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sustainability

Article
Effects of Half-Precast Concrete Slab System on
Construction Productivity
Kyuman Cho 1 , Young-su Shin 2 and Taehoon Kim 1, *
1 School of Architecture, Chosun University, Gwangju 61452, Korea; cho129@chosun.ac.kr
2 Manager, Kunwon Engineering, Seoul 05855, Korea; silver1ys@naver.com
* Correspondence: thoonkim@chosun.ac.kr; Tel.: +82-62-230-7145

Received: 6 July 2017; Accepted: 17 July 2017; Published: 19 July 2017

Abstract: A half-precast concrete slab system (HPCSS) is reported to exhibit excellent structural
performance when compared with traditional slab systems. However, there is a lack of extant research
examining the construction issues of an HPCSS. Thus, in this study, we analyze the construction
process and productivity of applying an HPCSS by using a simulation method with the data collected
from an actual construction case. The results indicate that (i) the construction productivity of HPCSS
is 1.7 times that of a traditional slab system, (ii) the cost per productivity unit of HPCSS exceeds
that of a traditional slab system, and (iii) critical resources affecting the HPCSS productivity include
form crew and rebar crew. The results of this study suggest that it is possible to develop an optimal
construction plan of a construction site in which an HPCSS is installed, and that the HPCSS can be
actively applied in the future.

Keywords: half-precast concrete slab system; construction productivity; construction simulation

1. Introduction
The construction industry is a highly labor-intensive industry facing several issues, including low
productivity and construction quality. In order to overcome such problems, several researchers and
practitioners have attempted to develop various methods to facilitate mechanical or manufactured
procurements for a part of a facility, and this has subsequently led to the proliferation of automation
technology in construction. That is, automation construction technologies are used in the construction
of facilities, and the use of construction machines instead of construction laborers has led to high
effectiveness and quality in assembling several parts of a facility.
In this context, precast concrete (PC) slab systems have been proposed by various researchers
because of their advantages in terms of quality, convenience, and construction period. Recently,
a half-PC slab (or composite slab) was developed to replace existing construction methods, and to
improve the performance of a PC slab system. In general, a half-PC slab system (HPCSS) is defined as
a slab system that is pre-stressed and used with slab topping concrete. The structural performance of
an HPCSS is known to be higher than that of normal concrete in terms of crack and deflection control
because of the manufacturing process employed in controlled environments in a factory [1].
Although several researchers have examined the structural performance of HPCSSs, there is
a paucity of research investigating issues concerning construction engineering and management.
That is, it is necessary to identify (i) the manner in which relevant work activities are influenced
by the application of HPCSS, (ii) the type of work activities comprising the HPCSS that has the
maximal impact on determining project success, and (iii) the type of resources required to carry out the
aforementioned activities that should be carefully considered to achieve effective construction work.
In this context, the aim of the present study involves analyzing the differences between the construction
productivity of an HPCSS and that of a traditional slab system. In addition, the study focuses on
detailing issues related to an HPCSS based on the results of construction productivity analysis.

Sustainability 2017, 9, 1268; doi:10.3390/su9071268 www.mdpi.com/journal/sustainability


Sustainability 2017, 9, 1268 2 of 15

Essentially, in the study, the construction productivity of an HPCSS is analyzed to compare an


HPCSS and a traditional slab system (i.e., a cast-in-place slab system or CIPSS). This involves selecting
and analyzing an actual construction that is built by using both slab systems experimentally to gather
the data necessary to compare the construction process and productivity of the HPCSS with the
corresponding parameters of a CIPSS. A discrete event simulation technique based on the collected
data is used to measure the performance of each slab system in terms of construction productivity,
including installation time, resource utilization, and cost effectiveness.

2. State of the Art


Several studies have introduced methods to enhance the structural performance of concrete
members. Recent studies have proposed cement-based bonded overlay techniques (i.e., HPCSS) to
enhance the structural performance of a PC slab system by topping a layer of cast in-situ reinforced
concrete with various materials, including steel fibers and polyvinyl alcohol fibers [24]. The purpose
of these studies involved adding materials to improve the load-carrying capacity and stiffness of the
HPCSS, and their results revealed that the structural performance of the HPCSS was highly dependent
on the bonding between the topped layers and the substrate [3].
Most previous studies related to composite slabs have focused on evaluating their structural
performance. However, to the best of the authors knowledge, very few studies have explored the
effect of applying an HPCSS from a construction engineering and management (CEM) viewpoint.
A careful review of previous studies that focus on the CEM aspects of precast technology, including
HPCSS, indicates that the research objective and scope of the extant studies can be divided into the
three following categories: (i) production management of precast members [58], (ii) benefit analysis
of precast technology in terms of waste management, environment, time, and cost [911], and (iii)
effective installation of precast members [1214]. With respect to the first category, Chen et al. [5]
examined the issue of improving the current production process of the precast elements based on
expert opinions. Ko and Wang [6] and Li et al. [7] proposed a decision support system using genetic
algorithms to aid project managers in arranging precast member production plans. Yin et al. [8]
developed a precast production management system using radio-frequency identification (RFID) to
facilitate the production of precast members by considering production quantity, material quantity,
and inspection and inventory information. With respect to research related to benefit analysis in
conjunction with the application of a precast technique, Ahmed and Avetisyan [9] analyzed the
benefits of applying precast normal weight wall panels in terms of the construction time and costs.
Dong et al. [10] measured carbon emissions from the application of a precast method with high-rise
building construction work. Shen et al. [11] analyzed the benefits of the precast method in terms of
reducing waste. With respect to the effective installation of precast members, Li et al. [12] suggested
a new system to train precast installation workers to be productive while ensuring awareness of the
risks of precast installation works. Nath et al. [13] proposed a method to generate shop drawings of
precast members by using building information modeling (BIM) technique. Pan et al. [14] proposed
a new technique termed the Full-span precast launching method to develop bridge construction
technology based on the results of high-speed rail project case studies.
As mentioned previously, there is a lack of studies examining the precast method from the CEM
viewpoint, while very few extant studies have focused on improving the production efficiency and
delivery issues of precast elements. In addition, although HPCSS was developed to compensate for
the several problems of a precast slab system, to the best of the authors knowledge, very few studies
have explored the construction aspects of HPCSS. Hence, the present study focuses on the manner in
which an HPCSS application affects related construction works and construction productivity when
compared with those of a conventional CIPSS.
Sustainability 2017, 9, 1268 3 of 15

3. Case Study of Half-Precast Slab System Construction Work


As mentioned previously, the construction productivity of an HPCSS is based on the comparison
results between an HPCSS and a CIPSS. Thus, it is necessary that a case study should be conducted
based on an actual project that is constructed using both slab systems (i.e., HPCSS and CIPSS).

3.1. Case Introduction


Table 1 lists the profile of our selected construction project case. As can be inferred from the table,
the building in question was located in Gwangju Metropolitan City, comprising six floors (five floors
and one underground floor). With respect to the structure system, (i) the main structure system design
was based on the reinforced concrete system, (ii) HPCSS was applied to the slab work at the 5th floor,
and (iii) the other floors (i.e., 2nd to 4th floors) were constructed using CIPSS.

Table 1. Details of the case considered in the study.

Items Major Features


Project name K Building construction project
Location Gwangju Metropolitan City, South Korea
Type of building Office building
Type of structure Reinforced Concrete (RC) system
Construction area 2138.56 m2
Gross floor area 6610.98 m2
Number of Floors 6 floors (five floors and one underground floor)
Floor plan HPCSS installed 5th floor
CIPSS installed 2nd to 4th floors
Floor area installed by HPCSS 564.2 m2

Figure 1 shows the floor construction plan with the use of each slab system (i.e., HPCSS and CIPSS).
As shown in the figure, each floor has a similar space plan involving the design of two separated spaces
(i.e., service area and office area), and HPCSS and CIPSS were applied to construct the office area.
Figure 1a shows the plan of the 5th floor that was designed such that it was constructed using 16 HPCSS
units, while the 2nd to 4th floors were constructed using the traditional slab system (i.e., CIPSS),
as shown in Figure 1b. The construction productivity of each slab system was deduced based on the
data including resource and duration information (Table 2) collected during the installation work of
each system on the same area, and thus, the construction productivity of both slab systems could be
considered reliable.
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Sustainability 2017, 9, 1268 4 of 15

1 3
2 4

7
1
8

10 9

12 11

14 13

16 15

(a) (b)
Figure 1. Floor plans for half-precast concrete slab system (HPCSS) and a cast-in-place slab system
Figure 1. Floor plans for half-precast concrete slab system (HPCSS) and a cast-in-place slab system
(CIPSS) for the case project: (a) 5th floor plan; (b) 2nd4th floor plan.
(CIPSS) for the case project: (a) 5th floor plan; (b) 2nd4th floor plan.

3.2. Installation Process of Each Slab System


3.2. Installation Process of Each Slab System
With respect to buildings that adopt a reinforced structure system, the structure system
With respect
typically comprisesto buildings
four basicthatelements
adopt a reinforced structurebeam
including column, system, and thegirder,
structure
wall,system typically
and slab. In
comprises
addition, a case showed that there was no difference in terms of installation work of the column, a
four basic elements including column, beam and girder, wall, and slab. In addition,
case showed
beam, thatand
girder, there was
wall, no difference
irrespective in type
of the termsofofslab
installation
works (i.e., work
HPCSSof theandcolumn,
CIPSS).beam,
That is, girder,
in
andadvance
wall, irrespective of the type of slab works (i.e., HPCSS and CIPSS). That
of slab installation, it is necessary to complete a common process (CP) of the three following is, in advance of slab
installation, it is necessary
work activities: to complete
(i) preparation, a common
(ii) column process
and beam (CP) of and
installation, the three following
(iii) wall work activities:
installation.
(i) preparation,
As shown (ii)incolumn
Figure and
2, (i)beam installation,
preparation andfour
includes (iii)tasks
wall including
installation.marking (CP 1), horizontal
stand installation
As shown (CP 2,
in Figure 2),(i)
rebar delivery includes
preparation (CP 3), andfourform
tasksand supportmarking
including delivery(CP(CP1),4).horizontal
This is
followed by the three following work tasks to complete column and beam
stand installation (CP 2), rebar delivery (CP 3), and form and support delivery (CP 4). This is followed installation activity:
by column
the three rebar installation
following work(CP 5), column
tasks to completeform column
installation
and(CP 6), and
beam beam form
installation installation
activity: column (CPrebar
7).
With respect
installation (CPto 5),the final common
column activity, wall
form installation (CPinstallation
6), and beam workformrequires three common
installation work respect
(CP 7). With tasks
including
to the wall form
final common installation
activity, wall (one side) (CP
installation 8), wall
work requiresrebarthree
installation
common (CP 9), and
work taskswall form
including
completion (CP 10). With respect to common work tasks (CPs 1 to 10),
wall form installation (one side) (CP 8), wall rebar installation (CP 9), and wall form completionform labor, steel labor, and a
tower crane are continuously input to implement the work tasks.
(CP 10). With respect to common work tasks (CPs 1 to 10), form labor, steel labor, and a tower crane
are continuously input to implement the work tasks.
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Sustainability 2017, 9, 1268 5 of 15

Preparation Column and Beam installation Wall installation

CP 1 CP 2 CP 3 CP 4 CP 5 CP 6 CP 7 CP 8 CP 9 CP 10

Work
Start

Marking Horizontal stand Rebar Form & Support Column rebar Column form install Beam form Wall form Wall rebar installation Wall form completion
installation delivery delivery installation installation Installation(half)

Form installation Rebar installation Concrete work Form removal

CIP 1 CIP 2 CIP 3 CIP 4 CIP 5 CIP 6 CIP 7 CIP 8 CIP 9

Work
End

Form & Support Slab form installation Rebar Beam rebar Rebar Slab rebar installation Concrete placing and Form removal (Beam) Form removal(Slab)
delivery delivery installation delivery Curing
Slab
work Concrete work Form removal
process
PC Slab placing and rebar installation

<Legend>
HPC 1 HPC 2 HPC 3 HPC 4 HPC 5 HPC 6
CP : Common Process

Work CIP : Cast In Place Slab

End HPC : Half-PC Slab


: Work
PC Slab lifting and Beam rebar Slab rebar(=transverse Concrete placing and Form removal (Beam)
Rebar
install installation rebar) installation Curing (Toping) : Delivery
delivery

Figure 2. Work process of HPCSS and CIPSS.


Figure 2. Work process of HPCSS and CIPSS.

After completing the common process, different slab work processes are initiated based on the
typeAfter
of slabcompleting
system (i.e., the common
HPCSS andprocess,
CIPSS), as different
shown slab work2.processes
in Figure are initiated
If a conventional based on
slab system the
(i.e.,
type of slab system (i.e., HPCSS and CIPSS), as shown in Figure 2.
CIPSS) is applied, then the four following work activities are required: (i) form installation, (ii) rebarIf a conventional slab system
(i.e., CIPSS) is
installation, applied,
(iii) concretethen work, theand
four(iv)following work activities
form removal. As shown areinrequired:
the figure, (i) form
forminstallation
installation,
(ii) rebar installation, (iii) concrete work, and (iv) form removal.
consists of two work tasks including form and support delivery (CIP 1) and slab form installation As shown in the figure, form
installation consists of two work tasks including form and support
(CIP 2). Rebar installation requires two works and two deliveries, namely, beam rebar delivery (CIP delivery (CIP 1) and slab form
installation
3), beam rebar (CIPinstallation
2). Rebar installation
(CIP 4), slabrequires two works
rebar delivery (CIPand two slab
5), and deliveries, namely, beam
rebar installation (CIPrebar
5).
delivery (CIP 3), beam rebar installation (CIP 4), slab rebar delivery
Following the rebar installation work, concrete placing and curing (CIP 7) is conducted, and this is (CIP 5), and slab rebar installation
(CIP 5). Following
followed by form removalthe rebar worksinstallation work,and
for the beam concrete placing
slab (CIPs 8 andand9).curing (CIP 7) to
With respect is the
conducted,
CIPSS
and
work this is followed
process, by form
existing removal
resources such works for the
as form andbeamrebarand slaband
labor (CIPs 8 and 9).
a tower craneWith arerespect to the
constantly
CIPSS work process, existing resources such as form and rebar labor
input, and the concrete labor and pump car are freshly input to perform the concrete placement task. and a tower crane are constantly
input,The andthree
the concrete
following labor
work and pump car
activities areare freshlytoinput
required applytoan perform
HPCSS:the (i)concrete
slab placing placement
and rebartask.
The three
installation (HPCsfollowing
1 to 4),work activities
(ii) concrete workare(HPC
required 5), andto apply an removal
(iii) form HPCSS: (HPC (i) slab6).placing and rebar
The differences
installation
between HPCSS (HPCs 1 toCIPSS
and 4), (ii)are
concrete work
identified (HPC
from the5), and (iii)
process formplacing
of slab removal and(HPCform6).removal
The differences
works.
between
That is, the HPCSS and CIPSS
application are identified
of HPCSS allows for from
the the process of and
simplification slab removal
placing and of two formwork removal works.
tasks when
That is, thewith
compared application
that of theof HPCSS allows for
CIPSS process. thethe
First, simplification
form installation and removal
and slabof twoinstallation
rebar work taskstasks when
are eliminated
compared with thatand ofsimplified,
the CIPSSand following
process. First,concrete
the formcuring, thereand
installation is no
slabneed
rebar forinstallation
the slab formtasks
removal
are task in
eliminated andthesimplified,
HPCSS process. and following concrete curing, there is no need for the slab form removal
task in the HPCSS process.
4. Simulation Modeling and Implementation
4. Simulation Modeling and Implementation
The measurement of the construction productivity of HPCSS and CIPSS was conducted by
using The
themeasurement
cyclic operation of the construction
network (CYCLONE)productivity
method of developed
HPCSS andbyCIPSS Halpin was conducted
and Riggs [15]. by This
using
the cyclic is
method operation
widely network
used in (CYCLONE)
related research method developed
fields. by Halpin
Furthermore, and Riggsis[15].
CYCLONE This method is
a discrete-event
widely
simulationusedmethod
in relatedthat research
focusesfields. Furthermore,
on construction work CYCLONE
tasks, andisthus, a discrete-event
this method simulation method
is widely applied
to model
that focuses repetitive construction
on construction workwork.tasks,Inandaddition,
thus, this CYCLONE
method is is widely
utilizedapplied
as a management tool to
to model repetitive
analyze construction
construction work. In productivity
addition, CYCLONE based onisthe logicalasconnections
utilized a management between
tool to work
analyzetasks, duration,
construction
and resources,
productivity and on
based thus,theCYCLONE can be used
logical connections to determine
between the influence
work tasks, duration,ofand specific work tasks
resources, on
and thus,
the overall can
CYCLONE construction
be used toproductivity
determine the ininfluence
conjunction with variations
of specific work tasksinondurationthe overall andconstruction
resources
assigned to each
productivity work taskwith
in conjunction [16,17]. More in
variations information
duration and on resources
CYCLONE including
assigned modeling
to each work task elements
[16,17].
can beinformation
More found in theon study
CYCLONEby Halpin and Riggs
including [15]. elements can be found in the study by Halpin
modeling
and Riggs [15].
Sustainability 2017, 9, 1268 6 of 15
Sustainability 2017, 9, 1268 6 of 15

4.1. Simulation Modeling


4.1.Using
Simulation
CYCLONEModeling and information with respect to the case study including the work processes
(i.e., Figure
Using2) and theirand
CYCLONE precedence
informationrelationships,
with respectwe to developed
the case study CYCLONE
including models
the workofprocesses
CIPSS and
HPCSS, as shown
(i.e., Figure 2) and in Figures 3 and 4, respectively.
their precedence relationships,Aswe shown in theCYCLONE
developed figures, themodels
two simulation
of CIPSS models
and
HPCSS,
consist as shown
of the in Figures
two following 3 and
parts: (i)4,CP respectively.
(i.e., elements As denoted
shown inby thethefigures,
green the
areatwo simulation
in Figure 3) and
models
CIPSS consist
(i.e., elementsof thedenoted
two following
by theparts: (i) CP
red area in(i.e., elements
Figure 3) parts denoted
in theby the green
model area
for the in Figure 3)
traditional slab
and CIPSS (i.e., elements denoted by the red area in Figure 3) parts in the
system installation process and (ii) CP (i.e., elements denoted by the green area in Figure 4) and HPCSS model for the traditional
slab
(i.e., system installation
elements denoted by process
the blueandarea
(ii) CP (i.e., elements
in Figure 4) partsdenoted by the green
in the model for thearea in Figure
targeted slab4)system
and
HPCSS (i.e.,
installation elements
process. denoted
In both by the
figures, (1)blue
commonarea in Figure
work 4) parts(depicted
activities in the modelas CP1forto
theCP10
targeted slab 2)
in Figure
system installation process. In both figures, (1) common work activities
are represented by Nodes 1 to 17 in Figures 3 and 4, and (2) indigenous work activities (explained (depicted as CP1 to CP10 in
Figure 2) are represented by Nodes 1 to 17 in Figures 3 and 4, and (2)
based on CIP 1 to 9 and HPC 1 to 6 in Figure 2) are represented by (i) Nodes 18 to 30 in Figure 3 for indigenous work activities
(explained based on CIP 1 to 9 and HPC 1 to 6 in Figure 2) are represented by (i) Nodes 18 to 30 in
CIPSS and (ii) Nodes 18 to 27 in Figure 4 for HPCSS. Moreover, it is assumed that construction for
Figure 3 for CIPSS and (ii) Nodes 18 to 27 in Figure 4 for HPCSS. Moreover, it is assumed that
a floor is completed after the completion of concrete curing and form removal tasks, which follow
construction for a floor is completed after the completion of concrete curing and form removal tasks,
tasks of concrete placing work. However, both simulation models did not include two tasks after
which follow tasks of concrete placing work. However, both simulation models did not include two
concrete placement, namely, concrete curing and form removal works, because it is not necessary to
tasks after concrete placement, namely, concrete curing and form removal works, because it is not
input specific
necessary resources
to input for resources
specific the concrete curing
for the work,
concrete and work,
curing this otherwise creates noise
and this otherwise in noise
creates analyzing
in
other
analyzing other labor crew productivities and idleness. In addition, form removal work cannot befor
labor crew productivities and idleness. In addition, form removal work cannot be initiated
a long timefor
initiated (i.e., typically
a long time4(i.e.,
to 13typically
working4 days), until concrete
to 13 working days),curing is finished,
until concrete andisthis
curing subsequently
finished, and
influences crew productivity measurement.
this subsequently influences crew productivity measurement.

CP(common process)
Form Removal R1
(Slab) Rebar
Horizontal Horizontal
Marking Stand Delivery Delivery
Marking Stand
Start Ready Installation Ready Ready
2 Ready Installation (C*/W*)
Form Removal 1 3 5
4 6
(Column, Beam) x16
Next Floor
R2
Curing Form
Dummy
Crew
7
33
31 Rebar C1
Wall Form
Installation
Installation Ready C3
(2/2) (W)
17 14 F1 F3 C4
Form Form
Installation Delivery Crane
Concrete Concrete Ready
Crew Placement (C/B/W) (C/B*/W) 34 C5
C1 11
8
36 30 Form Wall Form Column/Beam
Installation Wall Rebar
Installation Form
R4
Ready Installation Installation C2
(1/2)
(W) 15 12
16 13
R5
Concrete R6 P2 P3 Column Rebar
Rebar Installation
Placement Ready
Installation
Ready P1 F1 F2 F3 10 9
29

Slab Slab Slab R3


Installation Form/Support Dummy Form/Support
Ready Installation 20 Fix
18 19 21
C2
CON # C3
28 C5 C4

Slab Beam
Slab Rebar Slab Rebar Rebar Beam Rebar Beam Rebar Rebar
Installation Delivery Installation Installation Delivery Installation
27 26 Ready 24 23 Ready
25 22

P4
Available
Rebar of Slab
CIPSS Crew Upper Site
37
35 P1
(Traditional slab system) R2 R1
P3
<NOTICE> R4 R3
* C: Column, B: Beam, W: Wall P4
R6 R5

Figure 3. Cyclic operation network (CYCLONE) model for CIPSS installation work.
Figure 3. Cyclic operation network (CYCLONE) model for CIPSS installation work.
Sustainability 2017, 9, 1268 7 of 15
Sustainability 2017, 9, 1268 7 of 15

CP(common process)
R1

Horizontal Horizontal Rebar


Marking Stand Delivery Delivery
Marking Stand
Start Ready Installation Ready Ready
2 Ready Installation (C*/W*)
Form Removal 1 3 5
4 6
(Column, Beam) x16
Next Floor
R2
Curing Form
Dummy
Crew
7
30
28 Rebar C1
Wall Form
Installation
Installation Ready C3
(2/2) (W)
17 14 F1 F2 C4
Form Form
Installation Delivery Crane
Concrete Concrete Ready
Crew Placement (C/B/W) (C/B*/W) 31
C1 11
8
33 27 Form Wall Form Column/Beam
Installation Wall Rebar
Installation Form
R4
Ready Installation C2
(1/2) Installation
(W) 15 12
16 13

Column Rebar
Concrete
Rebar Installation
Placement
Installation Ready
Ready C2 C3 F2 10 9
26
Half-PC Rebar
Slab Half-PC R3
Slab Installation
Installation
Ready Slab Lifting Installation
Ready
19 (B/S*)
18 20 21

CON # F1
25 C4

Beam/Slab
Slab Rebar Beam Rebar
Rebar
Installation Installation
Delivery
24 23
22

HPCSS Rebar
Crew
(Half-PC slab process) 32
R2
<NOTICE> R1
* C: Column, B: Beam, W: Wall, S: Slab R4
R3

Figure 4. CYCLONE model for HPCSS installation work.


Figure 4. CYCLONE model for HPCSS installation work.
4.2. Simulation Model Implementation and Validation
4.2. Simulation Model Implementation and Validation
Here, we remark that it is necessary to define information related to duration and resources
Here, we remarkmodeling
with CYCLONE that it is necessary
elements COMBI,to defineNORMAL,
information andrelated
QUEUE to duration
nodes to and resources
implement the with
CYCLONECYCLONE simulation.
modeling The coding
elements COMBI, directions
NORMAL, of CYCLONE
and QUEUE indicated
nodes that
to (i) the duration
implement thedata for
CYCLONE
each work task that is connected to another, in conjunction with the
simulation. The coding directions of CYCLONE indicated that (i) the duration data for each work precedence relationship, is task
located at the COMBI or NORMAL nodes and (ii) the resource type and quantity
that is connected to another, in conjunction with the precedence relationship, is located at the COMBI of each work task
are located at the QUEUE node. Information related to duration and resources is stochastically
or NORMAL nodes and (ii) the resource type and quantity of each work task are located at the QUEUE
collected based on construction records or specifications of each task while the duration data of
node. Information related to duration and resources is stochastically collected based on construction
newly adopted work tasks are often gathered based on expert opinions (i.e., a deterministic method).
records or specifications
Extant research indicatesof each task
that it while the
is possible duration
to acquire data data
reliable of newly
on work adopted
duration work
if it tasks are often
is possible
gathered based on expert opinions (i.e., a deterministic method). Extant research
to derive various probabilistic distributions including normal, beta, and triangular distributions indicates that it
is possible
from rawto acquire reliable data
data. Furthermore, it isonwidely
work known
duration thatifaitbeta
is possible to derive
distribution various for
is appropriate probabilistic
work
distributions including data
duration simulation normal, beta, andittriangular
[18]. However, is not possibledistributions
to follow thefrom
betaraw data. Furthermore,
distribution in this study it is
widely due to practical
known that a limitations in termsisof
beta distribution the low number
appropriate for workof HPCSS
durationcases. Conversely,
simulation dataa [18].
triangular
However,
distribution is not significantly affected by the number of samples in the
it is not possible to follow the beta distribution in this study due to practical limitations in data, and thus, it can ensure
terms of
the lowthatnumber
the collected data is reliable
of HPCSS cases. and accurate [17,19,20].
Conversely, a triangular distribution is not significantly affected
Therefore, duration data of work tasks on CP and CIPSS are set by using a triangular
by the number of samples in the data, and thus, it can ensure that the collected data is reliable and
distribution based on information to construct the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th floors of the building of interest
accurate [17,19,20].
(case building). Similarly, duration data of the work tasks on HPCSS are defined using
Therefore,
informationduration data16ofhalf-PC
on installing work tasksslabs on
on CP
the and CIPSS
5th floor. Inare set byresource
addition, using a data
triangular
for each distribution
work
basedtaskon corresponding
information to to construct
CP, CIPSS,the and2nd,HPCSS3rd,areand 4th floors
derived of the building
from construction records of ofinterest
the case(case
building).
building.Similarly, duration data of the work tasks on HPCSS are defined using information on
installing 16 half-PC slabs on the 5th floor. In addition, resource data for each work task corresponding
to CP, CIPSS, and HPCSS are derived from construction records of the case building.
Table 2 lists the resource and duration input data for each work task shown in Figures 3 and 4.
For example, from the table, we note that marking (Node 2) and horizontal stand installation (Node 4)
most probably required 8 h based on the construction record of the case project. In addition, the
duration of concrete placement (Node 27 in HPCSS and Node 30 in CIPSS) is set at 8 h by comparatively
using a deterministic method.
Sustainability 2017, 9, 1268 8 of 15

Table 2. Resource and duration data for each work task.

Resource Duration (hours)


Remark Node Work Tasks
Crew Equipment Minimum Most Likely Maximum
2 Marking Form - 7 8 9
4 Horizontal stand install Form - 7 8 9
6 Rebar delivery (C/W) Rebar Crane 0.75 1 1.25
8 Form delivery (C/W/B) Form Crane 2.5 3 3.5
CP 10 Column rebar installation Rebar - 15 16 17
12 Column/beam form installation Form Crane 26 28 30
13 Wall form installation (1/2) Form - 3 4 5
15 Wall rebar installation Rebar - 7 8 9
17 Wall form installation (2/2) Form - 3 4 5
19 Slab form/support delivery Form Crane 3 4 5
21 Slab form installation Form - 52 56 60
23 Beam rebar delivery Rebar Crane 2.5 3 3.5
CIPSS 24 Beam rebar installation Rebar - 22 24 26
26 Slab rebar delivery Rebar Crane 2.5 3 3.5
27 Slab rebar installation Rebar - 22 24 26
30 Concrete placement Concrete Pump Car - 8 -
19 Half-PC slab lifting Form Crane 15 16 17
20 Half-PC slab installation Form - 7 8 9
22 Beam/Slab rebar delivery Rebar Crane 2.5 3 3.5
HPCSS
23 Beam rebar installation Rebar - 22 24 26
24 Slab rebar installation Rebar - 7 8 9
27 Concrete placement Concrete Pump Car - 8 -

The simulation was implemented with the simulation models, and input data represented by
Figures 3 and 4 and Table 2 to analyze the construction productivity for types of work tasks and
resources. The simulation results show that (i) first, the required cycle time for constructing each floor
is calculated as 174.6 h and 103.3 h for CIPSS and HPCSS, respectively, (ii) construction productivity
corresponds to 0.0057 (cycle/h) and 0.0097 (cycle/h) for CIPSS and HPCSS, respectively, and (iii)
finally, these results can be interpreted as the delivery of higher productivity by HPCSS. A detailed
explanation of these results is described in the Findings and discussion section.
In order to conduct a simulation study of the effects of HPCSS on construction productivity,
it is necessary to verify if the developed simulation model can adequately reflect actual construction
data [20]. In the study, this verification was conducted based on comparing two types of data, namely,
collected data from the actual case and simulated data from each model. That is, the study explores
the following: (i) the extent to which the actual and simulated durations are identical for each work task
and (ii) the manner in which events during the simulation chronologically occurred when compared
with the actual construction process.
Table 3 lists the percentage difference between the simulated and actual durations for each work
task. For example, with respect to Node 2 (i.e., marking in Table 2), the simulated and actual
durations correspond to 7.9 h and 8.0 h, respectively, and subsequently, the percentage difference
of sum is estimated as 1.935% (i.e., |0.1019 0.1000|/0.1000 100). A similar method is used to
determine that after calculating the percentage difference of the sub-totals for all tasks (i.e., Nodes 2
to 30 for CIPSS and Nodes 2 to 27 for HPCSS), the lowest value corresponds to 0.443% for Node 27
for CIPSS, while the highest value corresponds to 23.871% for Node 6 for CP. Furthermore, (i) Nodes
in the CP process (i.e., Nodes 2 to 17) exhibit an average difference of 85.723%, (ii) Nodes in CIPSS
display an average difference of 3.096%, and (iii) Nodes in HPCSS exhibit an average difference of
12.710%. The results indicate that the developed models could be interpreted as being reliable in terms
of the accuracy of construction duration.
Sustainability 2017, 9, 1268 9 of 15

Table 3. Simulated and actual durations for each work task.

Durations From Simulation Duration from Case Study


Remark Node Percentage Difference (%)
Rate of (a) Rate of (b) (=|aa bb|/ bb 100)
Measured (a) Measured (b)
on Sum (aa) on Sum (bb)
2 7.9 0.1019 8.0 0.1000 1.935
4 7.8 0.1006 8.0 0.1000 0.645
6 1.2 0.0155 1.0 0.0125 23.871
CP 8 2.8 0.0361 3.0 0.0375 3.656
10 14.9 0.1923 16.0 0.2000 3.871
12 27.9 0.3600 28.0 0.3500 2.857
1317 15 0.1935 16.0 0.2000 3.226
sum 77.5 1.0000 80.0 1.0000
Average 5.723
19 3.9 0.0324 4.0 0.0328 1.286
21 55.4 0.4598 56.0 0.4590 0.160
23 2.5 0.0207 3.0 0.0246 15.629
CIPSS 24 24.1 0.2000 24.0 0.1967 1.667
26 3 0.0249 3.0 0.0246 1.245
27 23.6 0.1959 24.0 0.1967 0.443
30 8 0.0664 8.0 0.0656 1.245
Sum 120.5 1.0000 122.0 1.0000
Average 3.096
1920 18.6 0.3131 24.0 0.3582 12.584
22 3 0.0505 3.0 0.0448 12.795
23 23.7 0.3990 24.0 0.3582 11.385
HPCSS
24 6.1 0.1027 8.0 0.1194 13.994
27 8 0.1347 8.0 0.1194 12.795
Sum 59.4 1.0000 67.0 1.0000
Average 12.710

Figure 5 compares the simulation results and actual case records, which enables us to examine as to
whether the operation of the developed simulation model is identical to the actual work process. That
is, the figure lists the HPCSS events that (i) are chronologically completed during the implementation
of simulation (i.e., the top panel of the figure) and (ii) chronologically reported from actual construction
records (i.e., bottom panel of the figure). In addition, based on COMBI (Nodes 19, 22, and 27) and
NORMAL (Nodes 20, 23, and 24) elements with defined durations, the figure captures the simulated
events from the initial task of half-PC installation (i.e., Node 19 in Figure 4) assuming that the initiation
time of node 19 is converted to zero. The principal results of comparison are as follows:
As shown in the figure, the installation of the first HPC slab unit is performed in conjunction with
the following five tasks: HPC slab lifting (chronological list 1), HPC slab installation (chronological
list 2), rebar delivery (chronological list 3), beam rebar installation (chronological list 5), and slab rebar
installation (chronological list 7). Under this condition, the simulation time for the aforementioned
tasks corresponds to 3.6 h while actual construction time for the first HPC slab unit from the record
corresponds to 4.0 h, as denoted by A in the figure. Similarly, the installation work for the second
HPC slab unit is completed in 6.6 h as per the simulation result and 6.0 h as per the actual record
(Refer to B in Figure 5). This result suggests that the time to complete the first slab as measured
by the simulation is less than the time indicated by the actual record (i.e., 0.6 h), while the time to
complete the second slab unit in the actual record is less than that in the simulation by a maximum
Sustainability 2017, 9, 1268 10 of 15

of 0.6 h. In addition, the time to complete the installation of the last slab (i.e., 16th slab) is 41.2 h
as per the simulation and 48 h per by the actual record. According to Hong et al. [19], a simulation
model developed using the actual data can yield (i) productivity rates that are closer to that in an
ideal situation and (ii) lower uncertainty. Subsequently, the results of the simulation are superior in
consistency when compared with those obtained from the actual data. From this viewpoint, the actual
record reveals a buffer between the two works, as indicated by C in Figure 5, although this buffer
does Sustainability
not exist in the
2017, simulation result. Consequently, this indicates that the simulated completion
9, 1268 10 of 15 time
of the final unit is less than that in the actual record.
Moreover,
Moreover, the simulation
the simulation result
result indicates
indicates that
that thethe worktasks
work tasksfor
forthe
thefirst
firstand
andsecond
second units
units ofof slabs
slabs are simultaneously ongoing, and this is also observed in the operations
are simultaneously ongoing, and this is also observed in the operations from the actual constructionfrom the actual
construction record (Refer to D in Figure 5). Thus, the aforementioned results indicate that the
record (Refer to D in Figure 5). Thus, the aforementioned results indicate that the developed
developed simulation models are sufficiently accurate to be of value in further analysis.
simulation models are sufficiently accurate to be of value in further analysis.

Chronological list

14 Node 24

13 Node
20
: Tasks for HPCS unit # 4
12 : Tasks for HPCS unit # 3 Node 23

: Tasks for HPCS unit # 2 HPCSS Unit #3 Node 19


10, 11 Initiated Node
Simulation results

: Tasks for HPCS unit # 1 20


Node HPCSS Unit #4
8, 9 22 Initiated
Node 19

7 HPCSS Unit #2 Node


Initiated 24

6 Node
20

5 Node 23

4 HPCSS Unit #1 Node 19


Initiated
Node
22 C
1,2,3 Node
20 D B
Node 19 A

Simulation time
1.0h 1.6h 2.7h 3.1h 3.6h 4.0h 5.0h 6.0h 6.6h 7.0h
1.5h

Form Node Node Node


Actual record

Crew 20 20 20
Record Node 19 Node 19 Node 19 Node 19
Rebar Rebar Setting Nodes 23 and 24 Nodes 23 and 24
Crew Node 22
Record Node 22

Actual time
1.5h 2.0h 4.0h 6.0h

Figure 5. Chronological list of simulation results and actual records.


Figure 5. Chronological list of simulation results and actual records.
5. Findings and Discussion
5. Findings and Discussion
The work productivities of each set of crew and equipment are explored based on the
The work productivities
simulation of each
statistics, to identify theset of crew and
advantages and equipment
disadvantages areofexplored based
HPCSS over on the
those simulation
of CIPSS.
statistics, to identify
The results thethat
indicate advantages andresources
the most idle disadvantages
in the two of HPCSS over correspond
slab methods those of CIPSS. The results
to concrete
crew
indicate (95.42%
that idle for
the most idleCIPSS and 92.26%
resources in theidle
twoforslab
HPCSS in Table
methods 4) followedtobyconcrete
correspond crane (70.97%
crew for
(95.42%
CIPSS and 41.71% for HPCSS), rebar crew (50.79% for CIPSS and 34.98%
idle for CIPSS and 92.26% idle for HPCSS in Table 4) followed by crane (70.97% for CIPSS and for HPCSS), and form
crew
41.71% for (0.03%
HPCSS),forrebar
CIPSS crew
and 0.22% for HPCSS
(50.79% in Table
for CIPSS and 4). In summary,
34.98% the types
for HPCSS), and of resources
form crewfor(0.03%
installing HPCSS exhibit relatively less idle states, and this suggests that each crew and equipment
for CIPSS and 0.22% for HPCSS in Table 4). In summary, the types of resources for installing HPCSS
for HPCSS work in a smoother manner with less interruption when compared with the case of
exhibit relatively less idle states, and this suggests that each crew and equipment for HPCSS work
CIPSS. Furthermore, the relatively low idle state also indicates that it is necessary to consider
in a smoother manner
additional work crewwith less interruption
or equipment when
in terms of comparedinwith
improvements workthe case of CIPSS. Furthermore,
productivity.
the relatively
In addition to the basic analysis shown above, we conduct a sensitivityadditional
low idle state also indicates that it is necessary to consider analysis towork crew or
examine
equipment
changesininterms of improvements
productivity in workinproductivity.
due to the changes input resources. The sensitivity analysis determines
the optimal combination of resource inputs and identifies resources that have a significant influence
on the work productivity of HPCSS and CIPSS. Conversely, a cost data survey of the input resources
is used to analyze work productivity with respect to the input cost.
Sustainability 2017, 9, 1268 11 of 15

In addition to the basic analysis shown above, we conduct a sensitivity analysis to examine
changes in productivity due to the changes in input resources. The sensitivity analysis determines the
optimal combination of resource inputs and identifies resources that have a significant influence on
the work productivity of HPCSS and CIPSS. Conversely, a cost data survey of the input resources is
used to analyze work productivity with respect to the input cost.

1268
ity
ustainability
2017, Sustainability
9, 1268
2017, Sustainability
9, 1268
2017, 9, 1268
2017,
Sustainability
9, 1268 2017,Sustainability
9, 1268 2017,
Sustainability
Table 4. Simulation results in terms of percent of idleness of a resource.
9, 1268 Sustainability
2017, 9, 12682017,
Sustainability
9,
111268
of 15 2017,
11Sustainability
9,
of 1268
15 11 of 2017,
15 119,of1268
15 11 of 15 11 of 15 11 of 15 11 of 15 11 of

Division Node Resource Average Units Idle Times not Empty Average Wait Time % Idle
Table 4. Simulation
Table 4. Table
Simulation
results
4. Table
Simulation
in terms
results
4. Table
Simulation
ofinresults
percent
terms
4. Simulation
in
of
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idleness
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of
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idleness
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inof4.terms
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of idleness
ofinTable
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4.of
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results
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resource.
of percent
of a resource.
of idleness of
33 Form Crew 0 0 0 0.03
Division
Resource
NodeDivision
Node
Resource
Division
Average
Node
Resource
Units
Average
Node
Division
Resource
IdleAverage
Units 34Average
Resource
Node
Times
Idle
Units
Division Crane
notResource
Idle
Times
Empty
Average
Units
Node
not
Idle
Division
Times
Units
Empty
Average
Average
not
Resource
Idle
Times
Division
Empty
Node
Wait 0.8
Average
Units
not
Times
Time
Empty
Idle
Resource
Node
Average
Wait
Division
not%Time
Empty
Idle
Times
Average
Wait
Units
Resource
Node
Average
Time
not
Idle 124
%Division
Average
Wait
Idle
Empty
Resource
Units
Time
%
Average
Times
Wait
Idle
Node
Idle
Average
Time
not
% Units
Idle
Empty
Average
Resource
Times
Wait
Idle
% Idle 1.3
Time
not
Units
Average
Times
Empty
Idle
Average
%not
Wait
IdleEmpty70.97
Average
Time
Times
Units Idle
not
Wait
%Average
Empty
Idle
Time
Times
WaitAverage
%
not
Time
Idle
Empty
Wait
% IdT
CIPSS
Form
33 CrewForm
33 CrewForm
33 Crew
0 Form
33 Crew 35
0Form 33
Crew
0 Rebar
0Form0 CrewCrew
33
00 Form 0330 0 0.5
0 Crew Form
0330Crew
0.03
Form
0 Crew0 88.7
3300.03 Form
0 0.03
0Crew
33 000.03Form
0 0.03 01.1
Crew 0.03
00 0 50.79 00 0.03 0 0.03
0 0 0.03
Crane
34 34Crane 34Crane
0.8 34Crane 360.8 124 Conc.
0.8 Crane
34 Crane
0.8 Crew
124
340.8 124
Crane
1.30.8124 1 1.3
34 Crane
34
124 70.97
0.8
1.3Crane
34 1.3 166.6
124
70.97 0.8Crane
70.97
1.3 34124
0.8
70.971.3Crane
70.9783.3
124
0.8 124 0.8 95.42
70.97
1.3 1.3
12470.97 1.3 12470.97 1.3 70.97
CIPSS CIPSS CIPSS CIPSS CIPSS CIPSS CIPSS CIPSS CIPSS
Rebar
35 CrewRebar
35 CrewRebar
35 0.5
Crew
Rebar
35 Crew
0.5
Rebar35
Crew
0.5 88.7
Rebar
0.5 Crew
88.7
350.5 Rebar
88.7 1.1
Crew
35
0.588.7 Rebar
30 Form Crew 0 1.1
35
88.7
Crew
50.79
Rebar
0.5
1.1 35Crew
88.7
50.79
1.1 Rebar
0.550.79
0.2 1.1Crew
3588.7
0.5
50.79Rebar
1.1 50.79
Crew
88.7
0.5
0 50.79
1.1
88.7 0.5 88.7
1.150.79 1.1 88.7
0.22 50.79 1.1 50.79
Conc.
36 CrewConc.
36 CrewConc.
36 Crew
1 Conc.
36 Crew
1Conc. 36
Crew
1 166.6
Conc.1 Crew
166.6
36 1 Conc.
166.683.3
Crew
361166.6Conc.
83.3
36
166.6
Crew
95.42
83.3
Conc.
1 166.6
Crew
3695.42
83.3 Conc.
1 95.42
83.3
Crew
36
166.6
195.42Conc.
83.3 95.42
Crew
166.6
1 95.42
83.3
166.6 1 166.6
83.395.42 83.3 166.6
95.42 83.395.42
31 Crane 0.5 43.1 0.5 41.71
Form
30 CrewForm
30 CrewForm 0 HPCSS
30 Crew Form
30 Crew
0Form 30
Crew
0 0.2Form0 Crew0.2
30 0 Form
0.2 Crew
0300 0.2 Form0300.2
Crew
0.22
Form
0 Crew
30
0.2
0.22
0 Form0 0.22
0Crew
300.2
00.22Form
0 0.22
Crew
0.2
0 0.22
00.2 0 0.2
0 0.22 0 0.2
0.22 0 0.22
32 Rebar Crew 0.4 36.1 0.6 34.98
Crane
31 31Crane 31Crane
0.5 31Crane
0.5 Crane
310.5 43.1 Crane
0.5 43.1
310.5 43.1
Crane
0.5
31
0.543.1 0.5Crane
31
43.1 41.71
0.5Crane
31
43.1
41.71
0.5 0.5Crane
41.71
0.5 3143.1
0.5
41.710.5Crane
41.71
43.1
0.5 41.71
0.5
43.1 0.5 43.1
0.541.71 0.5 43.1
41.71 0.5 41.71
HPCSS HPCSS HPCSS HPCSS 33 HPCSS Conc. CrewHPCSS HPCSS 0.9 HPCSS 95.3
HPCSS 47.6 92.26
Rebar
32 CrewRebar
32 CrewRebar
32 0.4
Crew
Rebar
32 Crew
0.4
Rebar32
Crew
0.4 36.1
Rebar
0.4 Crew
36.1
320.4 Rebar
36.1 0.6
Crew
32
0.436.1 Rebar
0.6
32
36.1
Crew
34.98
Rebar
0.4
0.6 32Crew
36.1
34.98
0.6 Rebar
0.434.98
0.6Crew
3236.1
0.4
34.98Rebar
0.6 34.98
Crew
36.1
0.4 34.98
0.6
36.1 0.4 36.1
0.634.98 0.6 36.1
34.98 0.6 34.98
Conc.
33 CrewConc.
33 CrewConc.
33 0.9
Crew
Conc.
33 Crew
0.9
Conc. 33
Crew
0.9 95.3
Conc.
0.9 Crew
95.3
330.9 Conc.
95.3 47.6
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47.6
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0.9 92.26
47.6
95.3 0.9 47.6
95.3
92.26 47.6 95.3
92.26 47.692.26

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175.44
3.4046
3.0213
21 1 104.17
0.0057
0.0096
175.44
3.4046
123.0213
1 175.44 23.4046
1 104.17
3.0213
20.00960.0057
113.4046
3.0213
175.44
0.0096
12 104.17
3.0213
0.0057
3.4046
1 0.0096175.44
0.0057
3.0213
104.17
2 3.4046175.44
104.17
0.0096
0.00573.0213 3.4046
175.44104.17
0.0057
3.4046
3.0213
175.44 104.17
3.0213
3.4
2 22 2 2 222 2 2 2222 2 20.0184
2223 22 22 0.0184 2 2 0.0083
2 0.0184222 20.0083 0.0184
254.35
32 0.0083 22
0.0184
2120.48
12 54.35 0.0083
2222 6.1043
54.35
0.0184
120.48
0.0198 20.0083
2 54.35120.48
6.1043
8.2234
222 2 0.0083
54.35
0.0184
120.48
6.1043
0.0087228.2234
2 120.48 226.1043
2 8.2234
54.35
20.01840.0083
50.51 226.1043
8.2234
120.48
0.0184
22 8.2234
114.94 54.35
0.0083
6.1043
2 7.9178
0.0184
120.48
0.0083
8.2234
254.356.1043 120.48
0.0184
54.35 8.2234
0.0083
6.9925 6.1043
120.48 54.35
0.0083
6.1043
8.2234
120.48 54.35
8.2234
6.1
1 31 2 131 1 2131 210.0108
11 3 211 0.0108 1 0.0066
21 0.0108 13 10.0066 0.0108
292.59
1 0.00660.0108
3 1151.52
1 92.59 0.0066
1 23 5.3180
92.59
0.0108
151.52 10.0066
1 92.59151.52
5.3180
4.8846
32 1 0.0066
92.59
0.0108
151.52
5.3180
114.8846
2 151.52 35.3180
1 4.8846
92.59
10.01080.0066
215.3180
4.8846
151.52
0.0108
11 4.8846
92.59
0.0066
5.3180
2 0.0108151.52
0.0066
4.8846
192.595.3180 151.52
0.0108
92.59 4.8846
0.0066 5.3180
151.52 92.59
0.0066
5.3180
4.8846
151.52 92.59
4.8846
5.3
2 23 2 3 223 2 1 3223 2 310.0198
2224 23 312 0.0198 2 2 0.0087
31 0.0198
223 10.0087 0.0198
350.51
32 0.0087 23
0.0198
1114.94
2 50.51 0.0087
2233 7.9178
50.51
0.0198
114.94
0.0197 20.0087
12 50.51
114.94
7.9178
6.9925
233 2 0.0087
50.51
0.0198
114.94
7.9178
0.0087216.9925
3 114.94 237.9178
2 6.9925
50.51
10.01980.0087
50.76 327.9178
6.9925
114.94
0.0198
21 6.9925
114.94 50.51
0.0087
7.9178
3 8.1189
0.0198
114.94
0.0087
6.9925
150.517.9178 114.94
0.0198
50.51 6.9925
0.0087
7.1771 7.9178
114.94 50.51
0.0087
7.9178
6.9925
114.94 50.51
6.9925
7.9
1 41 2 141 2 2141 20.0112
1125 4 21 0.0112 31 0.0068
2 0.011211 4 20.0068 0.0112
289.29
11 0.0068
0.0112
4 2147.06
11 89.29 0.0068
1 24 5.7779
89.29
0.0112
147.06
0.0105 10.0068
21 89.29
147.06
5.7779
5.2969
42 1 0.0068
89.29
0.0112
147.06
5.7779
0.0063125.2969
2 147.06 45.7779
1 5.2969
89.29
20.01120.0068
95.24 215.7779
5.2969
147.06
0.0112
12 5.2969
158.73 89.29
0.0068
5.7779
2 3.6477
0.0112
147.06
0.0068
5.2969
289.295.7779 147.06
0.0112
89.29 5.2969
0.0068
3.2936 5.7779
147.06 89.29
0.0068
5.7779
5.2969
147.06 89.29
5.2969
5.7
2 24 2 3 224 2 2 3224 2 320.0197
22 24 322 0.0197 2 0.0087
32 0.0197 224 20.0087 0.0197
350.76
2 0.008724
0.0197
2114.94
2 50.76 0.0087
2243 8.1189
50.76
0.0197
114.94 20.0087
2 50.76114.94
8.1189
7.1771
243 2 0.0087
50.76
0.0197
114.94
8.1189
227.1771
3 114.94 248.1189
2 7.1771
50.76
20.01970.0087
328.1189
7.1771
114.94
0.0197
22 7.1771
50.76
0.0087
8.1189
3 0.0197114.94
0.0087
7.1771
250.768.1189 114.94
0.0197
50.76 7.1771
0.0087 8.1189
114.94 50.76
0.0087
8.1189
7.1771
114.94 50.76
7.1771
8.1
1 51 3 151 1 3151 310.0107
1126 5 311 0.0107 3 1 0.0069
31 0.0107
1 15 10.0069 0.0107
393.46
1 1 0.00690.0107
5 1144.93
21 93.46 0.0069
1 35 6.9914
93.46
0.0107
144.93
0.0104 10.0069
1 93.46144.93
6.9914
6.8161
53 1 0.0069
93.46
0.0107
144.93
6.9914
0.0063116.8161
3 144.93 56.9914
1 6.8161
93.46
10.01070.0069
96.15 316.9914
6.8161
144.93
0.0107
11 6.8161
158.73 93.46
0.0069
6.9914
3 3.8688
0.0107
144.93
0.0069
6.8161
193.466.9914 144.93
0.0107
93.46 6.8161
0.0069
3.4920 6.9914
144.93 93.46
0.0069
6.9914
6.8161
144.93 93.46
6.8161
6.9
1 25 3 1 125 3 1 1125 3 10.0105
13 25 11 0.0105 3 0.0063
1 0.0105 125 10.0063 0.0105
195.24
3 0.006325
0.0105
1158.73
1 95.24 0.0063
3251 3.6477
95.24
0.0105
158.73 10.0063
13 95.24
158.73
3.6477
3.2936
251 1 0.0063
95.24
0.0105
158.73
3.6477
313.2936
1 158.73 253.6477
1 3.2936
95.24
10.01050.0063
133.6477
3.2936
158.73
0.0105
11 3.2936
95.24
0.0063
3.6477
1 0.0105158.73
0.0063
3.2936
195.243.6477 158.73
0.0105
95.24 3.2936
0.0063 3.6477
158.73 95.24
0.0063
3.6477
3.2936
158.73 95.24
3.2936
3.6
1 61 3 161 2 3161 320.0107
1127 6 321 0.0107 3 1 0.0070
32 0.0107
1 6 20.0070 0.0107
393.46
2 1 0.00700.0107
6 2142.86
1 93.46 0.0070
1 36 7.2896
93.46
0.0107
142.86
0.0127 10.0070
21 93.46
142.86
7.2896
7.1034
63 1 0.0070
93.46
0.0107
142.86
7.2896
0.0075127.1034
3 142.86 67.2896
1 7.1034
93.46
20.01070.0070
78.74 317.2896
7.1034
142.86
0.0107
12 7.1034
133.33 93.46
0.0070
7.2896
3 6.4744
0.0107
142.86
0.0070
7.1034
293.467.2896 142.86
0.0107
93.46 7.1034
0.0070
5.7538 7.2896
142.86 93.46
0.0070
7.2896
7.1034
142.86 93.46
7.1034
7.2
1 26 3 1 126 3 2 1126 3 120.0104
13 26 121 0.0104 3 0.0063
12 0.0104 126 20.0063 0.0104
196.15
3 0.006326
0.0104
2158.73
1 96.15 0.0063
3261 3.8688
96.15
0.0104
158.73 10.0063
23 96.15
158.73
3.8688
3.4920
261 1 0.0063
96.15
0.0104
158.73
3.8688
323.4920
1 158.73 263.8688
1 3.4920
96.15
20.01040.0063
133.8688
3.4920
158.73
0.0104
12 3.4920
96.15
0.0063
3.8688
1 0.0104158.73
0.0063
3.4920
296.153.8688 158.73
0.0104
96.15 3.4920
0.0063 3.8688
158.73 96.15
0.0063
3.8688
3.4920
158.73 96.15
3.4920
3.8
2 71 1 271 1 1271 10.0100
2128 7 12 0.0100 31 0.0056
1 0.010012 7 10.0056 0.0100
100.00
121 0.0056 0.0100
7 1178.57
21100.00 0.0056
1 17 100.00
4.6733
0.0100
178.57
0.0128 20.0056
1 100.00
178.57
4.6733
3.9409
71 2 100.00
0.0056
0.0100
178.57
4.6733
0.0076113.9409
1 178.57 74.6733
2 100.00
3.9409
10.01000.0056
78.13 114.6733
3.9409
178.57
0.0100
21 100.00
131.58 3.9409
0.0056
4.6733
1 6.8355
0.0100
178.57
0.0056
3.9409
100.00
1 4.6733178.57
100.00
0.0100
0.00563.9409
6.0794 4.6733
178.57100.00
0.0056
4.6733
3.9409
178.57 100.00
3.9409
4.6
1 27 3 2 127 3 1 2127 3 210.0127
13 27 211 0.0127 3 0.0075
21 0.0127 127 10.0075 0.0127
278.74
3 0.007527
0.0127
1133.33
78.74 0.0075
3272 6.4744
78.74
0.0127
133.33 10.0075
13 78.74
133.33
6.4744
5.7538
272 1 0.0075
78.74
0.0127
133.33
6.4744
315.7538
2 133.33 276.4744
1 5.7538
78.74
10.01270.0075
236.4744
5.7538
133.33
0.0127
11 5.7538
78.74
0.0075
6.4744
2 0.0127133.33
0.0075
5.7538
178.746.4744 133.33
0.0127
78.74 5.7538
0.0075 6.4744
133.33 78.74
0.0075
6.4744
5.7538
133.33 78.74
5.7538
6.4

1 28 3 2 128 3 2 2128 3 20.0128
13 28 21 0.0128 3 0.0076
2 0.0128 128 20.0076 0.0128
278.13
3 0.007628
0.0128
2131.58
1 78.13 0.0076
3282 6.8355
78.13
0.0128
131.58 10.0076
23 78.13
131.58
6.8355
6.0794
282 1 0.0076
78.13
0.0128
131.58
6.8355
326.0794
2 131.58 286.8355
1 6.0794
78.13
20.01280.0076
236.8355
6.0794
131.58
0.0128
12 6.0794
78.13
0.0076
6.8355
2 0.0128131.58
0.0076
6.0794
278.136.8355 131.58
0.0128
78.13 6.0794
0.0076 6.8355
131.58 78.13
0.0076
6.8355
6.0794
131.58 78.13
6.0794
6.8
1 13 2 1 113 2 1 1113 2 10.0102
1234 13 11 0.0102 3 2 0.0062
1 0.01022113 10.0062 0.0102
198.04
22 0.0062 13
0.0102
1161.29
21 98.04 0.0062