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Physical Treatment Method

Is represented to a body of technologies wastewater treatment as solid-liquid separation technique which

filtration plays a dominant role. Filtration can be broken in two categories conventional (including a
clarification process prior to filtration) and non conventional/direct filtration.

Following technology are among the most commonly used physical method of purifying water :

Heat Treatment : Boiling is one way to purify water of all pathogens. Most experts feel that if the water
reaches a rolling boil it is safe. A few still hold out for maintaining the boiling for some length of
time, commonly 5 or 10 minutes, plus an extra minute for every 1000 feet of elevation.

Reverse Osmosis : Reverse osmosis forces water, under pressure, through a membrane that is
impermeable to most contaminants. The membrane is somewhat better at rejecting salts than it is at
rejecting non-ionized weak acids and bases and smaller organic molecules (molecular weight below 200).
In the latter category are undissociated weak organic acids, amines, phenols, chlorinated hydrocarbons,
some pesticides and low molecular weight alcohols. Larger organic molecules and all pathogens are

Distillation, Distillation is the evaporation and condensation of water to purify water. Distillation
has two disadvantages: 1) A large energy input is required and 2) If simple distillation is used, chemical
contaminants with boiling points below water will be condensed along with the water. Distillation is
most commonly used to remove dissolved minerals and salts from water.


Slow Sand Filter, Slow sand filtration involves removing material in suspension and/or dissolved in water
by percolation at slow speed. In principle, a slow filter comprises a certain volume of areal surface,
with or without construction of artificial containment, in which filtration sand is placed at a sufficient
depth to allow free flow of water through the bed. When the available head loss reaches a limit of
approximately 1 m, the filter must be pulled out of service, drained, and cleaned. The thickness of
the usual sand layer is approximately of 1 to 1.50 m, but the formation of biochemically active
deposits and clogging of the filter beds takes place in the few topmost centimeters of the bed.

Activated Charcoal Filter

Chemical Treatment Method

Chemical treatment Method are applied as stand alone technologies, and as an integral part of the
treatment process with physical method.

Filtration generally requires the use of various chemical known as filter aids. These chemicals include
those used in the process of coagulation, and the accelerate an enhance the particle sedimentation
process (called flocculation)

Aluminum Based Chemical Additive Compounds

Have been used for many years in waste treatment applications for suspended solids removal. These
include dry and liquid alum.
Dry Alum, the commercial most often used in wastewater treatment is known as filter alum, and has the
approximate chemical formula A12(SO4)3, I4H2O and molecular weight of about 600.

Liquid Alum, is shipped in rubber-lined or stainless steel insulated tank cars or trucks. Bulk unloading
facilities usually must be provided at the treatment plant. Established practice in the treatment field has
been to dilute liquid alum prior to application. However, recent studies have shown that feeding undiluted
liquid alum result in better coagulation and settling.

Iron Based Compounds

Iron compounds have pH coagulation range and floc characteristics similar to aluminum sulfate. The cost
of iron compounds may often be less that cost of alum, the iron compounds are generally corrosive and
of often present difficulties in dissolving, the their use may result in high soluble iron concentrations in
process effluents.

Among the most commonly used iron compounds used in wastewater treatment application are ferric
chloride, ferrous chloride, ferric sulfate, ferrous sulfate.

Liquid Ferric chloride, is a corrosive, dark brown oily-appearing solution having a weight as shipped and
stored of 11.2 to 12.4 lb/gal (35 percent to 45 percent FeCl3). Ferric chloride solutions are corrosive to
many common materials and cause stains which are difficult to remove. Areas which are subject to
staining should be protected with resistant paint or rubber mats.

Ferrous chloride, FeC12, as a liquid is available in the form of waste pickle liquor from steel processing.
The liquor weighs between 9.9 and 10.4 lb/gal and contains 20 percent to 25 percent FeC12 or about 10
percent available Fe 2+. A 22 percent solution of FeC 12 will crystallize at a temperature of- 4 ~ The
molecular weight of FeC12 is 126.76. Free acid in waste pickle liquor can vary from 1 percent to 10
percent and usually averages about 1.5 percent to 2.0 percent. Ferrous chloride is slightly less corrosive
than ferric chloride.

Ferric sulfate is marketed as dry, partially-hydrated granules with the formula Fe2(SOa)3"X
H20,where X is approximately 7.

Ferrous sulfate or copperas is a by-product of pickling steel and is produced as granules, crystals,
powder, and lumps. The most common commercial form of ferrous sulfate is FeSO4.7H20,with a
molecular weight of 278, and containing 55 percent to 58 percent FeSO4 and 20 percent to 21 percent
Fe. The product has a bulk density of 62 to 66 lb/cu ft.


Lime is among a family of chemicals which are alkaline in nature and contain principally calcium,
oxygen and, in some cases, magnesium. In this grouping are included quicklime, dolomitic lime,
hydrated lime, dolomitic hydrated lime, limestone, and dolomite. The most commonly used additives
are quicklime and hydrated lime, but the dolomitic counterparts of these chemicals (i.e., the high-
magnesium forms) are also widely used in wastewater treatment and are generally similar in
physical requirements.

Quicklime, CaO, has a density range of approximately 55 to 75 lb/cu ft, and a molecular weight of
56.08. A slurry for feeding, called milk of lime, can be prepared with up to 45 percent solids. Lime is
only slightly soluble, and both lime dust and slurries are caustic in nature. A saturated solution of
lime has a pH of about 12.4.

Hydrated lime, Ca(OH)2, is usually a white powder (200 to 400 mesh); has a bulk density of 20 to 50 lb/cu
ft, contains 82 percent to 98 percent Ca(OH)2, is slightly hydroscopic, tends to flood the feeder, and will
arch in storage bins if packed. The modular weight is 74.08. The dust and slurry of hydrated lime are
caustic in nature. The pH of hydrated lime solution is the same as that given for quicklime.

Soda Ash

Soda ash, Na2CO 3, is available in two forms. Light soda ash has a bulk density range of 35 to 50
lb/cu ft and a working density of 41 lb/cu ft. Dense soda ash has a density range of 60 to 76 lb/cu ft and
a working density of 63 lb/cu ft. The pH of a 1 percent solution of soda ash as 11.2. It is used for pH
control and in lime treatment. The molecular weight of soda ash is 106. Commercial purity ranges
from 98 percent to greater than 99 percent NaECO 3. Soda ash by itself is not particularly corrosive,
but in the presence of lime and water caustic soda is formed which is quite corrosive.

Dense soda ash is generally used in municipal applications because of superior handling
characteristics. It has little dust, good flow characteristics, and will not arch in the bin or flood and
feeder. It is relatively hard to dissolve and ample dissolver capacity must be provided. Normal practice
calls for 0.5 lb of dense soda ash per gallon of water or a 6 percent solution retained for 20 minutes
in the dissolver.

Liquid Caustic Soda

Anhydrous caustic soda (NaOH) is available but its use is generally not considered practical in water and
wastewater treatment applications. Consequently, only liquid caustic soda is discussed here. Liquid
caustic soda is generally shipped at two concentrations, 50 percent and 73 percent NaOH. The
densities of the solutions as shipped are 12.76 lb/gal for the 50 percent solution and 14.18 lb/gal
for the 73 percent solution. These solutions contain 6.38 lb/gal NaOH and 10.34 lb/gal NaOH,
respectively. The crystallization temperature is 53~ for the 50 percent solution and 165 ~ F for the
73 percent solution. The molecular weight of NaOH is 40. The pH of a 1 percent solution of caustic
soda is 12.9.

Filter Aids

Filter aids as well as flocculants are employed to improve the filtration characteristics of hard-to-
filter suspensions. A filter aid is a finely divided solid material, consisting of hard, strong particles
that are, en masse, incompressible. The most common filter aids are applied as an admix to the
suspension. These include diatomaceous earth, expanded perlite, Solkafloc, fly ash, or carbon. Filter
aids build up a porous, permeable, and rigid lattice structure that retains solid particles and allows
the liquid to pass through. These materials are applied in small quantities in clarification or in cases
where compressible solids have the potential to foul the filter medium.

Filter aids may be applied in one of two ways. The first method involves the use of a precoat filter
aid, which can be applied as a thin layer over the filter before the suspension is pumped to the
apparatus. A precoat prevents fine suspension particles from becoming so entangled in the filter
medium that its resistance becomes exces-sive. In addition it facilitates the removal of filter cake at
the end of the filtration cycle. The second application method involves incorporation of a certain
amount of the material with the suspension before introducing it to the filter. The addition of filter
aids increases the porosity of the sludge, decreases its compressibility, and reduces the resistance of
the cake.

Energy Insentive Treatment Method

- Ozone

- UV Light