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The Mole Concept, Atomic and

Molar Mass, Stoichiometry,

Formulae and Equations
Material Science & Chemistry
Week Two Lecture
The Mole Concept
the amount of a substance that contains the
same number of entities as the number of atoms
in 12 g of carbon-12.
Mole is both a counting unit and a mass unit.
The importance of mole as a unit;
1. The mole lets us relate the number of entities to the
mass of a sample of those entities.
2. The mole maintains the same numerical relationship
between mass on the atomic scale (atomic mass
units, amu) and mass on the macroscopic scale
(grams, g)
Avogadro Number
One mole (1 mol) contains 6.0223x 1023
entities (to four significant figures).
Its named after Italian Physicist Amedeo
1 mol of carbon-12 contains 6.022x1023
carbon-12 atoms and has a mass of 12 g
Atomic Mass
Elements: The mass in atomic mass units (amu)
of one atom of an element is the same
numerically as the mass in grams (g) of 1 mole of
atoms of the element.
1 atom of S has a mass of 32.06 amu and 1 mol
(6.022x1023 atoms) of S has a mass of 32.06 g
1 atom of Fe has a mass of 55.85 amu and 1 mol
(6.022x1023 atoms) of Fe has a mass of 55.85 g
Compound: The mass in atomic mass units
(amu) of one molecule (or formula unit) of a
compound is the same numerically as the
mass in grams (g) of 1 mole of the compound.
Thus, for example
1. 1 molecule of H2O has a mass of 18.02 amu and
1 mol (6.022x1023 molecules) of H2O has a mass
of 18.02 g
2. 1 formula unit of NaCl has a mass of 58.44 amu
and 1 mol (6.022x1023 formula units) of NaCl has
a mass of 58.44 g
Molar Mass
The molar mass () of a substance is the mass
per mole of its entities (atoms, molecules, or
formula units) and has units of grams per
mole (g/mol).
To calculate the molar mass;
Element: To find the molar mass, look up the
atomic mass and note whether the element is
monatomic or molecular.
Monatomic elements: The molar mass is the
periodic-table value in grams per mole.
For example, the molar mass of neon is 20.18 g/mol,
and the molar mass of gold is 197.0 g/mol.
Molecular elements. You must know the formula
to determine the molar mass.
For example, in air, oxygen exists most commonly as
diatomic molecules, so the molar mass of O2 is twice
that of Oxygen.
Compounds: The molar mass is the sum of the
molar masses of the atoms in the formula. Thus,
from the formula of sulfur dioxide, SO2, we know
that 1 mol of SO2 molecules contains 1 mol of S
atoms and 2 mol of O atoms:
A mole of substance is the amount that contains Avogadros
number (6.0223x1023) of chemical entities (atoms, ions,
molecules, or formula units).
The mass (in grams) of a mole of a given entity (atom, ion,
molecule, or formula unit) has the same numerical value as
the mass (in amu) of the entity. Thus, the mole allows us to
count entities by weighing them.
Using the molar mass (m, g/mol) of an ele ment (or
compound) and Avogadros number as conversion factors,
we can convert among amount (mol), mass (g), and
number of entities.
The mass fraction of element X in a compound is used to
find the mass of X in a given amount of the compound.
Chemical Formulas
Empirical Formulas: The empirical formula is
derived from mass analysis. It shows the lowest
whole number of moles, and thus the relative
number of atoms, of each element in the
For example, in hydrogen peroxide, there is 1 part by
mass of hydrogen for every 16 parts by mass of
oxygen. Because the atomic mass of hydrogen is 1.008
amu and that of oxygen is 16.00 amu, there is one H
atom for every O atom. Thus, the empirical formula is
Molecular Formula: The molecular formula
shows the actual number of atoms of each
element in a molecule: the molecular formula
of hydrogen peroxide is H2O2, twice the
empirical formula.
Structural Formula: The structural formula
shows the relative placement and connections
of atoms in the molecule: the structural
formula is H O O - H
Calculating the Empirical Formula
1. Determine the mass (g) of each component
2. Convert each mass (g) to amount (mol), and
write a preliminary formula.
3. Convert the amounts (mol) mathematically to
whole-number (integer) subscripts.
4. To accomplish this math conversion,
Divide each subscript by the smallest subscript, and
If necessary, multiply through by the smallest integer
that turns all subscripts into integers.
Calculating the Molecular Formula
Different compounds with same
empirical formula
Isomers are compounds with the same
molecular formula, and thus molar mass, but
different properties.
Constitutional, or structural, isomers occur
when the atoms link together in different
Balancing Chemical Equations
Steps in Balancing the equations
1. Translating the statement: We first translate the
chemical statement into a skeleton equation:
the substances present before the change,
called reactants, are placed to the left of a yield
arrow, which points to the substances produced
during the change, called products
2. Balancing the atoms: By shifting our attention
back and forth, we match the numbers of each
type of atom on the left and the right of the
yield arrow.
3. Adjusting the coefficients: There are several
conventions about the final coefficients.
4. Checking: After balancing and adjusting the
coefficients, we always check that the equation
is balanced.
5. Specifying the states of matter: The final
equation also indicates the physical state of
each substance or whether it is dissolved in
Stoichiometry deals with the relationships
between amounts of reactants and products
involved in a reaction.
Its major application is in the field of analytical
chemistry, which is concerned with the
determination of the amounts of substances
in real-world material samples.
Relating Amounts of Reactants
and Products
Using Moles of Reaction
One mole of reaction is defined as the extent
of reaction where the changes in the moles of
reactants of products correspond to their
coefficients in the balanced equation.
Percent Yield
Limiting reactant is defined as the reactant
that would (not will) run out first. Strictly
speaking, in reality, no reactant is completely
Next Week Lecture
Oxidation numbers
Oxidation state
Chemical reaction types
Limiting reactants and product yield
Redox chemistry
For any further clarifications
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