infrastructure facilities for housing for the
future growth of population in this area.

6. Baruia: The proposed new township at Bauria between the South


Eastern Railway line and NH-6 would be able to provide planned
facilities to a population around 40000 to 50000. A number of
industrial growth centers are coming up in this area under the
programme of WBIDC. It is expected that this township would be
able to support the population and other facilities to be required.

7. Sankrail-Abada: In view of the newly developing industrial growth


centers, truck terminal and the proposed railway goods terminal in
this area, it is envisaged that the population in this area would
increase substantially during the next 10 to 15 years. As an
advance action, it is proposed that a new township with an area of
400 to 500 acres is developed to cater for the future increase in
population and other activities.

8. West Howrah: The township over an area of 396 acres have


already been started with foreign direct investment. It is expected to
accommodate a population of 40000 with commercial, institutional
and recreational facilities.

9. Dankuni: KMDA has taken up to develop a new township at


Dankuni in an area of about 5000 acres. Residential
accommodation of about 5 lakh along with the provision of
commercial, institutional, educational and cultural facilities would be
there in the township. Provision of different categories of industries
including IT & ITeS would also be there within the township.

10. New township at Baidyabati, Chandannagar and Bansberia: The


municipal areas in the west of the Howrah Burdwan main line are
getting congested very fast and as a result, the urban sprawl is
extending towards west. In order to provide planned infrastructure
facilities for the observed urban sprawl, the above-mentioned three
townships have been proposed in the immediate east of Delhi Road
where adequate vacant land is available. In the Master Plan for
Traffic & Transportation prepared by the Sector Committee of
KMPC, an arterial road in the east of Delhi Road has been
proposed to provide accessibility to these new townships.

II-21
iii) Industrial growth centers:

There are areas for concentration of industries of various categories


with planned infrastructures and environment control measures. The industrial
growth centers would be the centers of economic activities in the metropolis
generating production and employment opportunities. The locations of these
industrial centers are to be judiciously decided in consideration of highway
linkage, water supply and drainage facilities. The WBIDC has already taken
actions for setting up of a number of industrial growth centers at the following
locations within KMA. Rubber Park, Food Park, Apparel Park and Poly Park
have already been identified on either side of the NH - 6 between Kona and
Uluberia. The Foundry Park and the Chemical Park are also coming up in the
areas west of NH-6 just outside the KMA boundary in the Howrah district. In
the east bank, WBIDC has also set up a number of industrial growth centers,
namely, Garment Park in the Canal South Road, Beliaghata, Gems &
Jewelery Park & Toy Park in the Sector-V of Salt Lake and the Industrial Park
at Kalyani. The Sector-V of Salt Lake City and the Nonadanga area within the
East Kolkata Township are also going to be the centers for IT industries. The
Leather Complex at Bantala has also started functioning. In the context of the
above scenario, a study was conducted during the preparation of Vision 2025
to identify the potential industries and their proposed spatial distribution in
KMA. On the basis of the study and on the basis of the actions already
initiated by WBIDC, the main industrial growth centers in KMA have been
identified as below:

1. Kalyani: Industrial Growth Center for chemical and pharmaceutical


industries, plastic & toy manufacturing units
2. Dankuni: Agro/food processing, leather processing and products and
chemical and pharmaceuticals, plastic products, IT & ITeS, animal
husbandry/goatery etc.
3. Uluberia: Metal based and engineering, chemical and pharmaceutical
industries, floriculture and horticulture
4. Barasat-Nabapalli: Floriculture, horticulture, metal based and
engineering, agro and food processing
5. Sonarpur: Agro and food processing, floriculture and horticulture
6. Sankrail-Abada: Chemical and pharmaceutical industries, plastic and
plastic products, metal based and engineering
7. East Kolkata Township: IT & ITeS, garment manufacturing units
8. Salt Lake City: IT & ITeS, plastic and toy manufacturing, gems and jewellery,
etc.
9. Champdani: Jute textile and diversified jute products.

II-22
Sectoral Agenda

Traffic & Transportation

Future Travel Demand: The future travel demand within the Kolkata
Metropolitan Area has been estimated on the basis of the analysis of the growth
trends of the elements of the Traffic & Transportation system and on the
consideration of the major
travel generating
parameters like the population,
economic activities and
land use. The existing and
future land use pattern, the
economic development
prospects and the growth of
population and the likely future
distribution pattern have
been duly considered in
estimating the future travel
demands. KMDA conducted
a Household Interview Survey
in 1997-98 covering more
than 21,000 households in
the area to ascertain the
present travel characteristic.
KMDA also conducted traffic
volume count surveys and
origin destination
surveys including goods vehicles to assess the movement pattern of different
categories of vehicular traffic.

In estimating the future travel demand the system capacities of different


systems of passenger and goods transportation within the area has been considered
along with the likely future accommodation of the systems which may be required to
cater for the future travel demand. In the following paragraph the estimated travel
demands in respect of the various components of the Traffic & Transportation
system have been given in brief.

The estimated number of fast motorised vehicles: Considering the past


growth trend in Kolkata and other areas of KMA, the future increase in population
and the distribution pattern thereof, the number of fast motorised vehicles in KMA
has been estimated for the years 2011, 2021 and 2025. The estimated number of
vehicles in KMA in 2011 would likely to vary between 15.38 lakh to 16.62 lakh. For
the year 2021 the estimated number of fast motorised vehicles in KMA would likely
to vary between 23.48 lakh to 25.86 lakh and that in the year 2025, the range would
be between 28.00 lakh to 30.18 lakh.

Future Transit Passengers: The transit passenger in future is likely to grow


at the rate varying between 2.5 to 3%. It is estimated that the total transit trips by all

II-23
modes of transit vehicles will be about 235 lakh per day in 2011, 299 lakh per day in
2021 and 322 lakh per day in 2025.

Future Freight Traffic: The total Freight Traffic has been estimated to be
124.71 million Tonnes in 2011, 155.82 million Tonnes in 2021 and 169.82 M. Tonnes
in 2025. The distribution is likely to be as indicated below :

By Road: The estimated amount of goods that are likely to be transported by road to
and from KMA in the year 2025 is about 123 M. Tonnes. The estimated amount of
goods to be transported to and from KMA in 2011 and 2021 are 92.81 M. Tonnes
and 103.00 M. Tonnes respectively.
By Railways: The total amount of goods estimated to be transported by Railways to
and from KMA in 2011 is about 19.90 M. Tonnes. The estimated figures for the years
2021 and 2025 are 28.82 M. Tonnes and 33.70 M. Tonnes respectively.

By River: It has been assessed that a total amount of goods to be transported to


and from KMA by river in the year 2025 would be around 13 M. Tonnes. The
estimates for the year 2011 and 2021 are 12 M. Tonnes and 13 M. Tonnes
respectively. No growth has been considered after 2021 in consideration of the
future perspective of the development of the extension of the Haldia Port System
and a new port at Kulpi.

Growth of Fast Vehicular Traffic: The fast vehicular traffic on most of the
major corridors in the KMC and HMC area has been found to be growing at the rate
of 2.5% per annum mainly due to the reason that most of the roads are overloaded
with traffic and that the volume-capacity ratio is too high to attract more number of
vehicles. However on new
roads or in the roads in the
peripheral areas where the
volume- capacity ratio is
low, average annual growth
varying from 5 to 8% has been
observed. The average
annual growth of
vehicular traffic on the
corridors outside the
metrocore however has
been observed to be
higher and on an average 3.5% per annum. This indicates that the trip generation
rates in these areas are higher due to high rate of growth of population. The average
annual growth of vehicular traffic on most of the regional roads connecting KMA with
the hinterland have been found to be highest i.e. about 5% because of the fact that
existing traffic volume is comparatively low and for certain increase in the number of
traffic per annum the percentage growth is higher.

The growth of traffic in KMA and the level of service of vehicular traffic
movements on major arterial roads have been analysed and it has been found that
the volume capacity ratio in 65% of the roads have crossed the figure of 0.75
indicating that the roads are already very much congested.

II-24
The growth of transriver traffic volume is an important factor for determining
the future need for transriver road crossing facilities. The total volume of transriver
fast vehicular traffic in the year 2000 was 1.42 lakhs per day. It is estimated that the
transriver fast vehicular traffic in the year 2011, 2021 and 2025 would be 2.03 lakhs,
2.77 lakhs and 3.12 lakhs respectively.

Growth of goods vehicles: In 1998, about 41,000 goods vehicles (trucks,


tempoes etc) entered or left KMA daily carrying goods of various categories. It is
estimated that in the year 2025, the total number of goods vehicles entering leaving
KMA daily would be to the tune of 78,000. The estimated number of goods vehicles
in the year 2011 and 2021 are 57,000 and 71,000 respectively.

Growth of persons entering and leaving KMA: It has been estimated that
at present on an average weekday about 7 lakh persons enter or leave KMA by road
transport and about 5 lakh person enter or leave by rail transport. A certain
percentage of this 1.2 million persons generate further trips within the area on
various modes. It has been estimated that with the increase in population in the
adjoining areas of KMA, about 2 million persons would enter or leave KMA daily in
the year 2025.

Growth of Ferry Passengers: From the present growth trend of ferry


passengers across the river Hooghly, it has been estimated that the passenger
volumes for 2011, 2021 & 2025 would be 2.83 lakhs, 3.91 lakhs and 4.43 lakhs per
day respectively. Considering the fact that the Suburban trains would be coming to
the CBD after the electrification of the Circular Rail tracks and the future potentiality
for providing more number of across the river and along the river ferry crossing
points.

Future Trans river Traffic and requirement of Bridges

Period Estimated Locations/names of Total


between transriver bridges/crossing facilities capacity
traffic in the (in
last year vehicles)
2001-2011 2,03,100 2nd Vivekananda Bridge 2,20,000
2011-2021 2,77,500 Widening of Iswar Gupta 2,80,000
Setu to 4-lane facility.
Bridges connecting
Serampore-Barrackpore &
Budge-Budge - Bauria
2021-2025 3,12,400 Bridges connecting 3,20,000
Sovabazar-Salkia &
Bhatpara-Chandannagar

II-25
Movements of Passengers within KMA: Anticipated Modal Split
(Average Weekday)

Modes Volume of Passengers (in lakhs)


2001 2011 2016 2021 2025
Surface Transit
Private Bus 85.00 (7000) 94.00 100.00 107.00 112.00
Public Bus 12.50 (1550) 16.00 19.00 25.00 30.00
Tram /L.R.T 2.00 (200) 5.00 7.00 9.00 10.00
Minibus 12.50 (1560) 16.00 18.00 20.00 22.00
Ferry 2.40 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00
Chartered bus 2.70 5.00 7.00 9.00 11.00
(2150)
Sub-Total 117.10 140.00 156.00 176.00 192.00
Rail
Suburban Rail 32.50 37.50 41.00 44.00 46.00
Metro Rail 2.00 8.00 10.00 11.50 13.00
Circular Rail .20 2.50 3.00 3.50 4.00
Sub Total: 34.70 48.00 54.00 59.00 63.00
Para Transit
Taxi 11.00 17.00 22.00 26.0 28.00
(22000)
Auto rickshaw 16.50 23.00 27.00 30.0 31.00
(25000)
Cycle rickshaw 7.50 (25000) 7.00 7.00 8.00 8.00
Rickshaw, Cycle
van
Sub Total 35.00 47.00 56.00 64.0 67.00
Total 187.00 235.00 266.00 299.00 322.00
* Figures within brackets indicate the number of vehicles.

Transport Policy & Strategy for Development

The principal modes of transportation in KMA are the Railways, Roads and
Waterways. During the past 3 decades there has been investment in development of
transport network for the different modes. But the investments were mostly
addressed to individual mode development action without much consideration to the
total system or intermodal interaction. It is, therefore, important to develop an
integrated transportation system by co-ordinating the development actions. In the
integrated transportation system, the different modes of transport will be
complementary without being competitive to each other.

II-26
The Metropolitan Transportation Policy for KMA should be To develop an
integrated transportation network within KMA to cater for the movement of
passengers and goods within the area and in the hinterland taking into
consideration the likely future scenarios upto 2025.

The specific considerations in this respect should cover:


Planning for an Integrated Transportation Network for the metropolis with
specific recommendations & priorities for phased developments of the
different modes and sub components.
Balanced Urban Development within the Metropolis
Safer, Cheaper and faster transport system.
Optimum utilisation of the existing transport infrastructures
Emphasis on the requirements of the majority of the users and providing
optimum level of comfort.
Energy conservation and protection of environment
For achieving the above Transportation Policy, the strategies for development
should be clearly defined and pursued in a planned manner. The strategies, which
should get priority action, should include the following:

Decentralised Metropolitan Structure


Priority to Transit
Fuel and energy aspects
Environmental Considerations
Metropolitan Centre
Para transit Modes
Pedestrian facilities
Adoption of updated technology
Balanced participation of public sectors and private sectors

The important actions to be taken as per the strategies are:


To develop small and medium towns and growth centres in the state outside
the KMA and
To develop municipal towns as well as new settlement areas within the KMA
but outside the metropolitan centre, so that there may be dispersal of activities
to these areas from the metrocore.
An Intregated Transport Network consisting of Rail, Road and Waterways
should be established to link the different centres in KMA and the new
settlement areas outside the metrocore.
The proposed transport network should encourage establishment of new
business centres to supplement the central area functions of the CBD.
The existing mass transportation modes should be improved and extended so
as to cater the future increased travel demand.

II-27
The mass transit modes operated by electric traction viz. The Suburban
Railway, the Circular Railway and Trams/Light Rail Transit should be
improved and extended as far as practicable from the point of view of
environment and saving of fossil fuels. The existing infrastructure of Tramway
System may be utilised for introduction of Light Rail Transit.
The extension of Metro Rail from Tollygunge to Garia should be completed at
an early date. The proposed east-west metro alignment from Salt Lake to
Ramrajatala and to Shalimar connecting B.B.D. Bag, Sealdah Railway Station
and Howrah Railway Station should be taken up immediately.
For the Metropolitan Centre rigorous actions should be taken for controlling
the re-development of buildings in key and congested locations, restriction in
the movement of the vehicular traffic in specific areas during specific hours of
the day and for the improvement of the traffic circulation by Traffic
Engineering & Management measures.
While the paratransit modes should be utilised to the maximum extent but
there should be efforts to minimise the damaging effect of these modes on the
mobility of traffic flow. The routes and operational arrangements of such
vehicles, therefore, should be decided after close examination of the physical
conditions and traffic situation of the particular areas.
Special attention should be given for the safe and uninterrupted movement of
pedestrians at the locations of major concentrations by providing exclusives
plazas, pedestrian only roads, pedestrian sub-ways, elevated pedestrian
crossings with provision of escalators, elevated pedestrian walk-ways etc.
In the construction of new roads and repair of existing roads, modern
technology should be adopted with the application of modern technic and
machinaries. In the selection of new transit system or for updating the existing
system, the transit vehicles designed on modern technology and suitable for
local climatic conditions and characteristics of travel should be adopted.
Balanced participation of public sectors and private sectors in the
development of transport infrastructures and in the operation of services
should be ensured. The present dominance of the ratio of bus services in the
metropolis by the private sector & public sector, which is about 20:80 at
present, should be balanced as far as practicable.

Water Supply

Policy and Strategies

It has been resolved that the entire water supply in KMA will gradually be
switched over to surface water sources, with groundwater sources of supply being
consequently dispensed with owing to the latters quantity and quality unreliability.
However, in the intervening period, groundwater source would have to be relied
upon and necessary safeguards taken against possible threat of contamination.

II-28
As for the distribution, networks of zonal underground reservoir-cum-boosting
stations to be established so as to make the target level of supply available at the
consumers end.

The KMPC Sector Committee on Water Supply has fixed certain supply norms,
as follows:

Kolkata Municipal Corporation Area ------------------ 200 lpcd.


Howrah Municipal Corporation Area ------------------ 150 lpcd.
Municipal and Non-Municipal areas ------------------ 135 lpcd.

In order to satisfy the above factors of Industrial, Commercial and Institutional


(ICI) influence on the proposed water supply system, 10% allowance over the
estimated domestic demand has been made as per decision the Sector Committee,
Water Supply, KMPC. Accordingly, total demand of water for the projected
population of 2011, 2015, 2021 and 2025 has been calculated.

Demand for Floating Population: Kolkata usually receives an estimated floating


population of about 30 lakh every day. The average consumption of the water for
such population has been considered @ 5 lpcd as per the recommendation of the
KMPC Sector Committee and the total demand of water on this account comes to
about 3.5 MGD, which has been taken into account in the total demand of KMC area
only.
Need for change in the Service District concept

The recommendation of the recommendation of the Master Plan (1961-2001) for


generation and distribution of water within CMD were made by devoding the whole
area into five Service Districts, namely,

II-29
i. Palta Service District (PSD)
ii. Calcutta Service District (CSD)
iii. Garden Reach Service District (GRSD)
iv. Seerampore Service District (SSD)
v. Howrah Service District (HSD).

As a consequence it is observed that the water generated in one Service District


has to serve other Service Districts also. For example, PSD and GRSD have to
serve the CSD or water from SSD to HSD etc. Consequently, the concept of Service
Districts, as envisaged earlier, has got little relevance today, particularly for the need
to coordinate the existing infrastructure facilities with new proposals to the maximum
extent. Accordingly this perspective plan document for 2001 2025 appreciated the
futility of Service District concept and envisaged the generation and distribution of
water within KMA as a whole, i.e., not confining within the defined jurisdiction of
Service District.

While diligent endeavor was all along directed to achieve the desired goal, a
new challenging threat in the form of arsenic contamination of ground water has
knocked at the door forcing to adopt conceptual change in design parameters.
Presently the municipalities and corporations explore ground water to the tune of 108
MGD (excluding the quantum of exploration through huge number of shallow tube
wells), which is becoming less dependable day by day due to the trace of arsenic in
various locations and the situation is demanding a sustainable interim/long-term
action plan to arrest deterioration in public utility services with supply of potable
water on the top of the list.

KMPC Sector Committee, after taking into account the overall objectives of
VISION 2025 and the priorities of the Government, took the following decisions for
preparation of the Master Plan on water supply within KMA for the period up to 2025:

Under Ground Reservoir & Transmission System

It is inevitable that for transmission of treated surface water from CWR of the
Plant to the respective municipal zone centers, there will be considerable loss of
pressure head. To maintain adequate pressure head within the municipal distribution
system, proposals have been made to construct underground reservoirs - cum
boosting stations at the respective zone centers for which land to be arranged by the
respective Local Body.

Occurrence of Arsenic: To search the areas influenced by arsenic in West


Bengal vis--vis in KMA, 8 districts were identified by Central Ground Water Board in
February 2002 viz: Malda, Murshidabad, North 24-Parganas, South 24-Parganas,
Nadia, Burdwan, Howrah and Hooghly. To assess the severity of the problem within

II-30
KMA, the Environment Cell, KMDA, conducted a survey collecting samples from
varying depth of 30-85 Mtr bgl from sixteen mouzas under Barrackpore-II block and
some mouzas along Barrackpore Barasat Road, which showed a high concentration
of arsenic varying from 0.03 mg/l to as high as 3 mg/l in certain cases. In South 24
Parganas trace of arsenic were also detected in places in and around Baruipur and
Rajpur-Sonarpur Municipality.

Proposals for Arsenic Affected Areas: The exploration of ground water resource
has faced several problems, including that of contamination of arsenic. The long-
term exposure to trace levels of arsenic causes chronic skin and cardiovascular
diseases. Little trace of arsenic may cause carcinogen and mutagen. Skin lesions,
cancers, and cardiovascular diseases are traceable to arsenic poisoning. Therefore,
ground water resource having arsenic contamination makes its use unsafe.

From above, it is observed that, the areas under Barasat, Madhyamgram,


New Barrackpur on the North and Baruipur, Rajpur-Sonarpur on the South of KMA
are to be taken care of against Arsenic hazard. Out of the above, the former three
Municipal areas are being proposed to serve through the new 60 mgd Treatment
Plant conceived at Garulia. For serving the other two municipal areas, presently 1
MGD for Baruipur and 2 MGD for Rajpur-Sonarpur will be made available from the
new 30 mgd Treatment Plant (Phase-I) constructed by PHE Directorate, Govt. of WB
at Dakshin Roypur, Budge Budge-II. It has also been decided that a total of 8 MGD
may be available for these two municipal areas after completion of the Phase-II work
of the Plant. However, the overall demand of these two municipal areas for the
ultimate plan period

Uncovered Areas in Municipalities and Non-Municipal Urban Areas

Schemes for Uncovered Areas: It is seen that, out of 911.54 sq. km. area of
the 41 Local Bodies within KMA, about 653-sq.km is capable to receive the proposed
surface water supply through the existing piped network system. In addition, 50%
areas of the NMUs and O.Gs i.e. about 86 sq. km is also to be covered. Accordingly
it has been considered necessary that the remaining 259 sq. km of the Local Bodies
and 86 sq. km of NMUs and O.Gs are to be covered through laying of new pipelines
with integration of the existing network system.

Operation & Maintenance and Pricing Policy

In west Bengal, no water tariff has since been implemented except in certain
cases where the same has been applied to bulk supplies only within KMA. It is
necessary to evolve suitable policy structure for earning avenues through water
charges so that the involved cost of generation, its distribution and O&M can be
meet up avoiding service debt liabilities as far as possible. In this context it is
pertinent to mention that the Municipal Finance Commission, Government Of West
Bengal has observed to introduce the water tariff (Page 10, Para 2.47) at a graded
manner protecting ordinary users while taxing larger users and commercial and
industrial undertakings.

II-31
The water tariffs, which are already in force within KMA, may be observed
below:

Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC): No charge is adopted for ferrule


sizes of to 3/8 for slum dwellers and for bulk supply to commercial establishments
it is charged @ Rs. 10/- per kilolitre.

Kolkata Metropolitan Water & Sanitation Authority: The water charges


adopted by KMW&SA are as follows:

Industrial Users @ Rs. 15/- per kilolitre.


b) For domestic use in fringe areas @ Rs. 30/- per connection per
meter per month with one time connection charge of Rs.1150/-.

Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (2001):


For bulk supply to local bodies Rs. 3/- per kilolitre
For Housing Society/Permanent House Rs. 4/- per kilolitre
Industrial Rs.15/- per kilolitre

Municipal Affairs Department (MAD), GoWB:


Urban Local Bodies @ 30% of Property Tax with minimum of Rs.
35/- per month and maximum of Rs. 75/- for house connections.
Commercial Establishments Rs.15/- per kilolitre.

Operation & Maintenance Cost: The total annual O & M cost for a 20 mgd
(90.92 MLD) generating plant has been estimated to Rs.1.61/ kilo litre.

Recommendations

Pricing Policy: For sustainable management, the pricing of water has been
conceived as a powerful tool to the service provider. But due to socio-economic
condition of the end users this goal is not achieved at all times.

A pricing policy must be fixed up to ensure recovery of cost


avoiding subsidization. Implementation of the water tariff should be
made mandatory.
Part of O & M cost may be included in the very beginning of
the project report.
New metering system may be provided.
Timely completion of the Projects to minimize cost of production.
Necessary legislations may be formed to collect the fund through
the issue of Bonds.

Accordingly to arrive at a rational approach of the water tariff few points may
be observed: -

II-32
a. For relief of the slum or bustee dwellers using taps/stand posts,
there should not be water charges. But any house connection in
the slum must be on the pay basis.
b. The loss of water through public stand posts must be controlled
by reducing the number of stand posts.
c. Separate account may be maintained for O & M.
d. 20% of the collected fee may be kept aside to meet the O & M
cost.
e. Early replacement of old worn out mains for stopping leakages
to minimize losses.

Sewerage, Drainage & Sanitation

Strategy for Improvement

Drainage System : For drainage system, various strategies for improvement have
been taken up to have our environmental scenario to a basic standard. The
strategies of KMA are as:

Improvement of existing drainage channels, khals & canals within the


stipulated boundary ;
Renovation / Augmentation / construction of pump houses, pumping stations
outfall structures over the entire area ;
Interlinking of existing canals & channels ;
Improvement of internal drainage network ;
Providing lining to the drainage channels & canals (as per requirement) and
the reconstruction of culverts & bridges all over ;
The non-municipal urban areas and rural areas are also provided with
improvement of drainage (interception, diversion, L. S., MPS etc.).

II-33
Sewerage System: The sewerage system are mostly dealt in the municipal urban
areas, however some non-municipal urban areas closely associated with a particular
municipal urban area have been taken into consideration. The strategies are like : -

Portion of 15 nos. of municipal towns under GAP phase I & II with river Hoogly
as main outfall to be sewerd by 2025;
Desiltation, renovation & rehabilitations of existing sewerage networks are to
be taken up covering entire KMA;
Renovation, Augmentation of existing sewerage pumping stations & sewerage
treatment plants are to be taken up keeping a eye over entire KMA &
Some non-municipal urban areas adjoining to municipal urban areas,
having sewerage treatment plants & sewerage pumping stations are to
considered.

Sanitation System: The strategy for improvements has been taken up with special
attention because huge developmental works are open for the entire areas of KMA.
The strategies are : -

26 nos. of municipal towns not covered under GAP phase I & II will be served
by On Site sanitation.
Solid waste management programme for all municipal towns under KMA to be
covered by 2025 through modern SWM technologies.
Bio-medical wastes are originated from medical activities and these are
hazardous, toxic & sometimes lethal in nature.
Hazardous wastes are generated mainly from industrial wastes. Industries
discharging toxic effluents must treat before discharging to any outfall system.
Treatment plant at Haldia will cover entire waste generation for hazardous
wastes of the state of W.B by BOT system which can cover 0.21 million tons
of hazardous waste per year.

II-34
Basic Services for Urban Poor

Urban poor occupies an important place in the agenda of urban development.


As the developmental interventions have striven
to be inclusive in nature, the needs of urban
poor have always merited priority treatment in
design of such interventions. One of the
important strategies of urban development has
been that of targeting urban poor for re-
distributive justice. The sample survey of KMA-
households carried out during 1997 showed that
although the proportion of urban poor in total
population was around 19 % by income criterion,
the same was found to be around 34% by calorie
intake. The 55th round NSS data showed that
proportion of urban poor by income criterion in
total urban population in the state declined to
15% in 2000. If urban poverty is looked at as a
composite index covering various factors
including access to basic infrastructure and
services, the percentage of urban poor in total
population will be higher than the same by
income criteria. Nevertheless, the proportion of
urban people living in slums has not declined
and yet 30% of total population of KMA is slum
dwellers. Even though all slum dwellers may not
be categorized as income-poor, but slum
dwellers do lack basic infrastructure facilities and services. As the developmental
interventions strive to be inclusive in nature, urban poor does merit priority
treatment in design of interventions. One of the important strategies has been that of
targeting urban poor for re-distributive justice.

The first intervention of KMDA in the arena of urban development way back in
the early 1970s was addressed to slum dwellers or urban poor. Since then, there has
been an interesting evolution of the initiatives for the urban poor in KMA. The initial
focus on development of a package of physical infrastructure in the slums was
supplemented by development of social and economic infrastructures and through
the three phases of Calcutta Urban Development Programmes (CUDPs), 2.097
million slum dwellers had been covered with programmatic benefits. Later on, under
Calcutta Slum Improvement Programme (CSIP), the programmatic approach called
for design of comprehensive development of a slum settlement. The three phases of
CSIP covered 0.335 million slum dwellers. The India Population Project-VIII (IPP-
VIII) brought about coverage of 3.5 million urban poor with various health care
services. The involvement of local communities and especially of community women
facilitated successful implementation of the programmes. For IPP-VIII, community
based Honorary Health Workers (HHWs) all women acted as pillars. One of the
important components of CSIP was community development including
empowerment of women that had not only sensitized the urban poor about their

II-35
needs but also helped sustain the development initiatives. Successful
implementation of CSIP through the observed impacts among slum dwellers called
for and led to design of a larger programme for urban poor, called Kolkata Urban
Services for Poor (KUSP).

The Kolkata Metropolitan


Planning Committee (KMPC)
appointed Sector Committee on
Education, Health, Slum and
Employment has prepared, inter
alia, a Development Plan for slum
and the General Body of KMPC has
recently approved the same. The
Plan has recommended certain
strategies, as noted below, for
interventions targeted at urban poor,
especially those living in slums of
KMA:

The issue of land tenure as well as security of tenure of slum dwellers needs to
be looked into, as there have been cases where the slum dwellers have been
compelled to move out after improvements in environment have been carried out.
The provisions of Thika Tenancy (Acquisition & Regulation) Act 1981 and
enforcement thereof need to be properly examined and, if necessary, legal
amendments should be carried out.

Sustained initiatives on generation of awareness regarding appropriate use of


infrastructure and services as well as prevention of misuse thereof are extremely
important for cost effective service delivery.

So far a major part of interventions in slums have been confined to infrastructure


development. It is proposed that pucca slum superstructure development be
taken up henceforth along with provision of required infrastructure. For this
purpose, low cost technologies should receive priority. All the lands occupied in
slums shall be notified under the Thika Tenancy Act and dwelling units for slum
families will be constructed thereon. Further, funds from different slum related
development programmes such as VAMBAY and NSDP may be pooled for
meeting the capital cost for the above. Borrowing from financial institutions may
need to be resorted to. For debt servicing, enhanced rent may be collected from
beneficiaries and the same used for the purpose. Necessary governmental
support may also be provided.

II-36
Physical infrastructure
development, on the one
hand, and education, health,
economic rehabilitation and
community development, on
the other, need to be properly
co-ordinated within a slum.

The need for devising


mechanism for involvement of
beneficiaries through
Community Based
Organizations (CBOs),
particularly the Community
Development Societies
(CDSs) formed under the
SJSRY programme, in
planning, prioritizing and
implementation of slum improvement programme.

Some of the slum level development works could be contracted out to CBOs so
as to sustain their interest in slum development initiatives.

The lands made available out of removal of khatals (cowsheds) from Kolkata
should be used for residential and also non-residential purposes benefiting slum
dwellers only. This particularly important in view of such lands being eyed by
private developers for profiteering. Such khatal lands could be used for providing
residential tenements to slum dwellers under VAMBAY scheme of Government of
India.

Employment generation should get priority and appropriate attention for


intervention, as slums witness a good deal of skilled workforce. In this context, an
enhanced participation of women in economic activities was emphasized. There
is also a need for designing necessary steps, both legal and otherwise, for
providing security to borrowers seeking bank finance for economic pursuits. The
involvement of ULBs in designing and imparting vocational training and helping
the self-employed in marketing of their products and services was emphasized.

There is a need for checking dropout of slum children from primary education, the
incidence of drop out being noticed to be higher among SC/ST and minority
households. The Ward Education Committees should immediately be formed in
each municipal ward and they should monitor proper functioning of Sarbo Siksha
Kendras including arrangement of proper training for Sahayikas and suitable
involvement of RCVs and NGOs.

The Plan appends a Short Term Action Plan with a view to providing Pucca
dwelling units to the projected slum families over the next 5 years

II-37
As for a five-year Action Plan, an estimate of slum population prepared on the
basis of present trend only, is worked out for the five-year period from 2004-05 to
2008-09. The total estimated slum population in the 40 ULBs of KMA in 2009 works
out to 2.43 million. Based on an average household size of 7, the total number of
slum household works out to 0.3 million. It has been estimated that an amount of
Rs.80,000.00 shall be required for construction of one dwelling unit for a slum HH,
including cost of infrastructure development. This would call for a total investment of
Rs.2391 crore at current prices by 2008-09 for the 40 ULBs of KMA. For KMC area,
it may be assumed that 5 percent of slum HH has already carried out the
superstructure development and another 5 percent is likely to construct such
dwelling units on their own as they have been given the title to the land. Therefore,
90 percent of slum HH in KMC area would need public sector intervention. Based on
the average cost of Rs.80,000.00 per slum dwelling unit, an amount of Rs.1567 crore
at current prices shall be required for KMC area by 2009. Thus, the total investment
need for providing one dwelling unit for one household in the 41ULBs of KMA would
add up to Rs.3958 crore.

As for financing of such massive investment needs, the Plan suggested that
30 percent of the estimated investment may be pooled from the various
development/ investment programmes of the Central and State Governments. The
remaining 70 percent may need to be secured from financial institutions as soft loan
that would carry an annual rate of interest of 6 percent and repayable in 10 years.
Again, of the total annual debt servicing liability, 25 percent could be met from
additional rent to be collected from the beneficiaries and another 25 percent from
commercial exploitation of land to be generated out of reorganizing the slums at their
present sites. The remaining 50 percent of the debt servicing liability should be met
from state budgetary support.

In concluding, the Plan observed that the strategies recommended in the Plan
should be considered appropriately while designing any slum development projects
and the same should also be taken into account while finalizing the details of KUSP.
It was appreciated that by no means KUSP funding would be adequate and further
sources of funds would have to be explored outside the purview of KUSP for
addressing the requirements of urban poor, so that a healthy and productive living
environment can be provided to the urban poor including slum dwellers.

Kolkata Urban Services for the Poor (KUSP) now being implemented by
Change Management Unit under Municipal Affairs Dept., Govt. of West Bengal.
KUSP and assisted by Department for International Development (DFID) of the
Government of United Kingdom involves an investment of more than Rs.700 crore
over a period of 7 years.
The purpose of the KUSP project is to provide Improved quality of life and
opportunity for 2.4 million poor in the 40 ULBs of KMA. The expected outputs are:

(a) Improved urban planning and governance


(b) Improved access to urban services
(c) Economic development promoted

II-38
KUSP is thus a programme aiming at a sustainable improvement of quality of life for
urban poor. To achieve this, the programme supports improved municipal services,
economic development for the poor and a sustainable preventive health care system owned
by a duly capacitated ULB. Along with improvement of civic infrastructures like water supply,
sanitation and drainage in the municipal
area, the programme acts as a vehicle for
municipal reforms improving revenue,
accounts, technical and administrative
efficiency of the Urban Local Bodies
(ULBs). The important tools proposed are
Resource Mobilization, improved urban
governance, inclusive planning and
Capacity Building of ULBs along with the
Govt. and semi-Govt. agencies
responsible for facilitating ULB functions.
Citizens (specially the vulnerable groups)
participation in planning, implementation
and post work management of the assets is a priority. To develop a coordinated action plan
through out the state the programme envisages preparation of an urban strategy for West
Bengal. Howrah gets special attention in the programme and provision has been made to
prepare a Rejuvenation and Development Plan for the city. Out of the financial aid 67.35%,
5% and 4.4% will be for infrastructure development, economic development and health
support respectively. The rest goes for Capacity Building (11.20%) planning (3.04%),
innovative/ challenge fund (4.4%) and monitoring and management (4.6%).

The main focus KUSP during the first three years will be on systemic changes
in ULBs and support organizations consisting of

i. Organizational development
ii. Introduction of accrual based double entry accounting system
iii. E-governance and GIS/ MIS
iv. Augmentation of technical resources
v. Bottom up planning, implementation and post work management involving
community based organizations like ward committee and CDS.
vi. Preparation of Draft Development Plan (DDP) for five (5) years and Annual
Development Plan (ADP)
vii. Some pilot local economic development initiatives
viii. Initiating strengthening of the HHW system for Health Care
ix. Remodeling of working relation of Support agencies like MED, DLB,
SUDA, ILGUS and WBVB among themselves and optimizing their help
process to ULBs.
x. Fund allotment to ULBs through competitive process.
xi. Slum level infrastructure works to be planned, implemented and managed
(post work) by slum level organizations.
xii. DFID to review the procurement procedures for contractors, suppliers and
service providers.
xiii. Strong quality checks of works, accounts & procurement procedure
through third party quality support agency and external audit.

The major fund flow for infrastructure works and economic development will be
coming from year 4 after the planning is completed and documented through Draft

II-39
Development Plan (DDP). A robust process for preparation of DDPs has been developed
aimed at achieving consensus among all stakeholders. The West Bengal Municipal Act 1993
also requires ULBs to prepare Draft Development Plans addressing the entire range of
municipal functions. KUSP envisages the DDP as a comprehensive business plan of the
ULBs that set out a broad vision and strategy while also providing the framework for
allocating project funds and government support.

The major works done so far under KUSP


(refer to the Table next page for details):

1. Slum Infrastructure work in 94 slums


in 2004-2005. Community
contracting was introduced. 15 ULBs
did slum infrastructure work through
CDS in the first year. Work to be
implemented through CDS has
become compulsory in the second
year.
2. Allocation of untied Incentive Fund
based on performance of ULBs in
Revenue enhancement, service delivery and public participation in 2004-2005 and
2005-2006.
3. Initiation of work of switching over to accrual based double entry system. 31 ULBs
have prepared opening balances so far.
4. Initiation of work for preparation for Draft Development Plan.
5. Strengthening of HHW system of Health Care started.
6. Two livelihood projects and some short run interventions started for local economic
development
7. 85 Ward offices sanctioned.
8. Organizational development initiatives started. ULBs encouraged and given guidance
for formulation of Citizens Charter.
9. Innovative/ Challenge Fund proposals from civil society solicited and 10 projects
selected for support
10. Technical augmentation of ULBs done by providing one Accounts and Finance
coordinator, one Urban Planner, one graduate Engineer (redeployed from KMDA)
and in service Executive Officers (redeployed from W.B.C.S. allied service officers.
11. Training and capacity building of ULBs.

II-40
The Participatory-cum-Consultative Process
It should be worthwhile to note that Kolkata Metropolitan Area is the only
metropolitan center in the country, which has in place a planning committee called
Kolkata Metropolitan Planning Committee (KMPC), in pursuance to the provisions of
74th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1992. The State Government of West Bengal
enacted the West Bengal Metropolitan Planning Committee (WB MPC) Act in 1994
and constituted the KMPC under provisions of the Act in late 2000. The KMPC under
chairmanship of the Honble Chief Minister of West Bengal is composed of 60
members, of which 40 are elected and 20 nominated by the State Government. The
40 members of KMPC are elected from amongst the peoples elected
representatives at the Panchayat and ULB levels within KMA. The nominated 20
members include representatives from amongst professionals, apart from including
some Zilla Sabhadhipatis, MLAs and MPs. Kolkata Metropolitan Development
Authority (KMDA), which is a statutory planning and development authority for KMA
under the West Bengal Town and Country (Planning & Development) Act 1979, has
been designated as the technical secretariat of KMPC. The 60-member General
Body of KMPC has, in turn, constituted an Executive Committee under chairmanship
of the Honble Minister-in-charge of Urban Development. The Executive Committee
deals with preparation of the different sectoral plans. The WB MPC Act provides for
preparation of Draft Development Plans for the metropolitan area having regard to
the plans prepared by the constituent units of local self-government. KMPC is also
mandated to co-ordinate implementation of the plans and the development activities
of various central and state government agencies in a cohesive manner within the
boundaries of KMA.

The Executive Committee of KMPC, in turn, has established five Sector Committees
comprising representatives from the general body of KMPC, the state government
departments/agencies, the technical officers of KMDA, the representatives of
business/ industries etc. The five Sectoral Committees have been dealing with the
following Sectors: (a) Water Supply; (b) Drainage, Sewerage & Sanitation; (c) Traffic
and Transportation; (d) Environment, Wetlands, Heritage etc.; and (e) Health,
Education, Employment and Slum. Each of the Sector Committees is to prepare a
sectoral Master Plan/Development Plan that would not only lay down the strategies
of development in each sector but also identify the major schematic interventions
needed in each sector over a period of time. Each Sectoral Master/Development
Plan shall annex a 5-year investment plan based on the revealed priorities.

It is highly pertinent to note that the sectoral plans have been based on a 25-year
perspective plan, Vision 2025, prepared for Kolkata Metropolitan Area. This plan has
worked out the projected population and economic activities in KMA on the basis of
both existing and emerging trends of growth and has attempted to broadly quantify
the requirements of the various infrastructural needs in KMA. Vision 2025 has set out
the goals and objectives of development in each sector of infrastructure and services
as well as the development strategies to be followed in each sector. These exercises
have duly taken into account the prevalent urban development policies and
strategies of the State Government while projecting the future growth and needs of
infrastructure. There have been continual interactions between those conceptualizing
II-40A
II-41
the Vision 2025 document and those engaged in preparation of Sectoral
Master/Development Plans so that proper synthesis between the vision and the
planned interventions could be achieved.

It has already been mentioned that the Sector Committees of KMPC included,
among others, elected representatives from constituent ULBs, with the Chairman of
each Sector Committee being an elected representative either an MP or an MLA or
a Mayor/ Municipal Chairperson. With Ward Committees having been established in
each ULB, irrespective of population size, the elected municipal representatives at
the different KMPC Sector Committees and in the General Body of KMPC carried
with them the feedback received from the Ward Committees at each ULB level and
shared the same with those engaged in preparation of the plans to see that the plans
reflected ULBs expectations in proper perspective.

Thus the finally drafted Vision 2025 as well as the Sectoral Master/Development
Plans have been preceded by several rounds of interactions and consultations with
the members of Executive Committee and also the General Body of KMPC, thereby
adopting a consultative process of planning involving peoples elected
representatives and also representatives of other interest groups. As many as 8 no.
of meetings of the Executive Committee of KMPC, had taken place before
finalization of the plans. Several meeting of the Water Supply Sector Committee; the
Drainage, Sewerage & Sanitation Sector Committee; the Traffic & Transportation
Sector Committee; the Environment, Wetlands, Heritage etc. Sector Committee; and
the Health, Education, Employment & Slum Sector Committee have been held while
drafting the Sectoral Plans. The Vision 2025 as well as the Sectoral
Master/Development Plans have been approved by the General Body of KMPC in
the recently held meeting in early January 2006. Each of the Sectoral Master Plans
for (a) Water Supply; (b) Drainage, Sewerage & Sanitation; and (c) Traffic &
Transportation has annexed a broad investment plan that need to be carried out in
phases. The first phase covering the first 5 years of the Plan includes projects of
relatively high priorities as revealed through the consultative process of planning.
Similarly, each of the Sector Development Plans for (a) Environment, Wetlands,
Heritage etc.; and (b) Health, Education, Employment & Slum has annexed a 5-year
investment plan. It should be interesting to note that implementation of all the
proposals in these plans shall be the responsibility of respective government
departments or Autonomous Bodies. KMPC would endeavour to co-ordinate
implementation of the plans in a symbiotic manner. Since the representative of
various Departments and autonomous bodies are members of KMPC such
monitoring becomes effective.

The Plans thus prepared not only reflect social needs and priorities but also secure
participation of various stakeholders such as business, industry, the central
government agencies etc. The City Development Plan for KMA has been prepared in
the background of Vision 2025 and the Sectoral Master/Development Plans
prepared under aegis of KMPC. Essentially, the CDP has been evolved out of this
plan documents and as such the preparation of CDP has had the benefit of
participation of various stakeholders in the consultative planning process and the
CDP duly reflects the social needs and priorities of the people of KMA. It should also
be pertinent to note that the State Level Steering Committee (SLSC) that has

II-40B
II-42
accorded approval to the CDP and its various schematic proposals does include,
among others, members from elected representatives.

II-43
II-40C
Reform Agenda
In order to achieve the goals and objectives pertaining to the Vision, for KMA,
a number of reform agenda has been initiated in KMA. Decentralization is one such
item that has been adopted as paradigm for planning and development of urban
infrastructure and services within KMA. The efforts towards decentralization of the
State Governments found its legal backing in the enactment of 74th Constitutional
Amendment Act of 1992. For KMA, Kolkata Metropolitan Planning Committee has
been constituted following enactment of West Bengal Metropolitan Planning
Committee Act of 1994. KMPC is constituted of 60 members of which 40 are elected
from amongst elected representatives within KMA and the remaining 20 nominated
by the State Government. KMPC is the first of its kind in India and is responsible for
preparation of a metropolitan level development plan having regard to the
development plans prepared by the constituent ULBs of KMA. It is worthwhile to
mention that KMPC has already approved Vision 2025 the long range development
perspective for KMA and also the Sectoral Master Plans for Traffic and
Transportation, Water Supply and Sewerage, Drainage & Sanitation and also the
Development Plans for Education, Health, Employment & Slum and Environment,
Westland & Heritage. All these Plans have been prepared by enlisting participation
of elected peoples representatives from within KMA. Moreover, the Bengal Municipal
Act has been thoroughly overhauled in 1993 to provide for the requisite support to
the process of decentralization.

One of the important reform agenda has been that of ensuring transparency
and accountability in the various urban development initiatives. Not only efforts have
been made to develop a transparent means to achieve competitiveness in project
implementation, but also involvement of local community has been resorted to with a
view to achieving accountability. Community participation has played a big role in
this endeavour. It may be worth mentioning that in each ULB, Ward Committees
have been formed so as to facilitate peoples participation. The State Government
has encouraged formation of Community Development Society (CDS) under the
Government of India sponsored SJSRY programme. The Neighbourhood Groups
(NHGs) formed under CDSs have been instrumental in effective participation of local
community in urban planning and development process within the ULB areas. The
process of community participation will be refined further, if necessary, to make it
more effective.

Financial management is another area that is high on priority of the reform


agenda. The municipal authorities have been highly disorganized in fiscal matters.
One of the major constraints has been the lack of proper records with necessary
data and information updating. Recently, KMDA has piloted efforts to introduce GIS
based assembly of relevant data and information in ULBs, including financial data.
Under the DFID assisted Kolkata Urban Services for Poor (KUSP) project, it is
striven to enable each ULB to switch over from the present accounting practice of
single entry cash based system to that of double entry accrual based system. This
would go a long way in improving municipal financial management as the same
would enable a distinction between capital and revenue accounts and bring to
surface all the contingent liabilities as well as assets. With computerization of the
accounting system the municipal financial management can be vastly improved,

II-42
without which the decentralized planning and development cannot be properly
implemented.

The planning and development agenda in KMA places emphasis on the


needs and aspirations of urban poor by targeting budgetary outlays against pro-poor
schemes. While comprehensive development of slum is one area of such budgetary
intervention, construction of dwelling units for the poorest of the poor, including those
belonging to BPL category, under the Government of India sponsored VAMBAY
scheme.

The Reform Agenda at the level of the State Government is annexed.

Impacts of Reform Agenda

The introduction of decentralized planning and development process in West


Bengal has already been done through enactment of DPC and MPC Acts. Moreover,
the Bengal Municipal Act has also been thoroughly overhauled to support functioning
of the decentralized institutional framework in the State. This set of reforms has
substantially improved the planning process by which better reflection of social
priorities has been achieved through participation of people in this decentralized
framework. Kolkata Metropolitan Planning Committee (KMPC) has been constituted
as the first of its kind in India and the same has been functioning effectively within
KMA. The long-range perspective plan viz. Vision 2025 and sectoral
Master/Development Plans have been finalized through a democratically
decentralized planning process at the instance of KMPC. Following the Twelfth
Schedule of 74th Constitutional Amendment Act of 1992, the functions defined under
the Schedule have been assigned to the ULBs.

The State Government intends to consider repeal of the Urban Land (Ceiling
& Regulation) Act 1976 in the terminal year of JNNURM, as the same has been
suggested as a mandatory reform. Such repeal would allow lands comprised in
closed and sick industries within the metropolitan area and other urban centers to be
released and available for real estate, commercial, residential and related
developments. This would definitely have beneficial impacts on the local economy in
terms of generating new businesses. Moreover, such new type of activities would
accrue higher revenues to the municipal coffer with enhanced valuation of
properties/premises.

The West Bengal Premises Tenancy Act was thoroughly overhauled in 1997
and then amended, with the latest amendment taken place in 2005. This Act
provides for a number of reforms pertaining to both transfer of tenancy and
regulation of rent. The amended Act has endeavoured to strike a balance between
interests of both landlords and tenants. For instance, all properties below the rental
ceiling of Rs.65000.00 only are covered by the provision of rent control. It is
expected that this reform would provide boost to not only construction of new house
but also maintenance of the old houses so as to prevent them from depletion.

The reduction of Stamp Duty over a period of 5 years would also give a fillip to
construction of houses and dwelling units.

II-43
The provisions in the Bengal Municipal Act provide for not only enlistment of
community participation but also transparency in functioning of the ULBs in the arena
of development and management.

The emphasis on cost recovery and improved collection efficiency in respect


of Property Tax in the context of ULB-level reform would add to municipal revenues
and consequently enhance sustainability of municipal assets in terms of better
operation and maintenance. It has been estimated that ULBs would be able to
provide increasing contribution to finance the City Development Plan. Further, it is
assumed that with better revenue performance and with introduction of double entry
accrual based accounting system at the ULBs, credit rating of the ULBs would be
feasible and they would be able to access the capital market to raise resources for
development.

II-44
CHAPTER III

STRATEGIES FOR DEVELOPMENT


Policies in Retrospect

It is important to note that the rapid growth of large cities during the last
decades including that in Kolkata has resulted in problems of crowding, congestion,
squalor and deprivation. This has led some to believe that the solution lies in
preventing the growth. But while it is possible to visualize a limit to the level of
urbanization, a limit to the size of a city is yet a totally unresolved issue. Large
metropolitan cities all over the world are still growing. Quite a few of them have
already crossed 20 million marks. Tokyo Metropolitan Region is over 30 million and
is still growing. The CMA will also continue to grow though at a reduced rate. With a
view to managing this growth in KMA, the plan for metropolitan development has
been prepared for the projected population of more than 21 million in 2025.

Development efforts during the last three decades have restored this
metropolis from conditions of crisis to that of confidence and Kolkata now looks
forward to a dynamic and revitalised bright future. But this requires sustained efforts
of planning and development in right direction over the future years. There is still a
huge backlog of accumulated deficits in the infrastructure facilities and services that
will have to be wiped out. A massive programme has to be undertaken to expand the
infrastructure facilities and services for supporting the new growth. Millions of people
will have to be provided with shelter, civic services, health and education facilities
and millions of jobs will have to be generated. This would require continued planning
and development efforts of a very large scale and high quality. During the last couple
of decades, considerable experience could be gathered from implementation of
urban development programmes and based on such feedback; the basic policies,
strategies and direction for future development have been identified.

It has become quite apparent that efforts by appropriate agencies need to be


initiated to channelise the new growth outside the metropolitan core within KMA and
even to centers outside the boundaries of KMA.

KMDA has already prepared plans for the proposed spatial frame of
development in KMA, broadly indicating the locations of nodal centers of settlement,
conservation and preservation areas, distribution of infrastructure development
across the entire metropolis. Within the overall metropolitan structure, a number of
centers have been identified for developing the future settlement in a planned and
controlled manner as far as possible depending upon allocated population on the
basis of gross land holding capacity of KMA Possible spatial structure for settlement
of the spill over population has also been conceptualised as far as possible on the
basis of available data and information. Protection, preservation and conservation of
prime agricultural land and wetland including large water bodies has been
considered from environmental and ecological points of view, while suggesting the
settlement pattern for KMA for 2025. Future transport network plan has been
prepared integrating the principal modes of transport in KMA, the road network, the
III-1
railways and the waterways also to suit appropriately the suggested settlement
pattern.

Strategies to achieve to Vision Goals


IT has already been indicated that all efforts shall be made to provide the
necessary infrastructure and services to the projected population in KMA in an
inclusive manner and also to lend necessary support to the process of economic
growth, with the ultimate objective of ensuring a decent living environment to all.
Obviously, this would necessitate a good deal of interventions in the different
spheres of urban infrastructures and services, as has been elaborated in the section
on Feature Development Profile. It is thus imperative to have a set of strategies that
would facilitate the journey from where KMA is now in to where KMA would like to
graduate to. Accordingly, a set of strategies has been designed and the same are
mentioned below.

Decentralised Urban Planning & Development

The State Government realizes the need and importance of decentralized


planning and development for not only evolving a spatially balanced urban
growth but also achieving more efficient use of available resources. The acute
primacy of Kolkata and imbalanced distribution of urban population across the
state not only affected the economy and urban structures of West Bengal but has
also proved to be detrimental to healthy and orderly development of the
metropolis. In the late seventies the Government of West Bengal moved towards
a policy of decentralised urban development. For dispersal of metropolitan
activity and for institution of a decentralised framework of urban development, a
two-pronged action is necessary:

To develop small and medium towns and growth centres of the state so that
they can play appropriate role in discharging urban functions and thus
reducing the unhealthy dependence on the metropolis,
The municipal towns within the CMA are to be properly developed so that
there may be dispersal of activities from the metropolitan core to other areas
within the metropolis,
Devolution of power to the local bodies has been attempted in the districts
and also in metropolitan areas for the purpose of planning, development and
management functions is in terms of 73rd and 74th amendments of the
Constitution of India.

Action has already been taken at the state level for improving the
conditions of small and medium towns. This would be continued and sustained.

The first initiative towards decentralized urban planning and development in


KMA was taken up during CUDP-III under the Municipal Development Program
in 1983. The constituent Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) have taken active part in
this process and have become exposed to and thus better sensitized to urban
planning and development issues. The local bodies have been strengthened
with financial and human resources to respond effectively to the new tasks. The

III-2
overall monitoring, coordination, appraisal and evaluation of the total
programme has, however, been done by CMDA. This process will be continued
in future.

Targetting the Urban Poor for Redistributive Justice

It has been the constant endeavour of both KMDA and the State
Government to pay special attention to the needs of urban poor in planning and
developmental interventions, as Kolkata being a major colonial city of the world
had witnessed bias in favour of the elite classes in terms of developmental
interventions. The metropolis of Kolkata yet exhibits one third of its population
living in slum settlement, which are largely inhabited by the poor people. In
terms of income poverty, the percentage of people living below poverty cannot
be as high as one third, but in terms of lack of access to basic civic and social
services, the proportion is yet reckonable. It is not only that urban poor receives
priority in urban planning and development, efforts have been taken to enlist
their participation in such activities to the extent possible. The integrated slum
development programme under Calcutta Slum Improvement Programme (CSIP)
has been a successful programme of that kind. The sustained emphasis on
Bustee (Slum) Improvement Programme of KMDA reflects the concern of
KMDA for the urban poor of Kolkata. It is appreciated that physical
infrastructure development in slum like settlements needs to be complemented
with social and economic development of slum dwellers if meaningful dents
have to be made on the status of urban poor. It is now proposed that instead of
confining to physical infrastructure development in slum settlement, structural
development of slums be also taken up with active participation of slum
dwellers themselves.

It has thus been resolved that all urban development programmes would
attempt to reach the urban poor directly so that their accessibility to basic urban
services, including primary health, education, employment and community
development, can be ensured. This would also help maintaining the productivity
of workforce, the bulk of which comes from the economically disadvantaged
section of people. For certain urban services like water supply, drainage,
sanitation the requirements of the urban poor cannot in all cases be tackled in
isolation from the overall city system of such services.

Improved Urban Governance

The State Government is very keen to provide improved urban


governance through introduction of IT enabled services. The introduction of e-
governance in the ULBs would not only help in better identification of
development priorities for improved planning practices, but also facilitate
formulation and execution of infrastructure development schemes more
efficiently. The introduction of GIS in municipal management would vastly
improve governance in not only the ULBs being in a better position to make use
of fiscal resources but also detecting the shortfalls in municipal revenue
performance. To facilitate introduction of e-governance in the ULBs numerous
capacity building initiatives have been taken up for ULBs. The State

III-3
Government is committed to extending e-governance across all the ULBs of the
State, let alone the KMA-ULBs.

Protection & Conservation of Environment and Heritage

The BDP had emphasised on arresting the further deterioration in the


urban environment of CMA. A scan of the CUDPs would reveal that
environmental improvement had always been on the top of the agenda. The
urban infrastructure development programmes would now hold a special
significance in the context of the accelerated industrialisation in the state as a
whole, let alone CMA. In order to avoid possible conflicts between development
and environment, it is imperative to design plans and programmes in such a
way that a proper reconciliation can be ensured. In promoting metropolitan
development activity special attention has to be paid to ensure that
environmental damage is prevented to the maximum possible extent. It should
be appreciated that unless the development projects are environmentally
sound, sustainability of the same would be difficult to be achieved.

Given that environmental protection would continue to be an important


agenda in the urban development programmes, special attention should be paid
to promote development in an eco-friendly manner. Therefore, provision has to
be made for:

Conservation of nature, the wetland and wildlife to maintain ecological


balance.
Conservation of greeneries, parks and public open spaces and
waterfronts along the river, canals and lakes.
Extensive tree plantation and social afforestation, prohibition of
indiscriminate abstraction of ground water, development of sanitation,
low cost and appropriate facilities for all, and
Safe and hygienic disposal of solid wastes in the form of sanitary landfill
and garbage farming as well as incineration, energy recovery and
composting.
Consideration of the system of Environment Sensitive Zone while
planning for development and application of control regulations as
identified in the course of preparation of this perspective plan.

One of the major concerns should be to ensure environment restoration


and conservation. This involves systematic study of environmental impact
assessment (EIA) with environmental mapping ascertaining the cases of conflict
and thereafter designing the alternative measures for remedy alongwith
determination of priorities.

Un-planned urban expansion may destroy built heritage of the city. In


future development of CMA, the need and importance of conservation of built
heritage has been kept in view. Necessary legislation has been enacted and
State Heritage Commission constituted, which has already prepared a list of
heritage buildings and sites. The conservation process has been integrally built
up into the town planning process and necessary control on land use is being

III-4
exercised under the West Bengal Town and Country (Planning & Development)
Act, 1979.

Development of Small and Medium Towns

With a view to having a spatially balanced urban growth across the State,
efforts to provide urban infrastructure and services in the small and medium
towns of the State receive priority. This strategy would continue to receive
emphasis.

Urban Rural Continuum

The State Government recognizes the interdependence between rural


and urban areas and endeavours to see that appropriate integration of the rural
fringes of urban centers is done in the planning and development initiatives. As
KMA has more than one-third of its area in terms of rural habitats, the
significance of this strategy is immense in KMA.

Sustainability

Sustainability has become the buzzword for any development


programme - be it urban or otherwise. Urban development programmes lead to
creation of a number of assets, which have got to be properly upkept and
maintained so that the anticipated services can be delivered to the target
beneficiaries. The real life experiences have shown that it is not only the lack of
fiscal resources, but also other factors like lack of well managed human
resources or lack of attitudinal responses of beneficiaries that have led to less
than sustainability of the developmental assets. Apart from strengthening of
fiscal position of the different agencies, particularly the ULBs, there may be
necessity of reorganising; training and retraining of the human resources at the
disposal of the different agencies; generation of awareness and motivation
amongst target beneficiaries for attitudinal reforms etc. Strengthening of fiscal
resources should call for not only an improved management of recurrent
finances but also improved revenue yields through cost recovery, user charges
and the like. The latter may be helpful in establishing quid pro quo, subject to
the interest of the urban poor being protected by suitable design of the tariff
structure. For reorganisation of the different agencies, situational analysis may
have to be carried out before determining the nature of such reorganisation.
For a better use of human resources through upgradation of skills, a number of
training programmes may have to be designed and implemented. Community
participation through Ward Committees/NGOs/CBOs may be an effective
instrument of not only generating the requisite awareness towards usage of
different services but also in mobilising their efforts in sustaining assets and
service deliveries.

The issues related to sustainability will be given due attention in all the
urban development programmes from the very outset so that the necessary
action could be put to place as and when a programme gets implemented.

III-5
Promotion of Economic Growth

It has already been mentioned that the State of West Bengal is poised
for a rapid economic growth, particularly in the manufacturing sector. The State
industrial policy has been redesigned so as to make it industry and investment
friendly. In the backdrop of globalization as well as liberalization of economic
policies, private investment would play an important role in economic
development of the state, let alone the KMA. Various studies have revealed that
provision of infrastructure would play a major catalytic role in attracting
investments, particularly for industries.

While not all the needed infrastructures would pertain to the conventional
domain of urban development, the urban development programme should not
lose sight of the requirement of promoting economic growth, let alone
supporting the existing level. For instance, projects for new transportation
facility and serviced lands would lend a good deal of support to new economic
growth.

Urban Land Use Policy

In KMA, the land use pattern has been greatly influenced by the
topographical characteristics. The development has been confined within a
narrow strip of land on each side of the river Hooghly. The strategy for using
urban land efficiently in a planned manner will include the following:

Land Use and Development Control: Control of use and development of land
is being exercised under West Bengal Town & Country (Planning &
Development) Act, 1979. In KMA, built-up land under all urban usages covers
47 percent of total land. Vacant land including cultivable land, green and
wasteland, water bodies, swamps and marshes, cover about 43 per cent of total
land. The objective in this control exercise is to ensure that the vacant land,
including cultivable land, wasteland, water bodies, swamps, etc. does never
become less than 33 per cent of the total land.

Modernization of CBD and Central Areas: The Central Business Districts


(CBDs) of Kolkata and Howrah are suffering from extreme congestion and this
has resulted in loss of efficiency. There is sufficient number of heritage
buildings in these areas. The CBDs will be revitalized and modernized through
conservation surgery basically. The program of modernization/urban renewal
includes:

Restructuring of land use of the central area by removing certain non-


conforming uses;
Shifting of institutions that need not be located within CBD;
Providing opportunities for economic rejuvenation by promoting compatible
economic activities in the CBDs;
Improving and strengthening the infrastructure facilities and services in the
CBDs.

III-6
Establishing New Business Centers: New business centers will be
established to reduce the congestion in the existing CBDs and to meet the
growing demand of such facilities, particularly in the proposed new metro
centres.

Conservation & Urban Renewal: In Kolkata and Howrah cities, there are
many instances of prime land suffering from blight and deprivation. In such
blighted areas, land utilization is often very poor though crowding and
congestion are high. Efforts will be made to improve the quality and efficiency of
these areas through planned urban renewal and redevelopment. Heritage
Conservation, particularly linked with Tourism could be a great use.
Identification, restoration, preservation and protection including necessary
legislation including awareness are assuming increasing importance day by
day.

Urban Land Use (Ceiling & Regulation) Act, 1976: The benefits from this
central Act could not be achieved owing to its operational and other
weaknesses. Efforts are being made in CMA to use the vested land under this
Act for various purposes like creation of parks, construction of school buildings,
housing for low-income group people, etc.

Provision of Land for Urban Poor: It has been the policy of the state
government that in all new area development projects, it shall be necessary to
ensure that land is available for the economically weaker sections and low-
income groups of people for housing purpose.

Strategy for Development of Infrastructure

The main objective of infrastructure development program will be to


provide these facilities to majority of the people, the urban poor and low-income
groups at affordable costs. The strategy for achieving this objective of
development would be to adopt in general low-cost options of appropriate
technical designs involving lower operation and maintenance cost and low
consumption of energy but without causing environmental degradation. In each
sector there should be a comprehensive approach to the total system plan but
development actions should be taken up incrementally over space and time.
The highlights of strategy for infrastructure development in CMA include the
following:

In the field of water supply, the objective for development is to ensure supply
of potable water to all people. To meet this objective, the norms and
standards have been reduced from those specified in the earlier Master Plan.
To the extent feasible, groundwater sources should give way to surface water
sources.
In the field of sanitation, it is realized that the physical and economic situation
in the metropolis would not enable the provision of conventional sewerage
system in all the areas. Low-cost sanitation alternatives would be practiced so
that the entire population including the urban poor could be covered by
sanitation facilities and thereby guaranteeing essential minimum level of

III-7
hygienic environment. Low-cost wastewater recycling methods have been
given importance.
Solid waste management has been viewed as part of total sanitation program.
In most of the areas the sanitary landfill method of disposal shall be pursued
but efforts will be made to take up pilot projects for recycling of waste and for
recovery of energy from these wastes.
In the transport sector, efforts will be made to reduce the use of oil through
introduction of electricity operated mass transit system. The rail based mass
transit should be expanded in future. Restraint will have to be imposed on the
operation of private automobiles, particularly in the central areas through
introduction of higher parking fees and other restrictions on movement. Low-
cost traffic engineering and operation improvement measures will be
introduced to reduce congestion. The water transport along the river Hooghly
will be expanded and improved. This could be a major mode of transport in
future. The scope for utilizing the canal system for transportation will also be
explored. Future transport network and future land use plan have been
evolved to favour mass transit movement, reducing the number and length of
passenger trips. The metropolitan highway network has to be completed and
linked properly with the regional system. This has been given due emphasis in
the present plan.
In the field of shelter, including bustee, area development and housing, the
strategy is to address all the major five elements of shelter improvement.
These are:
Improving the sanitation and living conditions in the existing slums and other
low-income settlements.
Encouraging private housing activity by removing the constraints in respect of
access to housing finance, availability of land, availability of materials etc.
Developing land for facilities.
Taking up construction of housing units, including redevelopment of bustee
structure.
Ensuring adequate maintenance and up gradation of the existing housing
stock.

Strategy for Resource Mobilization

Given the size and magnitude of urban problems of KMA, the investment
need is quite high. Without proper developmental interventions for addressing
the growing congestion, crowding and deterioration of infrastructure facilities in
KMA, the metropolis will lose its efficiency and efficacy in performing its
functions. This will threaten the economy of the entire eastern India, let alone
the State. It is, therefore, essential that adequate investment be made to
revitalize Kolkata for enabling the metropolis to act efficiently as major cultural
and economic centre of the nation. This is proposed to be achieved through the
following measures.

Two types of financing, Capital and Revenue, is generally involved in


implementation and sustenance of urban development programmes. As for
capital financing for infrastructure development, the revenue earning implication
of which are limited, plan/budgetary outlay would continue to be a major source

III-8
of capital financing. Besides this, loans from financial institutions and
international donor agencies have been found to be alternative sources of
capital finances. With increasing scarcity of resources at the disposal of public
sector as well as the international donor agencies, and also with the difficult
financial viability related conditionalities of the financial institutions, private
sector participation is increasingly being viewed as a source of infrastructure
financing. As the financing sources increasingly take the form of capital loans
rather than capital grants, the question of debt service is becoming important.
Even private sector participation in infrastructure development would look
forward to realizing a fair return on investment. Thus, financial viability or in
other wards the revenue earning implications of infrastructure investment is
becoming all the more relevant and important.

Given that cost recovery from infrastructure services has limited scope,
especially in a metropolis with a good deal of urban poor, it is necessary to
design cost recovery mechanism in a manner that the very strategy of targetting
urban poor for delivery of rudimentary basic services is not adversely affected.
Even with cost recovery mechanism in place, nothing much beyond recovery of
the operation and maintenance (O&M) cost could be realized, by no means
enough to meet debt service obligations. In this difficult scenario of financial
viability pertaining to infrastructure investment needs, it is imperative to draw up
an investment programme in such a manner than there are projects from which
revenue surpluses could be generated to compensate for the viability gap of the
basic infrastructure investment. From this point of view, the projects may be
categorized under three groups:

The projects that may permit recovery of cost involving O&M and debt
service obligations leading to generation of surplus funds;
Projects where full cost recovery is not feasible, but the operation and
maintenance cost may be met through collection of user charges;
Projects where collection of user charges and cost recovery will not be
feasible.

Nonetheless, it is imperative to gradually get into the regime of cost


recovery and design service specific user charges structure, subject to
protecting the interest of urban poor, and also enforce such regime without
impunity.

Role of ULBs: The ULBs will need to take all efforts to improve their revenue
base. Apart from improving collection from property tax, the mainstay of
municipal income, and other fees and taxes, special attention towards levy and
collection of service specific user charges needs to be provided.

Attention of the Central & State Governments: As already mentioned, the


contribution of a metropolis of Calcuttas stature transcends the boundaries of
even the State. The Central Government has also recognized Kolkata as a
national city. In this perspective, both the Central and the State Governments
will have to provide adequate budgetary support for meeting the investment
needs of CMA. The State Government will have to allocate more funds out of

III-9
the State Plan for meeting the cost of development projects in the CMA. It
would also be necessary for the Governments to provide as much grant support
as possible as in most cases of infrastructure development, cost recovery is not
likely to be enough for debt servicing against loan funds.

Affordable Technology

With the increase in human knowledge and practices, more and more
technological options are coming into being. These options differ with respect
to capital outlay, annual O&M, social and physical conditions of the different
contexts. In a developing country context, which is generally confronted with
scarcity of investible resources, the adoption of low cost technology becomes
the obvious choice. An ideal technological solution may not be found to be
compatible with local social and economic conditions.

In all the urban development programmes, attempt should be made to


choose the technology out of the options available in such a manner that the
same is affordable by the local community. The affordability should be judged
by not only the amount of capital investment but also the recurrent O&M
obligations. Thus, the capability of the O&M agencies should be taken into
account while selecting a technological option.

Private Sector Participation in Infrastructure Development

As mentioned earlier, private sector resources could be mobilized for


development and management of infrastructure and services, as public sector
outlays are becoming increasingly scarce. Private sector needs to play a
symbiotic role in infrastructure development, as without proper infrastructure
development, economic growth would be slowed down, productivity of
workforce would be adversely affected and they too have to share the adverse
impacts of the same. The State Government is keen to enlist private sector
participation in infrastructure development and management through evolving
suitable partnerships. The State Government has enacted State Government
Policy on Infrastructure Development through Private Public Partnership (PPP)
and a Notification to this effect was issued on 27th August 2003. The basic
objective of the Policy is to bring about uniformity in practice of PPP by the
public sector agencies. The cornerstones of the Policy are competitiveness and
transparency. A number of projects in the urban sector have been taken up
under PPP.

Role of JNNURM in the Strategies :

Cities and Towns play a vital role in the Socio-Economic transformation and
change. The role of Kolkata Metropolitan Area is especially significant In that its
contribution transcends the boundaries and it extends the over the eastern India and
also the country as a whole. Towns and cities seem to contribute between 50 and 55
ercent of countrys GDP and the figure would rise further if secondary and tertiary
sectoral GDPs are concerned. This is slated to rise further in the coming years.
Moreover, in this era of globalisation, cities and towns are the centre-points of

III-10
innovations and hub of many activities towards gaining a competitive edge. In this
emerging scenario of the cities and towns, the role urban infrastructure and services
would be vitally important, as they are already severely stressed.

India currently has population of 285 million, which works out to nearly 28% of
total population residing in urban areas. In West Bengal the percentage of urban
population living in urban areas is thread of above that of India with 22.5 million
urban residents. In line with the phenomenon observed for the country as a whole,
where the annual investment requirement for basic infrastructure and services in
ULB areas is estimated to the tune of Rs.17,219 crore for the next 7 year period,
ULBs in West Bengal too would require a massive investment. This has to be seen
in the background of West Bengals recording one of the highest growth rates in SDP
amongst the advanced states of India and also experiencing a rapid growth in
investments in industrial sector during the recent years. The requirements of
providing infrastructural support to the process and also of enhancing productivity
are immense. Given that Kolkata Metropolitan Area is yet the largest metropolis in
eastern India and houses the bulk of secondary and tertiary sector activities of the
state. The imperative of improving and upgrading the basic infrastructure and
facilities is a sine qua non. The required does of investment in KMA is by no means
possible to be secured from internal sources. Being a national city there is enough
justification for flow of central assistance towards development of infrastructure
facilities in KMA.

NURM is set to provide opportunities for mobilisation of resources for basic


infrastructure development that will be necessary for realisation of the Vision and the
goals. In terms of the provision of 35% of the project investment shall be available
from central government as grant. The state government shall be obliged to provide
for another 15% of such project investment. The remaining 50% may be secured
from financial institution.

The concept of revolving fund under NURM would help achieve sustainability,
one of the prime strategies, in facilitating operation and maintenance of assets to be
created under NURM. In this context, the requirement of reform Agenda under
NURM would also play a crucial role in achieving the sustainability strategy.

Criteria for Strategy Selection :


The metropolitan city of Kolkata is a vast area extending over more than 1850
sq. km. and located in the Gangetic deltaic plain. The metropolis is bisected by river
Hooghly in its downstream, which is getting silted fast. The city receives a good deal
of rainfall every year flooding has been one of the regular natural calamities that the
city faces and thereby causing immense damages to infrastructural facilities. The soil
condition in this deltaic belt also poses problems for stability of infrastructural assets
like the roads calling for frequent repairs and upgradation. All these point to the need
for separate treatment of the infrastructural needs of KMA, as the latter does not
exists for the metropolis alone and serves the entire country. The focus on these
natural issues in project design is imperative.

III-11
The sustainability of the different interventions in KMA is all the more
important because lack of operation and maintenance of assets is likely to deny the
beneficial impacts of project investments. Accordingly, the strategy for project
development in KMA emphasises on certain reforms like recovery of services
specific costs, improved municipal management through organisational financial
capacity building, choice of appropriate technology etc. as part of development
strategy.

Community participation in planning, development and management, not only


helps better reflection of social priorities but also facilitates sustainability of project
investment. Accordingly, due emphasis is laid on community participation as a
development strategy. This also provides the opportunity for creating awareness
amongst beneficiaries about the need for properly operating and maintaining the
assets in cost effective manner. This awareness generation reinforces the prospect
of cost recovery from services and helps prevent avoidable wastage thereof.

The strategies have been selected in a manner the proposed interventions


under NURM and other such development programmes become sustainable. The
strategies have been determined through a consultative process involving the
different stakeholders including peoples elected representatives. The reform agenda
under NURM are also dependent on the strategies been properly implementation.

A set of strategies has also been designed for realisation of the sectoral
development goals. The strategies have been evolved out of deliberation at the
different meetings of Sector Committees of KMPC. The sectoral strategies too try to
ensure sustainability of project investment by suitable determining the standard of
services and the technology.

Possible Outcomes of Strategies :


Vision 2025 envisages to provide improved infrastructure and services to as
many people as possible with the given resources. Accordingly, the plans and
programmes adopt a strategy that calls for such technolo gies and standards of
services that are not only affordable but also enables enhanced coverage. For
instance, the Sectoral Master Plans for water supply has recommended a level of
per capita supply lower than universally accepted standards with a view to covering
more people with piped water supply system with the given resources.

The establishment of Kolkata Metropolitan Planning Committee (KMPC)


would not only ensure KMA-wide planning framework by which the metropolitan level
plan and the ULB level plans would be synchronized and the plans would be
implemented in a co-ordinated manner all over KMA. The decentralized planning and
development approach would help achieve peoples participation more effectively
and thus reflect social priorities in a better way in allocation of scarce resources.
Participation of local community and people also help in achieving sustainability of
development initiatives in terms of infusing a sense of belongingness amongst the
beneficiaries towards the municipal assets created.

III-12
It has been mentioned already that each ULB in KMA is set to switch over to
double entry accrual based accounting system from the present accounting system
that is single entry cash based one within a couple of years. This would bring about
improved financial management in that a better discernability of municipal finances
would be possible; proper distinction between capital and revenue accounts can be
made; transparency in budgeting can be ensured and hidden liabilities as well as
assets brought to fore.

The strategy of sustainability would facilitate improved recoveries of cost for


specific services. Some of the ULBs have already started collecting water charges
from domestic consumers and others are likely to follow suit. The concept of cost
recovery is gaining ground and becoming acceptable increasingly. The strategy
would endeavour to see that the cost of operation and maintenance of the different
infrastructure is at least recovered. Moreover, the ULBs are taking up commercially
viable projects so as to earn revenue surpluses that would be ploughed back for
improved sustenance of municipal level infrastructure and services.

The strategy of introducing e-governance in ULBs of KMA in a time bound


manner, especially the initiatives taken under the DFID assisted KUSP project,
would go a long way in improving municipal management and bringing about
transparency and accountability more effectively, from which the citizens at large
would stand to benefit.

III-13
CHPATER-IV

FUTURE DEVELOPMENT PROFILE


The respective KMPC Sector Committees have drawn up a list of major
interventions that shall need to be carried out in KMA by 2025 so as to achieve the
vision and goals pertaining to basic infrastructure development within KMA.

Transport Infrastructure Development and Action Plan

The Transport Infrastructure Development Need for the Metropolis upto the
horizon year 2025 has been assessed on the basis of the proposals for improvement
of passenger and goods transportation included in earlier Chapters. The
recommended projects have been classified into different categories and preliminary
estimates on the basis of the current price level have been made for individual
projects to assess the future investment requirements. An investment schedule has
been made considering all the recommended projects and has been divided into 5
(five) years spans during the 25-year period.

A number of related actions have been recommended and these include:


Setting up of a Centralised Information System by the Govt. of West Bengal
covering all the data and information in respect of the Traffic & Transportation
System of the Metropolis.
Route Rationalisation Study covering all the mass transit modes and para-
transit modes.
Finalising the strategies to ensure the availability of lands for implementation
of long-term projects.
Setting up of a High Power Committee for co-ordination and monitoring of all
kinds of activities and development projects in the traffic and transportation
field taken up by the various organisations operating in the area.

Identified List of Projects Recommended upto 2025

The list of traffic & transportation projects recommended in the Master Plan is
noted in the following pages. The projects have been categorized under the following
heads.
Category of Projects
New expressway/highway/arterial roads
Widening of highways and arterial roads
New flyover/bridge/underpass
New bus terminals outer ring, intermediate, inner ring
Proposed truck terminal cum whole sale trading centre/intermediate truck
terminal
Areawide traffic engineering and operation improvement scheme

IV-1
Proposed off-street parking facilities
Rail projects
L.R.T.
Surveys & studies
Water transport projects
Miscellaneous project

New Metropolitan Highways

Eastern Expressway
NH 34 to Taki Road to B.N. Dey Road to Baruipur Road.
NH 34 to Barrackpore Kalyani Expressway.

Serampur Barrackpore Barasat Expressway connecting NH2 and


Eastern Expressway.
Extension of Belghoria Expressway to connect NH2 and Eastern
Expressway
Dum Dum Barrackpore Expressway from Madhyamgram -Sodepur Road to
Belghoria Expressway.

Southern Expressway
Baruipur Road to Diamond Harbour Road.
Diamond Harbour Road to Budge-Budge & Budge-Budge to Bauria to
NH6.
Bridge over/Tunnel under river Hooghly.

Western Riverfront Expressway from Andul - Road to Bauria Connector.

Salt Lake Bypass from E.M. Bypass to VIP Road bypassing Saltlake
Township with flyovers on V.I.P. road at Kestopur and Baguihati.

New Major Arterial Roads: 35 numbers.

Widening of Roads : 68 Highways, Expressways, Arterial Roads and Secondary


roads

Conversion of Existing Arterial Roads: conversion of Arterial roads to Concrete


pavements or to Mashtic Asphalt pavements - 28 nos.

Bus Terminals
1. Outer Ring Bus Terminals : 24 nos.
2. Intermediate Bus Terminals : 9 nos.
3. Inner Ring Bus Terminals : 11 nos

IV-2
Long Distance Bus Terminals : 3 location.

1. Under the Ramps of Vidyasagar Setu (East-Bank)


2. Bus Terminus at Shalimar for intra-city routes
3. Long Distance Bus Terminus at Shalimar.

Area wide Traffic Engineering & Operation Improvement:


38 locations.

Proposed Truck Terminal cum wholesale trading centre/Proposed Intermediate


Truck Terminal: 14 nos

Rail Projects:

Laying of Railway lines : 12 alignments.


Proposed improvement and development : 13 major Railway Station
alongwith existing of station area
dispersal facilities .
Railway Goods Terminals at
1. Sankrail-Abada
2. Gobra
3. Noapara
4. South East of Rajarhat Township
5. Amtola adjoining Diamond Harbour Road

Passenger terminals at:


1. Shalimar Padmapukur
2. Chitpur

Possible Corridors for LRT


1. Along BT Road from Shyambazar to Dunlop Bridge
2. Along Kazi Nazrul Islam Sarani
3. Along EM Bypass
4. Along Barrackpore Kalyani Expressway Barrackpore Dum Dum
Expressway
5. Along Foreshore Road in Howrah
6. Along Diamond Harbour Road from Joka to Barasat.

Surveys & Studies


1. Techno-Economic feasibility studies and initial actions for L.R.T
alignments.
2. Traffic Surveys & Studies including setting up of Centralised
Information System.
3. Route Rationalisation Studies for all categories of transit routes
operating within KMA.

Proposed Off -street Parking Facility: 13 places

IV-3
Water Transport Facilities:
1. Construction of Gangway cum Pontoon Jetties and permanent Jetties
on River Hoogly.
2. Improvement of Surface dispersal facilities around the major ferry
stations
3. Restoration of North Canal System in Kolkata for passenger & goods
transportation
4. Improvement of inland goods transportation through river Hoogly.

Miscellaneous Proposals
1. Restoration of Chorial Khal
2. New ferry routes along & across river Hooghly
3. Modern tram from Joka to Esplande
4. Conversion of Barrackpore Expressway, B.T. Road, Lock Gate Road
into a Green Corridor.
5. Motor Training Institute on Jessore Road.
6. Concretization of major roads in phases.
7. Regulation regarding parking of Auto Rickshaws.
8. Area traffic control through Syncronised signaling system.
9. Initiation of actions towards introduction of C.N.G. in automobiles and
transit vehicles.
10. Bridge across river Hooghly connecting Santipur and Kalna.

IV-4
Water Supply Action Plan
The basic object of future provision for water supply is to gradually cover the
entire population of KMA by treated surface water, having dispensed with ground
water sources that are both qualitatively and quantitatively undependable. Another
major object would be to ensure more equitable distribution of water over space and
settlements, subject to the differential service delivery norms adopted by KMPC. With
these primary objectives in view, new surface water treatment plants as well as
augmentation of the existing ones have been proposed. Further, zonal reservoir-cum-
boosting stations have been proposed for future development actions.

Existing Capacity, Proposed augmentation and New WTPs within KMA

Proposed
Sl. Name of the Plant Existing Augmentati Proposed Total
No. Capacity on New (MGD)
(MGD) (MGD) TP (MGD)
1 Kalyani - - 30 30
2 Garulia - - 60 60
3 BKTP - 70
30 40
4 - 260
Palta 220 40
5 Dhapa - - 65 65
6 Wattgunge - - 5 5
7 Jorabagan Park - - 8 8
8 - - 120
GRWW 120
9 Dakshin Roypur,
Budge Budge-II for
- - 30 30
Rajpur-Sonarpur &
Baruipur
10 -
Bansberia 0.6 15 15.6
11 - 3.5
Chandannagar 1 2.5
12 - 50
Serampore 20 30
13 Howrah 30 30 20 80
14 Uluberia - - 10 10
Total 421.6 142.5 235 807.1

IV-5
Sewerage, Drainage & Sanitation & the needed Actions for improvement

The intensive actions have been taken up for the overall improvement of
drainage, sewerage and sanitation within the command area of KMA. The
improvement programme will maintain the schematic format in every stage. Positive
action programmes for improvement of drainage, sewerage and sanitation system
were taken up in phased format maintaining the sub-heads.

Drainage : Improvement for drainage in the KMA mostly converges to the


point of de-silting drains, channels, canals & other drainage systems. The
construction of underpasses, culverts, road, bridges & other P. H. structures are also
taken up for this programme.

Bager Khal Drainage Basin, Ichapur Khal Drainage Basin, Nowai Drainage
Basin, Khardah Drainage Basin, Upper Bagjola Drainage Basin, Sonai Khal Udaypur
Khal, Cantonment Khal, Lower Bagjola Khal, Howrah Drainage Basin, Circular-
Beliaghata - Newcut-Kestopur-Bhangore Katakhal System SWF DWF Channel
System, Tollygunge - Panchannagram Drainage Basin, Tollys Nullah Basin,
Keorapukur Drainage Basin, Monikhali Drainage Basin, Begore Khal Drainage
Basin, Churial Khal Drainage Basin Banikanta Khal Drainage Basin, Sunti Drainage
Basin, Sonarpur Arapanch Drainage Basin, Ghia-Kunti Drainage Basin, Dankuni
Drainage Basin, Kkonnagar Drainage Basin, Barjola Drainage Basin, Rajapur
Drainage Basin, Mograhat Drainage Basin.

Sewerage: The action for improvement for sewerage system in the K.M.A. is
eventually hummar to a particular point of renovation & reconstruction of sewerage
system, Mechanical & Manual cleansing of Sewerage net work, interception &
diversion of sewerage system and other improvement works like augmentation of
Sewage Pumping Stations & Sewage Treatment Plants and construction of new
Pumping Stations & STPs and development & laying of sewer lines.

Kolkata Combined Sewerage System, Bhatpara Muncipal Sewerage


System,Titagrah Municipal Sewerage System, Panihati Municipal Sewerage
System, Kalyani Municipal Sewerage System, Baranagar- Kamarhati Municipal
Sewerage System, Howrah Municipal Sewerage System, Bally Sewerage System,
Serampore Municipal Sewerage System, Chandannagar Municipal Sewerage
System, Khardah Municipal Sewerage System, Hoogly Chinsurah Sewerage
System.

Sanitation: Municipal bodies and Panchayat samities in KMA which are not
covered under GAP (PhaseI & II) must be covered by On-Site sanitation (septic
tank/two pit pour flush latrine method) by 2025.

SWM improvement program for all 41 municipal bodies and 23 Panchayat


samities are to be taken up in phases with in 2025 on the availability of land.

IV-6
Basic Services for Urban Poor : Action Plan

A Quick Slum Survey has been carried out to make a broad-brush


assessment of the extent of deficiencies that the slum families at the 40 ULBs of
KMA confront in terms of their access to basic services in respect of both physical
and social infrastructure facilities. Based on access or lack thereof to both social and
physical infrastructure and services coupled with differential weightages assigned to
different infrastructure and services, slum families have been marked on a scale of 1
100, where Category A represents slum families with highest level of deficiencies.
The scale of marking for categorization are: A - more than 50 marks; B 48 to 50
marks; C 45 to 48 marks; D 40 to 45 marks; and E - less than 40 marks. The
results of the quick survey reveal that the slum families categorized as relatively
worse in terms of access to basic services (combining Categories A, B and C)
constitute about 10 percent of total families surveyed. Category E accounts for as
large as 80 percent of the total slum families. While this relatively happy scenario
may be explained by sustained slum improvement interventions carried out in KMA,
especially at the instance of KMDA, there is not enough room for complacency as
further upgradation of slum level infrastructure and facilities and specially provision
of dwelling units for slum families are imperative. The social infrastructure facilities
for slum dwellers would particularly count in design of interventions for slum
dwellers.

A Phase-I Action Plan with duration of 3 years has already been drawn up for
submission under the Basic services for Urban Poor sub-mission of JN-NURM. A
total outlay of Rs.161.30 crore is involved in implementation of this Plan. A brief
account of the proposal is furnished in the table below.

IV-7
CHAPTER V

City Investment Plan


Sector specific investment proposed for the 1st fiver years in KMA

Traffic & Transportation

Sl Name of the Scheme Length Estimated


/ Area Cost
(Rs.
Crore)
A. NEW EXPRESSWAYS / HIGHWAYS
1 Eastern Expressway from NH-34 to Taki Road with 2 nos. 8 km 105.00
bridges over Rly.track
2 Southern Expressway from Baruipur Road to Diamond 15.5 115.00
Harbour Road km
3 Dum Dum - Barrackpore Exressway from Madhyamgram- 6.5 km 50.50
Sodepore Road to Belghoria Expressway
Sub total of A 270.50
B NEW ARTERIAL ROADS
1 Extension of EMBP from Kamalgazi to Baruipur (Ph-I) 11 km 60.00
2 Extension of Canal Bank Road from Beliaghata to 1.0 km 11.00
Gobinda Khatik Road with bridge over Beliaghata Canal
3 Grand Foreshore Road from Rabindra Setu to Vidyasagar 31.46
Setu
4 Road from B.D.expressway to Old Calcutta Road 1.3 km 8.00
5 New Arterrial Road connecting G.T.Road and Delhi Road 35.00
with a flyover across the railway Track (1st Phase) at
Chandannagar
6 Halisahar connector from B.K.Expressway through 5 km 19.60
Balidaghata with a new flyover over Rly.line alongwith
widening of the existing road
Sub total of B 165.06
C WIDENING AND STRENGTHENING OF EXISTING
HIGHWAYS AND ARTERIAL ROADS
1 B.K. Expressway (widening to 4-lane divided facility) 26.0 85.00
km
2 Kona Expressway
a) widening of R.O.B. at Santragachi 0.84 15.00
km
b) widening of Underpass by RCC Box 0.02 8.00
km
c) widening of 3 Lane Bridge over the Howrah Drainage 0.45 4.00
Canal km
3 Widening of EM Bypass - 4 lane carriageway from 52.00
Parama Island to Kamalgazi
4 Hazra road Connector - connecting Gariahat Road to EM 8.25
Bypass
5 B.N.dey Road (from Gobinda Khatik Road to Ambedkar 1.1 km 5.00
Bridge)

V-1
Sl Name of the Scheme Length Estimated
/ Area Cost
(Rs.
Crore)
6 Naihati Connector to BK Expressway with a new flyover, 2.0 km 12.10
over the railway track and widening of the existing road
7 Kanchrapara Connector - Kanchrapara Station Road with 4.8 km 9.50
widening of the existing underpass
8 Widening and strengthening of existing road paralle to 4.0 km 6.00
Orissa Trunk Road on the southern side of the Uluberia
Canal with a bridge across the canal to connect the link
road and NH-6
9 Widening and Strengthening of Old Calcutta Road (from 1.02 1.60
KNM Road to BT Road) km
10 Widening and Strengthening of a road parallel to Budge 3.00
Budge Raod with a bridge over canal (Phase-I)
11 Widening and strengthening of other Highways & Arterial 10.00
Roads
12 Widening of Maniktala Main Road (KIT alignment) 10.00
13 Service Road and drainage system along KNIS from 24.00
Kestopur to Airport
14 Widening of Narkeldanga Main Road (KIT alignement) 10.00
Sub total of C 263.45
D WIDENING AND STRENGTHENING OF SECONDARY
ROADS
1 Widening & Strengthening of secondary roads as per 10.00
reqirements of the ULBs & Panchayat
Sub total of D 10.00

E PEDESTRIAN UNDERPASSES
1 On EM Bypass near Science City 5.00
2 Connecting Circular Railway Stations at 32.00
C.B.D.viz.(I)Sovabazar, (ii) Borabazar (iii) B.B.D.Bag (iv)
Eden Garden
3 At Tiljala Road - Samsul Huda Road 3.00
Sub total of E 40.00
F ROAD BRIDGES / FLYOVER / ELEVATED ROAD /
UNDERPASSES
1 R.O.B. near Khardah Railway Station 0.50 19.30
km
2 R.O.B. at Halisahar Railway Station 7.70
3 R.O.B.at Naihati Railway Station 7.70
4 Grade separated Vihicular facility at Belur Rly.Stn. 17.00
5 Underpass on Chaulpatty Road 7.70
6 Underpass at Bandel Railway Station 7.70
7 Underpass at Chinsurah 7.70
8 Underpass at Kanchrapara 7.70
9 Underpass at Patipukur 19.80
10 Underpass Muraripukur and Bagmari Road 11.00
11 Underpass at Bally Rly. Station 15.00
12 Underpass at Bediapara near 30A Bus Terminus 8.00
13 Flyover between EMBP and KNIS 52.50

V-2
Sl Name of the Scheme Length Estimated
/ Area Cost
(Rs.
Crore)
14 Vivekananda Road Flyover (Phase-I) from Howrah to 840.00
C.R.Ave. X'ing
15 Elevated road from Park Circuss to Parama Island on 300.00
EMBP
16 Interchange at Dunlop 61.00
17 Exit Ramp from AJC Bose Road Flyover near Beckbagan 21.00
18 Entry Ramp from Sarat Bose Road to AJC Bose Road 20.00
Flyover
19 Exit Ramp from Park Street Flyover to Mayo Road 22.00
Sub total of F 722.80
G BRIDGES OVER CANAL
1 Reconstruction of Swing Bridges 30.00
2 New Bridge over Irrigation Canals at Kanchrapara (on the 8.00
road connecting Kabi Guru Rabindra Road and Chandmari
Road)
3 New Bridge over Uluberia Canal 2.00
4 New Bridge along Ghoshpara Road over Bagher Khal 60 m 1.50
Sub total of G 41.50
H BUS TERMINALS
1 Bus Terminus at Kalyani 1.50 2.50
Acre
2 Bus Terminus in Science City Complex 1.50 2.00
Acre
3 Bus Terminus at Unsani Mouza in Howrah near the Truck 1.50 2.25
Terminal Acre
4 Bus Terminus near Dum Dum Riy. Stn. 1.50 3.00
Acre
5 Bus Terminus at East Calcutta Township 1.50 2.40
Acre
6 Bus Terminus at Bally 1.50 2.25
Acre
7 Bus Terminus at Rajarhat 1.50 2.25
Acre
8 Bus Terminus at Maheshtala 1.50 2.25
Acre
9 Long distance Bus Terminus at Shalimar 2.00 3.00
Acre
10 Bus Terminus for Intercity routes at Shalimar 1.00
11 Long distance Bus Terminal under the ramps of 2.0 2.00
Vidyasagar Setu (East Bank) Acre
12 Bus Terminus at Bakultala, Howrah 27 1.60
Kottah
13 Other Bus Terminals 5.00
Sub total of H 31.50
I AREA WIDE TRAFFIC ENGINEERING AND
OPERATION IMPROVEMENT SCHEMES
1 Dum Dum Station area 3.30
2 Garaia 3-point Crossing 6.00

V-3
Sl Name of the Scheme Length Estimated
/ Area Cost
(Rs.
Crore)
3 Behala Chowrastha 3.30
4 Dunlop crossing on B.T.Road 5.00
5 Chiria More (Barrackpore) 5.00
6 Shyamabazar area 5.50
7 Ultadanga area 5.50
8 BBD Bag area 7.70
9 Barasat 5.50
10 Cossipore - Chitpore area 3.30
11 Howrah Station area 20.00
12 Salkia area 3.30
13 Howrah Maidan - Court - DM office area 3.30
14 Sealdah Station area 20.00
15 Park Street - Camac Street - Theatre Road area 10.00
16 At Bamangachi Belgachia Road crossing on Barasat 2.50
Road, Howrah
17 Surface dispersal around Metro stations 10.00
18 Surface dispersal at Circular Rail Station area 10.00
Sub total of I 129.20
J OFF STREET PARKING FACILITIES
1 Northern side of B.B.D. Bag opposite Writers Building 20.00
2 Western side of Strand Road 1.00
3 At Surendranath (Curzon) Park 10.00
Sub total of J 31.00
K WATER TRANCPORT FACILITIES
1 Construction of Gangway cum Pontoon Jetties & 15 nos 10.00
permannet Jetties on River Hooghly
2 Improvement of surface dispersal facilities around the 10.00
major city ferry stations
3 Restoration of North Canal System in Kolkata for pasenger 20.00
and goods transportation
4 Improvent of Inland goods transportation through river 10.00
Hooghly
Sub total of K 50.00
L SURVEYS & STUDIES
1 Techno-Economic feasibility studies and initial actions for 6.00
L.R.T. alignments
2 Traffic Surveys & stududies including setting up of 2.00
centralised information system
3 Route rationalisation studies for all categories of transit 1.00
routes operating within KMA
Sub total of L 9.00
M TRUCK TERMINALS AND TRUCK PARKING AREAS
(Land Acquisition & preliminary actions
(I) TTC at Howrah (Kona), (ii) Trucparing area at 15.00
Baranagar (iii) Truck paring under the western approach of
the Vidyasagar Setu, (iv) Dankuni (v) Noapara
Sub total of M 15.00

V-4
Sl Name of the Scheme Length Estimated
/ Area Cost
(Rs.
Crore)
N SURFACE DISPERSAL FACILITIES FOR THE
RAILWAY PASSENGER TERMINAL AT CHITPUR (1st
Phase)
1 (i)New Road - 3 lane wide (11m C.W.) in the north of the 2300m 7.00
new cut Canal (from Gaznabi bridge approach to Sealdah
Main line) and
(ii) Widening of the Canal North Road from K.N.I.S. to
Sealdah Main line ( from existing 5.0m carriageway to
11.0m carriageway)
2 Improvement & Widening of of Canal East Road and 12.75
Canal West Road (from Maniktala Main Road to B.T.Road
- existing 2-lane road to be converted to 4-lane road) with
rigid pavement
3 Improvement and widening of the road in the south of New 2300m 6.00
Cut Canal (from Gaznabi Bridge approach to the west of
Sealdah Main line)
4 Jack pushing under the Sealdah Main line on Canal South 10.00
Road alignement
5 Extension of Service Road of K.N.I.S and connection with 300m 2.00
Canal North Road
6 Widening of the Railway underpass on the Canal North 4.00
Road
7 Miscellaneous items (Rehabilitation, Pedestrian Guard 2.00
Rail, Traffic Signs, Road markings etc.
8 3-lane Bridge over New Cut Canal 13.00
9 Widening of Gaznabi Bridge (Additional 2-lane) 8.00
10 Flyover(4-lane) connecting Belgachia Road and 50.00
Bidhannagar Road with Ramp connections and elevated
rotary
11 Strengthening & Widening of Guru Das Dutta Garden 2.00
Road
12 New bridge in the west of Durgapur Bridge with ramp 6.50
connection from Canal South Road
13 Flyover from EM Bypass to Canal North Road flying over 45.00
Salt Lake 1st Avenue and Northern approacvh to
Durgapur Bridge with a ramp connection from VIP Road
14 New Bridge across Circular Canal 6.00
15 Flyover along Canal South Road across BT Road & 20.00
Belgachia Road
16 Other miscellaneous works including widening and 5.00
strengthening of Belgachia Road, BT Road, BN Dey Road
Total of N 199.25
O New Road Lnkage with the New Town at Rajarhat and 15.00
Improvement & strengthening of existing road links -
for detail survey, Project Report, Preliminary LA &
marginal improvement)
TOTAL OF ITEMS (A O) 2723.26

V-5
Water Supply

Sl. Cost Investment Plan


No. Proposals Layout
03-08 09-14 15-25
Rs. Crores
1 30mgd TP (Ph-II) at Kalyani 76.00 50.00 26.00 -
2 60 mgd Treatment Plant at 333.00 200.00 133.00 -
Garulia
3 Aug. of BKTP from 30 to 70 mgd 124.00 80.00 44.00 -
4 15 mgd TP at Bansberia 51.00 51.00 - -
5 Aug. of Chandannagar TP 1 to 18.00 18.00 - -
3.5mgd
6 Aug. of Serampore TP (20 to 50 95.00 60.00 35.00 -
mgd)
7 Aug. of HTP (60 to 80 mgd) 40.00 - 25.00 15.00
8 Construction of 10 mgd TP at 55.00 55.00 - -
Uluberia
9 Baruipur Municipality (Ultimate 14.00 14.00 - -
Phase)
10 Rajpur-Sonarpur Municipality, U. 25.50 25.50 - -
Phase
11 Aug. of WTP at Budge Budge-II 60.00 - 60.00 -
12 Proposals for KMC area :-
a) 30-mgd WTP at Dhapa 95.00 95.00 - -
b) other proposals 488.00 220.00 135.00 133.00
13 GRWW rehabilitation works 90.00 90.00 -
14 Uncovered areas of Local Bodies 335.00 35.00 200.00 100.00
15 Schemes for NMUs, O.Gs & 75.00 25.00 25.00 25.00
Rural
16 Ongoing Works 194.00 194.00 - -
Total 2168.50 1212.50 683.00 273.00

V-6
Drainage, Sewerage and Sanitation

a) DRAINAGE

Proposal For Cost (Crore)

Phase - I Phase - II Total

2003-2008 2009-2025 2003-2025

EAST BANK 867.00 948.00 1815.00

WEST BANK 250.00 507.00 757.00

Total During the plan period 1117.00 1455.00 2572.00

b) SEWERAGE

Proposal For Cost (Crore)

Phase - I Phase - II Total

2003-2008 2009-2025 2003-2025

EAST BANK 850.00 960.00 1810.00

WEST BANK 160.00 302.00 462.00

Total During the plan period 1010.00 1262.00 2272.00

c) SANITATION

Proposal For Cost (Crore)

Phase - I Phase - II Total

2003-2008 2009-2025 2003-2025

EAST BANK 250.00 413.00 663.00

WEST BANK 160.00 486.00 646.00

Total During the plan period 410.00 899.00 1309.00

Total cost = Rs. 6153 crore

V-7
a) Drainage in KMA

Sl. INVESTMENT PLAN


No. PROPOSALS 2003-2008
(in Rs. crore)

1. Transmunicipal drainage scheme for Khardah,


Panihati, North Dum Dum, South DumDum &
Dum Dum 31.32

2. Storm drainage scheme along E.M. Bye pass


(Kalikapore to Baghajatin) 9.00

3. Improvement of drainage system around


Barrackpore Housing 1.25

4. Drainage improvement along E.M. Bye Pass


from Chinrighata crossing to Science City 8.00

5. Improvement of drainage facilities on the


western side of E.M. Bye Pass adjacent to
P.A. Shah Road connector in KMC Ward No.
106 2.00

6. Improvement of Pakhimara Bill and Padma Bill 12.00

7. Improvement of drainage at Dakshinayan, Howrah 1.25

8. Improvement of Chandanngar Garh from Chandan-


nagar Station Road to outfall at river Hoohgly (Ph-I) 5.00

9. Transmunicipal Scheme for removal of drainage con-


gestion at Budge Budge & Maheshtala Municipality 22.00

10. Transmunicipal Scheme for removal of drainage con-


gestion at Barasat and Madhyamgram Municipality 10.00

11. Improvement of drainage of Howrah City and its


Vicinity 76.00

12. Improvement of drainage system for other uncovered


areas of urban local bodies 60.00

13. KEIP of KMC (ADB Project) 476.00

14. I & W Dte. 403.00


Total : 1116.82

Say : 1117 Crores

V-8
b) Sewerage in KMA

Sl. INVESTMENT PLAN


No. PROPOSALS 2003-2008
(in Rs. crore)

1. Sewerage Integration of Baranagar & Kamarhati 20.00

2. Sewerage Integration of Khardah & Panihati 20.00

3. 13 (thirteen) towns not covered by GAP to be


sewered in Phase-I

i) Construction of 5 Nos. STP (10 MLD) 32.50

ii) Construction of 4 Nos. Low Cost STP (7 MLD) 20.50

iii) Laying of I.D.Sewer of varying diameter


(375 mm to 900 mm) of 90 km length 90.00

4. KEIP of KMC (ADB Project) 827.00


________

Total : 1010.00

V-9
c) Sanitation in KMA

Sl. INVESTMENT PLAN


No. PROPOSALS 2003-2008
(in Rs. crore)

ON SITE

A. Construction of Septic Tank/Pour Flush


Latrines of capacity 10 users : 75,000 Nos. 250.00

(Assuming 5% of total population


1,50,00,000 in the year 2009 using
insanitary latrine)

B. SWM

1. Solid Waste Management Scheme at Halisahar 3.00

2. - Do - at Garulia & North Barrackpore 4.00

3. - Do - at Kalyani 3.00

4. - Do - at Kanchrapara 3.00

5. - Do - at Budge Budge 3.00

6. - Do - at Bally 4.00

7. - Do - at Hooghly Chinsurah 3.50

8. - Do - at Bansberia 2.75

9. Other uncovered area of ULBs 110.00

10. i) Solid Waste Management Scheme at Panihati 2.32


ii) - Do - at Bhadreswar 2.00
iii) - Do - at Chandannagar Municipal area 3.46
iv) - Do - at North Dum Dum & New Barrackpur 5.03
v) - Do - at Baranagar, South Dum Dum & Dum Dum 5.48
vi) - Do - at Bidhannagar 4.21
-------------------
Total : 408.75

Say : 410 Crores

V-10
Environment

Amount
Item (Rs. crore)
1 Air quality monitoring of Kolkata, Howrah & others 5.0
2 WQM of River Hooghly & Gr. Water within KMA 1.5
Abatement of Pollution of River Ganga from
3 different Municipal Towns (taken up under GAP
Ph-II) 13.5
4 Aforestation in different Municipalities 0.75
Management of Municipal Solid Waste and
5
Biomedical Waste 30.0
Waste Water Quality Monitoring of DWF Channel
6 of Kolkata Municipal Corporation at different
stretchs 0.85
Finding out carrying capcity of Kolkata and Howrah
7
with respect to Land, Water, Air, Bio Diversity etc. 0.75
Wetland
8 Management of East Kolkata Wet Land 7.0
9 Management of Wetland in different Municipalities 12.0
10 River Front Development in Kolkata & Howrah 9.5
Restoration works of Circular Canal, New Cut
Canal, Kestopur Canal & Bhangar Katakhal for
11
Navigability, Beautification & Source of Water
Supply 8.0
Construction of Public Toilet Complex in different
12
Municipalities 2.25
Development of Parks & Playgrounds in different
13
municipalities 6.0
Pilot project for Rain Water Harvesting, Ground
14
Water Recharging etc. 0.85
Pilot project for utilization of different types of
15 Bioass (e.q. Animal Excreta, Water Hyacinth etc.)
for production of Bio Gas, Electricity etc. 1.95
Pilot Project of utilization of Solar Energy for
16
projection of Electricty 7.0
Conversion of Electric Crematoria to Gas Fired
17
Crematoria 5.0

Heritage
Preservation & Conservation of Heritage Buildings,
18 Monuments etc. 8.5
Total 243.9

V-11
Urban Renewal / Redevelopment of old city areas :

Amount
Item (Rs. crore)
1 Urban Renewal Project at Kumartuli 22.00
2 Other Urban Renewal and redevelopment project :
I. Lake Gardens
II. Howrah Fish and Pan Market
III. Howrah Station Area Redevelopment
IV. Shifting of Posta Bazar
V. Salt Gola in Howrah
VI. River Front Development in Howrah (from
Howrah station to Botanical Garden)
VII. Wholesale Flower Market at Jagannathghat
VIII. Kolay Market
IX. Metiaburz Garment manufacturing Complex
X. Kalighat Temple and its vicinity
XI. Areas around Cossipore Udyanbati
XII. Dum Dum Railway Station
XIII. Falpatty (wholesale fruits market)
XIV. Monglahat near Howrah station
XV. Areas in the vicinity of Chitpur Passenger
Terminal along canal south Road in Kolkata
XVI. Old China Bazar
XVII. BBD Bag and adjoining area
XVIII. 83 Station Area Redevelopment

200.00
Total 222.00

Summery of proposed investment by sector :

Sl. Basic Infrastructure CDP Budget


No. Sector under CDP (Rs. crore)
1 Traffic & Transportation 2723

2 Water Supply 1213


3 Sewerage 1010
4 Drainage 1117
5 Sanitation 410
6 Environment 244
7 Urban Renewal 222

Total 6939

V-12
Financing Strategies
Based on the recommended strategies and the future development profile, a
short-term investment plan has been identified considering the priorities determined
by the sectoral committees under Kolkata Metropolitan Planning Committee. The
investment plan is presented by each sector of major infrastructure and services.

It may be seen from the City Investment Plan that an amount of Rs.6938.66
crore, say, Rs.6939 crore, shall be needed for implementation of the infrastructure
development proposals in the sectors of Traffic & Transportation, Water Supply,
Drainage, Sewerage & Sanitation and Environment the sectors that shall be
admissible under NURM and also be dealt with by KMDA under the Urban
Development Department of Govt. of West Bengal. Several sources of financing the
Plan have been identified.

The State Government extends capital assistance in the form of grant and loan for
implementation of capital projects in KMA, including those taken up under Calcutta
Megacity Programme or Ganga Action Plan (Phase-II). However, there has been a
considerable decline in availability of such assistance in recent years. Even if the
same is enhanced by 25 percent in the coming years, it would be far less than what
the CIP would call for.

Assistance from international donor agencies, if found to be suitable, may also be


explored. It may be noted in this connection that the first three phases of Calcutta
Urban Development Programme (CUDP) received assistance from the International
Development Association (IDA), a soft loan associate of the World Bank. Later on,
Projects like Calcutta Slum Improvement Programme (CSIP) and India Population
Project-8 (IPP-8) received funding from the Department for International
Development (DFID) of UK and the World Bank respectively. Asian Development
Bank is funding the Kolkata Environment Improvement Programme (KEIP) within
Kolkata Municipal Corporation area. A municipal solid waste management project is
being negotiated with Japanese Bank for International Co-operation (JBIC) funding.
Nevertheless, the availability of international donor assistance is becoming
increasingly scarce and also fraught with a lot of conditionality.

Accessing the capital markets is emerging as a major source of capital


financing. But one of the pre-requisites for any agency to do the same is to get
credit-rated. A number of urban sector reforms that have been carried out or are in
the process of being implemented have enhanced the prospect securing an
acceptable credit rating by the ULBs. The data furnished under Financial Profile of
ULBs indicate that the municipal revenues have reckonably increased in recent
years and the same obviously improve the credit rating of some of the ULBs.
Municipal Bonds could be one of the options for garnering capital finances.

Institutional finance is another source for meeting capital needs. But, the
possibility of institutional finance being used for basic infrastructure projects appears
remote as a priori establishment of financial viability of such projects is not often
feasible owing to limited opportunity of cost recovery. Even if annual O&M cost could

V-13
be recovered through user specific charges, the prospect of recovering capital cost is
usually bleak. Nevertheless, this source shall be tried to the extent possible.

It would be worth mentioning that there is a proposal of establishing a West


Bengal Municipal Development Fund, one the main objectives of which would be to
create a fund that could be leveraged to access capital markets for infrastructure
financing. This fund would enable individual ULBs to float municipal bonds with
guarantees received from the WBMDF.

Another emerging source of finance is the participation of private sector in


infrastructure development through forging of appropriate partnership between public
and private sectors. It should be important to note that the State Government is very
keen to enlist private sector participation in infrastructure development. With this aim
in view the State Government has already notified its Policy of Infrastructure
Development through Public Private Partnership (PPP). The fundamental premises
of the policy inter alia comprise adoption of transparent and competitive means for
selection of private partner. A number of projects in the urban sector have already
been taken up under PPP. Some of the proposed projects have been identified for
implementation under PPP format.

The Jawharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission of Government of India


provides enormous opportunity for implementation of infrastructure development
projects with a little over one-third assistance to be received from Government of
India. 57 projects out of an initial 109 projects have already been identified for posing
under NURM that would extend over a seven-year period. Out of these, 15 projects
have been shortlisted as priority ones for immediate assistance under NURM.

It is expected that with use of the multiple sources of finance, the short-term
action plan indicated under the City Investment Plan can be implemented and the
goals and objectives in medium term can be achieved.

Realistic estimates of resource availability from different sources have been


prepared for obtaining additional resources for the City Investment Plan, keeping in
view the reform agenda that has been evolved for implementation of CDP. The
estimates are furnished in prescribed format by financing options, vide the Table
below. The deficit in resources availability can be met by augmentation of the
existing option as well as new options that may emerge beyond the five year
period of the City Investment Plan.

V-14
Financing Options: City Development Plan

Estimate
of Basic CDP Surplus/
Sl. additional Sl. Infrastructure Budget Deficit
No.
Financing Options No.
resources Sector under (Rs. (Rs.
(Rs. CDP crore) crore)
crore)
Traffic &
1 Own resources: 1 2723
Transportation
(a) Municipal 450 2 Water Supply 1213

(b) KMDA 708 3 Sewearge 1010


State Government grants
2 310 4 Drainage 1117
and loans
3 Financing institution 70 5 Sanitation 410

4 Capital market 450 6 Environment 244

5 Off-shore financing 1475 7 Urban Renewal 222

6 Central government grants 730

7 Private sector 920

Total 5113 6939 -1826

V-15
CHAPTER VI

Summary
The Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA) stretching over 1851 sq.km. and
enveloping as many as 41 Urban Local Bodies (ULBs) including three Municipal
Corporations and 24 Panchayat Samities is the largest metropolis in Eastern India
with a disproportionate demographic and economic predominance. The contribution
of KMA transcends the boundaries of the metropolis and extends over the entire
country. The analyses of the existing city profile of KMA point to enormous
potentiality of growth of the city, especially in the context rising economic parameters
for the State as a whole. The manufacturing and service sector industries are
projected to grow at relatively high rates in KMA. Alongside, the population of KMA is
also set to grow, even with nominal migration and reduced CBR. The population
projected for 2025 is 21.07 million, projected to rise from about 15 million at present.
The infrastructural profile does indicate severe deficits in basic infrastructure
provision as well as spatial inequality thereof within the boundaries of KMA. It is
indisputable that if the projected population has to be provided with a decent urban
living and the supportive economic activities, the need for augmentation of
infrastructural facilities is a sine qua none. Kolkata being one of the oldest cities in
the country does exhibit blighted areas within the old city areas. That call for renewal
and redevelopment so as to provide a better environment and organized facilities for
future growth.

Notwithstanding the problems and constraints, Kolkata envisions to become a


world class city and attend competitive age in this era of globalization. Accordingly,
the City Development Plan (CDP) outlines the future metropolitan structure
comprising the different hierarchy of towns, identifies new settlement areas and also
new industrial growth centers. Obviously, this would call for substantial improvement
in the basic infrastructural facilities such that domestic and international investors are
encouraged to come and invest in the city and stay to realize the economic growth
potential. The CDP lists the strategies that should be followed in each urban
infrastructure sector to make the process of development sustainable over the long
run. Interestingly, the Vision as well as the long term Master/Development Plans for
the infrastructure sectors have been reviewed and approved by Kolkata Metropolitan
Planning Committee (KMPC) as a part of decentralized urban planning and
development paradigm. It is, however, appreciated that specific interventions can
only be designed in the medium term based on the strategies recommended. This
would also provide opportunities for testing the strategies and modifying the same if
deemed necessary in the light of the experiences gained in the medium term.
Accordingly, the CVDP has appended a short term Action/Investment Plan for a
period of 5 years covering the sectors of basic infrastructure. The project proposal
included in this Plan have been evolved through a prioritization exercise at the
instance of KMPC. Moreover, efforts have been made to design the projects in a
manner that the same could be implemented within the stipulated time frame.

The Vision can be realized through a sustained process of planning and


development involving participation of local people. The adoption of decentralized
VI-1
planning framework via enactment of the WB DPC Act, WB MPC Act, WB Municipal
Act has been a step to that end. The developmental interventions as envisaged in
the Vision shall be carried out in an inclusive manner so as not to leave any section
of population, especially the urban poor, from the purview of developmental benefits.
Community participation enlisted through the Ward Committees constituted under
the WB Municipal Act and also the Community Development Societies (CDSs)
formed under SJSRY project would help achieve this. The CDP emphasizes on the
need for protecting and conserving the natural environment and heritage to the
extent possible and use of regulatory measures via the statutory LUDCPs would
address this part of the vision. Urban renewal and redevelopment of old city areas
and thus bringing in new genre of economic activities, especially those related to
services sector, is likely to facilitate economic growth. Initiatives for improved urban
governance including enlistment of peoples participation, introduction of e-
governance and better financial management coupled with adoption of selective cost
recovery measures are set to attain sustainability of project investments to a great
extent at the ULB-level. The sectoral approach to development of basic infrastructure
facilities emphasizes on adoption of affordable technology and also affordable norms
and standards of services such that maximum number of beneficiaries can be
reached with a given dose of investment. The regulatory measures via the LUDCPs
would help preempt certain avoidable costs that usually plague the old cities. The
CDP also lays stress on implementation on basic infrastructure projects involving
Public Private Partnership (PPP) formats. This would help achieve cost effectiveness
and operational efficiency in development and management of infrastructure
projects. PPP is also expected to play a vital role in urban renewal/ redevelopment of
old city areas, which is given priority under CDP.

The CDP appends a short-term action plan that lists out the priority projects
that need to be implemented in the next 5 years, within the overall development
framework recommended for each infrastructure sector. The total investment has
worked out to Rs.6939 crore. While certain amount of the proposed outlays is likely
to come from JN-NURM, other sources like own resources of ULBs/parastatal like
KMDA, mobilizing resources from capital market, offshore financing and private
sector resources have been considered for financing of CDP. A rough estimate of
the same has also been worked out, but this does not appear to be enough for the
projects proposed for the next 5 years. However, some of the projects taken up
during the next 5 years shall spill beyond the 5th year and additional quantum/new
sources of financing could be worked out later. It is expected that with a number of
reforms being taken up at the ULB-level would improve the municipal financial help
and enable the ULBs to carve out own resources and also access the capital
markets for meeting the projected capital needs. The keenness of the State
Government to enlist private sector participation in infrastructure development would
facilitate flow of private investment in infrastructure development and some of the
proposed projects could be taken up under PPP.

The process of initiating urban reforms in the State and particularly in KMA
started long ago as a general strategy of making developmental interventions
sustainable. The process of reform is a continual one and new reforms shall be
evolved as time moves on. Identification of needed reforms may be an easy task, but
implementation of the same is usually a harder task. As many of the reforms pertain

VI-2
to ULBs, capacity building of ULBs is an important area for intervention. Fortunately
for KMA-ULBs, this aspect is addressed to some extent under the DFID assisted
Kolkata Urban Services for Poor (KUSP) project. Nevertheless, there may be further
need for capacity building initiatives for not only the ULBs, but also the para-statal
and other concerned agencies for the success of JN-NURM.

VI-3