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Chemical Engineering Journal 223 (2013) 611616

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Chemical Engineering Journal


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/cej

Simultaneous removal of COD and Direct Red 80 in a mixed anaerobic


sulfate-reducing bacteria culture
Kashif Rasool a, Seung Han Woo b,, Dae Sung Lee a,
a
Department of Environmental Engineering, Kyungpook National University, 80 Daehak-ro, Buk-gu, Daegu 702-701, Republic of Korea
b
Department of Chemical Engineering, Hanbat National University, 125 Dongseodae-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-719, Republic of Korea

h i g h l i g h t s

 Simultaneous removal of both sulfate and dye was achieved under anaerobic conditions.
 Effects of initial dye and sulfate concentrations were investigated.
 Kinetic models on dye degradation, COD and sulfate removal were studied.
 The dye biotransformation and its metabolites were identied.

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: The degradation, kinetics and biotransformation of Direct Red 80 and chemical oxygen demand (COD)
Received 11 December 2012 were examined under a sulfate reducing environment. Complete color and sulfate removal with more
Received in revised form 26 February 2013 than 87% COD removal were obtained in the batch experiments at different dye (50800 mg/l) and sulfate
Accepted 9 March 2013
(1005000 mg/l) concentrations. Dye degradation, COD and sulfate removal followed rst order kinetics.
Available online 16 March 2013
An increase in dye concentration from 0 to 800 mg L1 decreased the rate constant (k1) for dye, COD and
sulfate removal from 0.0843 to 0.035 h1, 0.019 to 0.009 h1 and 0.108 to 0.075 h1, respectively. In par-
Keywords:
ticular, the sulfate concentration had no signicant effect on dye degradation. Unlike other anaerobic cul-
Direct Red 80
Sulfate reducing bacteria
tures, the sulfate-reducing bacteria culture showed excellent dye mineralization and desulfonation
Degradation ability. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and gas chromatographymass spectrometry revealed
Anaerobic aniline and 1,4-diamino benzene to be the resulting metabolites after the decolorization of Direct Red 80.
Kinetic model 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction dyeing processes such as sulde, hydrosulde and dithionite [4].


Presence of sulfate in wastewater is generally related to the acidi-
The textile industry is one of the greatest generators of liquid cation of natural water and hydrogen sulde production resulting
efuent due to the high quantities of water used in the dyeing pro- from an anaerobic metabolism [5]. Moreover, sulfate increases the
cesses. The efuents from these industries are complex, containing salinity of the receiving water bodies, which in turn, reduces the
a wide variety of dyes and other products, such as acids, bases, availability of potable and usable water. Accordingly, one of the
salts, detergents, oxidants, high dissolved solids, sodium, chloride, major aims of textile wastewater treatment is to reduce both
sulfate, hardness and heavy metals [1]. Azo dyes are aromatic com- sulfate and dye concentrations to technology-based efuent limits.
pounds with one or more azo bond (AN@NA), and constitute the Several physico-chemical methods including chemical oxida-
largest class of synthetic dyes: 6070% of the total consumption tion, reverse osmosis, coagulationocculation, ltration, adsorp-
of dyes in commercial applications [2]. Synthetic dyes, such as tion and photo-degradation are being used worldwide to treat
azo dyes are quite toxic to living organisms and have been reported the efuent but these processes are not efcient in removing the
to contribute to the mutagenic activity of ground and surface water recalcitrant dyestuff from wastewater due to their commercial
polluted by textile efuent [3]. Sulfate is usually added to dye insignicance and potential generation of secondary pollution
baths to improve the dye xation and to adjust ionic strength. Sul- [6]. Biological processes provide an alternative to existing physi-
fate may also be formed by the oxidation of sulfur species used in cal/chemical technologies because they are more cost effective,
environmental friendly and do not produce large quantities of
Corresponding authors. Tel.: +82 42 821 1537; fax: +82 42 821 1593 (S.H. Woo), sludge. Over the past few years, many studies have examined the
tel.: +82 53 950 7286; fax: +82 53 950 6579 (D.S. Lee). biodegradation of azo dyes by isolated bacterial strains, methano-
E-mail addresses: shwoo@hanbat.ac.kr (S.H. Woo), daesung@knu.ac.kr (D.S. Lee). genic sludge and mixed anaerobic cultures [611]. On the other

1385-8947/$ - see front matter 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2013.03.031
612 K. Rasool et al. / Chemical Engineering Journal 223 (2013) 611616

hand, the azo bonds in the azo dyes after reductive cleavage are the color removal, sulfate, sulde and COD. The abiotic controls
converted to mutagenic and carcinogenic aromatic amines, which consisted of the dye containing medium without the inoculum,
are more toxic than their precursor azo dyes [12]. Therefore, and the biotic controls consisted of the medium inoculated with
understanding the azo dye reduction mechanisms is important the suspension culture but lacking the dye.
not only for efciently decolorizing dyes, but also for gaining To examine the effect of the dye concentrations on the decoloriza-
insight into toxic metabolites formed after dye degradation. tion, sulfate and substrate removal performance of the SRB sludge,
Biological sulfate reduction processes have been used to treat a the batch assays were subjected to 50, 100, 200, 300, 500 and
wide range of sulfate rich wastewaters including acid mine drain- 800 mg/l of DR 80 with the sulfate and COD concentration kept con-
age, tannery and textile wastewater, and landll leachate [1316]. stant at approximately 1000 and 3000 mg/l, respectively. To examine
Biodegradation of phenolic and other persistent organic pollutants the effect of the sulfate concentration on the treatment effectiveness,
have also been reported by sulfate reducing bacteria (SRB) culture 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2500 or 5000 mg/l of sulfate was added to differ-
[17,18]. However, there is still a lack of information on the dye deg- ent asks containing 250 mg/l of the dye DR 80. High purity nitrogen
radation kinetics and biotransformation under sulfate reducing gas was purged to make the culture anaerobic, and the asks were
environments. Therefore, more in-depth studies on the fate of exposed to continuous shaking at 35 C. All experiments were
azo dyes under sulfate reducing environments are important not performed in triplicate and the average values were reported.
only for efciently decolorizing dyes, but also for gaining insight
into toxic metabolites formed after dye degradation. 2.3. Analytical procedure
This study examined the simultaneous removal of tri azo dye,
Direct Red 80 (DR 80), sulfate and organic matter by the mixed Liquid samples were obtained at specic times and centrifuged
SRB culture in batch reactors. The kinetic models of dye, sulfate at 5000 rpm for 10 min. The supernatant obtained was used for
and co-substrate removal in a lactate-fed, mixed SRB culture were further analysis. Dissolved sulde was analyzed immediately using
proposed. Biotransformation of the dye was also examined for the a titrimetric method. COD was measured using a Hach spectropho-
rst time under sulfate reducing conditions. tometer. The suspended solids (SS) and VSS were analyzed using
the standard methods [21]. Sulfate was analyzed using a DX ICS-
1000 ion chromatography unit (Dionex, USA) equipped with a con-
2. Experimental
ductivity detector and self-regenerating suppressor. A DX Ionpac
AS14-HC analytical column (4  250 mm) connected to a DX Ion-
2.1. Isolation of sulfate-reducing bacteria and culture conditions
pac AG14-HC guard column (4  50 mm) was used. The unit was
operated in autosuppression mode with the eluent (3.5 mM Na2-
The mixed culture of SRB used in this study was isolated from
CO3 + 1 mM NaHCO3) at a ow rate of 1.2 ml/l.
an anaerobic sludge in a municipal wastewater treatment plant
in Korea. Postages B medium [19] was used to prepare the active 2.4. Decolorization and biodegradation studies
SRB cultures, in which lactate was the sole carbon source and
electron donor. This medium contained the following (in g/l): Decolorization was monitored by UVvis (Hitachi U-2800) spec-
K2HPO4 0.5, NH4Cl 1.0, CaSO4 1.0, FeSO47H2O 0.5, sodium lactate troscopy at the maximum visible absorbance wavelength of the dye
3.5, MgSO47H2O 2.0, yeast extract 1.0, ascorbic acid 0.1, and thio- (542 nm). Decolorization was quantied by correlating the absor-
glycollic acid 0.1. Sodium sulfate and sodium lactate were used as bance at this wavelength. Biodegradation was monitored by Fourier
the sulfate and lactate sources, respectively. Bromo-ethane- transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and the metabolites were
sulfonic acid (BESA) (3.2 g/l) was added to the culture at the identied by gas chromatographymass spectrometry (GCMS).
enrichment stage to inhibit the acetoclastic methanogenic activity After the complete decolorization of DR-80, the medium was centri-
which can consume lactate in the medium [20]. The pH of the med- fuged at 5000 rpm for 10 min and the supernatant obtained was
ium was initially adjusted to approximately 7.5 with a 1 N NaOH used to extract the metabolites with an equal volume of ethyl ace-
solution and was heat sterilized at 15 psi and 120 C for 20 min. tate. The extracts were dried over anhydrous sodium sulfate at room
High purity nitrogen gas was purged through the medium to main- temperature. The crystals obtained were dissolved in a small volume
tain the anaerobic conditions before inoculating. The culture was of HPLC grade methanol and used for FT-IR and GCMS analysis.
maintained in 1 L bottles at 35 C on a rotary shaker at 110 rpm. FT-IR analysis of extracted metabolites was performed on a
The developed culture was further subcultured every week under PerkinElmer, Spectrum one instrument and compared with the
anaerobic conditions. Sulfate reduction and sulde production control dye in the mid IR region of 4004000 cm1. The samples
was indicated by blackening of the media. After several months, were mixed with spectroscopically Ge-coated KBr and pressed to
a culture containing a high density of mixed sulfate-reducing bac- form a pellet. The pellets were xed in a sample holder and the
teria was obtained. This culture was used for further batch studies. analysis was carried out. GCMS analysis of the metabolites was
carried out using a Finnigan/MAT (GCQ), at an ionization voltage
2.2. Experimental methods of 70 eV in temperature programming mode on a DB-1column.
The initial column temperature was 80 C for 2 min, increased
Bath assays were performed in 250 ml Erlenmeyer asks linearly to 280 C at 10 C/min and held at that temperature for
containing 150 ml of solution. DR 80 at a concentration of 50 mg/ 7 min. The temperature of the injection port was 280 C and the
l was added to the Erlenmeyer asks containing the Postgate (B) GCMS interface was maintained at 290 C. The helium carrier
medium with 1000 and 3000 mg/l of sulfate and chemical oxygen gas ow rate was 1.0 ml/min. The degradation products were iden-
demand (COD), respectively. The pH of the dye solutions was tied by the fragmentation pattern in the mass spectra.
adjusted to 7.8 0.05 by 0.1 M NaOH or HCl. The medium was
autoclaved, and the asks were then seeded with the mixed SRB 3. Results and discussion
culture to make volatile suspended solid (VSS) concentration of
2 g/l. The asks were exposed to continuous shaking at 110 rpm 3.1. Effect of the initial dye concentrations on color removal
and a constant temperature of 35 C. Aliquots of the samples were
withdrawn at regular intervals. The samples were centrifuged at Fig. 1 shows the effects of different initial dye concentrations on
5000 rpm for 10 min and the supernatant was used to determine color removal by the SRB culture. The initial DR-80 concentrations
K. Rasool et al. / Chemical Engineering Journal 223 (2013) 611616 613

in the range of 50800 mg/l were applied to the batch reactor. The 10
SRB culture degraded 50 mg/l and 300 mg/l of the dye completely
after 53 and 70 h, respectively. Complete decolorization was

Specific removal rate (mg/g l )


8 Dye
obtained after 140 h for the initial dye concentration of 800 mg/l. COD
More than 95% color removal was achieved within 31 h when the Sulfate
dye concentration was less than 300 mg/l. The azo dye concentra-
6
tion in textile wastewater is typically in the range of 150250 mg/l
and the SRB culture is an excellent system for the rapid decoloriza-
tion of dyes in practical terms. Fig. 2 shows the specic dye 4
removal rates according to the dye concentration. A plot of the spe-
cic removal rate of the dye with the dye concentration gave a
straight line, showing that the dye removal rate increased linearly 2
with increasing dye concentration up to 800 mg/l. When the dye
concentration was increased from 50 to 800 mg/l, the specic
decolorization rate increased from 0.178 to 2.744 mg dye/g cell h. 0
Chang and Kuo [22] examined the decolorization of the azo dye, 0 200 400 600 800
Reactive red 22, by the isolated strains Escherichia coli NO3 and Dye concentration (mg/l)
reported an increase in the specic dye removal rate with increas- Fig. 2. Specic dye, COD and sulfate removal rates at different initial dye
ing dye concentration. concentrations.

3.2. Dye degradation and biotransformation 100


(a)
A comparison of the FT-IR spectrum of the control dye and
products formed after the end of incubation revealed the biodegra- 90 1227
517.5
dation of dye DR 80 by the SRB culture (Fig. 3). The spectrum of the 1030.5
2087.8
control dye showed a peak at 3445.96 cm1 for free OH (OAH
% Transmittance

80 719.63
stretching vibration), 1632.58 for the azo bond N@N stretching
vibrations, 1227.00 cm1 for the S@O stretching vibration,
1632.58
1030.5 cm1 for CAN stretching vibration, and 719.63 cm1 for
70
CAC bond of a mono substituted benzene ring with adjacent free
H atoms. The metabolites of the dye after degradation showed a
peak at 3445.97 cm1 for RAOH (OAH stretching), 2917.87 cm1 60
for C-H deformation stretching vibration for alkanes, 1630.57 for 3445.96
the azo bond N@N stretching vibration, 1444 cm1 for the CAH
stretching vibration of alkenes, 1032 cm1 for the CAN stretching 50
vibration and 771 cm1 for a benzene ring with four adjacent free 4000 3000 2000 1000
H atoms. The disappearance of the peak at 1632.58 cm1 in the Wavelength (cm -1)
product spectra compared to the control dye conrmed the
removal of the azo bond during degradation. In addition, the disap- 98
pearance of the peak at 1227.00 for the S@O stretching vibration (b)
conrmed the desulfonation of the dye.
The metabolites produced after dye degradation were analyzed
96
by GCMS. The structures of the detected metabolites were identi-
% Transmittanse

1733 1444 509.3


ed as aniline and 1,4 diamino benzene. Azo dyes, which have an
2305.18 771
2917.87 1630.57
94 1032
800

50 mg/l 92
600
Residual color (mg/l)

100 mg/l
200 mg/l
300 mg/l
500 mg/l 3445.97
800 mg/l 90
400 4000 3000 2000 1000
Wavelength (cm-1)

Fig. 3. FT-IR analysis of (a) control DR 80 and (b) degradation products.


200

active site available for an enzyme to excite the molecule, can be


0
cleaved symmetrically and asymmetrically [23]. The azo bond in
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140
sulfonated dye DR 80 might be cleaved by enzyme azo reductase
Incubation time (hours)
yielding unidentied intermediates, which after desulfonation
Fig. 1. Residual color concentrations for 140 h incubation at different initial dye and mineralization gives the products aniline and 1, 4 diamino
concentrations during the incubation period. benzene. Naphthalene derivatives were reported to be the end
614 K. Rasool et al. / Chemical Engineering Journal 223 (2013) 611616

products in most studies of azo dye degradation. Biodegradation of


mono azo dye Acid Orange 7 by a methanogenic culture resulted in 1000
the formation of aromatic compound 1-amino-2 naphtol with a
naphthalene ring and sulfanilic acid [24], i.e., metabolites not 0 mg/l
800
mineralized anaerobically. Kagalkar et al. [25] and Tamboli et al.

Residual sulfate (mg/l)


50 mg/l
[11] studied the degradation of Direct Red 5B (DR5B), a structurally 100 mg/l
200 mg/l
similar dye to DR 80, by B. malcolmii and isolated the bacterial 600 300 mg/l
strains, respectively and identied the product as 3-amino-7-carb- 500 mg/l
oxyaminonaphthalene-2-sulfonic acid, 7-carboxyamino-naphtha- 800 mg/l
lene-2-sulfonic acid and naphthalene-1-ol. These metabolites are 400
still quite toxic and the presence of these compounds in the water
system is a serious threat to public health and aquatic life. On the 200
other hand, the SRB culture showed very good desulfonation and
dye mineralization ability, and compounds containing sulfur and
naphthalene rings, which is used as a precursor in DR 80 and most 0
of the other azo dyes synthesis process, were not found in the 0 10 20 30 40 50
extracted metabolites, highlighting the excellent degrading ability Incubation time (hours)
of the SRB culture.
Fig. 5. Residual sulfate concentrations for 53 h incubation at different initial dye
concentrations during the incubation period.
3.3. Effect of the initial dye concentrations on COD and sulfate removal

Sodium lactate was used as co-substrates for both the carbon


and energy sources in microbial growth. The DR-80 concentrations
were varied from 0 to 800 mg/l with constant initial COD and
250
sulfate concentrations of 3000 and 1000 mg/l, respectively. Fig. 4
shows the changes in the residual COD concentrations with time. (a) 100 mg/l
COD removal was achieved in 180 h of incubation in the control, 200 250 mg/l
whereas COD removal took a longer time in the presence of the 500 mg/l
Residual dye (mg/l)

dye. Furthermore, the overall COD removal performance deterio- 1000 mg/l
2500 mg/l
rated from 95.9% at 50 mg/l to 83.4% at 800 mg/l DR 80. This might 150
5000 mg/l
be due to the dye inhibition effects but the increasing residual COD
could be due to the dye metabolites, aniline and 1, 4 diamino ben-
zene, as revealed by FT-IR and GCMS analysis. The specic COD 100

removal rate increased from 6.16 to 6.37 mg COD/g cellh with


dye concentrations up to 100 mg/l. On the other hand, the rate de-
50
creased to 5.82 mg COD/g cellh with increasing dye concentration
up to 800 mg/l, as shown in Fig. 2. Similar results were observed in
the bacterial decolorization of various azo dyes, where low concen- 0
trations of azo dyes have stimulatory effects on substrate degrada- 0 10 20 30 40 50
tion but higher concentrations had inhibitory effects [26,27]. Incubation time (hours)
More than 98% sulfate removal was achieved in all batches
including the control within 53 h, as shown in Fig. 5. Most of the 5000
sulfate was reduced to sulde, resulting in high sulde accumula-
tion of 351 mg/l. A slight increase in the specic sulfate removal (b) 100 mg/l
4000 250 mg/l
Residual sulfate (mg/l)

500 mg/l
1000 mg/l
2500 mg/l
3000 3000 5000 mg/l

2500
0 mg/l 2000
Residual COD (mg/l)

50 mg/l
2000 100 mg/l
200 mg/l
300 mg/l 1000
500 mg/l
1500 800 mg/l

0
1000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60
Incubation time (hours)
500 Fig. 6. Residual (a) dye and (b) sulfate concentration proles at different initial
sulfate concentrations during the incubation period.
0
0 50 100 150 200
rate from 9.39 to 9.73 mg sulfate/g cell h was observed after
Incubation time (hours)
increasing the dye concentration from 0 to 800 mg/l. This shows
Fig. 4. Residual COD concentration for a 210 h incubation period for batch that the dye concentration has no inhibitory effect on sulfate
experiments at different initial dye concentrations. reduction.
K. Rasool et al. / Chemical Engineering Journal 223 (2013) 611616 615

Table 1
First order kinetic constants obtained in the batch tests during color, COD and sulfate removal.

Substrate Constant (h1) Dye concentration (mg/l)


0 50 100 200 300 500 800
Color k1 0.084 0.075 0.07 0.068 0.034 0.035
R2 0.943 0.969 0.931 0.969 0.953 0.925
COD k1 0.019 0.016 0.015 0.015 0.014 0.01 0.009
R2 0.988 0.993 0.993 0.985 0.982 0.975 0.987
Sulfate k1 0.107 0.090 0.084 0.0827 0.0819 0.077 0.075
R2 0.950 0.954 0.974 0.982 0.987 0.985 0.986

3.4. Effect of sulfate concentrations inhibition under different conditions. The reported inhibitory sul-
de levels ranged from 100 to 800 mg/l dissolved sulde or
A series of batch shake ask experiments were performed with approximately 50400 mg/l undissociated H2S [34].
various initial sulfate concentrations between 100 and 5000 mg/l
with a constant initial COD and dye concentration of 3000 and
3.5. Kinetic studies
250 mg/l, respectively. Almost complete color removal was
achieved within 48 h at all sulfate concentrations tested (Fig. 6a).
Based on the experimental data, zero-, rst- and second-order
A specic decolorization rate of 2.57 0.02 mg dye/g cell h was
reaction kinetics were tested to determine the appropriate kinetic
determined over the entire range of sulfate concentrations. Sulfate
models using Eqs. (1)(3):
had no adverse effect on dye removal even at high concentration of
5000 mg/l. These results are similar to previous studies, which C t C 0  ko t 1
reported that sulfate did not inhibit azo dye reduction in the anaer-
obic sludge [4,28]. The dye removal rate did not increase with
C t C 0 ek1 t 2
increasing sulfate loading and sulde production. Hence, the
biological dye reduction mechanism governs the overall dye and
abiotic removal because the contribution of sulde generated by 1 1
k2 t 3
sulfate reduction was only slight. Ct C0
For the initial sulfate concentrations of 1001000 mg/l, more
where C0 and Ct are the corresponding initial and residual substrate
than 98% sulfate removal was achieved within 60 h of incubation,
(COD, dye and sulfate) concentrations at time t of the batch tests;
whereas sulfate removal decreased with increasing initial sulfate
k0, k1 and k2 are the zero-, rst- and second-order rate constants,
concentrations, leading to a decrease in the overall sulfate removal
respectively. Ct, ln Ct and 1/Ct were plotted as a function of time to
from 98.37% at 1000 mg/l, to 70.94% at 5000 mg/l sulfate (Fig. 6b).
determine the kinetic constants of color, COD and sulfate removal.
The specic sulfate removal rate increased from 0.83 to
A comparison of regression coefcient (R2) relevant to the zero-,
29.56 mg sulfate/g cell h with increasing sulfate concentrations
rst- and second-order rate constants showed that all the processes
from 100 to 5,000 mg/l. The specic sulfate removal increased lin-
followed rst-order reaction kinetics. The rst order rate constant
early, which is consistent with Moosa et al. [29], who examined
values for COD removal decreased from 0.019 to 0.009 h1 with
sulfate reduction using a mixed SRB population with acetate as
increasing DR 80 dye concentration from 0 to 800 mg/l (Table 1).
the carbon source and reported increasing reaction rates with
The rst order decolorization reaction rate constants, k1, decreased
increasing initial sulfate concentrations. This shows that textile
from 0.084 to 0.035 h1 with increasing dye concentration from 0 to
wastewater with high sulfate concentrations can be treated effec-
800 mg/l. For sulfate removal, a decrease in the rate constants from
tively to reduce the sulfates and dye simultaneously.
0.107 to 0.075 h1 was observed with increasing dye concentration.
The dissolved sulde (DS) concentration increased with time
This is the rst report of the sulfate reduction kinetics with respect
and the highest total DS concentration was approximately
to the dye concentration. Bras et al. [35] and Isak and Sponza [26]
789 mg/l for sulfate concentrations of 5000 mg/l (data now shown
reported the COD removal kinetics to be rst order using a mixed
here). The sulfate, COD and dye removal rates increased steadily
anaerobic culture, and observed a decreasing trend in k1 with
despite the increase in dissolved sulde concentration. This might
increasing dye concentrations. On the other hand, Sarioglu and Bis-
be due to the initial and nal reactor pH, which was close to 8,
gin [7] examined the degradation of Maxilon Yellow GL using a
where the proportion of non-toxic suldes would be approxi-
mixed anaerobic culture with glucose as the sole carbon and energy
mately 90% of the total DS [30]. The effects of different suldes
source, and reported the COD and dye degradation via second order
on the microorganisms and the nature of sulde inhibition are
reaction kinetics up to a 1000 mg/l dye concentration.
unclear. H2S may be inhibitory by denaturing the native proteins
through the formation of sulde and disulde cross-links between
the polypeptide chains. In contrast, McCartney and Oleszkiewicz 4. Conclusion
[31] reported that the sulde toxicity increased with increasing
pH. OFlaherty et al. [32] showed that sulde inhibition for all A mixed SRB culture achieved good DR 80 dye decolorization
groups of bacteria examined was related to the sulde concentra- and degradation under high sulfate concentrations. Complete
tion over the pH range of 6.87.2 and total sulde concentrations decolorization of the dye up to a concentration of 800 mg/l was
above pH 7.2. A typical suspended growth reactor with lactate as obtained with a high level of lactate and sulfate removal. Color
electron donor could stay stable without signicant inhibition removal was not affected by the sulfate concentration up to
when sulde levels reached about 150200 mg/l, indicating that 5000 mg/l. FT-IR and GCMS identied the dye degradation metab-
microorganisms involved in the conversion of lactate into simpler olites as aniline and 1,4 diamino benzene, and conrmed the excel-
products were not much affected by sulde toxicity [33]. Hence, lent degradation, desulponation and mineralization ability of the
there might be more than one inhibition threshold for sulde SRB culture.
616 K. Rasool et al. / Chemical Engineering Journal 223 (2013) 611616

Acknowledgement [16] E. Kheli, H. Bouallagui, M.-L. Fardeau, Y. Touhami, J.-J. Godon, J.-L. Cayol, B.
Ollivier, M. Hamdi, Fermentative and sulphate-reducing bacteria associated
with treatment of an industrial dye efuent in an up-ow anaerobic xed bed
This study was supported by Basic Science Research Program bioreactor, Biochem. Eng. J. 45 (2009) 136144.
through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded [17] S.L. Mort, D. Dean-Ross, Biodegradation of phenolic compounds by sulfate-
reducing bacteria from contaminated sediments, Microb. Ecol. 28 (1994) 67
by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology (KRF-2008-
77.
313-D00554, 2010-0023442). This work was also supported by [18] R.U. Meckenstock, E. Annweiler, W. Michaelis, H.H. Richnow, B. Schink,
the second phase of the Brain Korea 21 Program in 2011 and by Anaerobic Naphthalene Degradation by a Sulfate-Reducing Enrichment
Culture, Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 66 (2000) 27432747.
the Priority Research Centers Program through an NRF grant
[19] J.R. Postgate, The Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria, second ed., Cambridge University
funded by MEST (2010-0028301). Press, UK, 1984.
[20] A. Visser, The Anaerobic Treatment of Sulfate Containing Wastewater,
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